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Scientific study of Vedic Knowledge Agnihotra

Authors:
  • Dr. D.Y. Patil Unitech Society's Dr. D.Y. Patil Arts, Commerce & Science College

Abstract

Objective: To study effect of Agnihotra fumes on: 1. Expt No: 1: Microbial count in the surrounding air 2. Expt No: 2: plant growth 3. Expt No: 3: NO 2 level 4. Expt No: 4: SO 2 level To study effect of Agnihotra ash on: 1. Expt No: 5: Skin disease of animal and humans. 2. Expt No: 6: Seed germination 3. Expt No: 7: Genotoxic chemicals (colchicine and methyl parathion) 4. Expt No: 8-11: Bacterial pathogenecity. 5. Expt No: 12: Water purification using Agnihotra ash Study of different components in Agnihotra: 1. Expt No: 13: Time-sunrise time, sunset time and any time (between sunrise and sunset) 2. Expt No: 14: Mantra-with mantra (sunrise and sunset) and without mantra 3. Expt No: 15: Rice-brown rice (unpolished) and white rice (polished) 4. Expt No: 16: Ghee-cow ghee and buffalo ghee 5. Expt No: 17: Pot-copper pot and steel pot of same size and shape
Bharatiya Bouddhik Sampada
A Quarterly Science Research Journal of Vijnana Bharati
43rd 44th Issue, February - June 2014
18
Scientific study of Vedic Knowledge Agnihotra
G. R. Pathade, Pranay Abhang
Department of Biotechnology, Fergusson College, Pune
Objective:
To study effect of Agnihotra fumes on:
1. Expt No: 1: Microbial count in the surrounding air
2. Expt No: 2: plant growth
3. Expt No: 3: NO2 level
4. Expt No: 4: SO2 level
To study effect of Agnihotra ash on:
1. Expt No: 5: Skin disease of animal and humans.
2. Expt No: 6: Seed germination
3. Expt No: 7: Genotoxic chemicals (colchicine and methyl parathion)
4. Expt No: 8-11: Bacterial pathogenecity.
5. Expt No: 12: Water purification using Agnihotra ash
Study of different components in Agnihotra:
1. Expt No: 13: Time- sunrise time, sunset time and any time (between sunrise and sunset)
2. Expt No: 14: Mantra- with mantra (sunrise and sunset) and without mantra
3. Expt No: 15: Rice- brown rice (unpolished) and white rice (polished)
4. Expt No: 16: Ghee- cow ghee and buffalo ghee
5. Expt No: 17: Pot- copper pot and steel pot of same size and shape
TO STUDY EFFECT OF AGNIHOTRA FUMES
Expt No: 1: Microbial count in the surrounding air
- Medium (nutrient agar) plates were open in room before and after Agnihotra and incubated for 24 hr
at room temperature to grow bacterial colonies.
- Also plates were opened 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 feet apart from Agnihotra and colony count was taken after
24 hr incubation at room temperature.
Before After
Bharatiya Bouddhik Sampada
A Quarterly Science Research Journal of Vijnana Bharati
43rd 44th Issue, February - June 2014
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- Known amount of air sample is collected in sterile 35 ml nutrient medium, before and after
Agnihotra. Sample was diluted as undiluted, 1:1, 1:5 and 1:10. Diluted sample were spread on
nutrient agar plates and incubated for 30 hr. to grow bacterial colonies.
Before Agnihotra
After Agnihotra
Conclusion-
As per results obtained, Agnihotra fumes decreases microbial load in air.
Up to 30 feet microbial load in the air can be control by performing Agnihotra.
Expt No: 2: To study effect of Agnihotra fumes on plant growth
2 plants were maintained providing same amount of water, light and other environmental conditions. One is
kept in separate room where Agnihotra is performed and another is kept in normal room where Agnihotra is
not performed.
Near 10 ft 20 ft 30 ft 40 ft
Bharatiya Bouddhik Sampada
A Quarterly Science Research Journal of Vijnana Bharati
43rd 44th Issue, February - June 2014
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Conclusion-
It shows that due to Agnihotra fumes plant growth is more as compare to normal plant.
