ChapterPDF Available

The Effect of Leadership on Conflict Management


Abstract and Figures

The effect of leadership on conflict management was examined in this meta-analytic study. A total of 485 research studies were identified as a result of a literature review, out of which 32 were included in the meta-analysis. The 32 research studies were compiled to obtain a sample size of 6,838 subjects. The analytic results of a random effects model showed that leadership has a small-magnitude, significant effect on conflict management . In the study, none of a set of variables, including the sample group , leadership style , publication type or year of publication , was found to be a moderator.
Content may be subject to copyright.
EnginKaradağ Editor
Leadership and
Meta-Analysis of Empirical Studies
The Effect of Leadership on Conflict
Evren Erzen and Yasir Arma
Abstract The effect of leadership on conflict management was examined in this
meta-analytic study. A total of 485 research studies were identified as a result of a
literature review, out of which 32 were included in the meta-analysis. The
32 research studies were compiled to obtain a sample size of 6,838 subjects. The
analytic results of a random effects model showed that leadership has a small-
magnitude, significant effect on conflict management. In the study, none of a set of
variables, including the sample group, leadership style, publication type or year of
publication, was found to be a moderator.
1 Introduction
Conflict is a concept that describes disagreement or differences of opinion between
individuals and any problems experienced because of these differences. Although
the definition of conflict differs across various disciplines (Rahim, 2001,2002), a
common characteristic of conflict is its being a natural consequence of interactions
between persons with differing personality traits, values, needs and desires.
The conflict state of an individual can also be based on a persons own internal
traits, in addition to those of other persons (Schrumpf, Crawford, & Bodine, 1997).
Unforeseen behaviors (Stagner, 1961) or the division of people into groups (Alex-
ander & Levin, 1998) can also be a cause of conflict. An individual may experience
a reduction in well-being due to psychological imbalances, and this situation may
lead the individual to feel vulnerable (Avs¸aro
glu, Deniz, & Kahraman, 2005). With
regard to organizations, varying opinions are identified as sources of conflict by
different researchers. Gibson, Ivancevich, and Donnelly (2000) see the sources of
conflict as functional dependency, differences in objectives, differences in
E. Erzen (*)
Artvin C¸ oruh University, Artvin, Turkey
Y. Arma
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey
©Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015
E. Karadag
˘(ed.), Leadership and Organizational Outcomes,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-14908-0_14
perceptions and an increase in the demand for experts; Robbins (1991) states that
the sources are differentiation, dependency and the sharing of resources. Further-
more, Gutknecht and Miller (1989) see it as dependent on organizational structure,
differences in perceptions, the reward system, gaining specialization and change,
whereas Newstrom and Davis (1993) suggest the source of conflict to be organiza-
tional change, personality clashes, differences in values, threats to a position and
differences in perception. Although conflict has the potential to significantly dam-
age individual psychological well-being and the sound functioning of organiza-
tions, it may also contribute to interpersonal experiences and social maturation;
thus, the knowledge that conflicts exist and the importance of its correct manage-
ment are indication of how important conflict is (Schrumpf et al., 1997). In other
words, conflict can be beneficial, just as it can be harmful.
A leaders interactions with an organizations employees are acts that increase
the efficiency of the organization (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995). Within the scope of
this important communication between the leader and his or her followers
(Northouse, 2012), all of the variables pertaining to the leader influence the conflict
experienced with the followers (Rahim, 2001). In this context and with the aim of
identifying the dynamics of conflict management, researchers have examined the
relationships among many different variables, including commitment styles
(Morris-Rothschild & Brassard, 2006), organizational communication climate
(Nordin, Sivapalan, Bhattacharyya, Ahmad, & Abdullah, 2014), emotional intelli-
gence (Chan, Sit, & Lau, 2013) and relationship quality (Bagwell & Coie, 2004),
among others. The relationship between leadership and conflict management is one
of the variables frequently investigated (Alonso & Brugha, 2006; Altma
2008; Arns, 2007; Eigbe, 2014; Hamlin & Jennings, 2007; Hendel, Fish, & Galon,
2005; Huo, Molina, Sawahata, & Deang, 2005;t Hart, 2007; Yang, 2014).
This study examined the effect of leadership on conflict management within
organizations. Furthermore, the potential moderators of this study, which were
thought to have moderate impact sizes, were the following: (1) the sample of the
research study, (2) the leadership style, (3) the type of publication and (4) the year
of publication. All of these variables, in concert with previous research results, were
used to test the following hypotheses of this study.
Leadership has a positive effect on conflict management.
