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Hair Protective Effect of Argan Oil ( Argania spinosa Kernel Oil) and Cupuassu Butter ( Theobroma grandiflorum Seed Butter) Post Treatment with Hair Dye

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Hair coloring is widely used by women and men either to change their natural hair color or to delay the onset of gray hair. Oxidative dyes may damage the hair, since chemical and physical procedures are involved to alter the structure hair and consequently, alterations in its mechanical and of surface properties. One benefit of hair conditioners is to prevent flyaway hair, make the hair “shine”, and protect the hair from further damage. In this research we analyzed the hair protective effect conditioner agents Argania spinosa kernel oil and/or Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter in hair care on Caucasian hair post treatment with hair dye. The hairs were submitted by quantifying protein loss. The samples were classified as: hair untreated (I); hair treated with a commercial oxidative ultra-blond hair dye (II); hair post treatment II and F1: Base hair care formulation (III), hair post treatment II and F2: Base hair care formulation containing 1.0% (w/w) Argania spinosa kernel oil (IV), hair post treatment II and F3: Base hair care formulation containing 1.0% (w/w) Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter (V) and hair post treatment II and F4: Base hair care formulation containing 0.5% (w/w) Argania spinosa kernel oil and 0.5% (w/w) Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter (VI). For the protein loss, the results were: II
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Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 2013, 3, 40-44
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jcdsa.2013.33A1006 Published Online September 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jcdsa)
Hair Protective Effect of Argan Oil (Argania spinosa
Kernel Oil) and Cupuassu Butter (Theobroma
grandiflorum Seed Butter) Post Treatment with Hair Dye
Pamella Mello Faria1, Luciana Neves Camargo1, Regina Siqueira Haddad Carvalho1,
Luis Antonio Paludetti1, Maria Valéria Robles Velasco2, Robson Miranda da Gama1,3*
1Pharmacy School, University of Santo Amaro, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of University of São
Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Faculty of Medicine ABC, Santo André, Brazil.
Email: *rmdagama@gmail.com
Received May 30th, 2013; revised June 28th, 2013; accepted July 5th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Pamella Mello Faria et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Li-
cense, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ABSTRACT
Hair coloring is widely used by women and men either to change their natural hair color or to delay the onset of gray
hair. Oxidative dyes may damage the hair, since chemical and physical procedures are involved to alter the structure
hair and consequently, alterations in its mechanical and of surface properties. One benefit of hair conditioners is to pre-
vent flyaway hair, make the hair “shine”, and protect the hair from further damage. In this research we analyzed the hair
protective effect conditioner agents Argania spinosa kernel oil and/or Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter in hair care
on Caucasian hair post treatment with hair dye. The hairs were submitted by quantifying protein loss. The samples were
classified as: hair untreated (I); hair treated with a commercial oxidative ultra-blond hair dye (II); hair post treatment II
and F1: Base hair care formulation (III), hair post treatment II and F2: Base hair care formulation containing 1.0% (w/w)
Argania spinosa kernel oil (IV), hair post treatment II and F3: Base hair care formulation containing 1.0% (w/w) Theo-
broma grandiflorum seed butter (V) and hair post treatment II and F4: Base hair care formulation containing 0.5% (w/w)
Argania spinosa kernel oil and 0.5% (w/w) Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter (VI). For the protein loss, the results
were: IIA = IIIA > IB = IVB = VB = VIB. Results classified with different letters present statistically significant differents,
for α = 5, p 0.05, n = 6. Based on the results, the incorporation of conditioners agents Argania spinosa kernel oil
and/or Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter in base hair care formulation applied in Caucasian hair post treatment with
hair dye decreased the damage caused to hair by the coloring process.
Keywords: Protein Loss; Damage Hair; Argania spinosa Kernel; Theobroma grandiflorum
1. Introduction
The human hair is composed of protein, lipid, water,
melanin and trace elements. The main constituents of
hair are of α-keratin, a group of proteins which account
for 65% - 95% of hair weight. It is responsible for con-
ferring mechanical properties such as elasticity, shape,
strength and functionality [1].
The human hair presents three principal components:
cuticle, cortex and medull which are spectively from out-
side to inside. The cuticle is composed of protein mate-
rial and amorphous, and it is located in the outer portion
of the hair fiber and consists of enucleate cells, translu-
cent and flattened. Morphologically, the cuticle is com-
posed of 6 to 8 cell layers overlapped in the longitudinal
direction of the fiber. The overlapping cell adherence
provides the physical properties of hair with reflection
light and reduces the friction between the fibers being
responsible for the properties of gloss and combing, re-
spectively. Cosmetic treatments, such as conditioners,
hair sprays, mousses and gels, alter the properties men-
tioned above because they are deposited on the cuticle
layer. However dyes and straightening products due to
the alkaline pH of the cuticle open up the layers for the
active principles or dyes penetrate and act in the cortex,
reducing the size or altering the color of hair. The cortex
is a major constituent of the hair fiber (75%). Cortical
cells are subdivided into macrofibrils formed per material
interfilamentar amorphous rich sulfur and microfibrils
*Corresponding author.