Expt No: 3: Effect of Agnihotra fumes on NO2 level
NO2 in air is collected by scrubbing a known volume of air through an alkaline solution of arsenite. The
nitrite ions thus formed is reacted with sulfanilamide and N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine (NEDA) in
phosphoric acid to form the colored azo dye, which can be measured on spectrophotometer at 540 nm. The
method is standardized statistically by using NaNO2 standards. Standardization is based upon the empirical
observation that 0.74 mole of NaNO2 produces same color as 1 mole of NO2. SO2 can be removed using
H2O2.
Calculations for sample before Agnihotra-
1. O.D. at 540 nm = 0.104
2. µg of NO2/ml from graph = 0.1644 µg /ml
3. volume of air sampled
V = (F1+F2)/2 × T × 10-3
Flow rate = 1.5 ml/min
Time of sampling = 2 hr = 120 min
V= (1.5+1.5)/2 × 120 × 10-3
V= 0.18 m3
4. level of NO2
= (µg of NO2/ml × volume of absorbing reagent)/ 0.85 × V
= (0.1644 × 15) / 0.85 ×0.18
= 16.1152 µg /m3
5. NO2 in ppm = level of NO2 × 5.32 × 10-4
= 0.00857 ppm
Calculations for sample after Agnihotra-
1. O.D. at 540 nm = 0.122
2. µg of NO2/ml from graph = 0.1928 µg /ml
3. volume of air sampled
V = (F1+F2)/2 × T × 10-3
Flow rate = 1.5 ml/min
Time of sampling = 2 hr = 120 min
V= (1.5+1.5)/2 × 120 × 10-3
V= 0.18 m3
4. level of NO2
= (µg of NO2/ml × volume of absorbing reagent)/ 0.85 × V
= (0.1928 × 15) / 0.85 ×0.18
Bharatiya Bouddhik Sampada
A Quarterly Science Research Journal of Vijnana Bharati
43rd 44th Issue, February - June 2014
21
= 17.6471 µg /m3
5. NO2 in ppm = level of NO2 × 5.32 × 10-4
= 0.00939 ppm
Expt No: 4: Effect of Agnihotra fumes on SO2 level
SO2 from the air stream is absorbed in a sodium tetra-chloromercurate solution, it forms a stable dichloro
sulpho mercurate complex, which then behaves effectively as fixed SO3-2 in solution. The amount of SO2 is
then estimated by the color produced when p-rosailine-hydrochloride and formaldehyde is added in solution,
which can be measured on spectrophotometer at 560 nm.
Calculations for sample before Agnihotra-
1. O.D. at 560 nm = 0.203
2. µg of SO2/ml from graph = 0.2589 µg /ml
3. volume of air sampled
V = (F1+F2)/2 × T × 10-3
Flow rate = 1.5 ml/min
Time of sampling = 2 hr = 120 min
V= (1.5+1.5)/2 × 120 × 10-3
V= 0.18 m3
4. SO2 in ppm = (µg of SO2 per ml from graph) / volume of air sampled
= 0.2589 / 0.18
= 1.4381 ppm
5. µg /m3 of SO2 = (ppm of SO2 × 64 ×106) / 24470
= 3761.34
6. SO2 (µg /m3) at 25 oC and 760 mm(Hg) = µg /m3 of SO2 × volume of absorbing reagent
= 3761.34 × 15
= 5.642 × 104 µg /m3
Calculations for sample after Agnihotra-
1. O.D. at 560 nm = 0.079
2. µg of SO2/ml from graph = 0.1007 µg /ml
3. volume of air sampled
V = (F1+F2)/2 × T × 10-3
Flow rate = 1.5 ml/min
Time of sampling = 4 hr = 120 min
V= (1.5+1.5)/2 × 120 × 10-3
V= 0.18 m3
4. SO2 in ppm = (µg of SO2 per ml from graph) / volume of air sampled
Before After Blank
Bharatiya Bouddhik Sampada
A Quarterly Science Research Journal of Vijnana Bharati
43rd 44th Issue, February - June 2014
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= 0.1007 / 0.18
= 0.5597 ppm
5. µg /m3 of SO2 = (ppm of SO2 × 64 ×106) / 24470
= 1463.77
6. SO2 (µg /m3) at 25 oC and 760 mm(Hg) = µg /m3 of SO2 × volume of absorbing reagent
= 1463.77 × 15
= 2.1957 × 104 µg /m3
Results-
NO2 level in the surrounding atmosphere is increased from 0.0086 ppm to 0.0094 ppm due to Agnihotra
fumes (performed at sunset).