The sample group is a moderator for the positive effect of leadership on
conflict management.
The leadership style is a moderator for the positive effect of leadership on
conflict management.
The publication type is a moderator for the positive effect of leadership on
conflict management.
The year of publication is a moderator for the positive effect of leadership on
conflict management.
226 E. Erzen and Y. Arma
2 Method
2.1 Study Design
In this study, the effect of leadership on conflict management was tested using a
meta-analytic design.
2.2 Review Strategy and Criteria for Inclusion/Exclusion
To identify the research studies to include in the meta-analysis, the ScienceDirect,
ProQuest and EBSCO academic databases were used to conduct a literature review.
For this process, inclusion of the terms leadership and conflict management in the
titles of studies was used as a screening criterion. The end date for the studies
included in the research was identified as March 2014. Doctoral dissertations and
peer-reviewed journals were included in the study.
Many strategies were used to identify the research studies that were appropriate
for the meta-analytic study. First, a research study pool (485 research studies) was
identified, comprised of all studies with leadershipand conflict managementin
their titles. The abstracts of these studies were reviewed, and all were found to be
appropriate for inclusion in the study. In the second stage, all research studies in the
pool were examined in detail. The results of the examination found that 32 of the
research studies in the pool were appropriate, and 435 were found to be unsuitable.
Descriptive statistics of the 32 research studies identified for inclusion in the
analysis are presented in Table 1.
The criteria for inclusion of a research study in the analysis were identified as
having the statistical information necessary for correlational meta-analysis
(nand r, or R
values) and
measuring the correlation between leadership and conflict management.
Reasons for not including a research study in the meta-analysis included the
having no quantitative data (qualitative research),
not having a correlation coefficient,
not focusing on conflict management and
not focusing on leadership.
The Effect of Leadership on Conflict Management 227
2.3 Coding Process
The coding process is essentially a data-sorting process that manages data emerging
as complex information from studies in a manner that is clear and suitable for
investigation. In accordance with this scope, a coding form was developed prior to
carrying out the statistical analysis, and the coding occurred according to the form.
The main aim was to develop a specific coding system that would allow the study to
investigate the entirety of the research studies generally while not missing any
characteristic of the individual research studies. The coding form developed in the
study was comprised of the following:
references for the research,
information on the sample,
the sample group/sector,
the leadership style/approach,
the data collection tool(s) and
the quantitative values.
2.4 Statistical Processes
The impact quantity, as determined through meta-analysis, is a uniformly measured
value used to determine the strength and direction of the relationship in the study
(Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins, & Rothstein, 2009). Pearsons correlation coefficient
(r) was determined to be the impact quantity in this study. Because the correlation
coefficient has a value between +1 and 1, the calculated rvalue was evaluated by
converting this value into the value as it appears in the ztable (Hedges & Olkin,
1985). Provided that more than one correlation value is given between the same
Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis
Variables 1 2 3 4 5 Toplam
Year of the
Before 1990 1990–
n2 4 13 13 32
% 6.3 12.5 40.6 40.6 100
Type of
Thesis and
Article –
n15 17 – – 32
% 46.9 53.1 100
Worker Mixed Student Manager Health
n9 4 4 7 6 2 32
% 28.1 12.5 12.5 21.9 18.8 6.3 100
228 E. Erzen and Y. Arma
structure categories in correlational meta-analysis studies, two different approaches
are used in to determine which should be adopted for the meta-analysis (Borenstein
et al., 2009; Kulinskaya, Morgenthaler, & Staudte, 2008). For this study, (1) if the
correlations were independent, all of the related correlations were included in the
analysis and were considered as independent studies; and (2) if there were depen-
dent correlations, then the conservation estimation was accepted. A random effects
model was used for the meta-analysis processes in this study. The Comprehensive
Meta-Analysis program was used in the meta-analytic process.
2.5 Moderator Variables
To determine the statistical significances among the different moderators of the
study, only the Q
values were used. Four moderator variables that were thought to
have a role in determining the average impact size were identified in the study. The
first of these considered the leadership style/approach as a moderator with regard to
the relationship between conflict management and leadership styles/approaches.
The second was the sample group/sector because it was thought to have an impact
on the average effect of leadership perceptions and conflict management. The third
set of moderators was the publicationsyear of the research and the type of research
2.6 Publication Bias
A funnel plot for the research studies included in the meta-analysis of the study can
be seen in Fig. 1. Evidence of an effect due to publication bias for the research
studies included in the meta-analysis would be seen in Fig. 1. A serious asymmetry
would be expected in the funnel plot were there a publication bias. The concentra-
tion of plots for the research studies occurring to one side under the line of average
impact size, especially at the bottom of the funnel, would be indicative of likely
publication bias. In this study, no evidence of partiality of the publications was
observed for any of the 32 data subjected to meta-analysis.
