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Physical Properties and Chemical composition of Cow's and Buffalo's Milk in Qena Governorate

Authors:
  • Faculty of Agriculture, Damietta University

Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate some physical properties and chemical composition of lactating animals in Qena governorate, Egypt. Composite samples of cows' (baladi breed) and buffalo's milks were collected from twelve individual farms in Qena. Physical parameter used to monitor the quality of milk samples was physical (specific gravity). The samples were also analysed for gross composition, as well as the incidence of some minerals, and fatty acids composition of milk fat. The specific gravity for both cow’s "baladi" and buffalo’s milk were similar, and contents significantly (p<0.05) higher amounts of fat, protein, ash and total solids were detected in buffalo milk than for cow milk. Cow milk fat differed contained significantly (p<0.05) lower amounts of medium chain fatty acids (C10:0) and contained significantly (p<0.05) higher content of (C16:1 and C18:1), than buffalo milks, while buffalos milk fat contained significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of (C16:0) and (C18:0) than cow milks. The levels of Ca, P, Na, K and Fe in the buffalo’s milk ash were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in the cow milk ash.
1
Physical properties and chemical composition of cow's
and buffalo's milk in Qena governorate
By
Hamad, M. N. E.1 and Baiomy, A. A.2
1 Food science and Dairy Department, Faculty of Agriculture "Qena", South
Valley University.
2Animal production Department, Faculty of Agriculture "Qena", South Vally
University.
ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to evaluate some physical properties and chemical
composition of lactating animals in Qena governorate, Egypt. Composite samples of
cows' (baladi breed) and buffalo's milks were collected from twelve individual farms
in Qena. Physical parameter used to monitor the quality of milk samples was physical
(specific gravity). The samples were also analysed for gross composition, as well as
the incidence of some minerals, and fatty acids composition of milk fat. The specific
gravity for both cow’s "baladi" and buffalo’s milk were similar, and contents
significantly (p<0.05) higher amounts of fat, protein, ash and total solids were
detected in buffalo milk than for cow milk.
Cow milk fat differed contained significantly (p<0.05) lower amounts of
medium chain fatty acids (C10:0) and contained significantly (p<0.05) higher content
of (C16:1 and C18:1), than buffalo milks, while buffalos milk fat contained
significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of (C16:0) and (C18:0) than cow milks.
The levels of Ca, P, Na, K and Fe in the buffalo’s milk ash were significantly
higher (P<0.05) than those in the cow milk ash.
Keyword: cow, buffalo, milk, physical, chemical composition, fatty acids, minerals.
INTRODUCTION
Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy diet which, besides cow's milk,
sheep's, goats and buffalo's milk are involved (Hinrichs, 2004). Milk is a complex
mixture of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and other minor
constituents dispersed or dissolved in water (Harding, 1999). Milk is an important
part of the human diet and the nutritional significance of milk is apparent from the
fact that daily consumption of a quart (1.14 liters) of milk furnishes approximately all
the daily requirements from fat, calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin, one half of the
protein, one third of vitamin A, ascorbic acid, thiamine and one fourth of calories
needed daily by an average individual (Bilal & Ahmad, 2004).
Numerous studies have focused on cow milk, although milks from other
animal species, such buffaloes, sheep, goats and camels are essential to the human
diet in various parts of the world. Buffalo milk is the second most produced milk in
the world with 82 billion litres produced each year (12.5% of milk produced in the
world), after cow’s milk (84% with 551 billion litres) (IDF, 2007). Buffalo milk is
also one of the richest milks from a compositional point of view, particularly; fat
which constitutes the main buffalo milk solids and is responsible for its high energy
and nutritive value. The environmental conditions play an important role in the
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determination of the composition of milk. No cited studies have been carried out on
the composition of lactating animals in Qena government. Qena is part of Upper
Egypt characterized by high temperature throughout the whole year, which may have
an adverse effect on the production and composition of milk. Therefore, the present
study is considered on of the first which concerned with the composition of buffalo
milk and milk fat of cows and buffaloes in Qena.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Composite milk samples (500 ml) of baladi cows and Egyptian buffaloes
during their high lactation period were collected once a week from twelve farmers in
Qena governorate during the period from January to October 2009. The composite
samples of milk were proposed with drawn from the morning and evening milking of
the individuals. A total of 440 samples of cow and 259 of buffalo milk were analyzed.
