Article

In-Class Versus Online Video Lectures: Similar Learning Outcomes, but a Preference for In-Class

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Previous findings suggest some advantages to using an online format to deliver declarative knowledge and to using class time for active learning and discussion. During 4 weeks of an introductory psychology course, students were assigned on alternate weeks to attend one of two lecture formats: in-class lecture or online video lecture with an in-class active learning session. No advantage was found for either format on the basis of quiz scores. Students appreciated the convenience of online lectures but preferred in-class lectures because of the increased ease of maintaining attention in the more structured environment. Attendance, as well as access of online content, decreased during the course of the study, suggesting that hybrid courses may lead to decreases in overall student effort.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... These changes led to a significant disruption in lectures and assessments, as some previous methods became difficult to use in an online format (Iglesias-Pradas, Herná ndez-Garcí a, Chaparro-Pelá ez, & Prieto, 2021). Online learning, when properly planned, can serve as a viable alternative to in-person learning (Driscoll, Jicha, Hunt, Tichavsky, & Thompson, 2012;Jensen, 2011;Kemp & Grieve, 2014), with the potential to enhance active learning among students through group work assignments or online discussion activities. Student satisfaction with online learning can be lower than in-person courses, as students have reported lower engagement with online material and lectures and an increased need for student self-discipline due to the lack of structure (Jensen, 2011;Wang, Shannon, & Ross, 2013). ...
... Online learning, when properly planned, can serve as a viable alternative to in-person learning (Driscoll, Jicha, Hunt, Tichavsky, & Thompson, 2012;Jensen, 2011;Kemp & Grieve, 2014), with the potential to enhance active learning among students through group work assignments or online discussion activities. Student satisfaction with online learning can be lower than in-person courses, as students have reported lower engagement with online material and lectures and an increased need for student self-discipline due to the lack of structure (Jensen, 2011;Wang, Shannon, & Ross, 2013). The implementation of active learning strategies (e.g. ...
... Many courses that had only existed previously as in-person, traditionally-styled face-to-face course offerings were forced into online formats with very different lecture and assessment plans. Previous research has demonstrated that students academic performance, skill development, and satisfaction are similar in online and in-person courses (Holmes & Reid, 2017;Monk & Newton, 2018;Nichols, Shaffer, & Shockey, 2003;Wang et al., 2013), although some students may prefer in-person lectures (Jensen, 2011). However, these studies report student outcomes from courses that are specifically designed to be conducted entirely or partially online, which is not the case for the majority of courses affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Article
Full-text available
Maintaining scientific literacy (SL) skill development in undergraduate science education while transitioning courses from the in-person to online learning environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic requires adaptation of some teaching practices. This study assessed the effectiveness of small online learning groups as the active engagement strategy (replacing in-person breakout groups) to promote SL skill development in fourth year undergraduate nutritional science students in the online learning environment (Fall 2020 semester). As a secondary outcome, SL skill development in the online learning environment (Fall 2020, n=178) was compared to that of the in-person course format (Fall 2019, n=144). Students were surveyed at the start and end of the semester to assess their i) scientific literature comprehension, ii) SL skill perceptions, and iii) practical SL skills. The use of online learning groups contributed to improvements in both literature comprehension and SL skill perceptions (P<0.05), however, practical SL skills remained unchanged (P>0.05). There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement in students’ SL skill perceptions or their practical SL skills between course formats (P>0.05). The ability to think critically about the scientific literature was increased in both course formats, with greater improvements observed in the online course format (P=0.02). Additionally, only students in the online course format had improved comprehension of scientific methods versus the in-person format (P=0.05). Collectively, these data demonstrate that the adaptations of an in-person course to an online learning environment using small online learning groups can similarly promote the development of SL in undergraduate nutrition education.
... There are many potential advantages associated with the flipped classroom, which are commonly extolled, along with less widely advertised potential pitfalls. Possible benefits include the following: Students may view the vodcasts at their own pace or review the material multiple times (Goodwin & Miller, 2013); lectures can be broken down into smaller units, and students can view them when most convenient and optimal (Forsey, Low, & Glance, 2013;Jensen, 2011); active learning, an effective teaching technique, can be employed during class time (Daniel & Braasch, 2013;Freeman et al., 2014;Karpiak, 2011); and instructors can work individually and make deeper connections with students who are having difficulties (Goodwin & Miller, 2013). The following drawbacks are also possible: Students may find the taped lectures less engaging than the typical classroom lecture and encounter more distractions when viewing the vodcasts (Jensen, 2011;Foertsch, Moses, Strikwerda, & Listzkow, 2002); students prefer to have a teacher available during lecture to answer questions (Chandra & Fisher, 2009;Foertsch et al., 2002); some students are less able to anticipate, schedule, and complete the out-of-class learning (Dunning, Johnson, Ehrlinger, & Kruger, 2003); when students watch taped lectures, there may be decreased compliance with the reading assignments (McLaughlin et al., 2014); and finally, students may have technical problems downloading or viewing the vodcasts, particularly those with fewer financial or technical resources (O'Bannon, Lubke, Beard, & Britt, 2011). ...
