Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 717 – 725
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
2212-5671 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Selection and/ peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center
2nd GLOBAL CONFERENCE on BUSINESS, ECONOMICS, MANAGEMENT and
TOURISM, 30-31 October 2014, Prague, Czech Republic
Impact of Working Environment on Job Satisfaction
, Raheela Maulabakhsh
Department of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences Quetta,
In the modern era, organizations are facing several challenges due to the dynamic nature of the environment. One of the many
challenges for a business is to satisfy its employees in order to cope up wit
h the ever changing and evolving environment and to
achieve success and remain in competition. In order to increase efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and job commitment of
employees, the business must satisfy the needs of its employees by providing good working conditions. The objective of this
paper is to analyse the impact of working environment on employee job satisfaction. The study employed a quantitative
odology. Data was collected through a self-administered survey questionnaire. The questionnaire is adopted from a
revious validated survey. The target population consists of educational institutes, banking sector and telecommunication
ndustry operating in the city of Quetta, Pakistan. Simple random sampling is used for collection of data from 210 employees.
The results indicates a positive relationship between working environment and employee job satisfaction. The study concludes
ith some brief prospects that the businesses need to realize the importance of good working environment for maximizing the
level of job satisfaction. This paper may benefit society by encouraging people to contribute more to their jobs and may help
them in their personal growth and development. Hence, it is essential f
or an organization to motivate their employees to work
hard for achieving the organizational goals and objectives.
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Selection and/ peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center.
Keywords: Working Environment ; Job satisfaction
* Abdul Raziq. Tel.: +92-81-2825731; fax: +92-81-2880522.
E-mail address: email@example.com
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Selection and/ peer
-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center
718 Abdul Raziq and Raheela Maulabakhsh / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 717 – 725
Many businesses fail to understand the importance of w
orking environment for employee job satisfaction and
thus face a lot of difficulties during their work. Such organizations are internally weak therefore unable to introduce
innovative products into the market to outshine their competitors (Aiken, Clarke, & Sloane, 2002). Employee is an
ential component in the process of achieving the mission and vision of a business. Employees should meet the
performance criteria set by the organization to ensure the quality of their work. To meet the standards of
organization, employees need a working environment that allows them to work freely without problems that may
restrain them from performing upto the level of their full potential. The objective of this research paper is to analyse
the impact of working environment on employee job satisfaction.
1.1. Job Satisfaction
According to Vroom (1964) Job satisfaction is an orientation of emotio
ns that employees possess towards role
they are performing at the work place. Job Satisfaction is the essential component for employee motivation and
couragement towards better performance .Many people have defined job satisfaction over the years. Hoppok &
Spielgler (1938) defines job satisfaction as the integrated set of ps
ychological, physiological and environmental
conditions that encourage employees to admit that they are satisfied or happy with their jobs .Further, the role of
employees at workplace is emphasized as there is an influence of various elements on an employee within the
Clark (1997) argue that if employees are not satisfied with the task as
signed to them, they are not certain about
factors such as their rights, working conditions are unsafe, co-workers are not cooperative, supervisor is not giving
em respect and they are not considered in the decision making process; resulting them to feel separate from the
anization. Furthermore, he highlighted that in current times, firms cannot afford dissatisfied employees as they
ill not perform up to the standards or the expectations of their supervisor, they will be fired, resulting firms to bear
ditional costs for recruiting new staff. So, it is beneficial for firms to provide flexible working environment to
employees where they feel their opinions are valued and they are a part of the organization. Employee morale
should be high as it will be reflected in their performance because with low morale, they will make lesser efforts to
1.2. Working Environment
The working environment consists of two broader dimensions such as work and context. Work includes all the
ferent characteristics of the job like the way job is carried out and completed, involving the tasks like task
activities training, control on one’s own job related activities, a sense of achievement from work, variety in tasks
and the intrinsic value for a task. Many research papers have focused on the intrinsic aspect of the job satisfaction
Results have shown that there is a positive link between work env
ironment and intrinsic aspect of the job
satisfaction. Further they described the second dimension of job satisfaction known as context comprises of the
sical working conditions and the social working conditions (Sousa-Poza & Sousa-Poza, 2000; Gazioglu &
anselb, 2006; Skalli, Theodossiou, & Vasileiou, 2008).