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Hair Protective Effect of Argan Oil (Argania spinosa Kernel Oil) and Cupuassu Butter
(Theobroma grandiflorum Seed Butter) Post Treatment with Hair Dye
41
arranged in α-helix, consisting of four protofibrils, and
these two protofilaments, dimers possessing two α-kera-
tin subunits. The α-keratin presented in the microfibrils
determines the mechanical properties of fiber, such as
strength and elasticity. In the same way as the cuticle, it
has cells filled by cross links of cystine and others cells
separated by the cell membrane complex (CMC). The
medulla is a thin cylindrical layer at the center of the hair
thread may or may not be present; it is presented only in
terminal hair and its role is not clearly defined [1-3].
Hair coloring is widely used by women and men either
to change their natural hair color, and to delay the onset
of gray hair, or to donate new pigments to gray hair [3].
The oxidative dyes are formed by two components, in
cosmetic base as emulsions or gels, which are mixed and
provide the coloration by chemical reactions in alkaline
and/or oxidant medium, in the cuticle and cortex of the
hair fiber. Oxidative dyes may damage the hair, since
chemical and physical (exposure of cortex because of
damage of cuticle) procedures are involved to alter the
hair color [4,5].
When exposed, the hair fiber, with the adverse envi-
ronmental conditions as solar radiation, wind, wet, pollu-
tion and the daily care routines and/or cosmetic treat-
ments including permanents and dyes among others can
present damages in its structure and, consequently, al-
terations are in its mechanical and of surface properties.
Damaged hair can appear cloudy, dry, rough, fragile and/
or dull [5].
The primary function of hair conditioners is to make
the hair easier to comb due to reduction in antistatic pro-
perty to the hair. Secondary benefits such as preventing
flyaway hair, making the hair “shine”, and protecting the
hair from further damage are also important functions to
hair conditioners. Substances that perform this function
are usually silicones, polyquats, cationic surfactant, hy-
drolyzed proteins, fatty alcohols, fatty esters, vegetable
oils, mineral oils, or humectants [6,7].
Rele and Mohile [8] established the superiority of the
protective effect of coconut oil on hair damage in groom-
ing processes when it is used as a pre-wash conditioner
as compared to mineral oil and other vegetable oils such
as sunflower oil. It not only has a protective effect on un-
damaged hair but also on chemically treated hair, UV-
treated hair, and hair treated with boiling water (i.e., hair
in water at 100˚C for 2 hr). The ability of coconut oil to
penetrate into hair cuticle and cortex seems to be respon-
sible for this effect. In general, saturated and monoun-
saturated oils penetrate into the hair because of a com-
pact molecular structure and the polar head group of the
triglyceride molecules that constitute these oils [9].
Argan oil is prepared from the fruits of argan trees
(Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) following a multistep proc-
ess. The argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels; Sapota-
ceae) is a slow-growing tree exclusively endemic to the
barren lands of southwest Morocco. The argan oil is con-
stitute of acylglycerols, including 95% of triacylglycerols,
constitute 99% of extract. The remaining 4% are com-
posed of monoacylglycerols (0.27% - 0.65%), diacyl-
glycerols (0.68 - 1.53), and free fatty acids (1.1% - 2.0%)
[10].
Fat from seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuassu)
has been particularly investigated because of its increas-
ing demand as a new fruit crop. There is an increasing
market for natural products, and the Brazilian Theo-
broma species could be used as alternative source of spe-
cial fats. The percentage composition of fatty acids in the
fat of cupuassu is 58.13%, 39.19% and 2.61% respec-
tively for saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsatu-
rated fatty acids [11].
In this research we analyzed the hair protective effect
conditioner agents Argania spinosa kernel oil and/or
Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter in hair care on Cau-
casian hair post treatment with hair dye. The hairs were
submitted by quantifying protein loss.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Hair Samples
Caucasian virgin dark brown hair tresses of 20.0 cm in
length, purchased from Bella Hair® (Brazil), were used.
Each hair strand was washed for 30 s with 15.0% (w/v)
sodium lauryl sulphate to remove impurities. All were
wetted with warm distilled water (37.0˚C ± 2.0˚C) con-
stant flow of 240.0 mL·min1 for 1 min and the excess of
water was first removed by passing the tresses three
times between the fingers and then they were dried on
paper towel, for 12 h dried at room temperature (22.0˚C
± 1.0˚C) and relative humidity (RH 60% ± 5%) prior to
the analysis [12].
After drying, the tresses were treated with a comer-
cial oxidative ultra-blond hair dye (Niely®), color 10.0,
composed by: aqua, cetearyl alcohol, propylene glycol,
deceth-3, laureth-12, ammonium hydroxide, oleth-30,
hexadimetrine chloride, lauric acid, glycol distearate,
polyquaternium-22, ethanolamine, silica dimethyl saly-
late, CI 77881, 2,4-diamophenoxyethanol HCl, p-amino-
phenol, m-aminophenol, ascorbic acid, sodium metabis-
sulfite, p-phenilenodiamine, pentasodiumpentetate, car-
bomer, dimethicone, resorcinol and parfum (fragrance).