The pH was measured using digital pH meter (Model PTI-6, Aqua Chemical
Co., Devon, U.K.) equipped with a combined glass electrode. Specific gravity was
detected by using lactometer as described by Aggarwala & Sharma (1961). The fat
content was determined by the Gerber method according to James (1995), total
solids, ash and protein contents according to A.O.A.C. (1995), and the solids not fat
(SNF) and lactose contents were determined by differences, as indicated:
• SNF content = TS % - Fat %
• Lactose % = TS % - (Fat % + Protein % + Ash %)
The sodium, potassium and calcium contents were determined, by ashing of
samples, dissolution of the ash by flame photometer (Corning 410, Sherwood
Scientific Limited, UK) as described by Kirk & Sawyer (1991). Inorganic
phosphorus by the colorimetric method of Fiske & Subbarow (1925), and iron and
lead by absorption spectrophotometer (Perkins Elmer Instrument Model 2380, Perkin
Elmer, Michigan, USA) as described by A.O.A.C. (1995).
The fatty acids were determined by Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC)
according to the procedure of Ackman (1972). The fatty acid methyl esters were
analyzed by using PYE-Unicam Model P V4550 gas-Liquid Chromatography with
dual-flame ionization detector.
Data were statistically analyzed according to the General Linear Model
(G.L.M) and the differences between means were detected by Duncan`s Multiple
Range Test, SAS (1998).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table (1) shows that the specific gravity of baladi cow’s milk was slightly
lower than buffalo’s milk. These results agreed with those reported by Lee et al.
(2002) and Mahboba & Ibtisam (2007).
Table (1): specific gravity and pH values of cows "baladi" and buffalo’s milk samples
collected from different sources in Qena. (Mean ± Se).
Item
Cow "Baladi"
Buffalo
Min.
Mean
Min.
Max.
Mean
S.G
1.028
1.0312±0.0008
1.0301
1.036
1.0314±0.0009
pH
6.41
6.65±0.191
6.56
6.76
6.61±0.174
Min.: minimum, Max.: maximum, S.G: Specific gravity.
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pH values of fresh cow milk (Table 1) ranged from 6.41 and 6.79 with an
average of 6.65±0.191, while pH values of buffalo's milk was between 6.56 and 6.76,
with an average of 6.61±0.174. These results were relatively similar to those reported
by Mahboba & Ibtisam (2007), Ahmad et al. (2007) and Hajirostamloo &
Mahastie (2008).
Comparison of the overall composition of buffalo and cow "baladi" milk
revealed that large differences were existed between them (Table 2). Thus, contents
of fat, protein, lactose, ash and total solids contents were significantly (p<0.05) higher
in buffalo milk than in cow milk. These results are in agreement with the findings of
various authors (Spanghero & Susmel, 1996 and Ahmed, et al. 2008). Although
buffalo's milk had higher lactose content than cows milk, differences between them
were not significantly.
Table (2): chemical compositions of cows "baladi" and buffalo’s milk samples
collected from different sources in Qena. (Mean ± Se).
Item
Cow "Baladi"
Buffalo
Mean
Mean
Fat (F. %)
4.280.1b
7.800.21a
Protein (P. %)
3.370.05b
4.150.04a
Lactose (L. %)
4.470.58a
5.030.80a
(Ash %)
0.690.01b
0.770.02a
Solids Not Fat (SNF %)
8.530.8b
9.890.15a
Total Solids (TS %)
12.810.24b
17.700.54a
Water (W %)
87.190.99a
83.17±0.92b
a and b means in the same row followed by different letters are significantly
different (p<0.05 ).
The mean fat content of buffalo's milk in the present study ranged from
7.800.21, range of fat whereas the mean values obtained by (El-Sokkary & Hassan,
1949; Abd El_Salam& El_Shibiny, 1966 and Asker et al., 1974) was 7.14%. Also,
the total protein content of buffalo milk previously studied by (El-Sokkary &
Hassan, 1949; Dastur, 1956; Abd El_Salam & El_Shibiny, 1966) was higher in
buffalo milk.