SO2 level in atmosphere reduces from 1.44 ppm to 0.56 ppm due to Agnihotra fumes (performed at sunset).
To study effect of Agnihotra ash on
Expt No: 5: Effect of Agnihotra ash on skin disease of animal and humans.
Agnihotra ash was mixed with pure ghee to make an ointment which was applied to the infected ear
(showing red rashes ) of pet cat as well as to the infected thumb (showing peeled off skin with wound ) of a
lady ,whose hand comes in touch with detergent and water everyday because of washing and cleaning the
vessels and the clothes.
After one month of treatment (3times/day) with the above mixture cat’s ear became totally normal in
comparison with the control (only ghee), whereas the thumb infection did not disappear totally but appears
to be recovered compared to the control.
Conclusion: Agnihotra ash can be used to make ointment to treat skin diseases.
Expt No: 6: Effect of Agnihotra ash on seed germination-
To study effect of Agnihotra ash on germination of seeds, following water were used-
a. tap water,
b. control ash water (1 gm normal ash + 100 ml water) and
c. Agnihotra ash water (1 gm Agnihotra ash + 100 ml water)
Seeds of Vigna aconitifolia and Vigna unguiculata were taken as experimental material. Seeds were
allowed to germinate and germination was observed every after 24 hrs.
Bharatiya Bouddhik Sampada
A Quarterly Science Research Journal of Vijnana Bharati
43rd 44th Issue, February - June 2014
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Observations-
Tap water control ash Agnihotra ash
Conclusion-
From results obtained it can be concluded that Agnihotra ash promoted the process of germination probably
by increasing its nutrient content and hence can be used as fertilizer.
Expt No: 7: To study neutralization of genotoxic effect by Agnihotra ash-
To study neutralization of genotoxic effect by agnihotra ash onion root tips were used. The Onion roots were
allowed to grow separately in
tap water,
water containing Agnihotra ash,
water containing control ash,
water containing Colchicine
Water containing Colchicine and agnihotra ash.
water containing Methyl Parathion
Water containing Methyl Parathion and agnihotra ash.
- Growth of roots was measured in cm. after 7 days. Root tips from each sample were taken and
different stages of Mitosis were observed.
- Arresting of mitosis (no spindle formation) and small growth (rigorous) of root tips were taken as
toxic effect, while normal mitosis and elongated root tip taken as normal growth or non-toxic.
A. Containing genotoxic chemical (colchicine)
B. Containing genotoxic chemical (colchicine) + Agnihotra ash.
A. B.
A. B.
Bharatiya Bouddhik Sampada
A Quarterly Science Research Journal of Vijnana Bharati
43rd 44th Issue, February - June 2014
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Conclusion-
Agnihotra ash showed activating effect on cell division and also neutralises toxic effect of Colchicine and
Methyl Parathion.
Expt No: 8-11: Effect of Agnihotra ash on bacteria.
The Bacteria selected were Pathogenic as well as some commensal and non pathogenic, were exposed to
Agnihotra Ash and observed for changes in the properties like
Expt No: 8: Loss of Capsule formation in Klebsiella pneumonia
It is evident from Table that upon exposure to Agnihotra ash the capsule forming ability of Klebsiella
pneumoniae was reduced.
Expt No: 9: Loss of haemolytic activity in Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia
Haemolytic ability of K. pneumoniae and S. aureus was reduced upon exposure to Agnihotra ash.
