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Do badges increase user activity? A field experiment on effects of gamification

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Abstract

During recent years, the practice of adding game design to non-game services has gained a relatively large amount of attention. Popular discussion connects gamification to increased user engagement, service profitability, goal commitment and the overall betterment of various behavioral outcomes. However, there is still an absence of a coherent and ample body of empirical evidence that would confirm such expectations. To this end, this paper reports the results of a 2 year (1+1 year – between-group) field experiment in gamifying a service by implementing a game mechanic called ‘badges’. During the experiment a pre-implementation group (N=1410) was monitored for 1 year. After the implementation, the post-implementation (the gamified condition) group (N=1579) was monitored for another full year. Results show that users in the gamified condition were significantly more likely to post trade proposals, carry out transactions, comment on proposals and generally use the service in a more active way.

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... Existing studies have explored two existing models, such as TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) [35], UTAUT as prior technical knowledge, and game-based learning [11], respectively. Since the UTAUT model follows, the constructs reported by [23] are methodologically restricted. ...
... Higher education sectors have been capitalizing on assets using Information and Communication Technologies for Developments (ICT4D) to provide education attainment [36]. Further, previous works emphasized digital learning that helps to escalate the possibility of learning, which encompasses the different learning factors mentioned earlier [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. In this paper, we considered the adoption of digital learning using technology involves two theories: (1) TAM and (2) UTAUT. ...
... As a result, student involvement and ease of access to technology include social media groups for a successful outcome. Each group found significant student success indicators, including student-centric mobile apps, problem-solving using gamification, flipped classroom, conducting assignments via blogs/podcasts, analyzing reading skills via recording and playback, and visual representation [9][10][11][12][13]. ...
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High-quality academic outcomes are required for students’ educational attainment and promote their desire to learn. However, not all educational sectors boast of the same, leading students to attain inferior outcome performances. The current study examines the impact of technology on student satisfaction, academic, and functional performance via the mediating factors of interactive and self-regulated learning. However, existing works focused less on technology and more on psychological learning factors, rendering mere acceptance of technology, proved to be useless. The present research investigates such mediators with existing technology resources and their impact on students’ overall growth. Research hypotheses are tested through structural equation modeling and applied to the data collected from 302 respondents via a structured questionnaire. In addition, the present study considers the collection of each student’s data across different universities, colleges, vocational and education institutions, mainly where students are involved in/using the technology when it comes to satisfaction, academic, and functional performance. The results indicated that the impact of technology via interactive learning has a significant influence on students’ satisfaction (β = 0.238, p < 0.05), academic performance (β = 0.194, p < 0.05), and functional performance (β = 0.188, p < 0.05). It is also noted that the impact of technology via self-regulated learning has positively contributed to satisfaction, academic, and functional performance. Our findings support the hypothesis and encourage students’ adaptability, engagement, and behavioral interactions stimulating the performance outcomes. The performance outcome of this research presents valuable information for decision-makers to articulate sustainable strategies and tactics in educational sectors.
... Just because a PT is successful in gamified spaces does not mean that the same technology will be equally accepted and treated in other spaces. For gamification mechanics 14,25,28,30 to be experienced as a fun way to work, all employees need to be willing participants. 15 Positive incentives are much more common than negative incentives A key aspect for the application of PT in the workplace is to cause desired employee behavior. ...
... Relying on SDT, and the distinction between intrinsic motivation (the drive to do something without external rewards and for its own sake) and extrinsic motivation (performing an activity to attain some separable outcome), the PSD framework proposes that rewarding target behaviors reinforces those behaviors and can increase the persuasiveness of a system, but it is the combination of rewards, collaboration, and competitive setting that is crucial. 8,13,14,20,30 There is evidence of a strong relationship between positive external rewards and certain behavior outcomes. 20,22,25,26,30 While PT without gamification elements aims to support decision-making through cognitive processes (i.e., the reward is extrinsic), gamification, in contrast, draws on affective processes, i.e., gamification is aimed at invoking employees' or users' intrinsic motivations through design reminiscent from games. ...
... 8,13,14,20,30 There is evidence of a strong relationship between positive external rewards and certain behavior outcomes. 20,22,25,26,30 While PT without gamification elements aims to support decision-making through cognitive processes (i.e., the reward is extrinsic), gamification, in contrast, draws on affective processes, i.e., gamification is aimed at invoking employees' or users' intrinsic motivations through design reminiscent from games. 18,25 If we look at gamification from the perspective of the traditional reward dichotomy, it would be difficult to categorize it as either intrinsic or extrinsic, since gamification provides both benefits: an external benefit such as task completion and an internal, hedonistic benefit such as fun. ...
Article
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Employees face decisions every day—in the absence of supervision. The outcome of these decisions can be influenced by digital workplace design through the power of persuasive technology. This article provides a structured literature review based on recent research on persuasive technology in the workplace. It examines the design and use of persuasive systems from a variety of disciplinary perspectives and theories. The reviewed studies were categorized into the research streams of technology design, user-centered research, and gamification. The purpose of the studies is categorized using a modified definition of the persuasive systems design model. A number of experimental studies show that alignment of the employee’s behavior with the employer’s agenda can be achieved. A robust finding is the key role of interactivity in granting employees a subjective experience of rapid and meaningful feedback when using the interface.
... In order to find out whether and how different game design elements might influence each other, the first step is to look more closely at the effect of the individual game design elements (Dichev & Dicheva, 2017). But how exactly different game design elements work and whether there may be differences between the individual elements in terms of supporting motivation, has so far only been investigated by a few studies (Br€ auer & Mazarakis, 2019;Christy & Fox, 2014;Groening & Binnewies, 2019;Hamari, 2017;Mekler et al., 2017). This is an open research question for many years (Mekler et al., 2013) and it is still not answered sufficiently (Koivisto & Hamari, 2019;Mazarakis, 2021). ...
... So, we focus on the game design elements badges, feedback, progress bar and narrative. On the one hand we approach already heavily researched game design elements like badges and feedback (Hamari, 2017;Mekler et al., 2013;Seaborn & Fels, 2015;Zichermann & Cunningham, 2011 we intentionally did not research just the three game design elements points, badges and leaderboards, also known as the PBL triad, as it is already known that they can harm in multiple ways motivation and performance (Mekler et al., 2013(Mekler et al., , 2017, in particular leaderboards as prominent example (Br€ auer & Mazarakis, 2019;Werbach & Hunter, 2012). In addition, Kapp (2014a) states that the "most effective gamification efforts include more than points and badgesthey contain elements of story, challenge and continual feedback [ … ]" (Kapp, 2014a, p. 52). ...
... Badges are virtual artefacts that are visually represented. Taken from the game design element "achievements," they consist of three elements: signifier, completion logic and rewards (Hamari, 2017). They are awarded to the user for completing tasks (Antin & Churchill, 2011). ...
Article
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Current gamification research usually examines several game design elements at the same time, which makes it difficult to distinguish how and to what extent individual game design elements increase motivation. We address this research question by individually examining four game design elements (progress bar, narrative, feedback, and badges) in an online experiment. In addition , combinations of game design elements were tested to gain insight about additive effects on motivation. The study included 505 subjects who answered a maximum of 190 different multiple-choice questions. The subjects were told to answer questions only as long as they enjoyed answering them. The results provide statistically significant motivational gains for all individual game design elements. Interestingly, not all game design elements benefit from a combination in the same way. The results of our study indicate that an increase in motivation through gamifica-tion is already possible if only an individual game design element is added.