The ash content (0.77%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in buffalo milk
than for cow milk (Table 2). These results are in agreement with the findings of
various authors (El-Sokkary & Hassan, 1949; Abd El_Salam& El_Shibiny, 1966
and Asker et al., 1974; Spanghero & Susmel, 1996 and Ahmed, et al 2008),
The total solids content of buffalo's milk being 17.7 %, was markedly higher
than that of cow milk (12.81%), which means an increase of solids in buffalo's milk of
4.89 g/Kg as compared to cow milk. These results were in agreement with those
reported (Abd El_Salam & El_Shibiny, 1966; Spanghero and Susmel, 1996;
Asker et al., 1974 and Ahmed, et al, 2008)
Table (3) shows the average composition of fat buffaloes and cows milk. Both
milk had the same fatty acid profile, but with variable differences in the individual
fatty acids present. C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 represent the major fatty acids
present in both milk. Buffalo's milk fat contained significantly (p<0.05) higher C16:0
and C18:0 fatty acids and concerning C18:1 was higher in cow's milk fat. C14:0
content was not significantly different in the two milks. The whole saturated fatty
acids contents of buffaloes milk (66.230.50) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than
that of cows milk fat. These results were in agreement with those of Soliman et al.
4
(1980), who obtained a whole value of C14:0 + C16:0 + C18:0 and of C18:1 in cow's
milk fat of 57.9 and 31.1%, respectively, and 61.3 and 32.9% for buffaloes milk fat,
respectively, but contrary to those reported by Haggag et al. (1987), being 18.4 and
23.0% for unsaturated fatty acids in cows and buffaloes milk, respectively. These
results are also in accordance with previous studies of Varrichio et al., 2007; Blasi et
al., 2008 and Ménard et al. (2010).
Table (3): The fatty acid composition of fat milk samples from different regions of
Qena. (Mean ± SE).
Fatty acids %
Cows "Baladi"
Buffalo
C6:0
1.800.19a
1.920.14a
C8:0
0.780.21a
0.860.09a
C10:0
3.200.40a
2.120.27b
C12:0
5.170.30a
4.610.20a
Unknown
0.650.32a
0.420.21b
C14:0
12.400.66a
11.460.50a
C14:1
1.580.17a
1.160.09a
C15:0
2.500.30a
2.290.37a
C16:0
25.690.57b
29.270.40a
C16:1
2.790.20a
1.770.23b
C18:0
8.830.76b
13.281.2a
C18.1
30.821.40ª
27.600.64b
C18.2
2.770.50a
2.280.30a
C18.3
1.0200.30a
0.961.20a
Total fatty acids%
100
100
Saturated %
62.121.25b
66.230.50a
Unsaturated%
37.881.55a
33.770.60b
Saturated:Unsaturated%
1.64 :1
1.96 :1
a and b means in the same row followed by different letters are significantly
different (p<0.05 ).
The short-chain fatty acid contents (C6:0 to C8:0) were not significantly
different in buffalo and cow milks (Table 3). Cow milks contained significantly
(p<0.05) lower amounts of medium chain fatty acids (C10:0). Regarding the long-
chain fatty acids, buffalo milks contained significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of
(C16:0) and (C18:0) than cow milks, while, cow milk contained significantly (p<0.05)
higher content of (C16:1 and C18:1) than buffalo milks. These results were similar to
those obtained by Varricchio et al. (2007), who found that saturated fatty acids
(65.5%) predominated in buffalo milk fat; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty
acids were 27.0% and 4.5%, respectively.
Table 4 shows the content of Ca, P, Na, K, Fe and Pb in the ash (p.p.m.) of
baladi cow and buffalo’s milk.
5
Tables (4): Mineral contents in the ash of baladi cows and buffaloes milk in Qena
(p.p.m.). (Mean ± SE).
a and b means in the same row followed by different letters are significantly
different (p<0.05 ).
The levels of Ca, P, Na, K and Fe in the buffalo’s milk ash were significantly
higher (P<0.05) than those in the baladi cow milk ash. When these values in Table (4)
were expressed as (p.p.m.) in the ash of milk, all except that of Pb were also higher
(P<0.05) in buffalo’s milk. The most pronounced differences between the two types
of milk, when the mineral composition is expressed in terms of the quantities present
in a given volume of milk, are due to the different amounts of total solids in the two
types of milk, as mentioned previously. One of the main reasons why milk is
considered an exceptionally important food is its rich mineral content. These results
were in agreement with those reported (Satomi & Kunihiko, 2006; Ahmad et al.