Even though no partiality in publications was observed in the funnel plot, the
results of Duval and Tweedies trim and fill test, which was applied to determine the
impact quantity related to partiality in publications and was acquired through the
meta-analysis using the random effects model, are given in Table 2. As can be seen
in Table 2, there is no difference between the impact observed and the artificial
impact quantity created to fix the impact resulting from the partiality of publica-
tions. The research on either side of the centerline is symmetrical, and this is the
indicator for no existing difference. Because there is no evidence indicating lost
data on either side of the centerline, the difference between the fixed impact
quantity and observed impact quantity is zero.
The Effect of Leadership on Conflict Management 229
3 Findings
Table 3shows the results of the meta-analysis between leadership and conflict
management. The findings provide support for H
, which argued that there is a
positive relationship between leadership and conflict management. The impact
value of the leadership on conflict management was calculated as 0.15. This result
shows that leadership has a small-magnitude effect on conflict management (see
Cohen, 1988).
The results of the moderator analysis show that the H
hypothesis regarding the
role of the research sample on the magnitude of impact between leadership and
conflict management was not supported. However, research included in the meta-
analysis showed that the effects on the conflict management of employees
[r¼0.20], students [r¼0.04] other subjects, including pilots and religious instruc-
tors [r¼0.02] and mixed groups of teachers and students [r¼0.22] was at a basic
level, whereas for health professionals [r¼0.32], the effect was not significant and
medium in magnitude; for managers [r¼0.01], the effect was small but signif-
icant. The strongest level of effect was for the sample group, including the health
professional. Although the impact values on conflict management for various
samples differed, the moderator analysis carried out according to the random effects
Fig. 1 Effect size funnel for publication bias
Table 2 Duval and Tweedies trim and fill test results
Studies trimmed Point estimate
CI (confidence interval)
Lower limit Upper limit
Observed values 0.16071 0.1404 0.18113 927.52613
Adjusted values 0 0.16071 0.1404 0.18113 927.52613
230 E. Erzen and Y. Arma
model showed that the effect level for sample types when measuring conflict
management was not significant (Q
¼4.14, p>0.05).
The findings did not support the H
hypothesis that leadership style plays a
moderating role in the effect that leadership has on conflict management. The
moderator analysis found the difference between the magnitude of impact of
leadership styles not to be significant (Q
¼2.04, p>0.05). Despite this result,
general leadership [r¼0.03] and the channel, interaction/sustainer, visionary,
emergent and servant leader types [r¼0.20] were shown to yield small-magnitude
effects of leadership on conflict management [p>0.05], whereas the transforma-
tional leadership style [r¼0.21] was found to be statistically significant in terms of
effect of this type of leadership on conflict management [p>0.05].
The findings did not provide support for hypothesis H
, that the type of publi-
cation plays a moderating role on the effects of leadership on conflict management.
Although a statistically significant difference between the sample groups was not
found (Q
¼1.28, p>0.05) as regards the level of impact, a non-significant, small-
magnitude impact of research studies [r¼0.22] and a small-magnitude significance
for dissertations [r¼0.09] was found.
The research did not support H
which hypothesized that the year of publication
plays a moderating role on leaderships effect on conflict management.
Table 3 Findings of the correlations between leadership and conflict management: results of the
Variable k N
CI (confidence
Lower limit Upper limit
Conflict management 32 6,838 0.15* 0.03 0.26 927,526*
Moderator (sample group) 4.14
Employee 9 2,462 0.20 0.02 0.41
Student 4 835 0.04 0.29 0.37
Health professionals 6 2,647 0.32 0.55 0.55
Manager 7 1,172 0.01* 0.25 0.25
Mixed 4 1,058 0.22 0.52 0.52
Other 2 599 0.02 0.47 0.47
Moderator (leadership style) 2.04
Transformational 15 4,764 0.21* 0.04 0.37
General 11 2,363 0.03 0.16 0.23
Other 6 1,646 0.20 0.06 0.44
Moderator (type of the research study) 1.28
Dissertations 17 3,701 0.09* 0.05 0.38
Research studies 15 5,072 0.22 0.07 0.25
Moderator (year of the research) 0.70
Before 1990 2 370 0.34 0.16 0.71
1990–1999 4 1,238 0.19 0.14 0.49
2000–2009 12 3,335 0.13 0.05 0.32
After 2010 13 3,830 0.13 0.05 0.31
*p<0.01, **p<0.05
The Effect of Leadership on Conflict Management 231
The moderator analysis did not find a statistically significant difference in the
magnitude of impact of the studiespublication years (Q
¼0.70, p<0.05). How-
ever, the meta-analysis found that studies conducted in 2010 and later [r¼0.13],
studies conducted between 1990 and 1999 [r¼0.19] and studies conducted
between 2000 and 2009 [r¼0.13] showed small-magnitude effects of leadership
on conflict management.