Spector (1997) observed that most businesses ignore the working environment within their organization resulting
an adverse effect on the performance of their employees. According to him, working environment consists of
afety to employees, job security, good relations with co-workers, recognition for good performance, motivation for
orming well and participation in the decision making process of the firm. He further elaborated that once
employees realize that the firm considers them important, they will have high level of commitment and a sense of
wnership for their organization.
Different factors within the working environment such as
wages, working hours, autonomy given to employees,
organizational structure and communication between employees & management may affect job satisfaction (Lane,
Esser, Holte, & Anne, 2010). A
rnetz (1999) argue that in organizations, can be observed that mostly employees have
problems with their supervisor who is not giving them the respect they deserve. Supervisors also show harsh
behaviours to employees due to which they are not comfortable to share good and innovative ideas with their
Abdul Raziq and Raheela Maulabakhsh / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 717 – 725
supervisors. Furthermore, he describes that top management limits employees to their tasks rather than creating a
sense of responsibility in employees by making them work in teams to attain high performance.
Petterson (1998) argues that the interaction between employees within a
business is crucial for accomplishing the
organizational goals. Further he describes that the communication of information must be properly done in a timely
manner so that the operations of the business are running smoothly. If there is a clash between co-workers then it is
ficult to achieve the objectives of organization.
Based on the above discussion, the objective of this paper
is to determine the relationship between the working
environment and employee job satisfaction.
2. Literature Review
Work has been done to understand the relationship between
work environment and job satisfaction all around the
world in different contexts over the years. The study is gaining more and more importance with the passage of time
because of its nature and impact on the society. The findings of a Danish study suggest that a firm can increase its
productivity through the improvement of physical dimensions of work environment (internal climate) and may have
a positive impact on firms’ productivity (Buhai, Cottini, & Nielseny, 2008).
Herzberg et al. (1959) developed motivational model for job satisfaction
and through research he found that the
job related factors can be divided into two categories, Hygi
ene factors and motivation factors. Hygiene factors can
not cause satisfaction but they can change dissatisfaction into no dissatisfaction or short term motivation, whereas
motivational factors have long lasting effect as they raise positive feelings towards job and convert no dissatisfaction
into satisfaction. In the absence of hygiene factors (that are working conditions, supervision quality and level, the
company policy and administration, interpersonal relations, job security, and salary) the employees chances of
getting dissatisfied increase .
Baah and Amoako (2011) described that the motivational factors (the nature of work, the sense of achievement
rom their work, the recognition, the responsibility that is granted to them, and opportunities for personal growth and
advancement) helps employees to find their worth with respect to value given to them by organization. Further, this
increase motivational level of employees which will ultimately raise internal happiness of employees and that
the internal happiness will cause satisfaction. Hygeine factor can only cause external happiness but they are not
werful enough to convert dissatisfaction into satisfaction but still its presence is too much important. According to
em the Herzberg Two Factor Theory, both Hygiene and Motivation factors are linked with each other, as Hygiene
actors move employee from Job dissatisfaction to No Job dissatisfaction, whereas motivation factors moves
employees from no job dissatisfaction to job satisfaction (Herzberg et al., 1959).
Sell and Cleal (2011) developed a model on job satisfaction by integrating economic variables and work
vironment variables to study the reaction of employees in hazardous work environment with high monetary
benefits and non-hazardous work environment and low monetary benefits. The study showed that different
ychosocial and work environment variables like work place, social support has direct impact on job satisfaction
and that increase in rewards does not improve the dissatisfaction level among employees.
The supervisors’ av
ailability at time of need, ability to interlink employees, stimulate creative thinking and
knowledge of worth of open mindedness in view of workers, and ability to communicate with employees, are the
basic supervision traits. Results revealed that with good and effective supervision, employees’ satisfaction level was
igh whereas with poorer communication ability, dissatisfaction level among employees was high (Schroffel, 1999).