2007; Ariota, et al. 2007; Hajirostamloo & Mahastie, 2008 and Ceballos, et al.
2009).
Conclusion
Egyptian buffalo’s milk contained higher solids, fat, protein and ash "Ca, K,
Na, P and Fe" contents than cow's milk in Qena governorate. Buffalo’s milk fat had
significantly higher total saturated "C16:0 and C18:0, and less total unsaturated and
C18:1 fatty acids in that of baladi cows milk.
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6
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... Similar results were reported by Gemechu et al., (2015) who reported that cow milk fat content of 4.25 in cow milk from producer and market in Shashemene town of eastern Ethiopia. The fat content of 4.28 is also reported by Hamad et al., (2015).On the other hand relatively, higher fat content of 6.01, 6.024, and 8.6 were reported by Gurmessa et al., 2015, Teshome Gemechu et al., (2016 and Legesse et al., (2017) Regional State of Ethiopia respectively. This variability might be due to genetic factor (breed of milking cow) or other environmental factors like feed, lactation stage age of animal, etc. ...
... However, all sites milk was within the Ethiopia standard range. Similar results of 0.69, 0.76 and 0.82 from producer and market milk was reported by Hamad et al., 2015, Teshome Gemechu et al., 2015 Hamad et al., 2015, Legesse et al., 2015, Gurmessa Terefa et al., 2015, Teshome Gemechu et al., 2015 in raw cow milk collected from producer and market. On the other hand cow milk of lower fat content of 3.79 was reported by Estifanose Hawaz et al., 2015 in Harar milk shade of Ethiopia. ...
... However, all sites milk was within the Ethiopia standard range. Similar results of 0.69, 0.76 and 0.82 from producer and market milk was reported by Hamad et al., 2015, Teshome Gemechu et al., 2015 Hamad et al., 2015, Legesse et al., 2015, Gurmessa Terefa et al., 2015, Teshome Gemechu et al., 2015 in raw cow milk collected from producer and market. On the other hand cow milk of lower fat content of 3.79 was reported by Estifanose Hawaz et al., 2015 in Harar milk shade of Ethiopia. ...
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Milk has an important diet for humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical property and chemical composition of raw cow's milk in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Raw milk samples of 240 were collected from four sites of Wolmera, Selale, Sebeta, and Debrezeit for physical and chemical composition analysis. Physical parameters of pH, titratable acidity, specific gravity, freezing point, and chemical composition of total solids, protein, fat, ash, and lactose were tested in this study. The result showed that there is no significant (P>0.05) difference in total solid and protein content among study sites. The fat content was significantly higher in samples from Welmera and samples collected from Debrezeit were significantly higher lactose, ash, and solid non-fat content. Specific gravity and freezing point were no significant differences among the four study sites. Milk samples of significantly higher pH were observed in Wolmera and Selale and significantly higher titratable acidity was observed in milk samples from Sebeta. All the chemical compositions of total solid, fat, protein, Ash, lactose, and solid non-fat were fit with Ethiopian standard. Among the tested physical property-specific gravity and freezing point were fit with Ethiopian standard and titratable acidity of milk from all sites were above Ethiopian standard. PH of the samples from all locations was lower pH than Ethiopia standard. Titratable acidity was higher than the Ethiopian standard and pH was lower than the Ethiopian standard. This is an indication that the milk was not fresh and develop acid due to lactose fermenting microbes in the milk and not suitable for pasteurization or processing. Introduction Milk is the natural product obtained from the secretion of the mammary gland of lactating mammals. It is a highly nutritious substance that contains macro and micronutrients of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and active compounds having a role in health protection (Merwan et al., 2018). Milk protein, fat, and lactose are important sources of energy. One gram of milk fat gives 9.3 Cal and one gram of protein and lactose gives 4.1 cal. Cow milk is the utmost used up in the world followed by that of goat, camel, and donkey (Cisse et al., 2019). In Ethiopia, cows contribute around 95% of the total annual milk produced in the country (CSA, 2010). The physical properties and chemical compositions of milk were the indicators of qualities of milk with the sanitary standard (Haftu Kebede et al., 2018). The physical properties of milk were the specific gravity, freezing point, acidity, and pH of the milk. These parameters were an indication of the standard and nutritional quality of milk. Specific gravity and freezing point were important parameters indicative of milk adulteration(Teklemichael Tesfay et al., 2015). In Ethiopia, most milk collection centers and cooperatives are inspecting the quality of milk using physical properties of specific gravity and alcohol tests for their freshness during milk collection. Titratable acidity and pH were also helped to test the quality of milk for processing in milk factories. The chemical composition of cow milk was it's totally solid, protein, fat, and total mineral content. The chemical composition of cow milk is varying depends on the lactation stage, milking time, feed, and breed. The density of milk depends on the chemical composition as well as the quality of milk. Physical properties of milk were the freezing point, density, Titratable acidity and pH which may deviate from the normal range depends on the storage condition and quality of milk.