A meta-analysis was conducted in this study in order to determine what level
of impact leadership has on conflict management. In doing so, its aim was to
ascertain a general conclusion from studies and dissertations from the past to
the present. Furthermore, determining whether variables such as the sample
group, leadership style, year of publication and type of publication play
moderating roles in the effect of leadership on conflict management was
prioritized in this study.
The results indicate that there is a significant effect of leadership on
conflict management. However, the level of identified impact is low. In
fact, a significant impact of leadership on conflict management is to be
expected because it is probable that leaders undertaking a constructive role
ensure that a group of followers joins under a common aim by resolving and
preventing conflict or by being the creator of conflict. One leader can be
found to intervene in a way that increases conflict, whereas other leaders may
choose to resolve problems by means of consensus. Thus, a leaders signif-
icant impact on conflict management is an expected outcome when consid-
ered in this context. In comparison, the small magnitude of impact reduces the
importance of the other factors affecting conflict management. In other
words, results show that leadership addresses a small share of factors that
affect conflict management. The nature of the factors that are effective may
be the reason why this result has emerged. For example, extroverted individ-
uals may display a higher tendency for conflict (Basım, C¸ etin, & Tabak,
2009). In addition, differences in temperament (Druckman, 1993), psycho-
logical and cultural differences (Karip, 1999), differences in objectives
glayan, 2006), differences in the perception of cases (O
guz, 2007), dif-
ferences in status (Bumin, 1990), the lack of good communication (Akın,
1998) or the lack of decision-making authority that individuals may have
within organizations (Decenzo & Robbins, 1999) can also lead to conflict. To
put it a different way, the factors related to an individuals own self can have a
greater impact when compared with external factors, such as leadership.
Thus, the individuals own self may be a more meaningful factor in conflict
management than leader-related factors.
Analyses conducted on moderator variables showed that the variables
determined in the context of this study had no impact on the effect of
232 E. Erzen and Y. Arma
leadership on conflict management. The findings of the analysis related to the
sample group showed that the followers of a leader who experience conflict as
a result of joining different groups did not have an effect on conflict man-
agement. However, a significant negative effect was found in data collected
from managers. In other words, managers in the role of the leader create a
negative impact on conflict management. This result means that managers
have a negative effect on conflict management when considering the fact that
conflict management is a positive concept. The reason for this may be due to
managers undertaking methods and strategies that lead to negative results.
Similarly, findings suggest that no matter which leadership style is under-
taken, there are no differences in the method of conflict management for
individuals experiencing conflict. However, research conducted on transfor-
mational leadership found that significant differences were experienced at
varying levels of conflict. This finding is in line with a study investigating the
differences in identification of the conflict styles of transformational leaders
and sustainer leaders, which found that transformational leaders have an
effect on conflict strategies (Hendel et al., 2005). Transformational leaders
are individuals who provide guidance to their employees, ensure intellectual
stimulation and raise the energy of their employees (Bass, 1991). When the
behaviors, traits and leadership outcomes of transformational leaders are
reviewed as a whole (Karip, 1998), it could be stated that transformational
leaders provide the opportunity for diversity in conflict among their
The moderator analysis carried out with regard to the type of publication
showed that various types of publications did not significantly affect the
conflict methods of leaders. However, it was seen that there were significant
differences in dissertations and significant differences in the effect of leader-
ship on conflict management. This being the case, it could be stated that
dissertation results that do not have a publication bias allow diversity between
leadership and conflict management; this can be interpreted to mean that such
dissertations observed that leadership has differing impacts on conflict
Finally, no significant differences were found regarding the year of pub-
lication as a moderator variable or for the direct effects of years of publica-
tion. In contrast, it is possible to mention a medium-magnitude moderator
effect for publications dating earlier than 1990. However, this could be due to
there only having been two publications undertaken during that period, with
both having found a high correlation. Thus, one should note that a comparison
of only two publications upon which to make inferences might lead to
potentially unsound results.