The dye was mixed with hydrogen peroxide (30 vol) in a
ratio of 1:1 (w/w) and applied to hair tresses in a ratio of
1:1 (w/w). The reaction occurred for 40 min. After this
period, the tresses were washed according to the meth-
odology described, and left to dry at room temperature.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JCDSA
Hair Protective Effect of Argan Oil (Argania spinosa Kernel Oil) and Cupuassu Butter
(Theobroma grandiflorum Seed Butter) Post Treatment with Hair Dye
42
2.2. Hair Care Formulations Development
A hair care formulation was prepared according to the
composition in Table 1.
Conditioner agents were incorporated into the formu-
lation, according to Table 2. The pH was adjusted to a
4.5 value. Hair care formulations (Table 2) were applied
to the hair tresses, in a 1:0.5 (hair:formulation) ratio, be-
fore each assay for protein quantification. The applying
procedure was performed with gentle movements assur-
ing that the product distribution was uniform.
The emulsion base hair care formulation was prepared
for conventional method in which oil and aqueous phases
are heated at 70.0˚C - 75.0˚C and the aqueous phase are
Table 1. Qualitative and quantitative composition of base
hair care formulation.
INCIa component Proportion
(% w/w)
Oil phase
Cetearyl alcohol (Mapric®) 5.00
Cetearyl alcohol (and) behentrimonium methosulfate
(Mapric®) 2.00
Cocoamide DEA (Mapric®) 1.00
BHT(Mapric®) 0.05
Aqueous phase
Propylene glycol(Mapric®) 1.00
PEG-12 dimethicone (Dow Corning®) 1.00
Cetrimonium chloride (Mapric®) 5.00
Phenoxyethanol (and) methylparaben (and)
ethylparaben (and) butylparaben (and)
isobutylparaben (Croda®)
0.30
Dissodium EDTA (Mapric®) 0.05
Citric acid (Mapric®) q.s. pH 4.5
Aqua 84.60
Legend: INCIa: International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredient.
Table 2. Proportion of conditioner agents Argania spinosa
kernel oil and/or Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter in
hair care formulations.
Proportion of components
incorporated (% w/w)
INCIa component
F1 F2 F3 F4
Argania spinosa kernel oil
(Beraca®) - 1.0 - 0.5
Theobroma grandiflorum
seed butter (Croda®) - - 1.0 0.5
Legend: F1: Base hair care formulation; F2: Base formulation containing
1.0% (w/w) Argania spinosa kernel oil; F3: Base formulation containing
1.0% (w/w) Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter; F4: Base formulation
containing 0.5% (w/w) Argania spinosa kernel oil and 0.5% (w/w) Theo-
broma grandiflorum seed butter; (–) not added. INCIa: International No-
menclature of Cosmetic Ingredient.
added to the oil phase, gradually and continuously, with
stirred until 45˚C, when the conditioning agents were
added in the base hair care formulation in accordance
with Table 2.
The samples were classified as: hair untreated (I); hair
treated with a commercial oxidative ultra-blond hair dye
(II); hair post treatment II and F1: Base hair care formu-
lation (III), hair post treatment II and F2: Base hair care
formulation containing 1.0% (w/w) Argania spinosa ker-
nel oil (IV), hair post treatment II and F3: Base hair care
formulation containing 1.0% (w/w) Theobroma grandi-
florum seed butter (V) and hair post treatment II and F4:
Base hair care formulation containing 0.5% (w/w) Ar-
gania spinosa kernel oil and 0.5% (w/w) Theobroma
grandiflorum seed butter (VI).
2.3. Assay for Protein Quantification
This assay was based on the reduction of the Folin re-
agent by protein previously treated by copper in alka-
linemedium. A copper atom bonds to four residuals of
amino acid. This complex reduces the Folin reagent, be-
coming the solution blue. In this work, the Lowry me-
thod modified by Peterson was used [13,14].
Samples of 0.10 g, in 15.0 mL of distilled water, were
sonicated (Ultrasonic Clean® 1600 unique) for 40 min
[15]. Protein loss was determined from 2.0 mL super-
natant aliquots, which were added to 2.0 mL of Re-
agent A, and waited for 10 minutes for the reaction
occurs. After this time it was added 1.0 mL of Reagent B,
waited for 30 minutes, in the dark conditions in order to
complete the reaction [16,17].
In a first step, the hair protein and the secondary stan-
dard Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) one react with Re-
agent A withcupric ions (Cu2+), in alkaline medium with
sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate (buffer with pH
about 10.0). In this stage, sodium potassium tartarate is
also used to avoid copper precipitation and, this way, in-
creasing the solution stability. It is believed that the com-
plexation of cupric ions (Cu2+) with peptide bonds leads
it to the reduction to cuprous ions (Cu+). Ten minutes are
waited for the reaction processing. The production of cu-
prous ions is followed by the reduction of Folin reagent
(Reagent B) in the second stage of the assay, which turns
the solution blue. Wait for 30 minutes in order for the
reaction occurs [13,14].
Quantification was performed in Micronal® B-542UV-
Visible spectrophotometer with a 1 cm quartz cuvette at
750.0 nm. Analytical curve was obtained with BSA, and
used distilled water as blank. The calculation equation of
the analytical curve was made by linear regression using
the least squares method and calculating the linear corre-
lation coefficient. The Equation (1) used to calculate the
results. This method previously validated by Gama [18].