... Statistically, there were insignificantly differences in terms of lactose content between lactation stages. The current finding was slightly similar with the value of 4.47, 4.91 and 4.69% reported by Hamad et al. (2015), Legesse et al. (2015) and Gurmessa et al. (2015) in raw cow milk collected from producer and market, respectively. On the other hand, the present finding was in line with the value 3.6 to 5.5% of lactose content of milk reported by (O'Mahony, 1998). ...
... Therefore, in all lactation stages, the mineral contents of the sampled raw cow milk were within the Ethiopia quality standard. So, the current finding was slightly similar with the value of 0.69, 0.76 and 0.82% which was reported by Hamad et al. (2015), Teshome et al. (2015) and Gurmessa et al. (2015), respectively with the milk sample collected from producers and market. The ash content of the raw milk collected from household milk producers in West Guji zone for the current finding falls within the usual ranges of 0.6 to 0.9% (O'Mahony,1998). ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the compositional, physicochemical, and microbiological quality of raw milk in the West Guji zone of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Based on accessibility, proportionality, and target population, milk samples were obtained from thirty (30) lactating cows (9 cows in early lactation, 9 cows in mid-lactation, and 12 cows in late lactation). Soon after milking, approximately 300 lm of raw milk sample was collected from each milking cow and deposited into sterilized glass bottles. The obtained milk samples were preserved in an icebox and transported to the Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Institute's laboratory for analysis of raw milk's microbiological quality of raw milk. The collected milk samples were kept in an icebox and transported to Ethiopian meat and dairy institute laboratory to analyze microbial quality of raw milk. Each milk composition obtained from the laboratory result was analyzed using SAS software 9.4. Accordingly, the overall mean ±SE of chemical composition of raw milk in the three stage of lactation were; Moisture 87.99 ± 1.10 %, Fat 3.67 ± 0.41%, Protein 3.38 ± 0.04 %, Solid Not Fat 8.18 ± 0.09 %, Lactose 4.35 ± 0.08%, Total Solid 12.01 ± 0.39% and Ash 0.67 ± 0.01 %. Whereas, the overall mean ±SE of the physicochemical quality of raw milk in the study areas were; Specific gravity 1.023+0.002 (g/cm3), titratable acidity 0.20 ± 0.00(%) and Freezing point-0.50 ± 0.03(%). On another hand, the overall mean ±SE for coliform count was 4.51±0.15 (log10cfu/ml) and Total Bacterial Counts 6.06±0.20 (log10cfu/ml) in the three stage of lactation in the study area. In general, it can be concluded that the chemical composition and microbiological quality of raw milk produced by farmers in the study areas were found to be within Ethiopian quality standards. The milk was tested and found to be safe for human consumption as well as further processing. The sampled milk is safe for human consumption as well as for further processing. Thus, the channel of the milk from producers to consumers was within quality standard and wholesale in the study area.
... However, Kanwal, Ahmed (5) have indicated that sheep's milk contains a higher percentage of protein, fat, as well as minerals, and a lower percentage of lactose, in comparison with the cows, buffalos, and goats' milk. Hamad and Baiomy (6) have found that buffalos' milk is characterized by its higher content of total solids, fat, protein, and ash, compared to local cows' milk. ...