The Effect of Leadership on Conflict Management 233
Acar, F. P. (2010). Analyzing the effects of diversity perceptions and shared leadership on
emotional conflict: A dynamic approach. The International Journal of Human Resource
Management, 21(10), 1733–1753.*
Akın, M. (1998). The role and the importance of communication in conflict management for
businesses. Unpublished master thesis, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.
Alexander, M. G., & Levin, S. (1998). Theoretical, empirical, and practical approaches to
intergroup conflict. Journal of Social Issues, 54(5), 629–639.
Alonso, A., & Brugha, R. (2006). Rehabilitating the health system after conflict in East Timor: A
shift from NGO to government leadership. Health Policy and Planning, 21(3), 206–216.
¨e, S., & Tu
¨rk, K. (2008). Conflict management modes and leadership styles used by Estonian
managers and specialists. EBS Review, 25, 61–73.
¨e, S., Tu
¨rk, K., & Toomet, O. S. (2013). Thomas-Kilmanns conflict management modes and
their relationship to Fiedlers leadership styles (basing on Estonian organizations). Baltic
Journal of Management, 8(1), 45–65.*
Arns, J. (2007). Challenges in governance: The leadership characteristics and behaviors valued by
public library trustees in times of conflict and contention. The Library, 77(3).
glu, S., Deniz, M. E., & Kahraman, A. (2005). Teknik
gretmenlerde yas¸am doyumu is¸
doyumu ve mesleki tu
¨kenmis¸lik du
¨zeylerinin incelenmesi. Selc¸uk
Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler
u Dergisi, 14, 115–129.
Bagwell, C. L., & Coie, J. D. (2004). The best friendships of aggressive boys: Relationship quality,
conflict management, and rule-breaking behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,
88(1), 5–24.
Basım, H. N., C¸ etin, F., & Tabak, A. (2009). The relationship between big five personality
characteristics and conflict resolution approaches. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 24(63),
Bass, B. M. (1991). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the
vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 19–31.
Bearden, F. C. (2003). The consequence of the leadership style of a financial planners most
influential supervisor on the planners perception of conflict, as influenced by the consanguin-
ity of a potential client. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Our Lady of the Lake University,
San Antonio, TX.*
Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-
analysis. Chichester: Wiley.
Bresnahan, C. G. (2008). Attachment style as a predictor of group conflict, post-conflict relation-
ship repair, trust and leadership style. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of South
California, Los Angeles, CA.*
Bumin, B. (1990).
Is¸letmelerde organizasyon gelis¸tirme ve c¸atıs¸manın y
onetimi. Ankara: Gazi
glayan, O. A. (2006). Organizational conflict management and an application. Unpublished
master thesis, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.
Chamberlin, W. C. (1993). Gender role conflict as a predictor of problem-solving, leadership
style, authoritarian attributes and cockpit management attitudes. Unpublished doctoral dis-
sertation, Columbia University, New York, NY.*
Chan, J. C., Sit, E. N., & Lau, W. M. (2013). Conflict management styles, emotional intelligence
and implicit theories of personality of nursing students: A cross-sectional study. Nurse
Education Today, 34, 934–939.
References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis. The in-text
citations to studies selected for meta-analysis are not followed by asterisks.
234 E. Erzen and Y. Arma
C¸ ınar, F., & Kaban, A. (2012). Conflict management and visionary leadership: An application in
hospital organizations. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 197–206.*
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates.
Culbert, G. E. (1999). A study of leadership styles of elementary school principals and their
perceptions of school climate and conflict resolution programs. Unpublished doctoral disser-
tation, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.*
Decenzo, D., & Robbins, S. (1999). Human resource management. New York, NY: Wiley.
Doucet, O., Poitras, J., & Che
ˆnevert, D. (2009). The impacts of leadership on workplace conflicts.
International Journal of Conflict Management, 20(4), 340–354.*
Druckman, D. (1993). An analytical research agenda for conflict and conflict resolution. In D. J.
Sandole & H. Van der Merwe (Eds.), Conflict resolution theory and practice: Integration and
application. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Eigbe, M. (2014). Leadership negotiation skill as correlate of university conflict resolution in
Nigeria. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, 1237–1245.
Garcia, A. R. (2004). A study of the relationship among the constructs of transformational and
transactional leadership and conflict management style. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, TX.*
Gibson, J. L., Ivancevich, J. M., & Donnelly, J. H., Jr. (2000). Organizations: Behaviour structure
processes. Boston, MA: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of
leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level
multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219–247.
Gutknecht, D. B., & Miller, J. R. (1989). The organizational and human resources sourcebook.