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JCDSA
Hair Protective Effect of Argan Oil (Argania spinosa Kernel Oil) and Cupuassu Butter
(Theobroma grandiflorum Seed Butter) Post Treatment with Hair Dye
43
2
y 0.0028x 0.0402 with R 0.992  (1)
2.4. Statistical Analyses
Possible significant differences in the results were ana-
lyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and the differences between
treatments were identified by Student-Newman-Keulstest
(α = 0.05).
3. Results
Protein loss albumin equivalent of hair samples for: un-
treated (I); treated with a commercial oxidative ultra-
blond hair dye (II); post treatment II and F1: Base hair
care formulation (III), post treatment II and F2: Base
hair care formulation containing 1.0% (w/w) Argania
spinosa kernel oil (IV), post treatment II and F3: Base
hair care formulation containing 1.0% (w/w) Theobro-
ma grandiflorum seed butter (V) and post treatment II
and F4: Base hair care formulation containing 0.5% (w/w)
Argania spinosa kernel oil and 0.5% (w/w) Theobroma
grandiflorum seed butter (VI) are shown in Figure 1.
4. Discussion
During the coloration process, the hair dyes provide the
opening of the cuticle, and optimizing the absorption of
the colorants into the cortex. This mechanism reduces the
Figure 1. Protein loss albumin equivalent from Caucasian
hair tresses before and after application of the oxidative dye
hair emulsions either with or without conditioners agents
(Protein loss was expressed in μg protein albumin equi-
valent/g hair). Legend: untreated hair (I); hair treated with
a commercial oxidative ultra-blond hair dye (II); hair post
treatment II and F1: Base hair care formulation (III), hair
post treatment II and F2: Base hair care formulation con-
taining 1.0% (w/w) Argania spinosa kernel oil (IV), hair
post treatment II and F3: Base hair care formulation con-
taining 1.0% (w/w) Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter (V)
and hair post treatment II and F4: Base hair care formula-
tion containing 0.5% (w/w) Argania spinosa kernel oil and
0.5% (w/w) Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter (VI). Re-
sults classified with different letters presents statistically
significant differents, for α = 5, p < 0.05, n = 6.
softness, brightness and difficult to comb of hair are the
attributes of healthy hair [4].
Hair fibers are constituted mainly by protein. The
study of the damage hair shaft can evolve the quantifica-
tion of protein loss after the coloring process on hair
tresses and one option is the Lowry method modified by
Peterson. The higher the greater the damage to cuticle
protein loss compared to virgin hair [5].
The analyses of the protein loss from Caucasian hair
tresses before and after application of the oxidative dye
hair emulsions either with or without conditioner agents
(Figure 1) showed difference in total protein loss be-
tween undamaged hair (I treatment) and hair damage
after coloring process with (II treatment). The results
confirmed by Robbins and Crawford [19] described that
oxidative process of hair fibers produce extensive dam-
age throughout several cuticle layers.
In this study, we observed (Figure 1) that using condi-
tioners hair (III, IV, V and VI treatments) has a positive
effect on reducing of protein loss in hair post treated with
a commercial oxidative ultra-blond hair dye. The effec-
tiveness of (III treatment) are expected, since the base
hair care formulation contains a cationic compounds
(cetrimonium chloride and behentrimonium methosul-
fate), which is substantive to hair and adsorbs on hair
surface following a charge-driven mechanism [6,7] and
silicone (PEG-12 dimethicone) that involved their ad-
sorption to the hair fiber, because of its hydrophobic
characteristics that reduce the intermolecular forces and
surface tension leading to the formation of a hydrophobic
film other the cuticle [20].
The addition of Argania spinosa kernel oil and/or
Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter in the base hair care
formulation (IV, V and VI treatments) statistically re-
duced the protein loss when compared to just base for-
mulation (III treatment). This difference in results could
arise from the composition of each of these oils. Keis et
al. [9] have compared the ability of different oils (min-
eral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil) to penetrate into
hair fibers, showing that their affinity to hair fiber de-
pends on various factors, such as oil polarity, chain satu-
ration and molecular weight.
Rele and Mohile [8] have compared the ability of dif-
ferent oils (mineral oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil)
which were used as a pre-wash conditioner to prevention
of hair damage measured by protein loss post chemically
treated hair. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric
acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair
proteins and it is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft
because of its low molecular weight and straight linear
chain.
The two main fatty acids found in Argania spinosa
kernel oil acylglycerols are oleic acid (46% - 48%) and
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JCDSA
Hair Protective Effect of Argan Oil (Argania spinosa Kernel Oil) and Cupuassu Butter
(Theobroma grandiflorum Seed Butter) Post Treatment with Hair Dye
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JCDSA
44
linoleic acid (31% - 35%), a monounsaturated and diun-
saturated fatty acid, respectively [10]. However the major
fatty acids presented in Theobroma grandiflorum seed
butter have: saturatedfatty acid (palmitic acid (11.25%),
stearic acid (38.09%), arachidonic acid (7.97%)), mono-
unsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid (38.79%)), and diun-
saturated fatty acid (linoleic acid (2.39%) [11].
Introduction of this hydrophobic component reduces
the swelling propensity of the cuticle, which limits the
upward curving of the surface cuticle. This reduces the
chipping away of the cuticle cells which reduces protein
loss, as observed in this work.