... Possible benefits include the following: Students may view the vodcasts at their own pace or review the material multiple times (Goodwin & Miller, 2013); lectures can be broken down into smaller units, and students can view them when most convenient and optimal (Forsey, Low, & Glance, 2013;Jensen, 2011); active learning, an effective teaching technique, can be employed during class time (Daniel & Braasch, 2013;Freeman et al., 2014;Karpiak, 2011); and instructors can work individually and make deeper connections with students who are having difficulties (Goodwin & Miller, 2013). The following drawbacks are also possible: Students may find the taped lectures less engaging than the typical classroom lecture and encounter more distractions when viewing the vodcasts (Jensen, 2011;Foertsch, Moses, Strikwerda, & Listzkow, 2002); students prefer to have a teacher available during lecture to answer questions (Chandra & Fisher, 2009;Foertsch et al., 2002); some students are less able to anticipate, schedule, and complete the out-of-class learning (Dunning, Johnson, Ehrlinger, & Kruger, 2003); when students watch taped lectures, there may be decreased compliance with the reading assignments (McLaughlin et al., 2014); and finally, students may have technical problems downloading or viewing the vodcasts, particularly those with fewer financial or technical resources (O'Bannon, Lubke, Beard, & Britt, 2011). ...
... However, this increase may come at a slight cost to the test items not covered by a class exercise. This may clarify the contradictory findings of Lewis and Harrison (2012) and Jensen (2011). As the convergence of concepts included in the class period and the concepts covered on the test increases, we would expect the positive impact of flipped methodology on test scores to increase. ...
Article
Full-text available
Flipped pedagogy has become a popular approach in education. While preliminary research suggests that the flipped classroom has a positive effect on learning in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics and quantitative courses, the research on the flipped classroom in a content heavy social science course is minimal and contradictory. We flipped four class topics in an introduction to psychology course, evaluated resulting student attitudes, and compared students’ performance on the flipped units to their performance on traditionally delivered content. We found mixed results for the effectiveness of the flipped classroom that were moderated by student characteristics and experiences with previous online or flipped courses. Students reported an overall preference for traditional classroom delivery but suggested retaining the flipped approach for some class periods.
... For example, a flipped classroom would have content available online for gaining knowledge and then have group discussions on the application of the content during class. Relatively new compared to other modalities, blended learning can be found under various names in the literature, such as mixed, hybrid, and HyFlex (S. Jensen, 2011;Romero-Hall & Ripine, 2021). ...
... As a developing modality, there remain challenges with terminology and classification. Although national agencies such as IPED and regional accrediting bodies attempt to clarify, blended learning can be found under various names in literature, such as hybrid learning (S. Jensen, 2011) An emerging definition from the Online Learning Consortium (OLC) involves reconceptualizing blended learning under the following definition: "Blended learning is instruction that blends technical, temporal, spatial, and pedagogical dimensions to create actualized learning" (Joosten et al., 2021, p. 9). This definition directly conflicts with the association of blended learning in IPED data as a part of the face-to-face modality. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Although research has been conducted on the benefits of technology-enhanced learning in education, some higher education institutions have adapted and embraced these technological benefits, but others have not. The COVID-19 pandemic brought a heightened awareness of technology-enhanced learning and the need for faculty to support the adoption of technology tools in their instructional practices. The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore faculty perceptions of the impact of a rapid need-based pivot to remote learning during the COVID-19 global pandemic. The study is grounded in the Technology Acceptance Model 3, which connects multiple perceptions of a technology user with indications of acceptance and use of technology. This model also considers the use of technology under voluntary and involuntary circumstances. Interviews with 13 faculty members from various campuses were conducted as the primary data collection method to answer the research question: What are faculty perceptions of the use of technology-enhanced learning resulting from their experiences during COVID-19? The findings of this study add to the body of knowledge on faculty transitions to technology acceptance, provide current perceptions of faculty regarding academic technology integration since the pandemic, and establish the basis for creating a faculty development series in technology-enhanced learning.
... Lecture videos were used in a fashion very similar to the education model in the present dissertation, i.e., the students themselves could choose how to utilize the videos and thus control the degree of blending. The studies of Jensen (2011) andO'Bannon et al. (2011) did not detect any significant improvements in academic performance as a result of using lecture videos. O'Bannon et al. studied teacher trainees and used audio podcasts as a form of blended teaching, whereas Jensen's study aimed to blend psychology studies with lecture videos. ...