Article
In recent years, the consumption of milk and dairy products has dramatically increased in several parts of the world. Different livestock plays an essential role in global milk production. This study was designed to evaluate different chemical and physical components of milk in four groups of livestock, including cows, buffalos, sheep, and goats. To this end, 200 raw milk samples were collected from cows, buffalos, sheep, and goats (n=50) across Dhi-Qar Governorate, Iraq, for a period of one year (from 01.10.2018 to 01.06.2019). The findings showed sheep and buffalos' milk samples had a significantly higher percentage of total solids (TS%), compared to cows and goats' milk samples (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the TS% between sheep and buffalos' milk samples. Furthermore, the mean TS% values in cows, buffalos, sheep, and goats' milk samples were determined at 11.14%, 12.87%, 13.26%, and 11.33%, respectively. As for fat percentage (F%), buffalos' milk samples had significantly higher F% (4.80%), compared to milk samples of cows, sheep, and goats (P<0.05). Additionally, sheep's milk samples had significantly higher F% (P<0.05) than cows and goats' milk samples determined at 2.78%, 4.20%, and 2.98%, respectively. The findings showed the percentage of solids not fat (SNF%) was significantly higher in sheep's milk (8.97%), compared to milk samples of cows, buffalos, and goats (P<0.05). Additionally, it was found that the SNF% was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Buffalos' milk samples, compared to cows and goats' milk samples determined at 8.36%, 8.60%, and 8.35%, respectively. Moreover, the results revealed that the percentage of milk protein content in sheep's milk was significantly higher than the cows, buffalos, and goats' milk (P<0.05). Recorded data also showed no significant differences in the percentage of milk lactose among cows, buffalos, sheep, and goats' milk samples (P<0.05). Furthermore, the findings illustrated that the percentage of milk ash (Ash%) in sheep's milk samples was significantly higher than the cows, buffalos, as well as goats' milk samples (P<0.05), and no significant differences were observed among cows, buffalos, and goats' milk samples in the Ash% (P<0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the specific gravity among different milk samples (P<0.05). Finally, the results displayed no significant differences between cows and goats' milk samples in all the studied traits (P<0.05).
... Milk is one of the oldest foods (Wiley, 2015) and at the same time the most important one (Spreer, 1998). Milk of mammalian species consists of fats, proteins, lactose, ash, water, and solids (Guo et al., 2007;Hamad and Baiomy, 2010;Ballard and Morrow, 2013;Grădinaru et al., 2015;Merlin Junior et al., 2015;Getaneh et al., 2016;Kula and Tegegne, 2016;Abdullahi, 2019). Milk is utilized to cure a variety of sicknesses like hepatitis, measles, body pain, cancer, tuberculosis, diabetes, eye pain, whooping cough, cataract, sexual power, arthritis, and gastritis (Lev, 2003;WHO, 2005;Padmanabhan and Sujana, 2008;Alves et al., 2009;Benítez, 2011;Lohani, 2011b;Mishra et al., 2011;Yirga et al., 2011;Alves et al., 2012;Barros et al., 2012;Haileselasie, 2012;Martínez, 2013;Alonso-Castro, 2014;Betlloch Mas et al., 2014;Mootoosamy and Mahomoodally, 2014;Vijayakumar et al., 2015b;Borah and Prasad, 2017;Yeshi et al., 2017;Altaf et al., 2018;Aslam and Faiz, 2020). ...
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Background: The use of animals and animal-derived products in ethnopharmacological applications is an ancient human practice that continues in many regions today. The local people of the Himalayan region harbor rich traditional knowledge used to treat a variety of human ailments. The present study was intended with the aim of examining animal-based traditional medicine utilized by the population of the Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Methods: Data were collected from 2017 to 2019 through individual and group interviews. Data on traditional uses of animal products were analyzed, utilizing following indices such as the frequency of citation, use value, relative importance, similarity index, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis to find the highly preferred species in the area. Results: Ethnomedicinal uses of 62 species of vertebrates and invertebrates were documented. Flesh, fat, bone, whole body, milk, skin, egg, head, feathers, bile, blood, and honey were all used in these applications. The uses of 25 animals are reported here for the first time from the study area (mainly insects and birds, including iconic species like the kalij pheasant, Lophura leucomelanos ; Himalayan monal, L. impejanus ; and western tragopon, Tragopan melanocephalus ). The diversity and range of animal-based medicines utilized in these communities are indications of their strong connections with local ecosystems. Conclusion: Our results provide baseline data valuable for the conservation of vertebrate and invertebrate diversity in the region of Himalayan of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. It is possible that screening this fauna for medicinally active chemicals could contribute to the development of new animal-based drugs.