Expt No: 10: Decreased resistance to phagocytosis,
Human blood 5ml + 0.5 ml bacterial suspension, incubate at 370C for 1 hr and blood stain it observe cell no
engulfed (use direct bacteria and also exposed to Agnihotra ash for 1 hr)
Decreased resistance to phagocytosis (more no of bacteria engulfed by phagocytes) was observed for all the
four Bacterial isolates used.
Expt No: 11: Loss of pigment formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Bharatiya Bouddhik Sampada
A Quarterly Science Research Journal of Vijnana Bharati
43rd 44th Issue, February - June 2014
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Pigment production ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reduced upon exposure ( use direct bacteria
and also exposed to Agnihotra ash for 1 hr)to Agnihotra Ash.
Expt No: 12: Water Purification using Agnihotra ash:
1. 1 L tap water + 10ml sewage (for coliform contamination) (positive control) : sample A
2. 1 L tap water (negative control)
3. sample A water 100 ml + 5 gm Agnihotra ash, incubate at overnight at RT and then perform MPN
Results- Sample A showed MPN positive, while tap water and ash treated sewage mixed water showed
MPN negative
Conclusion- Agnihotra ash removes water pathogens and purifies it.
Study of different ingredients in Agnihotra-
To study the effect of time, mantra, rice, ghee and pot on Agnihotra ash we used following parameters-
1. Expt No: 13: Time- sunrise time, sunset time and any time (between sunrise and sunset)
2. Expt No: 14: Mantra- with mantra (sunrise and sunset) and without mantra
3. Expt No: 15: Rice- brown rice (unpolished) and white rice (polished)
4. Expt No: 16: Ghee- cow ghee and buffalo ghee
5. Expt No: 17: Pot- copper pot and steel pot of same size and shape
We prepare 48 ashes with combinations of different parameters such as time, mantra, rice, ghee and pot.
Moong (Vigna aconitifolia) seeds were allowed to grow in respective 48 ashes, providing same
environmental conditions and after 2 weeks plant growth was measured by considering shoot and root
length.
- Plant growth in all 48 ashes is more as compare to control.
- Graphs for different parameters are created using following A to H ashes-
A. Brown rice, cow ghee, copper pot
B. Brown rice, cow ghee, steel pot
C. Brown rice, buffalo ghee, copper pot
D. Brown rice, buffalo ghee, steel pot
E. white rice, cow ghee, copper pot
F. white rice, cow ghee, steel pot
G. white rice, buffalo ghee, copper pot
H. white rice, buffalo ghee, steel pot
Results-
1. Effect of time on Agnihotra
Bharatiya Bouddhik Sampada
A Quarterly Science Research Journal of Vijnana Bharati
43rd 44th Issue, February - June 2014
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Plant growth is more in sunrise (blue line) and sunset (red line) ashes as compare to any time (green line)
ashes. Also root growth is more in sunrise ashes than in sunset ashes.
2. Effect of mantra on Agnihotra-
As per graph, we can conclude that plant growth in ashes with mantra (blue lines)is more as compare to
plant growth in ashes without mantra ( red lines).
3. Effect of rice on Agnihotra-
As per graph, we can conclude that plant growth in ashes with brown or unpolished rice (red lines) is more
as compare to plant growth in ashes with white or polished rice ( green lines).
4. Effect of ghee on Agnihotra-
Plant growth in ashes with cow ghee (blue lines) is more as compare to plant growth in ashes with buffalo
ghee (green lines).
5. Effect of pot on Agnihotra-
Bharatiya Bouddhik Sampada
A Quarterly Science Research Journal of Vijnana Bharati
43rd 44th Issue, February - June 2014
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Plant growth in ashes prepared in copper pot (blue lines) is more as compare to plant growth in ashes
prepared in steel pot (green lines).
6. Combine effect of rice, ghee and pot on shoot length-
As per graph combine effect of brown rice, cow ghee and copper pot (points A) shows more shoot growth as
compare to other (i.e. B to H). It shows peak at ‘A’ point.