... Similar results were also found in several other studies (Thai, De Wever & Valcke 2017, Wiese & Newton 2013, Suda et al. 2014, Vajoczki et al. 2010, Griffin, Mitchell & Thompson 2009. Some of the studies showed contradictory results (e.g., Jensen 2011, Congdon et al. 2009). Negative results were less common in earlier researches. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The education model used in master studies in mathematical information technology at Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius heavily utilizes educational technologies, especially streamed lecture videos and associated practices. The primary goal of the education model has been to make education more accessible by offering students more flexible participation opportunities. The goal of this dissertation is to describe and evaluate the this education model. The purpose of evaluating the model was to determine the functionality of the model and its impacts from the viewpoints of the model's various participants, including students, lecturers, and the educational organization. The evaluation of the education model's functionality was performed by examining its cost efficiency, operational reliability and transparency. The impacts of the education model were evaluated by evaluating the accessibility, learning outcomes and the role of the contact teaching.
... Study results suggest that access to lesson recordings does not contribute to student attendance decisions, which are instead based on the topic of the lecture, their positive or negative experiences with the lecturer, the lecturer's teaching approach, and the predicted outcome of the lecture (Billings-Gardiardi & Mazor, 2007). Rather than provide evidence that recordings reduce attendance, studies have shown that students value face-to-face lectures since they provide more interaction with peers and lecturers (Gosper, et al., 2008;Jensen, 2011). Related to legal considerations about academic freedom and intellectual property rights, it is firmly stated in the literature that it is an institution's responsibility to determine policies on the length of time recordings are kept, procedures for dealing with the recordings when the lecturer leaves the institution, and issues of transparency about rights and ownership as well as the use of the recordings for lecturers' performance evaluation or appraisals (Jisc, 2015). ...
... These results seem to be consistent with the other studies that claim that access to lecture recordings does not result in a decrease in attendance and that students appreciate the value of face to face lectures (Gosper, et al., 2010;Jensen, 2011;Newton, et al., 2014). The research on attendance suggests that students basically make their decisions based on the topic of the lecture, their positive or negative experiences with the lecturer, and the lecturer's teaching approach (Billings-Gagliardi & Mazor, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Technology-based teaching approaches such as flipped classroom and blended learning are becoming increasingly common as educational technology takes root. Lecture capture is one of these approaches; and using lecture capture, lecturers either share their lessons online or make necessary changes before they are made available for review by students. However, while this application has become widespread in teaching syllabi, it has prompted further discussion concerning the pedagogical impact of lecture capture on lecturers and students, including lecturers altering conventional teaching methods during recording, the intellectual property rights of materials used during lecture capture, student absenteeism, and the impact of lecture capture on students' success rate. This study investigated the perceptions of professors within a College of Education about their experiences and opinions regarding advantages and disadvantages in the lecture capture approach as well as their suggestions with a special focus on the pedagogical use of this approach. A qualitative research design based on the principles of the constructivist paradigm was used to explore professors' perceptions of lecture capture. The findings indicated four themes: attendance and participation, professional development, academic freedom, ethical/legal issues and institutional policy. The professors, in general, found the use of LC positive and useful. However, the findings suggest that the professors have concerns about academic freedom, student participation in lessons, ethical and legal issues, and institutional policy.
... (ebd., S. 39). Breitenbach (2016) (Traphagan et al. 2010;Jensen 2011;Drouin 2014), und bei Studierenden eine vorhandene Neigung zum Prokrastinieren noch verstärken kann. ...
... does not explicitly ask students about equivalence to the live session, research has shown 13 that they prefer live lectures (Jensen, 2011) suggesting that they recognise recordings are not 14 equivalent (although reinforcing the importance of attendance as in section 3.1 is still 15 crucial). As in section 4.3, we would strongly advise against basing pedagogical decisions on 16 ...
Article
In this article, we provide practical recommendations to help promote self-regulated strategies for the use of lecture capture for both students and instructors. For students, we suggest that the importance of attendance and effective note-taking should be reinforced, as well as specifying how lecture capture can best be used as a catch-up or revision aid. For instructors, we highlight the need to provide guidance for students on how to learn and to adopt a context-dependent approach to lecture capture based on pedagogical considerations, rather than all-or-nothing. Regarding the issue of the relationship between lecture capture and attendance, we suggest the focus should move to a more nuanced discussion of why students fail to attend lectures and how they are using lecture capture. Finally, we discuss other concerns commonly raised by instructors related to lecture capture. Our student guidance is available for dissemination in infographic form at https://osf.io/esd2q/files/.