Considering the assays performed quantification of
protein loss the conditioner agents Argania spinosa ker-
nel oil and Theobroma grandiflorum seed butter allowed
a decrease in protein loss albumin equivalent when added
separately (IV or V treatment) or together (VI treat-
ment) in base hair care formulation applied in Caucasian
hair post treatment with hair dye decreased the damage
caused to hair by the coloring process.
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pounds—New Formulation Possibilities,” Cosmetics and
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... These oils are film making hydrophobic emollient substances which interfere with the diffusion of dying substances through hair fibers, compromising the coloring process. 15 The kit for dye B, on the other hand, has a third more oxidizing agents than the kit for dye A, which probably caused formulation B to thoroughly react with melanin and keratin, allowing the colored polymer to be formed inside the cortex of hair fibers more efficiently. As shown in Figure 1, this caused virgin hair samples treated with dye B to remain colored even after the 15 th wash. ...
... 5 Analysis of protein loss evidenced that the coloring process damages hair fibers; the greater the damage caused to the hair cuticle, the greater the loss of proteins. 15 Dye B caused a greater protein loss than dye A due to the higher amount of hydrogen peroxide in its formulation. ...
... The use of conditioning agents in oxidative dyes aims to reduce the damage caused to hair fibers. 14,15 The study performed by Gama (2010) 10 demonstrated that active compounds such as silanetriol, panthenol, PEG-12 and dimethicone have thermoprotective properties. Conditioning agents, such as cationic and ammonia quaternary surfactants, cationic polymers and emollients found in both formulations assessed were probably the responsible for conferring resistance to temperature after the coloring processes had been carried out. ...
... Sunlight, specifically ultraviolet radiation (UV) range (280-400 nm), may cause cleavage of disulfide bonds since cysteine/ cystine is a significant chromophore of proteins, and also may oxidize other amino acids, which causes protein loss and reduction of mechanical resistance. Total protein loss may be quantified in hair by several methods [3][4][5], but they are usually not specific and has many interfering substances, as proteins and amino acids traditionally added to hair care formulations. Thus, other markers of protein loss must be used in order to access more specific and reliable results. ...
... The bleaching process applied to black hair caused a reduction in the tryptophan content since this oxidative treatment is very aggressive and causes protein degradation and amino acids loss [24], both in the cuticle and in the cortex. In addition, dyeing processes (both auburn and blond dyes) intensified protein loss promoted by the bleaching process [5]. However, blond dye treatment proved to be more harmful than auburn dyeing, according to the observed tryptophan degradation profile. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation.
... Park and Bae (2016) who investigated the cosmetic products in the market reported that more consumers are using Argan oil containing haircare products (43.8%) than Argan oil containing skincare (36.0%) or bodycare (17.7%) products. Despite the popular commercial usage of Argan oil in haircare products, limited research has been done to examine the actual effect of Argan oil on damaged hair (Dias, 2015;Faria et al., 2013;Lee, 2019). Camellia oil is obtained from the seeds of Camellia tree (Camellia japonica L.) which is native to eastern and southern Asia including Korea ("Camellia", 2021; Choi et al., 2013). ...
Article
Effect of hair conditioner formulated with Argan oil or Camellia oil was investigated on the protection of hair damaged by bleaching. Six different rinse-off type hair conditioners were made with the basic ingredients of hair conditioner and one of the following conditioning agent; Argan oil (AO), Camellia oil (CO), Palmitic acid (PA), Stearic acid (SA), Oleic acid (OA), and Linoleic acid (LA). L*, a*, b* color values and tensile strength, elongation were measured, and the amount of protein leak was examined using the Bradford Protein Assay. Statistical significance was tested using the SPSS statistical software. Although both AO and CO were effective in protecting the tensile properties of bleached hair, significant effects were observed with AO in enhancing the tensile strength and retaining the color of bleached hair. This might be due possibly to the difference in the composition of four major fatty acids in Argan oil and Camellia oil.
... This activity is mainly due to the oil polyphenols, tocopherols and sterols. The results published by Faria et al. (2013) demonstrate the effect of incorporation of argan oil as conditioner in post-treatment hair dye by decreasing the damage caused to hair by the coloring process, According to the authors this hair revitalizing and repairing property is mainly due to the fatty acids of the argan oil. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance The argan [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels] is one of the most important floristic resource in Morocco, it is the only representative of the Sapotaceae family and Argania genus found in Morocco. This tree is fully exploited by the native populations for nutrition, medication and cosmetics. The argan oil extracted from seed is the main tree product for his large use. Aim of the review This review describes the traditional uses, chemical composition and biological activities of different the argan tree parts. Materials and methods This review covers the literature available from 1972 to 2021. The informations were collected from electronic databases Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, SciFinder and Google Scholar. Results Argan oil have been used for nutrition, and to treat several diseases, namely rheumatisms, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, lung infections, newborn gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, skin and hair hydration. The other parts of Argan tree have been used to treat intestinal disorders, dermatosis, and hair caring, with additional uses such as livestock nutrition, carpentry and heating. The argan oil is primarily composed of unsaturated fatty acids mainly oleic and linoleic acids furthermore the chemical composition, of the others part, are very diversified (flavonoids, terpenoids, triacylglycerols, saponins. …). Diverse biological activities have been reported for argan oil, such as antioxidant, skin water retention, hair protection, cholesterol stabilization, antidiabetic, anticancer and antibacterial. Antimicrobial activities have been reported for argan leaves essential oils, when the fruit pulp organic extract presented very interesting antioxidant activity due to the presence of polyphenols. The argan cake is the seed waste produced during the extraction process, it is traditionally used for skin care and for livestock nutrition. Different biological activities of argan cake have been cited essentially antioxidant, haemoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial.