7. Combine effect of rice, ghee and pot on root length-
As per graph combine effect of brown rice, cow ghee and copper pot (points A) shows more root growth as
compare to other (i.e. B to H). It shows peak at ‘A’ point.
Conclusion-
Plant growth is better observed in ashes prepared with brown rice, cow ghee, copper pot, with mantra and at
sunrise, sunset timings.
The combination of brown rice, cow ghee and copper pot shows good plant growth.
Higher plant growth is observed in ashes prepared in copper pot, with brown rice and cow ghee, with mantra
and performed at sunrise and sunset timings (Ash no. - 1 and 33).
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... Several experiments showed increased shoot length and root lengths of seeds after adding Agnihotra Ash. Varieties of seeds were rice (9), maize (7), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) (2), moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) and cow bean (Vigna unguiculata) (20), grapes (21). ...
...  Microbes used in the study for their susceptibility to Agnihotra ash extracts-7  Summary of the experiment for short term survival of bacteria in sterilized tap water in presence of different ashes-8  List of Medically important bacterial species isolated and identified-15, 16  Paenibacillus species identified and confirmed through 16s rRNA gene sequencing-16  Number of colonies before and after Agnihotra, taken at different dates in rainy season and in winter-22  Chemical and physical air pollution before and after Agnihotra-23  Improvement of water quality after passing through a column of Agnihotra Ash-24  Change of water quality parameters of water just sitting next to Agnihotra in closed bottles-25  Increase of water solubility of phosphate by adding Agnihotra Ash to the soil-27  Growth of different fungus pathogen in Control Ash and Agnihotra Ash containing media-27  Growth of beneficial microbes in media containing Control Ash and and Agnihotra Ash-27  Change in soil pH-28  Estimation of coliform number in water at different days following treatment of Agnihotra ash, Contol ash and sample without any ash-32 46,49,50,70,72,76,77,37,38,39,53,73 Trypticase soy agar 88,90,91,92,93,94 Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum)-48, 101 Ultrasonography-54 49,6,8,11,12,14,17,19,20,34,35,39,40,91,92,6,8,11,12,[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]36,37,38,39,53,13,14,15,17,18,39,40,91,92,93,92,93, ...
...  Microbes used in the study for their susceptibility to Agnihotra ash extracts-7  Summary of the experiment for short term survival of bacteria in sterilized tap water in presence of different ashes-8  List of Medically important bacterial species isolated and identified-15, 16  Paenibacillus species identified and confirmed through 16s rRNA gene sequencing-16  Number of colonies before and after Agnihotra, taken at different dates in rainy season and in winter-22  Chemical and physical air pollution before and after Agnihotra-23  Improvement of water quality after passing through a column of Agnihotra Ash-24  Change of water quality parameters of water just sitting next to Agnihotra in closed bottles-25  Increase of water solubility of phosphate by adding Agnihotra Ash to the soil-27  Growth of different fungus pathogen in Control Ash and Agnihotra Ash containing media-27  Growth of beneficial microbes in media containing Control Ash and and Agnihotra Ash-27  Change in soil pH-28  Estimation of coliform number in water at different days following treatment of Agnihotra ash, Contol ash and sample without any ash-32 46,49,50,70,72,76,77,37,38,39,53,73 Trypticase soy agar 88,90,91,92,93,94 Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum)-48, 101 Ultrasonography-54 49,6,8,11,12,14,17,19,20,34,35,39,40,91,92,6,8,11,12,[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]36,37,38,39,53,13,14,15,17,18,39,40,91,92,93,92,93, ...