... Technically, they are artifacts consisting of distinctive visual and textual elements, a reward, and conditions that determine how the badge is earned, for instance, based on activity, approval, performance, or duration of membership (Hamari and Eranti 2011;Easley and Ghosh 2016). In the field of e-commerce and digital platforms, an extensive stream of literature is devoted to understanding the relationship between the presence/absence of badges and user activity (Easley and Ghosh 2016;Hamari 2017). For example, in the context of accommodation sharing platforms, badges such as Airbnb's "Superhost" label are found to translate into tangible economic value (S. ...
... Liang et al. 2017; anonymous for peer-review 2016). Research shows that badges have a great persuasive power as they can facilitate mechanisms such as social influence, social proof, and social validation, which arise from the possibility of comparing one's standing to that of other users (Hamari 2013;Hamari 2017). Given that on the equity crowdfunding platform under investigation here, badges indicate an investor's membership in an exclusive club of few highly active investors, other investors are likely to associate badge holders with high investment performance, success, and reliability-in short, expertise. ...
... Finally, we also leave to future research the investigation of platforms' design choices as predictors of discrimination. Located in the field of investor protection and regulation, a relevant question relates to how badges may incentivize excessive investment activity (Hamari 2017). ...
Preprint
The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of equity crowdfunding through the lens of gender. We argue that considering gender gaps in equity crowdfunding from the investor perspective is relevant and timely, given the mutual observability and underlying social mechanisms of collective action that inform investment decisions, and the underrepresentation of female investors. Drawing on herd behavior and information cascades theory, we hypothesize that gender cues predict how prospective followers respond to past investments throughout the campaign. We hypothesize that female investors attract less follow-up funding relative to male counterparts due to stereotypical judgments, but more female followers due to homophily. By examining ~68,000 investments covering 6.5 years of activity on one of Europe's leading equity crowdfunding platforms for venture capital, we find supporting evidence of gender bias against and homophily among women, who account for 10.2% of investments and 9.3% of funding volume. Consistent with role congruity theory, we find that expert badges and profile photos moderate the gender effect, suggesting that women are penalized unless their behavior aligns with gender expectations (e.g., being emotional, attractive, or sociable). In addition, the results indicate gender discrepancies with respect to investment preferences, financial commitment, and user representation.
... One potential tool to provide motivational support to online college students is gamification, or the intentional use of game design elements, such as badges, leaderboards, points, trophies, narrations etc., in non-game contexts (Deterding et al., 2011;Faiella & Ricciardi, 2015;Seaborn & Fels, 2015). Incorporating game features into courses could appeal to online students because games are inherently engaging and motivating for users (Dichev & Dicheva, 2017;Hamari, 2017;Seaborn & Fels, 2015). Badges and leaderboards are the most frequently implemented game design elements (hereafter gamification tool) (Hamari et al., 2014;Seaborn & Fels, 2015). ...
... Setting a goal is suggested to influence people's motivation and performance through four mechanisms: providing cognitive and behavioral directions, increasing people's energies and efforts to handle tasks, increasing persistence to complete tasks, and evoking affective reactions, such as increased satisfaction (Locke & Latham, 2006;Zimmerman, 2008). Hence, gamification tools might help people set goals (especially when rules are clearly identified) and increase their goal-related behaviors for achievement Hakulinen et al., 2013;Hamari, 2017;Morris et al., 2019;Tondello et al., 2018). Through these four mechanisms explained above, gamification tools could encourage users to set goals to pursue, to direct their attention and effort to accomplish the task, to increase their persistence with the try-fail-try again feature, and to evoke positive affection, such as the feeling of competence and self-efficacy after goal accomplishment (Tondello et al., 2018). ...
... Feedback is another mechanism for gamification tools to affect the performance and motivation of users (Dichev & Dicheva, 2017;Hamari, 2017;Kapp, 2012;. Feedback is defined as information about how a person's current state of knowledge and performance relates to set goals and standards (Hattie & Timperley, 2007), and it has an essential role in the performance and motivation of learners (Burgers et al., 2015;Fyfe & Rittle-Johnson, 2016;Shin & Dickson, 2010). ...
Article
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Gamification, or the intentional use of gaming elements in non-game contexts, has been touted as a promising tool to improve educational outcomes in online education, yet the evidence regarding why it might work and its effectiveness is inconclusive. One reason is that previous research has often included several gamification tools together, neglecting that each gamification tool can vary in effectiveness. In order to evaluate their relative impact, two frequently used gamification tools, badges (i.e., digital credentials given for achievements) and leaderboards (i.e., digital rankings based on performance), were compared for their effectiveness on the academic performance and motivation of students. Two experiments were conducted in two online undergraduate physics courses taught via a learning management system. In Experiment 1 (N = 102), badges and leaderboards were implemented in only one part of the course grading system (i.e., quizzes). In Experiment 2 (N = 88), all course grading system was gamified (i.e., quizzes and assignments). Four groups were created by random assignment of participants: badges-only, leaderboards-only, badges with leaderboards, and control (i.e., no badges, no leaderboards). Academic performance was measured by comparing quiz scores among groups in Experiment 1 and both quiz and assignment scores in Experiment 2. Participants filled out a self-report motivation survey about badges and leaderboards at the end of the study. Two experiments yielded similar results: badges and leaderboards did not affect participants’ academic performance; however, most students approached them positively as motivational tools and wanted to see them in future online classes.
... Gamification refers to practices of selecting some game components and amplifying their effects in non-game contexts (e.g., Deterding et al., 2011). According to Deterding (2012), a well-enacted gamified system should be designed to boost users' motivations, wherein plausible gamification techniques can include winning badges (Hamari, 2017), accumulating points, and leveling up (Koivisto & Hamari, 2014) for reward. Empirical evidence informs the effects of gamified experience in inducing more favorable outcomes. ...
... As argued by Bandura (1993), highlighting progress and personal achievements is conducive to building self-efficacy, which is a confidence in one's ability to perform a specific task. When engaged with a gamified environment, implementing features like letter boards, badges, and other forms of feedback could inform users and remind them of their goals, which if completed, would increase their positive experience and their self-efficacy (Hamari, 2017). In the context of green consumerism, for instance, a notification indicated that one had purchased green products for a consecutive period of time could potentially boost one's self-efficacy, serving as positive self-reinforcement and further encouraging this consumer to continue the behavior. ...
... First, there are numerous ways to operationalize gamification to increase the effectiveness of the three critical parameters (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness). For instance, complementary to providing feedback, badges have also been used to increase user engagement (Hamari, 2017). Therefore, scholars are encouraged to further test alternative gamification operationalizations. ...
Article
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Green consumerism is a growing trend that may contribute to a more sustainable society. However, lack of motivation to pursue a green lifestyle might subject consumers to well-documented moral licensing effects. Moreover, individuals with conservative ideological leanings are also less predisposed to take environmentally friendly actions, suggesting that sustainability communication strategies may need to differ by user ideology. The present study tested gamification techniques as a way to boost green motivations for consumers with varying political ideologies. Through an online experiment (N = 531), we reported null findings with respect to the effects of gamification techniques and political ideology on consumers’ behavioral intentions. Implications and directions for future work on sustainability communication are discussed.
... A number of studies have attempted to explain consumer activities with regard to gamification. Most research has focused on the general characteristics of game elements to examine their influence on consumer attitudes, experiences, or behaviors (Hamari, 2017;Högberg et al., 2019;Nobre & Ferreira, 2017), while additional research has integrated gamification experiences with satisfaction (Hsu & Chen, 2018), intrinsic motivations (Harwood & Garry, 2015;K. Kim & Ahn, 2017) and co-creation (Leclercq et al., 2018). ...