Another study by Catillo & Cano (2004) on the job satisfaction level among faculty members of colleges showed
at if proper attention is given towards interpersonal relationships, recognition and supervision, the level of job
satisfaction would rise.
Bakotic & Babic (2013) found that for the workers who work under difficult working conditions, working
ndition is an important factor for job satisfaction, so workers under difficult working conditions are dissatisfied
rough this factor. To improve satisfaction of employees working under difficult working conditions, it is necessary
or the management to improve the working conditions. This will make them equally satisfied with those who work
under normal working condition and in return overall performance will increase.
A study in telecom sector by Tariq et al (2013) revealed th
at there are different variables like workload, salary,
stress at work place and conflicts with family due to job leads an employee towards dissatisfaction that further
720 Abdul Raziq and Raheela Maulabakhsh / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 717 – 725
results in turnover. At final stage these independent factors impacts negatively on organizational performance which
is negatively influenced by these factors.
Chandrasekar (2011) argue that an organization needs to pay attention to create a work environment that
enhances the ability of employees to become more productive in order to increase profits for organization. He also
argued that Human to human interactions and relations are playing more dominant role in the overall job satisfaction
rather than money whereas management skills, time and energy, all are needed for improving the overall
performance of the organization in current era.
Based on the above literature, the conceptual model tested in this paper is presented in Fig 1. The independent
variable in this research is the working environment in which the employees are working within an organization and
the dependent variable is the Job satisfaction of employees. Working environment includes the working hours, job
safety, job security, relationship among employees, esteem needs of employees and the influence of top
management on the work of employees.
Fig 1: A conceptual model of Working Environment and Job Satisfaction
This research study will test the relationship between working conditions and the job satisfaction. The hypothesis
below is developed to analyze the relationship between the variables.
: The better working environment will lead to increased job satisfaction.
3.1. Population and Sample size
The purpose of the study is to study the relationship between working environment and job satisfaction. The data
is gathered randomly from the employees of banks, telecommunication sector and universities in the city of Quetta
Pakistan, through survey questionnaire. From each sector, 70 respondents were chosen that allow us to get 210
responses from employees working in different institutions through the use of self-administered questionnaires. As
evidence suggest that self-administered questionnaire, distributed by hand and via emails, is most suitable in many
researches (Werner & Eleanor, 1993). The main aim of selecting employees from various fields is to get opinion
from a diverse group of people so that the results can be generalized on the vast group of population.
3.2. Data Instrument and Data Analysis Technique
The 33 items questionnaire adapted from State Statistical Office (SSO, 2009) comprised of questions regarding
esteem needs, job safety and security, working hour, trust, relationship with co-workers and Supervisor, and Nature
of work to find the impact of overall working environment on employee job satisfaction. . A 5-point Likert scale is
used to evaluate answer ranging from not at all satisfied, dissatisfied, neither, somewhat satisfied and completely
satisfied. Many scholars believe that statistical packages are the most suitable and most consistent instruments for
comprehensively analyzing large set of data (Buglear, 2005). So, all statistical analysis is performed through the
help of software “Statistical Package for Social Sciences” (SPSS). Factor analysis is also performed as it can be used
x Working hours
x Job Safety & Security
x Relationship with Co-
x Esteem Needs
x Top Management
x Employee loyalty
x Sense of ownership
x Level of Commitment
x Efficiency &
Abdul Raziq and Raheela Maulabakhsh / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 717 – 725
for the data consisting of sample size n≥5 (Hair et al., 2010).The hypothesis of the study was work environment
impacts job satisfaction, so regression analysis was suitable for this research.
When we want to study that how does a variable related to anoth
er variable? We use simple regression (Robson,
2008 cited in Saunder et al., 2009).
The valuable opinion of employees is displayed below through various statistical tables and graphs that show
eir responses on the topic about importance of work environment for employee job satisfaction. The Cronbach’s
Alpha shows the reliability of the data used in the questionnaire. The Table1 shows that for 15 questions of the
questionnaire about working environment, the consistency was 77.1 % whereas for Job satisfaction the value was
81.6%. It makes the responses collected more valuable as the data is proper to analyze the impact of work
environment on job satisfaction.