... Tresses were kept in this mixture at 45.0 AE 1.0°C for 45 min, and then, the hair was washed and dried at room temperature. 13,14 Chemical straightening. The thioglycolate-based straightener was applied according to the manufacturer instructions in 2 : 1 (emulsion : hair, w/w) ratio. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sensory and structural characteristics of hair can be modified by chemical and physical treatments, as dyeing, brushing, but also by external factors, as sunlight radiation. However, quantitative data relating damage to the degree of hair curliness and treatments are missing. Objective: To evaluate the effect of chemical and physical treatments on different types of hair. Methods: In this study, we compared the effects of bleaching/dyeing, thioglycolate-based straightening, brushing/flat iron and UVA/Vis radiation on different types of hair: Caucasian (straight dark brown, straight blond, wavy dark brown and curly dark brown) and Afro-ethnic hair. Results: Bleaching/dyeing and UVA/Vis radiation increased combing work of Afro-ethnic hair tresses, indicating damage to the cuticle scales, which was confirmed by SEM images. Further, bleaching/dyeing caused wear on cuticles with high protein loss and reduction on the tryptophan content, independently of the hair curliness, which characterizes those procedures as very aggressive to hair structure. Straightening using ammonium thioglycolate, due to the oxidative treatment evolved, caused significant color fading in brown/black tresses, while UVA/Vis radiation affected the color of only blond hair tresses since they are poor in eumelanin, the photoprotective and photostable melanin molecule. Conclusion: The combination of analytical and image techniques contributed to understanding how the hair shape is related to the type of damage caused by several chemical and physical treatments. These findings contribute to the development of safety cosmetics that insure the beauty of curly hair, both Caucasian and Afro-ethnic hair. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Keratyna charakteryzuje się wysoką zawartością aminokwasów siarkowych, takich jak cysteina. Włókno keratynowe składa się z dwóch łańcuchów peptydowych, połączonych ze sobą mostkami disiarczkowymi tworzących α-helisę [1][2][3]. ...
Article
Lśniące, puszyste i zadbane włosy to istotny element wizerunku i cel, do którego dąży wiele kobiet i mężczyzn. Obecnie istnieje "moda" na olejowanie włosów, czyli aplikację oleju na włosy przed ich myciem w celu poprawy ich kondycji i wyglądu. Doniesienia literaturowe na temat działania olejów na włosy dotyczą najczęściej badania wpływu oleju kokosowego, ale również olejów: słonecznikowego, z orzechów brazylijskich, palmowego, ryżowego, sezamowego, gorczycowego, oliwy z oliwek, a także maseł. Sprawdzano zdolność wnikania olejów do wnętrza włosów, ograniczenie sorpcji wody przez włosy, wpływ olejowania na parametry mechaniczne oraz na stan ogólny włosów i skóry głowy. Porównywano także efektywność stosowania oleju przed oraz po myciu włosów. Wyniki badań potwierdzają obserwacje internatów. Zastosowanie olejów przed myciem włosów poprawia ich rozczesywanie, co z kolei redukuje uszkodzenia powstałe podczas tej procedury. Olej nałożony po myciu włosów nadaje połysk, ale nie wpływa na zmniejszenie pęcznienia włosów oraz odchylenia łusek, co ma istotny wpływ na rozczesywalność włosów. Potwierdzono również efektywność działania oleju kokosowego na włosy, który wnika do wnętrza włosa, chociaż jego rozmieszczenie wewnątrz włosa nie jest równomierne. Niewątpliwie, stosowanie olejów przed myciem włosów poprawia wygląd osłonki włosa oraz zmniejsza powstawanie uszkodzeń wynikające z nadmiernego ich pęcznienia. Jednakże, jednorazowe zastosowanie olejów nie wpływa znacząco na poprawę stanu warstwy korowej.
Article
Résumé Le cheveu est une matrice pouvant permettre notamment de différencier des prises chroniques d’une prise unique de xénobiotiques dans le cadre d’une soumission chimique par exemple. Néanmoins, la réalisation de traitements capillaires à visée cosmétique peut entraîner des modifications des concentrations capillaires ou des diffusions longitudinales pouvant compliquer l’interprétation des résultats. Nous détaillons ici le cas d’une jeune femme qui aurait subi un viol (S0) et chez qui une mèche de cheveux (châtain) a été prélevée environ 2 semaines après les faits (S2). Un peu plus de deux semaines plus tard (S4) est instauré un traitement consistant en 1 prise de 25 mg d’hydroxyzine le premier jour suivi d’un comprimé de doxylamine tous les jours. Environ deux semaines après le début du traitement (S6), elle réalise un soin « maison » à base de henné, mélangé à de l’huile d’argan, des huiles essentielles, du miel et du jus de citron. Environ deux mois après les faits (S8), un second prélèvement de cheveux (châtain clair) est effectué. On observe la diffusion longitudinale de la doxylamine prise chroniquement sur les 4 segments analysés (1 cm: 485 pg/mg puis 3 × 2 cm: 230-160-120 pg/mg) de la seconde mèche alors qu’elle est totalement absente de la première mèche, confirmant l’absence de prise antérieure. L’hydroxyzine, prise qu’une seule fois, n’a été retrouvée que sur le premier segment (9 pg/mg), correspondant à la période de son administration. Le possible rôle de ce type de soin capillaire dans la diffusion longitudinale de la doxylamine sera discuté.