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The development of antimicrobial resistance parallels the discovery of the first antibiotic ‘Penicillin’ by Alexander Flaming in 1928. Currently, the fifth generation of antibiotics is in the market but the microbes are already equipped to resist all generations of antimicrobials. Failure of antimicrobial therapy is rampant leading to the death of about 0.7 million people every year and this toll is predicted to rise to 10 million people per year by 2050, costing up to USD 210 trillion to the global economy. This situation is alarming and further intensified due to a substantial drop in the invention of new antibiotics. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now a serious problem of global concern and all concerned expressed the urgent need for new treatment modalities. The current antibiotic discovery model is not delivering new agents at a rate that is sufficient to combat present levels of AMR emergence. This has led to fears of entering into a ‘pre-antibiotic era’. Therefore, there is a need to explore alternative strategies to combat drug-resistant infections. In the last few decades, AMR has led to the generation of “superbugs”, i.e. super-resistant strains with increased virulence and enhanced transmissibility. The factors causing AMR emergence are mainly poor antibiotic stewardship as overuse and indiscriminate use of antibiotics, easy and on-counter availability of all kinds of antibiotics, substandard antimicrobials, poor sanitation, excessive use of newer and potent antibiotics (otherwise reserved for emergency use in severely infected patients), and dissemination of R factors through food and poultry products. Besides, genetic jugglery, intrinsic resistance, the existence of resistome and subsistome, and natural resistance genes are other contributors to the spread of AMR. The decades of experience show that resistance to antibiotics cannot be avoided but can be sufficiently delayed or its onset can be manipulated. The AMR strains are not restricted to human beings rather also constantly extending to economically important livestock and naive ecosystems like Arctic and Antarctic regions, deep seas, and wildlife. Though the development of new antimicrobials is always the first priority, alternate strategies can be effectively used to reduce the dependence on antimicrobials to mitigate the onset and spread of AMR. Alternative to conventional antibiotics will be extremely helpful especially when there are no new antimicrobials in the pipeline in the last few years. The threat of antimicrobial resistance is substantial therefore myriad approaches to circumvent it are to be researched. These include classical approaches, such as searching for natural products in the environment, more synthetic attempts, like the discovery of new compounds with previously unknown mechanisms, rationally mutated bacterial toxins, small molecules designed by virtual docking process, ancient approaches including Ayurveda and herbal antimicrobials, Homeopathy, bacteriophage therapy, bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and nanotechnology for targeted delivery of antimicrobial for better efficacy. If some of these methods can successfully be translated to a therapeutic option, the bacteriological apocalypse may yet be averted. This book compiled the research of scientists working for alternative antimicrobials in India and abroad using Ayurvedic, Homeopathic, herbalist approaches, and also the modern methods including targeted phage therapy, antimicrobial peptides, and nanotechnology. Observation of leaders in the different areas of alternative therapies to mitigate AMR and its after-effects seem to solve this imminent global problem. Editors strongly feel that the compilation shall be of immense use to the researchers working in the area in tackling the global problem of AMR.
... 23 In preceding studies 24 , antibacterial coating with nitric oxide, silver and antibiotics were developed for the inhibition towards biofilm formation, which shows similar results with the current studies, but current study is cost effective in comparison. In addition, Fumes of Agnihotra homa 25 as well as ash remains after Agnihotra homa 26,27 and ash remains after Somyag yadnya 28 inhibits the biofilm formation, but current study showed much effective (about 15% more) results in comparison with previous reports. Various nanoparticles viz., silver 29 , enzymes, small molecules, biocides 30 and natural pigments viz., scytonemin 31,32 were used to inhibit biofilm formation, but current studies were found to be efficient and cost effective over mentioned previous reports. ...