Lanham: University Press of America.
Hamlin, A., & Jennings, C. (2007). Leadership and conflict. Journal of Economic Behavior &
Organization, 64(1), 49–68.
Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical method for meta-analysis. London: Academic.
Hendel, T., Fish, M., & Galon, V. (2005). Leadership style and choice of strategy in conflict
management among Israeli nurse managers in general hospitals. Journal of Nursing Manage-
ment, 13(2), 137–146.
Hoffman, M. (2007). Does sense of humor moderate the relationship between leadership style and
conflict management style? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Nebraska University, Lincoln,
Huo, Y. J., Molina, L. E., Sawahata, R., & Deang, J. M. (2005). Leadership and the management of
conflicts in diverse groups: Why acknowledging versus neglecting subgroup identity matters.
European Journal of Social Psychology, 35(2), 237–254.
Iao-Man Chu, R. (2011). Conflict management styles of pastors and organizational servant
leadership: A descriptive study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Southern Baptist
Theological Seminary, Louisville, KY.*
Immanuel, M. S. (1988). The leadership behavior style of executive administrators of the bacca-
laureate nursing programs in India and its relation to conflict management. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY.*
Javitch, M. W. (1997). A model of leadership effectiveness in professional service firms: Linking
transformational leadership, influence, and role conflict to conflict satisfaction. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY.*
Karip, E. (1998). D
¨liderlik. Kuram ve Uygulamada E
gitim Y
onetimi Dergisi, 4(4),
Karip, E. (1999). C¸ atıs¸ma y
onetimi. Ankara: Pegema Yayıncılık.
Kimenchu, L. (2011). Leadership orientations and conflict management styles of academic deans
in masters degree institutions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, West Virginia University,
Morgantown, WV.*
The Effect of Leadership on Conflict Management 235
Kotlyar, I. (2001). Leadership in decision-making groups: Improving performance by managing
conflict. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.*
Kulinskaya, E., Morgenthaler, S., & Staudte, R. G. (2008). Meta analysis: A guide to calibrating
and combining statistical evidence. Chichester: Wiley.
Lather, A. S., Jain, V. K., Jain, S., & Vikas, S. (2009). Leadership styles in relation to conflict
resolution modes: A Study of Delhi Jal Board (DJB). Vilakshan: The XIMB Journal of
Management, 6(1), 1733–1753.*
Li, Y., Chun, H., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Ahlstrom, D. (2012). A multi-level study of emergent group
leadership: Effects of emotional stability and group conflict. Asia Pacific Journal of Manage-
ment, 29(2), 351–366.*
Menguc, B., & Auh, S. (2008). Conflict, leadership, and market orientation. International Journal
of Research in Marketing, 25(1), 34–45.*
Morris-Rothschild, B. K., & Brassard, M. R. (2006). Teachersconflict management styles: The
role of attachment styles and classroom management efficacy. Journal of School Psychology,
44(2), 105–121.
Munir, F., Nielsen, K., Garde, A. H., Albertsen, K., & Carneiro, I. G. (2012). Mediating the effects
of work-life conflict between transformational leadership and health-care workersjob satis-
faction and psychological wellbeing. Journal of nursing management, 20(4), 512–521.*
Newstrom, J. V., & Davis, K. (1993). Organizational behavior human behavior at work (9th ed.).
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Nordin, S. M., Sivapalan, S., Bhattacharyya, E., Ahmad, H. H. W. F. W., & Abdullah, A. (2014).
Organizational communication climate and conflict management: Communications manage-
ment in an oil and gas company. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,109, 1046–1058.
Northouse, P. G. (2012). Leadership: Theory and practice. London: Sage.
Odetunde, O. J. (2013). Influence of transformational and transactional leaderships, and leaders
sex on organizational conflict management behaviour. Gender & Behaviour, 11(1),
guz, Y. (2007). The relationships and differences between school administratorsdemographic
variables and personality traits and their conflict management style preferences. Unpublished
masters thesis, Yıldız Technical University, Turkish Republic.
Pauls, T. S. (2005). A study of the relationship between transformational and transactional
leadership, and conflict management styles in Ohio College Presidents. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, Regent University, London.*
Rahim, M. A. (2001). Managing conflict in organization. London: Quorum Books.
Rahim, M. A. (2002). Toward a theory of managing organizational conflict. The International
Journal of Conflict Management, 13(3), 206–235.