... However, many authors claim that defining gamification as simply integrating game elements into a non-game context reduces the concept to an aimless system that merely distributes points or badges (Nicholson, 2012;Santhanam & Liu, 2015). Houtari and Hamari (2017) argue that game-based gamification definitions that focus solely on game mechanics are incomplete. They contend that if a system using any element of game mechanics is to be defined as gamification, then more serious "games" such as loyalty programs or advergames in marketing would also fall under such a definition as well. ...
Article
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The relationship between customers and brands is undergoing a radical change due to the effects of technology. As a result of this change, especially gamification and consumer engagement are the two fundamental issues guiding the consumer relations of the brands. The most important feature of gamification is balancing a rational purpose with an enjoyable experience; therefore, it has a dual effect of being both hedonic and utilitarian. Results show that almost all utilitarian/hedonic motivations affect consumer engagement positively. Where consumer engagement and brand outcomes were found to be partially related, results indicated that the brand relationship with consumers had been approached from a different perspective. Consumers can engage in the activities of brands while also showing commitment to them. However, this may not necessarily result in either brand loyalty or dissemination of the brand's positive messages.
... Por se tratar de pesquisa-intervenção, a análise se dá no processo, ou seja, no movimento da cartografia, o que possibilita realizar a intervenção enquanto o processo está ocorrendo. Os crachás ganharam relevância como fator motivacional após a sua utilização em videojogos e, mais tarde, em serviços e jogos online (Halavais, 2012;Hamari, 2017). Passaram a ser utilizados como símbolos de progresso e conquistas realizadas que podem ser exibidas nos perfis dos jogadores, mas também partilhadas como troféus alcançados. ...
... No entanto os crachás não são consensuais, e alguns autores associam-nos a meras recompensas que, por isso, incidem sobre a motivação extrínseca perdendo o seu efeito a longo prazo Hamari, 2017;. No entanto, ao assumirem diferentes funções possibilitam diversos modos de aplicação, os crachás abrem as portas a "novel learning practices, those based on participatory learning approaches and peer-based learning communities" (Jovanovic & Devedzic, 2014, p. 59 Todos estes dados revelam informações que podem servir como pistas para quem deseja recorrer futuramente à ferramenta de crachás, servindo como exemplos de práticas por profissionais no terreno. ...
... In such a context, when all the other means of increasing students' engagement were exhausted, we decided to apply game elements [3] in the teaching of OOP, since an essential goal of education is to motivate students to engage [4]. If students have no motivation to learn, there exists the possibility of motivating them extrinsically [5]. Moreover, Venter [6], after reviewing 21 papers presenting a gamification of programming courses, concluded that the gamification of higher education programming courses had a very positive impact on the student motivation, engagement, and programming knowledge. ...
... Therefore, students will be better prepared for real-life situations if we use this game element for students' training. A different situation arises with the "global team" element (5). The students were very interested in this game element, partly because the value of the winning prize was very high. ...
Article
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Gamification of education is considered to have the capacity to increase students’ engagement in a learning process; to drive learning and skills acquisition; and creates changes for more sustainable behavior. Sustainable behavior is especially important in studying the initial courses at a university. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is such a course in the studies for a programmer’s diploma. We applied four elements of gamification: experience points, interactive content, local team, and global team. A local team is dedicated specifically to the OOP course, but all other game elements can be applied to any course. The course was implemented in a Moodle platform, where two additional plugins for experience points and interactive content were employed. Research using the implemented gamified course in the teaching process was carried out during the fall semester in 2020 and results compared to two previous non-gamified course years. A statistically insignificant increase in the mean grade was observed. Nevertheless, the gamified course resulted in a 7% decrease in the number of students who had to retake the OOP course compared to the year 2019. The gamified course also resulted in a drastic decrease in the number of students requiring a second attempt to pass the course’s exam. The obtained results demonstrate that the gamification of OOP course resulted in more sustainable behavior of the students. Based on the results of students’ questionnaires, we highly recommend using global team game element as it showed a positive effect on students’ engagement when the number of participating students is large.
... Hedonic value is considered as customer pleasure and fun during the purchase and consumption process (Babin et al., 1994;Holbrook and Hirschman, 1982;Voss et al., 2003). In addition to utilitarian value, hedonic value is essential for customers to participate in the sharing economy (Hamari, 2017). Moreover, the sharing economy also provides an opportunity for the customer to meet new people and interact with them (Eckhardt et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The sharing economy has emerged as an influential research area in which a platform mediates customers' temporary access to service provider resources. To provide a generalizable picture of the platform's customer and service provider relationship formation process, we integrate effect sizes from 192 studies, including 214 independent samples (N = 88,154). The findings indicate there are motivators and inhibitors for individuals to join a platform as a customer or service provider and that these influence attitudinal and behavioral responses toward the platform through a two-level relationship quality pathway. Moderator analysis reveals that the impact of customer motivators and inhibitors on customer response to service providers and platforms depends on country-level moderators and cultural context. These results provide insight into relationship formation among actors in the sharing economy. The study also makes recommendations for platform managers, especially in hospitality and tourism, to more effectively manage their relationships with their users.
... Compared to conventional 'passive' tasks, gamification enables goal-directed behaviour by introducing concepts such as points, badges, diffi- Figure 1: Gamified speaker comparison framework culty levels or leaderboards. As such, gamification has the potential to increase user engagement and motivation for performing a given task [9,10,11]. While gamification has been used in domains ranging from crowdsourcing and data-collection to health, marketing and social networks, there is less work in the speech domain. ...
Preprint
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We address speaker comparison by listening in a game-like environment, hypothesized to make the task more motivating for naive listeners. We present the same 30 trials selected with the help of an x-vector speaker recognition system from VoxCeleb to a total of 150 crowdworkers recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk. They are divided into cohorts of 50, each using one of three alternative interface designs: (i) a traditional (nongamified) design; (ii) a gamified design with feedback on decisions, along with points, game level indications, and possibility for interface customization; (iii) another gamified design with an additional constraint of maximum of 5 'lives' consumed by wrong answers. We analyze the impact of these interface designs to listener error rates (both misses and false alarms), probability calibration, time of quitting, along with survey questionnaire. The results indicate improved performance from (i) to (ii) and (iii), particularly in terms of balancing the two types of detection errors.
... Badges serve as recognitions of a learner's contributions and encourage participation during learning activities [60]. Badges also promote social validation as they provide opportunities for learners to show their conformity and progress towards the expected learning behaviour with their peers [86]. Learners in an activity group obtained one badge when any member of the group presented a good idea, new knowledge, or an innovative solution to a problem or question. ...
Article
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The onset of the COVID-19 global pandemic has negatively impacted sustainable learning in education (SLE). During city lockdowns, higher education institutes (HEIs) have transitioned from adopting solely traditional didactic classroom teaching to including innovative, flexible learning approaches such as flipped classrooms. Gamification is a new techno-pedagogy that has been integrated into flipped classrooms to promote learner achievement and engagement. Grounded in self-determination theory, the objectives of this exploratory study were to analyse the influence of the flipped classroom and gamification on SLE concerning learner achievement and engagement. Participants were recruited from postgraduate business education programmes in China, and three instructional interventions were applied for a semester of 10 weeks. The three instructional interventions applied were: gamified flipped classroom (n = 25), non-gamified flipped classroom (n = 24) and gamified traditional classroom (n = 19). A mixed-methods approach was used, and both quantitative and qualitative data were analysed. The results indicated gamified traditional classrooms promote learner achievement, and the gamified flipped classrooms promote learner engagement. Furthermore, learning culture, such as teacher-dependency, also influence learner achievement and engagement. The class observation reports and learner interviews suggested that both gamified flipped classrooms and gamified traditional classrooms support SLE in the time of academic uncertainty during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... In another study [42] in which two samples of subjects were studied over a one year period, and an intervention group was created using a gamified system, it became clear that the use of a reward system improved the activity and participation of the subjects in the intervention group. In our study, we were able to get more students in the intervention group to participate in the voluntary tasks proposed, although it has to be said that not all the students in this group got involved to the same extent. ...