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Bacteriophages are used as an alternative medicine for controlling pathogenic bacteria causing edema. The use of bacteriophages while formulating the cosmetics has novel application in improving antiseptic efficiency of cosmetics. In the present study total fourteen bacteria were isolated from edema. All isolates were screened out for isolation of their phages from the human skin as well as sewage. Out of these fourteen isolates two promising isolates (SA 1 and PA 1) showing broad spectrum phage sensitivity were genetically identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The commercially available cosmetic cream was used for supplementation of phages which significantly increased phage longevity on skin surface. The translucent halo plaques (2-4 mm diameter) were isolated from different types of phages. The plaques produced by phages show different degrees of lysis. As dilution increases from 10-1 to 10-10 , the number plaques decreased and hence PFU/mL also decreased. In titer of SA 1, highest numbers of plaques (120) were obtained for the dilution of 10-1 and the PFU/mL of the dilution was 1200×10 2. In titer of PA 1, highest numbers of plaques (uncountable) were obtained for the dilution of 10-1 and 10-3 , hence PFU/mL cannot be determined. The supplemented cosmetic phages reduce the pathogenic bacterial growth to 95.0%, as compared with free phages and non-supplemented cosmetics to 80.1% and 70.0%, by ELISA method, respectively. The characterization studies show that the smooth surface of the bare electrode turned into a rough surface after polymer formation with adherent phages visible in the micrographs, demonstrating the interaction between phage and the specific cavities. This work indicated the enhanced antibacterial efficacy of specific fortified bacteriophage with cosmetics to be a promising formulation for efficient treatment of edema.
... 23 In preceding studies 24 , antibacterial coating with nitric oxide, silver and antibiotics were developed for the inhibition towards biofilm formation, which shows similar results with the current studies, but current study is cost effective in comparison. In addition, Fumes of Agnihotra homa 25 as well as ash remains after Agnihotra homa 26,27 and ash remains after Somyag yadnya 28 inhibits the biofilm formation, but current study showed much effective (about 15% more) results in comparison with previous reports. Various nanoparticles viz., silver 29 , enzymes, small molecules, biocides 30 and natural pigments viz., scytonemin 31,32 were used to inhibit biofilm formation, but current studies were found to be efficient and cost effective over mentioned previous reports. ...
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Bacteriophages are used as an alternative medicine for controlling pathogenic bacteria causing edema. The use of bacteriophages while formulating the cosmetics has novel application in improving antiseptic efficiency of cosmetics. In the present study total fourteen bacteria were isolated from edema. All isolates were screened out for isolation of their phages from the human skin as well as sewage. Out of these fourteen isolates two promising isolates (SA 1 and PA 1) showing broad spectrum phage sensitivity were genetically identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The commercially available cosmetic cream was used for supplementation of phages which significantly increased phage longevity on skin surface. The translucent halo plaques (2-4 mm diameter) were isolated from different types of phages. The plaques produced by phages show different degrees of lysis. As dilution increases from 10-1 to 10-10 , the number plaques decreased and hence PFU/mL also decreased. In titer of SA 1, highest numbers of plaques (120) were obtained for the dilution of 10-1 and the PFU/mL of the dilution was 1200×10 2. In titer of PA 1, highest numbers of plaques (uncountable) were obtained for the dilution of 10-1 and 10-3 , hence PFU/mL cannot be determined. The supplemented cosmetic phages reduce the pathogenic bacterial growth to 95.0%, as compared with free phages and non-supplemented cosmetics to 80.1% and 70.0%, by ELISA method, respectively. The characterization studies show that the smooth surface of the bare electrode turned into a rough surface after polymer formation with adherent phages visible in the micrographs, demonstrating the interaction between phage and the specific cavities. This work indicated the enhanced antibacterial efficacy of specific fortified bacteriophage with cosmetics to be a promising formulation for efficient treatment of edema.
... Homa, Yagya, Dhupana. They reduced the microbial load to non-pathogenic levels and helpful for the prevention and control of epidemic conditions (Pathade and Abhang, 2014). Agnihotra (Homa therapy) not only maintain the human health but also plants, animals and the whole atmosphere. ...
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... As previously mantra's effect, especially Gayatri Mantra's effect, were shown to play role on human mental capacity (9). In addition, positive effect of mantras on the plant species had also been studied (10). ...