Table 1: Descriptive and Reliability statistics table:
No of Items
The data consist of 210 employees 63.3% of them belong to age group 21-30 whereas remaining 36.7 percent
ere from age group 31-40. Out of 210, 76.2% were males and 23.8%
were females. Occupation wise 33.3%
respondents were from all three sectors. Therefore we accept our alternative hypothesized notion that working
environment impacts job satisfaction.
Table 2: Rotated component matrix for Working Environment and Job Satisfaction variables
Top Management &
security & work
Satisfaction with physical working conditions
Satisfaction with current maintenance of the
The hygiene maintenance in the Organization
Satisfaction with Current fixed working hours
The work activities compared to your skills and the
opportunities for improving your competence level
Access to equipment necessary for performing your
Satisfaction with the training opportunities in the
Team work in the institution
Possibilities to receive assistance from co-workers
Supervisor provides me with sufficient information
related to work
Supervisor has reasonable expectations of work
722 Abdul Raziq and Raheela Maulabakhsh / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 717 – 725
Immediate supervisors' trust in fellow co-workers
Responsibility of immediate supervisors toward
Opinion regarding the Trust in the Head of the
Responsibility in the organization as a whole
Training helped in advancement of career
Training helped to improve work efficiency
How employees spend their working time?
Organization as a work environment meet
Trust among employees in general
Conflict resolution skills of immediate supervisor
The career advancement opportunities or your
competence in general
Management and professional skills of immediate
Communication between the immediate supervisor
Satisfaction with the human resources management
and the communication between employees
There were five questions that were deleted from the factor m
atrix due to single factor loading. The nine
questions significantly loaded on job satisfaction. The next six factors were significantly loaded on top management.
rthermore, five factors were significantly loaded on Esteem needs and work hours within organization and work
ours. Finally, the remaining five factors were significantly loaded on relationship with co-workers.
The questionnaire used for the study was tested for reliability having both major variables. The cronbach alpha
or working environment was 0.82 and job satisfaction was 0.77 that is why the data collected using the
questionnaire has provided valuable information about the opinions of employees about the variables
Table 3: Correlation matrix for Working Environment and Job Satisfaction
Top Management &
Job Safety, security
and work hours
Relationship with co
Top Management & Esteem
Job safety, security & work
Relationship with co-workers
P < 0.05*
Correlation analysis was conducted to determine the relationship of working environment components (i.e. top
management, esteem needs and work hours, and job security, safety and workplace relationships) and job
satisfaction which revealed that top management has significant positive relation with the job satisfaction as r
=0.283, p < 0
.05, also for esteem needs and work hours relationship is both significant and positive that is r
at p<0.05. For relationship with co-workers the value is significant and positive r
Table 4: Regression Analysis on Working Environment (Dependent Variable= Job Satisfaction)
& Esteem needs
security & work
Abdul Raziq and Raheela Maulabakhsh / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 717 – 725
=13.2; F= 10.42
P < 0.
The regression analysis is performed to determine the impact of top management, esteem needs and work hours,
ob security and safety and workplace relations on job satisfaction. The regression result reveals that work
ironment has a statistically significant impact on job satisfaction, R=0.363, β
=0.948, t=2.335, p < 0.05.
The value of R 36.3% showing that there is a positive lin
ear relationship between working environment and job
satisfaction. Furthermore, the result also shows that the work environment explains 13.2% proportion of variation in
job satisfaction that is R
. The value of F=10.421 is statistically significant as P<0.05.And the value of t=2.335 is
also statistically significant so we will reject our null hypothesis.
The regression equation that can be formulated based on the information obtained is as follows:
ܻ= Job Satisfaction ܺͳ= Top Management ܺʹ= Esteem needs & work hours
ܺ͵= Relationship with co-workers ܧ= Error term
had insignificant result that is β
=0.137 at p>0.05 so our equation has reduced to following
ܬܾܵܽݐ݅ݏ݂ܽܿݐ݅݊ ൌ ͲǤͻʹͶͲǤʹͶͲ
ͲǤʹͳሺܧݏݐ݁݁݉݊݁݁݀ݏƬݓݎ݄݇ݑݎݏሻ ͲǤͶͲʹ (3)
The results of the study have shown a positive relationship between working e
nvironment and job satisfaction.