Article
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Gamification along with a whole range of other active methodologies are being incorporated into university classrooms due to their potential benefits for student learning. The aim of this paper was to analyse how a multimodal learning environment based on gamification could affect the final grades of university students in a subject taught at the Faculty of Education in a spanish university. The research was made up of 133 Spanish university students (Mage = 19.60; SDage = 0.43 years old). A quasi-experimental post-test design with a control group was used. The control group and the intervention group consisted of 66 and 67 students respectively. A multimodal gamified learning environment was set up for the intervention group, in contrast to traditional teaching methods which were reserved for the control group. Each one was implemented throughout an academic year. The results revealed statistically significant differences in the final average grade (p < 0.001), with students from the intervention group obtaining higher overall scores. The same occurred in the voluntary learning tasks, with students from the intervention group earning more Health Points (p = 0.006), more Experience Points (p = 0.005), a higher Total Score (p = 0.002) and a higher Level Achieved (p = 0.002). These findings point to the fact that a multimodal gamified learning environment can influence the academic performance of students. However, more scientific research has to be carried out in order to support these findings.
... Most proponents and implementers of gamification on the other hand, tend to focus more on a rewardbased game mechanism such as a leaderboard, badges, points, and levels as their primary use of game design elements (Raju et al., 2021). This is evident in some gamification literature, where the authors stated that the implementation of acquiring points to track achievements alone will not give players specific goals to progress but when elements such as badges or leaderboards are implemented, it becomes more akin to the mechanics of video games (Barata, et al., 2013;Hamari 2017;Landers, et al., 2017;Mohamad, et al., 2018). As a result, there are now an abundance of online gamification applications offering these elements such as Kahoot!, Quizizz, Socrative, and Quizalize which provides an easy solution to instructors to gamify their online classes (Raju et al., 2021). ...
Conference Paper
With the sudden outbreak of the deadly COVID-19 virus, countless academic institutions around the world were driven to shift entirely from teaching in physical classrooms to online teaching overnight. One of the biggest challenges faced by educators is how to sustain student engagement in online delivery. Gamification, the approach of engaging users by employing game design elements and mechanics is one such solution. Nevertheless, in most cases the practice of gamification is more on being results oriented and less experience-centric, while the success of video games is usually more focused on its overall player experience. For the purpose of this paper, the term ‘vertical gamification’ is used to describe the lower-tier levels of gamification which utilizes game elements such as leader-boards, points and badges as its purpose is to attain higher points for rewards. The utilization of social gameplay elements such as the challenge, opposition, and competition aspects of game design within gamification is termed as ‘horizontal gamification’. The horizontal reference refers to a more social-centric aspect of game experience. This paper aims to examine learners and their perceived experience in the gamification of online classes and to gauge the level of engagement and challenges faced by these learners. The research also aims to investigate if a vertical gamification procedure provides a similar level of engagement as the horizontal gamification procedure. Through a series of surveys involving 108 participants within a normal online class environment, online classes utilizing vertical gamification and online classes utilizing horizontal gamification; the research was able to determine at which point the learner’s level of engagement increases. The research will apply the GAMEFULQUEST instrument to assess the perceived gamefulness between the various online classes to ascertain the success of using a more distinctive experienced-based gamification approach to enhance engagement for online teaching and learning.
... One example for these incentives is gamificationthe implementation of game-design principles and elements in non-game environments (Deterding et al., 2011) which can promote motivation (see Mora et al., 2017 for a review) for example by providing visualized immediate feedback to the learner on goal completion or students' learning progress compared to other students. Gamification for educational purposes can be associated with increased activity (e.g., Hamari, 2017;Huang & Hew, 2015) or general engagement in online programs (Looyestyn et al., 2017). But it remains unclear if a game-based induced increase in online activity automatically leads to improvement in learning. ...
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Analyzing log data from digital learning environments provides information about online learning. However, it remains unclear how this information can be transferred to psychologically meaningful variables or how it is linked to learning outcomes. The present study summarizes findings on correlations between general online activity and learning outcomes in university settings. The course format, instructions to engage in online discussions, requirements, operationalization of general online activity, and publication year are considered moderators. A multi-source search provided 41 studies ( N = 28,986) reporting 69 independent samples and 104 effect sizes. The three-level random-effects meta-analysis identified a pooled effect of r = .25 p = .003, 95% CI [.09, .41], indicating that students who are more active online have better grades. Despite high heterogeneity, Q(103) = 3,960.04, p < .001, moderator analyses showed no statistically significant effect. We discuss further potential influencing factors in online courses and highlight the potential of learning analytics.
... Individuals are more likely to carry out activities that provide social validation that they perceive other users have achieved by earning the badges and would tend to engage in the learning activities with efforts in a more active way [7]. ...
Article
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Badges in education are an increasingly popular phenomenon, and a variety of questions exists as to the abilities and effectiveness of badges. In this study, the effect of digital badges within a Moodle-based online homework system was studied for an undergraduate general physics course at a large research-based university in northeast Taiwan. One hundred and sixty-two participants from two General Physics sessions were involved in this study and divided into two groups through self-selected options. Sixty-eight students in the treatment group could use digital badges in the online homework system, being able to earn one badge per assignment for turning their assignments in earlier than the assignment deadline, while the other students in the control group had no digital badges in the online homework system. The results showed that students in the treatment group turned in their assignments earlier than students in the control group did, and this difference was statistically significant. Further analysis showed that students in the treatment group spaced out their assignment practice more than students in the control group did, and the difference was statistically significant. Additionally, students in the treatment group actively attempted to earn badges, as there was a statistically significant increase in the number of badges earned by students in the treatment group over those in the control group. Based on a questionnaire given to study participants towards the conclusion of the study, the study found that students’ perception of badges was positive. These findings corroborate earlier findings by other researchers that badges can be used to motivate specific behaviors in students whilst requiring minimal changes to the course structure. However, further corroborating earlier research is the finding that badges may not be particularly useful to motivate students towards challenging tasks. An earlier study of this course in a preceding academic year found that students are appreciative of the online homework system, and it appears from this study that the primary function of badges within the system is to enhance the experience of students, as well as to motivate timely engagement with assignments.
... As the gamified environment supported student participation (Utomo et al., 2014), they sometimes made humorous discourses towards each other while their feelings were revealed more. While students in the gamified environment participated more in discussion activities (Utomo et al. 2014), this was an important factor also for the establishment of social interactions (Hamari, 2017). In the discussion groups, it was observed that students used Facebook's name tagging feature while answering each other. ...
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This study aims to explore how gamification elements influence the development of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) in an online project-based programming course conducted on Facebook. We formed student groups by using a quasi-experimental design from students studying in the computer science department. While both courses were project-based, the experimental group's project development process was enriched with gamification elements. We collected data from the CoI survey, transcript analysis of online discussions, and interviews with students. The results indicated that the use of gamification elements contributed significantly to students' social, cognitive, and teaching presence development. Besides, while a high level of CoI perception was created in both groups in the online project-based learning environment, the design and organization role of the instructor came to the fore in the gamified environment more.
... The higher level of user engagement leads the user to aim for better performance relative to learning, socializing, achievement, mastery, and status. Practicing skills and behaviors that typically seem challenging, tedious, and boring are now turned into fun and engaging exercises (Hamari, 2017). An example for gamification in an AAC context is the SPEAKplay! ...