Article
Full-text available
Argania spinosa is a member of the Sapotaceae family and is an endemic tree that grows in approximately 800,000 hectares in Southwest Morocco. It is registered that the argan oil obtained from the seeds of the plant is used by the people of the region in dermatological disorders and to lighten skin color. Because of its high content of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and polyphenols has become noticeable among other fixed oil sources. Recently, it has become exceptionally preferred in the cosmetic industry and has found its place in various formulations in pure or enriched forms. Apart from dermo-cosmetic use, there are many studies on the plant's chemical contents and biological activities, primarily argan oil. In this study, biological activity and dermatological effect studies of argan oil obtained from SciFinder, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect databases were listed and evaluated in terms of cosmetic use. As a result of the evaluations, it was determined that the ethnobotanical uses of argan oil, the preparations and formulations prepared for dermocosmetic use and the compiled biological activity studies showed parallelism. In the study, case reports that argan oils used for cosmetic purposes can cause allergic reactions are also included and the need for more side/toxic effect profile studies on argan oil has been revealed.
Article
Introduction: In recent years, argan oil has gained increasing interest in hair care products. In this study, attenuated total reflectance technique was utilized as a fast method and the results were compared to protein loss measurements in order to show the preventive effect of argan oil pre-treatment on excised human hair after oxidative hair damage. Methods: Hair tresses were divided into three groups: in group-1; they were damaged using oxidant agent solely, in group-2 and 3; hair were pre-treated with argan oil before undergoing the oxidative damage. In group-2, the oil was removed by physical cleaning but in group-3 the oil was removed with a washing procedure. ATR (attenuated total reflectance) spectrum was recorded for different samples. Quantitative studies of protein loss in hair samples were performed by Lowry method. The antioxidant properties of argan oil were also measured in vitro using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) protocol, which determined the ability of the oil to scavenge the DPPH free radicals. Results: The amount of protein loss with oil pre-treated groups was reduced significantly. The ATR spectrum showed oil deposition on hair even after washing. Four distinctive ATR peaks were changed during oxidation. The changes in peak height values were linear. The antioxidant property measured with DPPH method led to a IC50 value of 59 µg/ml. Conclusion: Argan oil pre-treatment was effective in protecting hair against oxidative damage. ATR outcomes were in accordance with protein loss results. In this study, the ATR testing method as a fast technique was used efficiently in quantification of hair damage.
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This article describes a simple yet sensitive technique to assess surface damage to hair. It is based on the hypothesis that the damaged hair surface is more susceptible to abrasion/erosion than undamaged hair, and involves shaking hair in water and quantitatively measuring the amount of protein abraded/eroded from the hair using a colorimetric procedure capable of detecting as little as 5 Ixg of protein per mi. With this procedure, we were able to demonstrate significant differences in hair damaged due to bleaching, permanent wave treatments, and Suprox (a diperisophthalic acid based oxidant), and even after extended treatment with different surfactants. Furthermore, hair with exposed cortex was found to be more susceptible to protein loss by surfactants and/or water than hair with intact cuticle.
Book
Human hair is the subject of a remarkably wide range of scientific investigations. Its chemical and physical properties are of importance to the cosmetics industry, forensic scientists and to biomedical researchers. The fifth edition of this book confirms its position as the definitive monograph on the subject. Previous editions were recognized as “concise and thorough” (Journal of the American Chemical Society), “an invaluable resource” (Canadian Forensic Science Society Journal), and “highly recommended” (Textile Research Journal). Chemical and Physical Behavior of Human Hair is a teaching guide and reference volume for cosmetic chemists and other scientists in the hair products industry, academic researchers studying hair and hair growth, textile scientists and forensic specialists. Features of the Fifth Edition: Recent advances in the classification and characterization of the different proteins and genes in IF and keratin associated proteins in human hair are described. The mechanism and incidence of hair growth and loss and hair density vs. age of males & females are described for Asians, Caucasians and Africans in different scalp regions. Details of hair surface lipids and cuticle membranes provide a better understanding of the surface and organization of the CMC and its involvement in stress strain is presented. Recent evidence demonstrates a more bilateral structure in curly hair and a more concentric arrangement of different cortical proteins in straighter hair. SNPs involved in hair form (curl and coarseness) and pigmentation and genes in alopecia and hair abnormalities are described. The latest biosynthetic scheme for hair pigments and structures for these and the different response of red versus brown-black pigments to photodegradation is described. A new method for curvature on 2,400 persons from different countries and groups is used to assign curvature throughout this book. Additional data for age and effects on diameter, ellipticity, elastic modulus, break stress and other parameters are presented with much larger data sets featuring statistical analyses. Hair conditioning, strength, breakage, split ends, flyaway, shine, combing ease, body, style retention, manageability and feel parameters are defined and described. A new section of different life stages by age groups considering collective and individual changes in hair fiber properties with age and how these affect assembly properties.
