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A Idade do Ferro no Castelo de Castro Marim através das importações cerâmicas

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... II Vd. Arruda 1997Arruda , 1999Arruda -2000Arruda , 2001Arruda , 2003 concreta da peça multi-funcional, mas sim a discriminação do produto que ela contém. Assim, em Odisseia (9. ...
... Arruda 1997 Arruda , 1999Arruda -2000Arruda ,2000Arruda ,2003, Arruda e Freitas 2008, Arruda et (1/.2011, Sousa 2009, Sousa e Arruda 2010, Sousa e Arruda 2013. ...
... Vd. Arruda 1997Arruda , 1999Arruda -2000Arruda , 2001Arruda , 2003 concreta da peça multi-funcional, mas sim a discriminação do produto que ela contém. Assim, em Odisseia (9. ...
... Tharsis, located in the hinterland of the Gulf of C adiz, is believed to be one of the major metalliferous deposits in the whole ancient world (Schattner et al., 2012). V. Findings in Castro Marim, a settlement on top of a hill, located just across the Guadiana river 3 km from Ayamonte, date back to the transition between the late Bronze Age and Iron Age and give some hints of an indigenous population which was clearly in contact with Phoenician traders (Arruda, 1997(Arruda, , 2000a(Arruda, , 2000b(Arruda, , 2003Arruda and Teixeira de Freitas, 2008). While the findings from Castro Marim date back to the late 7th century BCE, remains from metallurgical workshops and the necropolis in present-day Ayamonte date from the beginning of the 8th century BCE (Teyssandier and Marzoli, 2014). ...
As bays, lagoons and estuaries ensure protection from wind, and a hinterland rich in natural resources is most enticing, during the early Iron Age the seafaring Phoenician settlers chose such locations all over the Mediterranean for their seaports, establishing pan-Mediterranean trade from the late 9th century BCE onwards. Despite the difficult nautical conditions, Phoenician sailors had conquered the Strait of Gibraltar by the end of the 9th century BCE. Today, many of these sites along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts are located several kilometers inland, due to coastal progradation.
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This paper presents an overview of the human settlement in the Lower Guadiana Basin between the mouth of the river and Castro dos Ratinhos (c. 9th-6th centuries BC), as well as a review of the archaeological works carried out in this region. The main goal is to systematize the archaeological information from excavations and surveys to compare the territorial dynamics along the riverbanks of this river. Besides that, we provide an outline of the knowledge of human occupation of these territories during the First Iron Age, as well as some proposals for further research on the ancient Anas. Special attention is paid to the case of Mértola (Myrtilis), for its role on the navigable section of the river.
This paper aimed to describe and interpret the archaeological data available associated to the Greek pottery and commercial relations concerning the Eastern Mediterranean and the current Portuguese territory, between the 7th and the 4th centuries b.C.
Conference Paper
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Resumo. Um levantamento exaustivo das datas de radiocarbono já publicadas para os contextos arqueológicos da Idade do Ferro orientalizante do território actualmente português permitiu a criação de uma sólida base de dados, que pode ser analisada também em função desses mesmos contextos e da própria constituição das amostras. O conjunto de datas selecionadas, justamente as que, juntamente com os respectivos contextos, têm uma fiabilidade aceitável, foi objecto de um tratamento estatístico bayesiano, de modo a determinar as fronteiras temporais do Período Cultural em causa. Foi possível concluir que a presença frequente de artefactos e, assim, de populações com origem no Mediterrâneo é uma realidade a partir do séc. IX a.C., acompanhando, muito provavelmente, as primeiras instalações fenícias no território actualmente português. Se compararmos os dados agora apresentados com os dados arqueológicos e outros de cronologia absoluta que têm sido obtidos para o sul e este peninsular, é possível admitir que o litoral atlântico português e alguns territórios do interior alentejano tenham iniciado o processo de orientalização numa fase antiga, mas ainda assim várias décadas mais tarde do que em Huelva e em La Rebanadilla (Málaga), e no actual território tunisino (Útica). Palavras-chave: Idade do Ferro Orientalizante; Datas de Radiocarbono; Contextos Arqueológicos; Estatística Bayesiana; Cronologia Tradicional Radiocarbon chronology of Orientalysing Iron Age in Portugal. A critical view on radiometric archaeological data Abstract. An exhaustive survey of radiocarbon dates that have been published for the Orientalizing Iron Age archaeological contexts from the Portuguese territory allowed to build up a solid database, which can be analyzed not only in terms of these same contexts, but also in how the dated samples were made up. The set of selected dates namely those which, together with the respective contexts, have an acceptable reliability, has been the subject of a Bayesian statistical analysis in order to determine the temporal boundaries of the cultural period under consideration. It was concluded that the frequent presence of artifacts and consequently of populations with their origin in the Mediterranean are a reality from the IX century BC, most likely following the first Phoenician settlements or colonies in today's Portuguese territory. If we compare the data now presented with archaeological data and other absolute chronology that have been obtained to the southern and eastern Iberian Peninsula, it is possible to admit that the Portuguese Atlantic coast and some areas inland, in Alentejo, have started the process of orientalization in an old stage, but nevertheless several decades later than in Huelva and La Rebanadilla (Malaga) and in current Tunisian territory (Utica).
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Archaeological work carried out in the Algarve during the last decade has yielded important new data concerning the Iron Age of this region. In this paper the new information is discussed and analysed in the context of the south western region of the Iberian Peninsular. The Iron Age occupation of southern Portugal is closely linked with developments in the Mediterranean world and, in a first phase (eighth to sixth century B.C.), with the installation of a population of oriental origin in the region of the Strait of Gibraltar. This first phase is found only in sites of the Eastern Algarve, however (Castro Marim and Tavira), an area which constitutes the western border of this orientalization. In a second phase (middle of fifth century B.C.), Iron Age levels with a Mediterranean matrix have also been documented in the western Agarve (Faro, Cerro da Rocha Branca, Monte Molião). At Castro Marim significant changes can be observed in this phase in the urban structure and in the origin of imported products.
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