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Yagya (known as a fire-ritual) is an ancient Vedic Indian method of herbal inhalation therapy. It is also described as an excellent mode of environmental purification. Here, a comparative study of antimicrobial activity of smoke extract of Yagya and non-Yagya has been performed. ‘Yagya’ in this text, refers to the burning of wood, specific types of dried medicinal plant materials (hawan samagri) along with ghee with the citation of mantras, whereas the term Non-Yagya implies burning of wood, hawan samagri, along with ghee. In non-Yagya the mantra citation has not been done. An apparatus was designed to simulate the burning process, and the smoke fraction was captured for antimicrobial activity on human pathogens i.e Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typh. Antimicrobial activity was performed using disc diffusion method. Antimicrobial data revealed that the ‘smoke-extract’ obtained from Yagya experiments with mantra chanting had higher zone of inhibition values compared to that of same experiment conditions except presence of mantra chanting suggesting an important role of the mantra chanting in Yagya for medicinal applications
... Agnihotra ash is used as an external Abhang P. and Pathade G., "Agnihotra technology in the perspectives of modern science -A review", Indian journal of traditional knowledge, (2017), 16(3), 454 -462. ointment to recover skin wounds, in vivo experiments conducted on white skin disease of Gold fish 11 , cat ear infections and physical damage to human finger 12 . In Gold fish (Carassius auratus) white spots on the skin (disease is known as Ich) caused by the protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. ...
... Application of Agnihotra ash as an ointment is a novel therapeutic approach for wound healing process. Agnihotra ash is used as an external ointment to recover skin wounds, in vivo experiments conducted on white skin disease of Gold fish 11 , cat ear infections and physical damage to human finger 12 . In Gold fish (Carassius auratus) white spots on the skin (disease is known as Ich) caused by the protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. ...
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Agnihotra, the simplest form of ‘Yajnya/Homa’ performed in many countries all over the world. Although it’s an ancient fire ritual, it is based on the scientific aspects. It invokes sunrise and sunset timings, when far infrared radiations are produced from the sun, the burning of cow ghee, dried cow dung, unpolished rice in the typical inverted pyramidal shaped copper pot with the chanting of mantras about Sun (Surya) and fire (Agni). It is found that far infrared radiations of sun and that of Agnihotra resonate to generate a huge amount of vital energy useful for life processes. The fumes and ash of Agnihotra are useful to purify water and air, ameliorate agriculture, reduces the pathogenicity of microorganisms and help to improve the health of living beings. Performing Agnihotra with right timings and ingredients will create conducive atmosphere in the surrounding for the well-being of life.
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Agnihotra ash is the product of Agnihotra or Homa fire performed in a copper pyramid exactly at the time of sunrise and sunset using rice, dried cow dung, and clarified butter. Agnihotra was known to enhance growth and physiology of plants and provide beneficial effects on animals. The energy emanating from Agnihotra disseminates a powerful healing effect in the surroundings and the energy is locked in the resultant ash. This ash is used to treat various ailments and known to possess antibacterial properties. Agnihotra ash has been used to purify water and reduce the load of bacteria in water. Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli were found to be reduced in the water sample when treated with Agnihotra ash. Thus, this can be an area to explore for an alternative to mitigate the water pollution problem.
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Yajnya is the ritual performed for the purification of the atmosphere through the agency of fire according to the Vedas (Vedic literature). Somyag Yajnya is one of the types of Yajnya, which is a ritual of chanting of mantras derived from the practice in Vedic times accompanied by various offerings. Fumes created by performing Somyag Yajnya, positively affect environmental elements; hence its effects on major air pollutants i.e. oxides of sulphur and nitrogen were studied. Microbial count was also considered during Yajnya. Surrounding air samples were collected from cities in Maharashtra (India) i.e. Beed, Pune and Ratnagiri by using handy air sampler and the effects of Somyag Yajnya were studied by estimating and comparing SOx and NOx levels before Yajnya, during Yajnya and after Yajnya. For microbial count active as well as passive air collection methods were used. As per our results, microbial count significantly reduces up to 95% due to Somyag fumes and SOx levels decreases almost up to 40-90% that of initial levels due to Somyag Yajnya however, the NOx levels increase at the beginning to10-20 % that of initial levels but at the end of Yajnya NOx level also found reduced as compared to initial. Hence it seems that by performing Somyag Yajnya air pollution due to SOx, NOx and microbes can be controlled and ambient air can be purified.
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