Chapter
This chapter details fundamental principles of mobile technology applications in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). A case-study illustrates the implementation of mobile applications during AAC intervention for a teenager with severe autism.
... Flow theory can be used to design serious games able to help treat cognitive disorders in the elderly [115]. It has also led psychological games to investigate the effects of gamification [138]. ...
Article
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Over the years, there has been a significant increase in the adoption of game-based interventions for behaviour change associated with many fields such as health, education, and psychology. This is due to the significance of the players’ intrinsic motivation that is naturally generated to play games and the substantial impact they can have on players. Many review papers measure the effectiveness of the use of gaming on changing behaviours; however, these studies neglect the game features involved in the game design process, which have an impact of stimulating behaviour change. Therefore, this paper aimed to identify game design mechanics and features that are reported to commonly influence behaviour change during and/or after the interventions. This paper identified key theories of behaviour change that inform the game design process, providing insights that can be adopted by game designers for informing considerations on the use of game features for moderating behaviour in their own games.
... Hamari [22] showed that badges motivated users to increase their activity in a trading/sharing app. Landers et al. [13] demonstrated the effectiveness of leaderboards for simple tasks, where they served as a goal setting tool for users. ...
Article
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Several studies have been conducted in recent years into the effects of gamification on learner motivation. However, little is known about how learner profiles affect the impact of specific game elements. This research analyzes the effect of a gamified mathematic learning environment on the motivation and the motivated behaviors of 258 learners in secondary schools in France. Overall, results indicate that randomly assigned game elements generally demotivate learners. A more thorough analysis revealed that gamification has a positive impact on the most amotivated learners to do mathematic, although different effects were observed on learners. In particular, we noticed significant influences of their initial level of motivation and their player type on the variation in motivation during the study. We show that these influences vary according to the game element they used. These findings suggest that to increase efficiency, gamification should be tailored not only to the player profile but also to their level of initial motivation for the learning task.
... In the first instance, the average of gamification components incorporated in each experience has been 5 items, however, there are cases such as the app My Planet Earth that included only 2 gamification components -achievements and levels-, while Go Green Challenge has 6 components-points, missions, opening of content, social graphs, levels and achievements-. Although it depends on the argumentative line that each gamified application has, the effectiveness and the goals of each application should avoid excess of gamification elements, in fact, it is recommended that before applying them, their use is clearly justified in accordance with the objectives determined by the mobile application [63]. To conclude this section, it should also be mentioned that although an assessment of the aesthetic dimension of mobile applications was made, it can be established as an audiovisual technical phase of the experience: graphic details, chromatic contrast and sound that does not directly involve game elements, but, on the contrary, includes audiovisual and media constructs that affect the user's perception. ...
Article
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Mobile applications viewed as digital social change tools are focused on sustainable development, particularly in topics that address ecology and the environment. In this research, the aim is to systematize a review of the 10 most downloaded mobile applications in this context, but deepening on those that use game elements in their interface, organizing them according to components, mechanics and playful dynamics. Findings demonstrate the role of levels and achievements as more repeated dynamics, and challenges and feedback as more relevant elements in gameplay, and finally, emotions and narratives as components of the gamified experience. The incorporation of these elements in mobile games shows that digital gamification in the environmental context is organized from an alternative perspective, where argumentation, the succession of events, the progressive incorporation of difficulty and the interaction with the computerized system modify the traditional view that sees gamification as a superficial system of points.
... The second implemented reward mechanism are badges (see Fig. 5). A separate badge page lists all 25 badges and their corresponding unlock instructions since badges should have a clear goal setting function to be motivating (Hamari 2017). On the one hand, the badges award desirable and intensified system use, e.g. the "Process Analyser (Bronze)" for analysing the history graph (Schoop 2010) for the first time. ...
Article
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Organisations are involved in various types of negotiation. As digitalisation advances, such business negotiations are to a large extent electronic negotiations. Consequently, dedicated training for such electronic negotiations is important for mastering negotiation skills. We designed a gamified negotiation system used in e-negotiation training to increase participants’ motivation, engagement, use of the system’s negotiation support features and to improve their decision making. The quantitative evaluation using students as subjects shows higher motivation, engagement and better system and decision-making skills for participants in the gamified training compared to a conventional training. Furthermore, female participants show higher engagement in the gamified training than males. An analysis of the individual elements in the system provides insights into participants’ perceptions and shows that the inclusion of a domain-specific feedback element yields motivational results that are almost similar compared to those using traditional game elements. Organisations can employ the designed artefact for fundamental and effective e-negotiation training.
... A numerical feedback system using points and tracking of progress using levels are selected as they are two of the most frequently used motivational affordances (Legaki et al., 2020) and practical options to be integrated into existing training systems (Ulmer et al., 2020a). The amount of game elements is limited in this study to focus on a specific mechanism as claimed in (Hamari, 2017). A gamified VR-based training system consisting of a manual workstation with interaction and feedback possibilities (Ulmer et al., 2020b) is used in this study. ...
Article
Virtual Reality (VR) offers novel possibilities for remote training regardless of the availability of the actual equipment, the presence of specialists, and the training locations. Research shows that training environments that adapt to users' preferences and performance can promote more effective learning. However, the observed results can hardly be traced back to specific adaptive measures but the whole new training approach. This study analyzes the effects of a combined point and leveling VR-based gamification system on assembly training targeting specific training outcomes and users' motivations. The Gamified-VR-Group with 26 subjects received the gamified training, and the Non-Gamified-VR-Group with 27 subjects received the alternative without gamified elements. Both groups conducted their VR training at least three times before assembling the actual structure. The study found that a level system that gradually increases the difficulty and error probability in VR can significantly lower real-world error rates, self-corrections, and support usages. According to our study, a high error occurrence at the highest training level reduced the Gamified-VR-Group's feeling of competence compared to the Non-Gamified-VR-Group, but at the same time also led to lower error probabilities in real-life. It is concluded that a level system with a variable task difficulty should be combined with carefully balanced positive and negative feedback messages. This way, better learning results, and an improved self-evaluation can be achieved while not causing significant impacts on the participants' feeling of competence.
... Considering the citation frequency, the most influential authors are Deterding S (citation frequency = 401) and Hamari J (citation frequency = 289). This result is not surprising since a great amount of the most important documents in the gamification domains are written by these two authors (Deterding, 2012;Deterding, Sicart, et al., 2011;Hamari, 2013Hamari, , 2017Hamari & Koivisto, 2013;Hamari & Tuunanen, 2014;Koivisto & Hamari, 2019). ...
Preprint
Gamification, which refers to the use of game design elements in non-game contexts, provides similar experiences and motivations as games do; this makes gamification a useful approach to promote positive behaviors. In recent years, the volume of scientific publications focusing on gamification has increased. It has been applied to different fields (e.g. learning and training, mental health, positive behavior and behavior change, personnel selection, employees training, etc.); in this way, the scientific community has spread out over different domains and with different aims. Gamification has turned out to be an excellent method also to provide a sense of community, encouraging social interaction in both present and online contexts, increasing competencies in work and educational settings. This has made gamification also a useful tool during the COVID-19 pandemic, in which it has been used to promote an active and interactive experience in the educational environment. As a useful tool for keeping users motivated, engaged and active, there is a wide interest in adopting gamification solutions for supporting and promoting positive behaviors and behavior change (e.g. quit smoking, ecological behaviors, food choices, civic engagement, mental healthcare, sustainability, etc.). However, the development of this research area has proceeded without a unique theoretical approach or a clear concept of the field; even though several studies analyzing the literature have been made, a literature mapping of gamification applied for behavior change is still missing. In this study, we use the CiteSpace software to examine 447 publications and their 20608 unique references on gamification applied for behavior change. The corpus of studies was downloaded from the Scopus database and refers to studies published between 2012 and 2021. Several methods were used to analyze these data: (1) document co-citation analysis (DCA) was performed to identify the pivotal researches and the research areas; (2) author co-citation analysis (ACA) was performed to identify the main authors; (3) country collaboration and institutions network analysis were performed to identify the countries and institutions that contribute the most; and finally, (4) keyword analysis was performed to detect the most influential keywords and their change over time. Overall, we discuss the findings and the need for a more cooperative and united community, in order to make the use of gamification applied to behavior change more effective, faster and goal-oriented. Hence, we introduce some future challenges to promote an improvement in the quality of publications in this research domain, as well as in other gamification fields.