... The buffalo milk is superior to cow's milk in fat content (6.6 to 8.8%) and protein (3.6-5.4%), which determines the high total solids and nutritional value (Hamad and Baiomy 2010, Simões et al., 2013, O'Brien and Guinee, 2016, Khedkar et al., 2016. The buffalo milk has a very high fat content, which is twice as high as that of cow's milk. ...
... Compositional aspects of buffalo and bovine milk have been studied and reviewed by many researchers (Ahmad et al., 2008;Becskei et al., 2020;Chakraborty et al., 2020;Choudhary, Arora, Kumari, Narwal, & Sharma, 2018;Fangmeier et al., 2019;Hamad & Baiomy, 2010;Kapadiya et al., 2016;Medhammar et al., 2012;M enard et al., 2010). An overview of compositional properties of buffalo and bovine milk is shown in Table 1. ...
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The nutritional, physicochemical, and functional properties of milk are affected by thermal processing. Buffalo milk make a substantial contribution to global milk production but there have been comparatively few studies on how thermal processing affects the properties of buffalo milk. This paper critically reviews the current knowledge regarding changes during thermal processing and storage of buffalo milk, buffalo milk-based products, and buffalo-bovine milk blends. Heating results in modifications of proteins and alteration in the salt balance, which subsequently affect stability against age gelation, sedimentation and creaming during storage. The extent of these changes is a function of milk composition. The mechanisms behind these observed changes are largely explainable based on studies from bovine milk. Hence, further studies on the heat-induced changes in the major constituents of buffalo milk are required to give a clearer picture on how these changes affect the final buffalo milk products.
... This tribe is dependent on the livestock, and milk is praised and considered an elixir. Milk is composed of organic compounds including fat, protein, carbohydrates, water, and solids particles (Hamad and Baiomy 2010;Merlin et al. 2015) and meets almost all nutritional requirements. Sheep is used mainly for meat during winters and the Changthangi is used for wool, (Pashmina, Pashm). ...
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Background: Cultural diversity in the Himalayan Mountain regions is closely linked to biodiversity, as there is a very close relationship between the local fauna and cultures. Religious rules and rituals also reinforce this relationship. Research has proven that these relationships are complex and differ based on a variety of factors. Methods: There has been almost no research to explain the animal human interaction and commercially important animal species in different ethnic communities of Jammu and Kashmir. The present study was conducted throughout 2019–2020 and data were gathered through open and closed-end semi-structured interviews and group discussions.
... This tribe is dependent on the livestock, and milk is praised and considered an elixir. Milk is composed of organic compounds including fat, protein, carbohydrates, water, and solids particles (Hamad and Baiomy 2010;Merlin et al. 2015) and meets almost all nutritional requirements. Sheep is used mainly for meat during winters and the Changthangi is used for wool, (Pashmina, Pashm). ...
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Background: Cultural diversity in the Himalayan Mountain regions is closely linked to biodiversity, as there is a very close relationship between the local fauna and cultures. Religious rules and rituals also reinforce this relationship. Research has proven that these relationships are complex and differ based on a variety of factors. Methods: There has been almost no research to explain the animal human interaction and commercially important animal species in different ethnic communities of Jammu and Kashmir. The present study was conducted throughout 2019–2020 and data were gathered through open and closed-end semi-structured interviews and group discussions. Results: We found 10 species of mammals, 7 species of birds, and 7 species of fish were commercially important and playing a vital role in the economy of the local ethnic communities (Kashmiri, Pahari, Hanji, Bakarwal, Changapa). Among the documented species, seven species were unique to Hanji, followed by 4 species to Pahari, 3 to Kashmiri and 2 species to Changapa. The heat map classified predators into three groups that were recognized based on indicator species. Eight main predators (Selenarctos thibetanus, Vulpes vulpes, Herpestes auropunctatus, Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Canis lupus, Panthera uncia, and Panthera pardus) preying the documented species were recorded across the entire study area. Bos taurus primigenius, Bos Taurus and Gallus gallus domesticus played a significant role in the cultural and religious ritual aspects, whereas Capra aegagrus hircus, Equus ferus caballus and Gallus gallus domesticus were commonly used as a livelihood source among local communities. Conclusions: Present study enlightened the interaction between the local fauna and cultures, meanwhile the study is first in its kind to document the livestock species with commercial value and specific communities associated with them in the former state Jammu and Kashmir. Keywords: Commercial species; Economy; Ethnic groups, Jammu and Kashmir