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A simple method to quantify hair damage during combing or brushing has been developed. The method involves collecting hair fragments that are chipped from hair during combing and quantitatively measuring the amount of protein using a colorimetric procedure capable of detecting as little as 5 Ixg of protein per mi. Using this procedure on hair tresses in the laboratory and on live heads (half-head tests), we were able to demonstrate significant differences in protein loss during post-shampoo combing of undamaged and chemically damaged hair previously treated with various shampoos/conditioners. The method is applicable to different types of hair tested, namely, Caucasian, Asian, Oriental and Negroid.
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Synopsis Oxidation of hair fibers with diperisophthalic acid can produce extensive damage throughout several cuticle layers that is readily observed microscopically. At the same time, no detectable changes in the tensile properties (wet or dry) are detectable. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the tensile properties of human hair are due primarily to the cortex, with little or no cuticle involvement. human hair. There is a long-standing hypothesis, that the cortex is primarily responsible for the tensile properties of human hair (1), although there is one publication with limited data suggesting the possibility of some cuticle involvement in the tensile properties of hair (2) and some evidence that wool fibers containing a medulla are weaker than non- medullated fibers (3). If the cortex is primarily responsible for the tensile properties of hair fibers, or even if there be only minor cuticle and/or medullary involvement in the tensile properties of hair, then the tensile properties are primarily an index of cortical damage. Therefore, if the tensile properties do not show change, without any further experimental evidence, such data does not stand as an indication of no hair damage. The lack of cuticle involvement in the tensile properties of hair or even minimal in- volvement might seem surprising, because, for a 70-micron hair fiber with a 4-micron- thick band of cuticular material (2), the cuticle represents approximately 22% of the total fiber cross-sectional area. Thus, it would be somewhat surprising if the cuticle were not involved at all in the tensile properties of human hair. With respect to medullary involvement in the tensile properties of hair, such involve- ment has only been demonstrated for selected wool fibers where the medulla represented more than 70 percent of the cross section (3), and such heavy medullation is not common in human hair. A few years ago, we examined an oxidative treatment for hair based on diperisophthalic acid. We found that under certain conditions this reagent could produce extensive
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This article examines hair care in persons with hair loss. The use of shampoos, conditioners, and hair styling products to camouflage hair loss is discussed. Because hair is nonliving, medical treatments are limited to only inducing change in the follicles within the scalp skin and do not improve the hair loss actually witnessed by the patient. There is therefore a need to accompany medical treatment of hair loss with cosmetic hair treatment to optimize patient satisfaction.
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Raw materials for cocoa butter substitutes, replacements or equivalents depend mostly on the unsteady supply from wild stands of plants, while there is no current supply of Neotropical origin. Seed fats from Theobroma species (T cacao, T bicolor, T grandiflorum, T obovatum, T subincanum, T speciosum, T sylvestre and T microcarpum, plus the closely related species Herrania mariae) were analysed for fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition by gas and liquid chromatography respectively, for iodine value, for melting point by open capillary tube and for solid fat content (SFC) by nuclear magnetic resonance. All Theobroma species had significantly lower palmitate levels than T cacao, except for T sylvestre and T speciosum, T microcarpum presented highly unsaturated fat (C18:2), while H mariae had high levels of arachidate. Fats from T sylvestre and T speciosum had a similar iodine value to T cacao and a higher melting point. No fat from the other species presented a similar melting profile to cocoa butter. T sylvestre and T bicolor were the most similar to T cacao but had a higher SFC at human body temperature. T sylvestre and T speciosum seed fats had more POP than cocoa butter. Fats from seeds of T speciosum, T sylvestre and T bicolor could be recommended as cocoa butter substitutes, while fats from species of the section Glossopetalum could be employed in products requiring fats with a lower melting point.© 2002 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Edible argan oil is traditionally prepared by Berber women who manually crunch the roasted kernels of Argania spinosa fruits. Unroasted kernels furnish a cosmetic-grade oil. Argan groves are currently shrinking due to unfavorable conditions. To stop this trend, a program aimed at increasing the argan tree economical value is in progress in Morocco. Its concept is that the natives will preserve argan trees only if the major part of the wealth resulting from the argan grove production directly benefits them. Because of its high dietary value, argan oil has appeared as the best derivative to rapidly satisfy such assumption. Consequently, year after year, cooperatives have been implanted to produce argan oil of high quality on a large scale. The delicate hazelnut taste of argan oil, combined with its high level in unsaturated fatty acids, has allowed its swift commercial success and, nowadays, argan oil of standardized quality is marketed worldwide. Moroccan farmers are now beginning to plant argan trees, confirming the full success of this ambitious program. This review summarizes the methods used to prepare argan oil, its composition, the strategies available to certify argan oil quality, and finally the impact of argan oil on human health.