Reams, L. C. (1991). The relationship between health administratorsleadership styles and role-
conflict indicators. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Le Verne, La Verne, CA.*
Robbins, S. P. (1991). Organizational behaviour concepts, controversies and applications. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Schrumpf, F., Crawford, D. K., & Bodine, R. J. (1997). Peer mediation: Conflict resolution in
schools: Program guide. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Schul, P. L., Pride, W. M., & Little, T. L. (1983). The impact of channel leadership behavior on
intrachannel conflict. Journal of Marketing, 47(3), 21–34.*
Stagner, R. (1961). Personality dynamics and social conflict. Journal of Social Issues, 17(3),
Stanley, A. D. (2004). Leadership styles and conflict management styles: An exploratory study.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Regent University, London, UK.*
t Hart, P. (2007). How adenauer lost power: Understanding leadership rivalry and succession
conflict in political parties. German Politics,16(2), 273–291.
Wakefield, R. L., Leidner, D. E., & Garrison, G. (2008). Research note-a model of conflict,
leadership, and performance in virtual teams. Information Systems Research, 19(4),
236 E. Erzen and Y. Arma
Wright, P. G. (2008). Perceptions of leadership effectiveness in the management of
intergenerational work-values conflict: An antecedent of organizational citizenship behavior
of perioperative registered nurses. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Walden University,
Minneapolis, MN.*
Xin, K. R., & Pelled, L. H. (2003). Supervisor-subordinate conflict and perceptions of leadership
behavior: A field study. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 25–40.*
Yan, J. (2011). An empirical examination of the interactive effects of goal orientation, participa-
tive leadership and task conflict on innovation in small business. Journal of Developmental
Entrepreneurship, 16(3), 393–408.*
Yang, Y. F. (2012a). Studies of transformational leadership in consumer service: Leadership trust
and the mediating—Moderating role of cooperative conflict management. Psychological
Reports, 110(1), 315–337.*
Yang, Y. F. (2012b). Studies of transformational leadership in the consumer service workgroup:
Cooperative conflict resolution and the mediating roles of job satisfaction and change com-
mitment. Psychological Reports: Human Resources & Marketing, 111(2), 545–564.*
Yang, Y. F. (2014). Transformational leadership in the consumer service workgroup: Competing
models of job satisfaction, change commitment, and cooperative conflict resolution. Psycho-
logical Reports, 114(1), 33–49.
Zhang, X. A., Cao, Q., & Tjosvold, D. (2011). Linking transformational leadership and team
performance: A conflict management approach. Journal of Management Studies, 48(7),
The Effect of Leadership on Conflict Management 237
... The analysis then focuses on interactions between involved actors with different expectations (Taylor et al., 2021;Madalina, 2016;Leeuwis & Aarts, 2011), or on arrangements that have been secured (Wang & Wu, 2020;Boateng, 2014). Another perspective is to reflect on the assessment of the mechanisms that do not belong to the political analysis of the decision-making, such as the effects of understanding of each other interests (Yi, 2019;Prieto-Remóna et al., 2015;Howell, 2014;Rognes & Schei, 2010), or of leadership (Samanta & Lamprakis, 2019;Erzen & Armagan, 2015;Kazimoto, 2013). Conflict management has been also apprehended as a tool for improving organizational effectiveness; sociologists then argue the joint construction, including a synthesis between decision-making and attitudes of the stakeholders (Stepanova et al., 2020;Leeuwis & Aarts, 2016). ...
Full-text available
Is conflict inevitable? Unfortunately it seems to be a natural part of human interaction and on its own its not evil nor harmful, it's how its perceived and handled; as well as the actions and behaviours portrayed by those in conflict that can either resolve it or escalate the conflict. Wall & Callister (1995) states that; "when we're in a conflict, we don't see it that way. There are good guys; there are bad guys; we don't just disagree. Conflict-to most of us-is mighty unpleasant"(p.515). Conflict is therefore inevitable due to the diversity inherent in people. People experience conflict in various areas of life; between families, among colleagues, between employees and employers, between people of different political affiliations and differing believes, religions, tribes and between countries. Some even experience Intrapersonal conflict (internal conflict within one 'self).
Full-text available
The research is carried out to determine which leadership styles Turkish and Swedish managers have and which leadership style uses a conflict resolution method. Leadership styles and conflict management styles are discussed in the research. In the model, leadership styles variables are authoritarian leadership, democratic leadership, liberating leadership, transformational leadership and interactional leadership. Conflict management styles are integration, compliance, avoidance, dominance and reconciliation.