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Manda (Bubalus bubalis) özellikleAsya kıtasında asırlardır taşıma, tarla sürme ve insan beslenmesi gibi birçok alanda yararlanılan önemli bir hayvan türüdür. Türkiye'de manda sütü üretimi toplam süt üretiminin %0.33'ü kadardır. Bu durum manda yetiştiriciliğinin zorluğu, yetiştirme alanlarının yetersizliği, yüksek maliyet ve düşük gelirden kaynaklanmaktadır. Ancak manda sütü ürünlerinin besin değeri ve fonksiyonel özellikleri göz önünde bulundurulduğunda, ülkemizde bu ürünlerin tüketimine daha fazla eğilimin olması gerektiği düşünülmektedir. Bu araştırmada, 15 adet manda sütü örneği Adana ve Mersin illerinden toplanmış ve bu örneklerin bazı kalite özellikleri incelenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda Çukurova bölgesinde yetişen mandalardan elde edilen süt örneklerinin pH değerleri 6.62-6.82, laktik asit cinsinden titrasyon asitliği %0.10-0.15, toplam kurumadde oranları %16.60-18.43, yağ oranları %6.63-7.76, yağsız kurumadde oranları %9.73-11.56, protein oranları %4.57-4.91, laktoz oranları %4.07-6.06, kül oranları %0.76-0.87, özgül ağrılıkları 1.0308-1.0358 g/ml ve besin değerleri 96.72-108.50 kcal olarak tespit edilmiştir. Türk Gıda Kodeksi Çiğ ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş İçme Sütleri Tebliği'nde belirtilen kriterlere göre, Çukurova bölgesindeki manda sütlerinin protein oranları düşük, özgül ağırlıkları ise yüksek bulunmuştur. pH, titrasyon asitliği, kurumadde, yağ, yağsız kurumadde, laktoz, kül ve besin değeri özellikleri ise ilgili tebliğ ve literatürdeki sonuçlarla uyumludur. Süt bileşiminin bazı çevresel faktörlere ve bölgelere bağlı olarak değiştiği bilinmektedir ve literatürde Çukurova bölgesinde yetişen mandaların süt bileşimine dair bir araştırmaya rastlanmamıştır. Bu araştırmanın literatüre katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. Anahtar kelimeler: Manda sütü, besin değeri, Çukurova
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This study aimed to evaluate the compositional quality of raw milk produced by the big 60 dairy cow's farms at different locations of Khartoum State (Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman; 20 farms from each town) at both winter and summer season. The means of freezing point of milk samples collected during summer and winter were -518.57± 25.65 C and -532.92± 13.48 C, respectively. o o The results indicated that there were significant differences in temperature and freezing point (P<0.01 and P<0.001) between seasons. Higher total solids were obtained during winter season than those during summer season (12.77±0.919% and 12.47±1.39%, respectively) Total solids content of milk samples revealed significant differences (P< 0.01) between cities and non-significant differences (P> 0.05) between seasons. However, significant differences (P< 0.05) were found in total solids of milk from Omdurman's dairy farms than other two cities. Lactose content during summer and winter were 3.95±0.561% and 4.06±0.618%, respectively, Lactose was found to be significant (P< 0.01) when comparing the interaction between seasons and cities. The fat content was higher during winter (4.54%± 0.59) than those during summer (4.50%± 0.46), while protein contents were founf as. 3.77±0.71 and 3.69±0.399 for summer and winter, resoectively. Higher ash content were found for the milk samples collected during summer than those collected during winter season (0.63%±0.11 and 0.593±0.089%, respectively. The result of fat, protein and ash content of milk samples revealed non-significant differences (P> 0.05) between seasons and between cities. Higher pH was obtained during winter season (6.73± 0.10) than those during summer season (6.34± 0.211). The higher level of acidity was found during summer season (0.193±0.023%), while that during winter was 0.164± 0.023%. Highly significant variations (P< 0.01) were reported for the milk samples collected from dairy farms in Khartoum for means of acidity..
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