... Of course, individual elements or mechanics were also investigated. For example, Hamari has conducted a research to find out how badges (extrinsic motivation) influence user activity (Hamari, 2017). His research was carried out on a platform for personal sales and purchases among individuals and lasted two yearsin first year there was no gamification and in second gamification was implemented with badges as rewards. ...
Conference Paper
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Gamification is a recent research and practical concept for use of game design elements in non-game contexts. In this work, we study the gamification in business context. The mentioned context is very important, due to its usage by companies who are looking for new ways to engage, teach, reward and retain employees and customers. First, we list a state of the art of game studies and a transition from game design to gamification design. We also list main guidelines for application of gamification in business organizations. The effects of gamification and some ethical considerations are also tackled.
... Eng verbunden mit der Motivationssteigerung ist eine anvisierte Erhöhung der Nutzungserfahrung 28 -im Englischen "User Experience" genannt (Garrett, 2010;Korhonen et al., 2009 (Alsawaier, 2018;Hamari, 2017;Sailer et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
324 anerkannte Ausbildungsberufe (Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung, 2021) und über 21.000 unterschiedliche Studiengänge (Stiftung zur Förderung der Hochschulrektorenkonferenz, 2021) gibt es in Deutschland. Begleitend dazu informieren Unternehmen, Institutionen und Organisationen in ihrem Employer Branding über ihre Jobangebote. Schulabgänger:innen und Berufseinsteiger:innen werden so mit einer Vielzahl von Karrieremöglichkeiten und einer Flut von Informationen darüber konfrontiert. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, inwieweit und mit welchen Effekten Unternehmen mithilfe von Gamification zielgruppenaffin Informationen für berufseinsteigende Bewerber:innen bereitstellen können. Auf Basis einer Inhaltsanalyse werden zunächst gamifizierte Anwendungen (n=88) in der deutschsprachigen Personalbeschaffung aus den Jahren 2001 bis 2021 untersucht und in die vier Ausprägungen Berufsinformationsspiel, e-Assessment, Self-Assessment und Matching typologisiert. Self-Assessment und Matching werden im Anschluss auf positive Effekte hinsichtlich der Kontaktpunkterzeugung (Touchpoint), der realistischen Einblicke (Realistic Job Preview) und des Passungsabgleichs (P-O-Fit/P-J-Fit) untersucht. Zu diesem Zweck werden zwei quantitative Befragungen mit Mitarbeiter:innen von Personalabteilungen (n=221) und Berufseinsteiger:innen (n=217) durchgeführt und verglichen. Eine statistische Analyse mit dem Kruskal-Wallis-Test zeigt, dass insbesondere das Matching aus Sicht der Personalabteilungen die stärkeren Effekte hat (p<05), während beide gamifizierten Ansätze auf Seiten der Berufseinsteiger:innen gleich starke Effekte erzielen.
... Each game element has the potential to affect user behavior differently [27]. For instance, leaderboards emphasize relative performance and may drive users competitiveness [27], while badges, give the user a sense of self-improvement, and have shown to steer users' long-term behavior towards gamified goals [18]. ...
Preprint
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Gamification is the use of game elements such as points, leaderboards, and badges in a non-game context to encourage a desired behavior from individuals interacting with an environment. Recently, gamification has found its way into software engineering contexts as a means to promote certain activities to practitioners. Previous studies investigated the use of gamification to promote the adoption of a variety of tools and practices, however, these studies were either performed in an educational environment or in small to medium-sized teams of developers in the industry. We performed a large-scale mixed-methods study on the effects of badge-based gamification in promoting the adoption of DevOps practices in a very large company and evaluated how practice adoption is associated with changes in key delivery, quality, and throughput metrics of 333 software projects. We observed an accelerated adoption of some gamified DevOps practices by at least 60%, with increased adoption rates up to 6x. We found mixed results when associating badge adoption and metric changes: teams that earned testing badges showed an increase in bug fixing commits but output fewer commits and pull requests; teams that earned code review and quality tooling badges exhibited faster delivery metrics. Finally, our empirical study was supplemented by a survey with 45 developers where 73% of respondents found badges to be helpful for learning about and adopting new standardized practices. Our results contribute to the rich knowledge on gamification with a unique and important perspective from real industry practitioners.
... User engagement is likely to occur in SGs with specific design elements (Maheu-Cadotte et al., 2018), that are psychologically appealing to the user, such as being challenging and interactive, thereby meeting autonomy, relatedness, and competence needs (Abbasi et al., 2021a;Behl et al., 2022a;Mills et al., 2018). The intrinsic motivation arising from psychological need fulfilment during gaming (DomíNguez et al., 2013;Eisingerich et al., 2019;Eppmann et al., 2018;Hamari, 2017;Hamari & Koivisto, 2015;Harwood & Garry, 2015;Helmefalk & Marcusson, 2019), enables users' immersion in the learning application (McMahan, 2003;Shernoff et al., 2003), and their persistence in completing self-selected goals that stem from the learner's interest and concentrated attention (Alt, 2021). ...
Article
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Serious games (SGs), are gaining prominence as a tool for early education at home as well as in school settings. Given the mixed effects of gamification on various aspects of users' lives, it is pertinent to study its broader effects on a child's preschool and school years. Given the lack of consensus on a comprehensive measure that encapsulates these effects on an individual's routine functioning, the present study examined whether various engagement states in SGs use influence a relatively broader measure of users' functioning across significant life domains such as Quality of Life (QoL). It is argued that it would serve scholars, teachers, and parents better to understand the broader implications of SGs on children's overall QoL rather than isolated physiological and behavioral effects. Consequently, utilizing structural equation modeling, results from 335 parents of 2-10-year-olds in a developing country showed that cognitive and behavioral engagement in gamified applications appear to influence the child's QoL, but not affective engagement. Results are discussed in terms of the consequences of using game-based technology for a child's development, with far-reaching academic, personal, physical, and social implications not only for the school-going ages, but also for early teenage years. The results are promising in relation to QoL. The findings indicate the role modern technology plays in improving individuals' lives. The findings provide scholars, parents, and creators of SGs important information for their plan of action regarding children's exposure to SGs and making SGs a frequent aspect of the learning experience early in life.
... Despite the different perceptions about what badge is the most important, all students agreed that badges play a role as proof of students' achievement. The positive effect of badges in increasing students' motivation and engagement has long been studied [73,74]. In the current study, badges could boost students' pride, and as a consequence, they tend to be more enthusiastic in carrying out the course, as can be seen in the following quotes: ...