Academic leadership shares many features with any other kind of leadership, but at the same time, it is unique due to the specific features of academia and the way in which the system functions. Academia and the university setting consist of members among whom many have the same academic status and comparable levels of achievement. Although there is universal recognition of the relevance of leadership, not enough attention has been focused on ways in which academic leadership could be enhanced. In particular, the question of how someone's individual style of academic leadership is related to their capability to manage teams and conflicts remains unanswered. This chapter outlines academic leadership skills that have been observed from the perspective of the European academic context and looks at major ways in which teams are managed and conflicts are resolved, particularly in academic settings. Different strategies of conflict management are presented, and rationale for the employment of focused training courses and the sharing of experiences among leaders are provided.
Full-text available
The purpose of this research was to determine the personality characteristics that influence interpersonal conflict resolution approaches. Accordingly, it was explored how the big five personality characteristics predict conflict resolution approaches that focus on communication processes. The sample was composed of 302 university students and ranged 18 and 26 ages, receiving education in Ankara. Adapted for the national culture, Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Approaches Scale and Big Five Inventory Scale were used as instruments. The results showed that, openness to experience and agreeableness personality characteristics predicted all conflict resolution approaches. In addition, extraversion and conscientiousness personality characteristics played important roles in conflict resolution process. On the other hand, it was not established any relationship between neuroticism characteristic and conflict resolution approaches. Moreover, gender emerged as an important factor in explaining adopted approach in conflict processes. All these findings supported that personal characteristics played an important role in interpersonal conflict resolution processes.
Full-text available
Communication climate is of paramount importance in an organization as it contributes to the effectiveness and success of an organization. The communication climate of an organization may influence the atmosphere in the organization which either encourages or hinders horizontal, upward or downward communication among the employees. In organizations with defensive climates, employees have the tendency to abstain from communicating their needs, as they become very cautious in making statements, and may have low level of motivation. On the other hand, organizations with supportive environments encourage active participation, healthy exchange of information and constructive conflict resolution. Instilling collaborative communication climate in an organization however requires effective management of conflicts. This paper reports a study conducted in a high risk work environment of an oil and gas company, in which the personnel have to work with volatile chemicals and heavy machines. The communicative behaviors in such hazardous environments are not to be taken lightly as communication errors could lead to fatal incidences. The study thus investigates the impact of communication conflict strategies used by the personnel on the overall organizational communication climate in a high-risk workplace environment. A set of questionnaires were administered to employees at all levels in the organization working at the administrative office and at the gas plant. One hundred and twenty five employees responded to the questionnaire, which attributed to more than fifty percent of the total population. The findings discuss the impact of various communicative strategies used in conflict management on the organizational communication climate. The overall findings suggest that conflicts management is related to the roles the personnel play in the organization. In assuming the leadership role, the top management's approach to conflicts include confrontational and compromise, instead of non-confrontation and control, which have a degree of impact on the communication supportive climate. The executives, technical staff, non-technical staff have different approaches in conflict management strategies. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer review under responsibility of Organizing Committee of BEM 2013.
This study examines the impact of different types of channel leadership behavior on channel members' perceptions of intrachannel conflict in a franchise distribution channel. Factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis are used to explore the relationships between participative, supportive and directive leadership behavior and dependent measures of intrachannel conflict. The results indicate that conflict arising from both administrative and product-service issues diminishes when the franchisor is perceived to exhibit a leadership style emphasizing participation, support and direction in carrying out channel activities.
This study investigated the moderating effects sense of humor has on the relationship between leadership style and conflict management style of college student leaders. It is essential that student leaders possess qualities that respond to situations of conflict in a healthy and productive manner. Previous research suggests that humor can aid in the development of positive coping skills and improve communication skills during difficult situations. ^ The 98 participants in this study completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II (ROCI-II), and the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS). For each student leader, ratings of leadership behavior and outcomes were obtained from three followers, using the MLQ rater-form. Although all the hypotheses were not supported, many significant correlations emerged. The results showed that there was a positive relationship between sense of humor and self-rated transformational and self-rated transactional leadership style. The findings suggest sense of humor had a positive relationship with the integrating and dominating styles of conflict management which is inconsistent with previous research. Multiple regression analyses revealed that as sense of humor and transformational leadership behaviors increase, the preference for the avoiding conflict management style decrease.
This study examines the impact of different types of channel leadership behavior on channel members' perceptions of intrachannel conflict in a franchise distribution channel. Factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis are used to explore the relationships between participative, supportive and directive leadership behavior and dependent measures of intrachannel conflict. The results indicate that conflict arising from both administrative and product-service issues diminishes when the franchisor is perceived to exhibit a leadership style emphasizing participation, support and direction in carrying out channel activities.