The employees working in all three sectors (that are banking, university and telecommunication) have agreed that
working environment plays a vital role in attaining job satisfaction. As the competition has increased and business
environment is dynamic and challenging, so different organizations in order to operate up to their maximum
tial, have to ensure that their employees are working in a co
nducive and friendly environment. Employees are
becoming concerned about the working environment which includes working hours, job safety & security,
relationship with co-worker, esteem needs and top management as mentioned in this study.
The regression analysis result showed that working environm
ent has positive impact on job satisfaction as R
=13.2% therefore organizations must pay attention towards this element of the job. The results are supported by Lee
d Brand (2005) as their study also had shown that job satisfaction is increased by conducive working
ironment. Whereas the results of this study contradicted with the study results of Tokuda et al. (2009) and Rafiq
et al. (2
012) that working environment is negatively associated with employees’ job satisfaction whereas extrinsic
wards are the best motivator to cause job satisfaction.
As Kinzl et al. (2005) concluded that job satisfaction has positive relation
ship with opportunities provided to
employees by the organization. In our study, it has been represented by esteem needs which also has a significant
nship with the job satisfaction (As correlation coefficient value was 0.268 at p<0.05). Babin & Boles (1996),
ued that supervisory support and worker involvement decreases the work stress however; it is helpful in
creasing job satisfaction and job performance. The study showed that top management support is positively related
ob satisfaction, however relationship with co-workers doesn’t turn out to have significant relationship with the
In the modern era, management of workforce has become more difficult because employees are highly qualified
ware of their rights while working in an organization. Therefore, it is imperati
ve that the organizations identify
the needs of their employees and satisfy them to ensure effective accomplishment of its goals and objectives. Good
orking environment increases employee loyalty, level of commitment, efficiency & effectiveness, productivity,
and also develops a sense of ownership among employees which ultimately increases organizational effectiveness as
ell as reduces prohibit cost emerging as a result of dissatisfied employees.
724 Abdul Raziq and Raheela Maulabakhsh / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 717 – 725
Working environment has a positive impact on the Job satisf
action of employees. Bad working conditions restrict
employees to portray their capabilities and attain full potential, so it is imperative that the businesses realize the
mportance of good working environment. This research paper contributes towards the welfare of society as the
results create awareness about the importance of good working
environment for employee job satisfaction. The
study impacts upon the future performance of businesses by taking working environment more seriously within their
anizations to increase the motivation and commitment level of their employees. This way their work force can
ieve better results. It also ensures that the employees of the organization will have the ease of working in a
and free environment without burden or pressure that would cause their performance to decline. The
progress that will be achieved in the business will directly help the economy of a country as developmental efforts
will increase. In such conditions, the country will be able to handle the minor problem
s prevailing as it will be in a
strong state to deal with them. The benefits of providing a good working environment to the employees are
tremendous for both the organization and its employees.
During the research certain limitations were there, suc
h as the availability of time to conduct research for
obtaining the required data. Time was one of the limitations faced which has restricted us to add more information
about the importance of this topic. Another limitation was the access to data that was to be collected from various
organizations. The information gathered was difficult to acquire since the employees of some organizations were
hesitant to share their true opinions. We took special care of the ethical aspect related to the research by ensuring the
respondents that their responses will be anonymous and confidential to which no one will have access. The issue has
ot been considered previously therefore, now firms have an opportunity to utilize the information from this
research paper to design their future line of action that can help them ensure their long-term success.
Such working environments where employees are made a part of the ov
erall decision making process, being
given flexible working hours, less work load, a team work approach and a supportive top management have positive
mpact on the performance of employees. This leads to high level of employee job satisfaction thus making the
employees more committed towards their business, more motivated to work hard and more inclined to get high
productivity for their firms benefiting their respective businesses in the long run.
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