Article
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Covid-19 pandemic has changed how the education system operated. The shift from face-to-face learning to online learning generated many problems, including decreasing students’ motivation and engagement. Gamification has been used as one of the solutions to overcome the problem of low motivation and engagement in learning. The current study aims to examine the students' behavioral change when using e-learning with gamification, investigate gamification elements that are important to students and how it influences students’ motivation and engagement, and investigate whether population characteristics may influence students’ motivation and engagement. Qualitative methods were employed to gather and analyze the data. The thematic analysis resulted in 6 main themes. The findings revealed that there were behavioral changes in students during gamification implementation, i.e. from negative to positive and from positive to negative. Four gamification elements were found to be the most important gamification elements to students, i.e. points, leaderboard, badges, and gamified test. The mechanism of how these elements influenced motivation and engagement was discussed. The population characteristics of final-year students also had an impact on gamification effectiveness. Despite gamification’s capabilities to influence motivation and engagement, there are some concerns related to negative impacts that must be addressed in the future.
... La mayoría de las experiencias de gamificación conocidas en los últimos años se han desarrollado de una manera más bien instrumental, centradas especialmente en motivaciones extrínsecas más que intrínsecas. Esta tendencia ha sido liderada por los desarrollos del mercado, el marketing y el entretenimiento (Fui-Hoon Nah et al., 2014;Hamari, 2017;Toth y Tovolgyi, 2016). ...
... Badges and Achievements (Hamari, 2017;Sailer, 2017) Badges can be motivated to innovate faster, do more, and work smarter than other competitors. ...
Chapter
This chapter presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a new technique to improve children’s algorithmic thinking skills that enable solving problems following clearly defined steps. Gamirithmic teaches children to codify ideas by coming up with solutions to problems in systematic and structured ways via its step-by-step procedure with the increasing complexity of commands in each step. The errors of kindergarten children (3-6 years of age) decreased with each trial, but the time taken did not, suggest- ing that children took time to process the more complicated commands and come up with algorithmic strategies to solve them, yet made fewer errors even though the steps got more complex, as they got used to engaging this type of thinking. Older children made fewer errors and took less time to complete the new tasks. Gamirithmic teaches technology-related concepts using a technology-independent medium that is less likely to induce behavioral problems associated with screen-based methods.
... Considering the citation frequency, the most influential authors are Deterding S (citation frequency = 401) and Hamari J (citation frequency = 289). This result is not surprising since a great amount of the most important documents in the gamification domains are written by these two authors (Deterding, 2012;Deterding, Sicart, et al., 2011;Hamari, 2013Hamari, , 2017Hamari & Koivisto, 2013;Hamari & Tuunanen, 2014;Koivisto & Hamari, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gamification, which refers to the use of game design elements in non-game contexts, provides similar experiences and motivations as games do; this makes gamification a useful approach to promote positive behaviors. As a useful tool for keeping users motivated, engaged and active, there is a wide interest in adopting gamification solutions for supporting and promoting positive behaviors and behavior change (e.g. quit smoking, ecological behaviors, food choices, civic engagement, mental healthcare, sustainability, etc.). In this study, we use the CiteSpace software to examine 984 publications and their 46,609 unique references on gamification applied for behavior change. The corpus of studies was downloaded from the Scopus database and refers to studies published between 2011 and the beginning of 2022. Several methods were used to analyze these data: (1) document co-citation analysis (DCA) was performed to identify the pivotal researches and the research areas; (2) author cocitation analysis (ACA) was performed to identify the main authors; (3) and keyword analysis was performed to detect the most influential keywords and their change over time. The results of the analysis provide an overview of the influential documents, authors and keywords that have given shape to the literature of the field, and how it has evolved, showing an initial interest in motivational and persuasion techniques, and in the gamification design, and subsequently in the development of more rigorous methodologies for both design and use. As the first scientometric review of gamification applied to behavior change, this study will be of interest to junior and senior researchers, graduate students, and professors seeking to identify research trends, topics, major publications, and influential scholars.
... Most of the reviews on empirical studies produce positive effects on motivation and behavior in the use of gamification [23][24] [25]. The positive effects produced in the use of the gamification element are based on the anecdotal concept that application of the game is largely 'fun' and intrinsic motivation [26]. The main factor that drives behavior change is individual motivation [27].The use of gamification is able to positively influence human behavior in motivating work [28], increase employee engagement and motivation [29][5] [25], encourage behavior that results in internal achievements or perceptions, such as enjoyment [30] [31], and business improvement, perseverance and performance improvement [32]. ...
Article
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In recent decades, the field of human computer interaction has become a popular trending topic in gamification studies. The latest trend in the application of gamification in the world of work, aims to improve the incorporation of game design elements into the workplace, to increase motivation. This study found that the elements used in gamification in the world of work are still very limited, and there are no suitable criteria for use in gamification based on game elements in the world of work by examining and evaluating workers as a team in a contextual context. game environment that replicates real aspects and work environment. This study will comprehensively review related to gamification by analyzing the models and concepts of gamification in empirical research. As well as reviewing previous research and showing the gaps that occur in the literature both theoretically and empirically. This review shows an understanding of the interactions between components in the application of elements present in gamification related to work. The findings in this study will be able to provide insight in the development of further studies to make uniform use of game design in increasing motivation
... Considering the citation frequency, the most influential authors are Deterding S (citation frequency = 401) and Hamari J (citation frequency = 289). This result is not surprising since a great amount of the most important documents in the gamification domains are written by these two authors (Deterding, 2012;Deterding, Sicart, et al., 2011;Hamari, 2013Hamari, , 2017Hamari & Koivisto, 2013;Hamari & Tuunanen, 2014;Koivisto & Hamari, 2019). ...
Preprint
Gamification, which refers to the use of game design elements in non-game contexts, provides similar experiences and motivations as games do; this makes gamification a useful approach to promote positive behaviors. As a useful tool for keeping users motivated, engaged and active, there is a wide interest in adopting gamification solutions for supporting and promoting positive behaviors and behavior change (e.g. quit smoking, ecological behaviors, food choices, civic engagement, mental healthcare, sustainability, etc.). In this study, we use the CiteSpace software to examine 984 publications and their 46,609 unique references on gamification applied for behavior change. The corpus of studies was downloaded from the Scopus database and refers to studies published between 2011 and the beginning of 2022. Several methods were used to analyze these data: (1) document co-citation analysis (DCA) was performed to identify the pivotal researches and the research areas; (2) author co-citation analysis (ACA) was performed to identify the main authors; (3) and keyword analysis was performed to detect the most influential keywords and their change over time. The results of the analysis provide an overview of the influential documents, authors and keywords that have given shape to the literature of the field, and how it has evolved, showing an initial interest in motivational and persuasion techniques, and in the gamification design, and subsequently in the development of more rigorous methodologies for both design and use. As the first scientometric review of gamification applied to behavior change, this study will be of interest to junior and senior researchers, graduate students, and professors seeking to identify research trends, topics, major publications, and influential scholars.
... Çakırogluet al. [34] showed that points, leaderboard, quests, and reputation increased students' engagement and participation in an undergraduate course. However, despite the great benefits of gamification [35], it can also have negative outcomes. For instance, gamification can cause loss of performance, where it harms or hinders students' learning process [9]. ...
Article
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Technology acceptance is essential for technology success. However, individual users are known to differ in their tendency to adopt and interact with new technologies. Among the individual differences, personality has been shown to be a predictor of users’ beliefs about technology acceptance. Gamification, on the other hand, has been shown to be a good solution to improve students’ motivation and engagement while learning. Despite the growing interest in gamification, less research attention has been paid to the effect of personality, specifically based on the Five Factor model (FFM), on gamification acceptance in learning environments. Therefore, this study develops a model to elucidate how personality traits affect students’ acceptance of gamified learning environments and their continuance intention to use these environments. In particular, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used to examine the factors affecting students’ intentions to use a gamified learning environment. To test the research hypotheses, eighty-three students participated in this study, where structural equation modeling via Partial Least Squares (PLS) was performed. The obtained results showed that the research model, based on TAM and FFM, provides a comprehensive understanding of the behaviors related to the acceptance and intention to use gamified learning environments, as follows: (1) usefulness is the most influential factor toward intention to use the gamified learning environment; (2) unexpectedly, perceived ease of use has no significant effect on perceived usefulness and behavioral attitudes toward the gamified learning environment; (3) extraversion affects students’ perceived ease of use of the gamified learning environment; (4) neuroticism affects students’ perceived usefulness of the gamified learning environment; and, (5) Openness affects students’ behavioral attitudes toward using the gamified learning environment. This study can contribute to the Human–Computer Interaction field by providing researchers and practitioners with insights into how to motivate different students’ personality characteristics to continue using gamified learning environments for each personality trait.
Chapter
The COVID-19 crisis emphasizes the importance of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL), one of today’s most valuable skills, with which learners set their learning goals, monitor and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior, and reflect upon them. In the current experimental study, an intervention program based on short online interactive videos was developed to promote SRL skills. This paper presents the impact of the intervention on students’ use of SRL skills and grades. It also explores four key pedagogical processes (teacher-student relationships, collaboration, autonomy, and feedback) as mediators for SRL strategies use and grades. The experimental and control groups were randomly assigned (N = 290 students, 18 classes, grades 7–12). Each teacher taught the same subject in two classes for a month, an amount of time that allows intervention to take effect. One of the classes participated in the video-based intervention program (experimental group), whereas the other performed all activities but did not have access to the videos (control group). Data was collected through an SRL and pedagogies usage questionnaire, SRL video prompts, and knowledge tests and was analyzed using the quantitative method. In addition to the theoretical contribution, a practical tool has been developed for educators who wish to employ online SRL training.KeywordsSRL - Self-Regulated LearningVideo-assisted learningERT - Emergency remote teachingSRL intervention programCOVID-19
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لا شك أن تطور التكنولوجيا وانفتاح الأفاق المعلوماتية وثورة الاتصالات افرزت العديد من التقنيات والأدوات التكنولوجية منها ما هو نافع ومنها ما يصنف في نواح الترفيه الا ان مبدأ اللعب ورغم انه مبدأ قديم فإنه خلال الأعوام الأخيرة ذات الاهتمام كثيراً به وبإعادة توظيفيه ليحقق أهداف أخرى غير هدف اللعب في حد ذاته، ومن ذلك الأهداف التعليمية. وقد جاء البحث في عدة محاور الأول تم عرض مشكلة البحث وأهمية دراستها واسئلة البحث وفروضه وحدوده، وجاء المحور الثاني ليعرض الإطار النظري للبحث وعرض مفهوم الالعاب التحفيزية (gamification) وخصائصها وتوظيفها في تعلم اللغات بشكل عام و في اللغة العربية للناطقين بها ، بما يتناسب مع متطلبات العصر ثم أثر ذلك في تنمية الدافعية لدى الدارسين لها ، وجاء المحور الثالث ليعرض الدراسات السابقة التي استفاد منها البحث ، أما المحور الرابع فخصص لعرض تجربة البحث ثم نتائج البحث والرد على التساؤلات والفروض، و المحور الخامس جاء بتوصيات البحث والمقترحات التي يمكن الاستفادة منها. وقد هدف البحث الى قياس أثر توظيف الألعاب التحفيزية في تعليم مهارات اللغة العربية للناطقين بغيرها على زيادة دافعية التعلم لديهم. وجاءت عينة البحث من عينة عشوائية من الطلاب الوافدين غير الناطقين بالعربية بجامعة الأزهر وعددهم (40) طالب. وتم اختيار العينة بطريقة عشوائية من طلاب وافدون بكلية التربية جامعة الأزهر بمدينة نصر، وتم تقسيمها إلى مجموعتين الأولى تجريبية درست المحتوى الإلكتروني بالألعاب التحفيزية والثانية ضابطة درست بالطريقة التقليدية المعتادة. وقد توصل البحث الى مجموعة من النتائج من أهمها: وجود فاعلية لتوظيف الألعاب التحفيزية (gamification) في تنمية التحصيل المعرفي لتعليم اللغة العربية للناطقين بغيرها وكذا في زيادة الدافعية للتعلم لديهم، ويوصى البحث باستخدام وتوظيف الألعاب التحفيزية في تدعيم رسالة اللغة العربية للناطقين بغيرها مما يعمل على زيادة انتشار اللغة والاقبال عليها بين جمهور المستفيدين. والتوسع في توظيف الألعاب التحفيزية على باقي المهارات اللغوية في تعليم اللغة العربية للناطقين بغيرها (الاستماع – التحدث – القراءة – الكتابة).
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Whether you're a manager, company psychologist, quality control specialist, or involved with motivating people to work harder in any capacity—Locke and Latham's guide will hand you the keen insight and practical advice you need to reach even your toughest cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Badge-based achievement systems are being used increasingly to drive user participation and engagement across a variety of platforms and contexts. Despite positive anecdotal reports, there is currently little empirical evidence to support their efficacy in particular domains. With the recent rapid growth of tools for online learning, an interesting open question for educators is the extent to which badges can positively impact student participation. In this paper, we report on a large-scale (n > 1000) randomized, controlled experiment measuring the impact of incorporating a badge-based achievement system within an online learning tool. We discover a highly significant positive effect on the quantity of students' contributions, without a corresponding reduction in their quality, as well as on the period of time over which students engaged with the tool. Students enjoyed being able to earn badges, and indicated a strong preference for having them available in the user interface.
Conference Paper
Achievement badges are a form of gamification that can be used to motivate users and to encourage desired actions. In this study, we describe and evaluate the use of achievement badges in the TRAKLA2 online learning environment where students complete interactive, automatically assessed exercises about data structures and algorithms. The students' activity in TRAKLA2 was logged in order to find out whether the achievement badges had an effect on their behavior. We used a between-subject experimental design where the students (N=281) were randomly divided into a treatment and a control group, with and without achievement badges. Students in the treatment group were awarded achievement badges, for example, for solving exercises with only one attempt, returning exercises early, or completing an exercise round with full points. Course grading was similar for both groups, i.e. collecting badges did not affect the final grade. Our results show that achievement badges can be used to affect the behavior of students even when the badges have no impact on the grading. Statistically significant differences in students' behavior were observed with some badge types, while some badges did not seem to have such an effect. We also found that students in the two studied courses responded differently to the badges. Based on our findings, achievement badges seem like a promising method to motivate students and to encourage desired study practices.
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During recent years, the addition of game mechanisms to non-game services has gained a relatively large amount of attention. Popular discussion connects gamification to successful marketing and increased profitability through higher customer engagement, however, there is a dearth of empirical studies that confirm such expectations. This paper reports the results of a field experiment, which gamifies a utilitarian peer-to-peer trading service by implementing the game mechanism of badges that users can earn from a variety of tasks. There were 3234 users who were randomly assigned to treatment groups and subjected to different versions of the badge system in a 2 × 2 design. The results show that the mere implementation of gamification mechanisms does not automatically lead to significant increases in use activity in the studied utilitarian service, however, those users who actively monitored their own badges and those of others in the study showed increased user activity.
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Achievement systems are reward structures providing additional goals for players, and thus extending the play time of videogames. In this paper, we explore how applications other than games could benefit from achievement systems, and how users perceive this additional content in a service. For this purpose, we added an achievement system to a geo-tagged photo sharing service called Nokia Image Space. The results suggest that there is some potential in achievement systems outside the game domain. The achievements triggered some friendly competition and comparison between users. However, many users were not convinced, expressing concerns about the achievements motivating undesirable usage patterns. Therefore, an achievement system poses certain design considerations when applied in nongame software.
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