... Studies have shown that students value face-to-face lectures. In a study of psychology students, Jensen (2011) reported that the most common reason students reported liking faceto-face lectures was that they provide more interaction, were more engaging, and so helped maintain attention. Similarly, Gospers et al. (2008) and Gysbers, Johnston, Hancock and Denyer et al. (2011) report that students found lectures motivating, valuing the contact with lecturers and with their peers, along with the organisational structure that attending lectures provides. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this review we consider the evidence concerning the impact of student access to lecture recordings. Overwhelmingly, students perceive having access to recordings as enhancing their experience and providing a flexible resource to aid their studies, deal with competing demands, and reduce anxiety. Research to date has largely focused on a binary question concerned with attendance and not the rich pedagogic tapestry revealed by the student data. There is no systematic evidence to suggest that access to recordings alone significantly impacts attendance and the impact of access to recordings on performance is related to a range of individual student characteristics such as level of study, ability, and approaches to learning. We argue that situating research in broader conceptual frameworks of student learning will prove a more fruitful approach to opening potential avenues of future research based, for example, around concepts of deep processing and distributed practice. Finally, we provide an overview of current institutional lecture capture policies and present, as a 'starter for 10', recommendations for guidance to support students, staff, and policy writers.
... In particular, outside class time is designed for students to gain knowledge at the remembering and understanding levels through the presentation of learning content using taped lectures (Hwang, Lai, & Wang, 2015). However, some studies have point out that students found taped lectures less engaging and more distracting than the typical classroom lecture (Jensen, 2011). Recommendations to improve the flipped classroom approach include the use of out-of-class learning activities to elicit students' engagement and exploration (Lo, 2018, pp. ...
Article
This study presents a systematic review of the literature on the use of augmented reality technology to support science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) learning. It synthesizes a set of 28 publications from 2010 to 2017. A qualitative content analysis is used to investigate the general characteristics of augmented reality applications in STEM education, the instructional strategies and techniques deployed in the studies reviewed, and the evaluation approaches followed in the interventions. This review found that most augmented reality applications for STEM learning offered exploration or simulation activities. The applications reviewed offered a number of similar design features based on digital knowledge discovery mechanisms to consume information through the interaction with digital elements. However, few studies provided students with assistance in carrying out learning activities. Most of the studies reviewed evaluated the effects of augmented reality technology in fostering students’ conceptual understanding, followed by those that investigated affective learning outcomes. A number of suggestions for future research arose from this review. Researchers need to design features that allow students to acquire basic competences related with STEM disciplines, and future applications need to include metacognitive scaffolding and experimental support for inquiry-based learning activities. Finally, it would be useful to explore how augmented reality learning activities can be part of blended instructional strategies such as the flipped classroom.
... No difference in test scores was found between the two groups; however, the tests may not have taken into account the learning that occurred in the active learning sessions. The students liked the convenience of watching the videos online, but they preferred the live lecture over the web lecture (Jensen, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
A great deal of evidence can be cited from higher education literature on the effectiveness of the flipped classroom; however, very little research was discovered on the flipped classroom at the K-12 level. This study examined K-12 teachers’ perceptions regarding the flipped classroom and differences in teachers’ perceptions based on grade level and content area taught. A researcher-developed survey instrument was used to collect data from K-12 teachers that utilize a flipped classroom in Southwest and South Central Minnesota. Survey participants totaled 44, which included 27 high school teachers, 15 middle school teachers, and 2 teachers that identified as other. It was found that participants perceived that the flipped classroom creates time for varied instructional techniques, including active learning and higher order thinking, along with increased student-to-teacher interaction. The insights from the study inform teachers in the field about benefits and best practices in regard to the flipped classroom instructional model.
... Although such lectures have increased the accessibility of learning, they are often viewed in distraction-prone settings (Hollis & Was, 2016) and commonly in the absence of an instructor that might be able to improve students' focus on lecture content. Many students also report that paying attention is more difficult, and rates of student engagement appear to drop more rapidly, when lectures are online as opposed to in-person (Guo, Kim, & Rubin, 2014;Jensen, 2011;Kim et al., 2014;Timmons, 2020). All of these concerns heighten the urgency of finding solutions to address the problem of mind wandering during lectures. ...
Preprint
Although online lectures have become increasingly popular, their effectiveness at promoting learning can be attenuated by mind wandering (shifts in attention away from the task at-hand towards unrelated thoughts). We investigated whether taking tests on to-be-studied information, also known as pretesting, could mitigate this problem and promote learning. In two experiments, participants viewed a 26-min video-recorded online lecture that was paired with a pretest activity (answering questions about the lecture) or a control activity (solving algebra problems), and with multiple probes to measure attention. Taking pretests reduced mind wandering and improved performance on a subsequent final test compared to the control condition. This result occurred regardless of whether pretests were interspersed throughout the lecture (Experiment 1) or were administered at the very beginning of the lecture (Experiment 2). These findings demonstrate that online lectures can be proactively structured to reduce mind wandering and improve learning via the incorporation of pretests
... Educational videos have potential to promote deeper cognitive learning by combining auditory and visual information in a presentation [1]. Videos can be utilized for example as online lectures (e.g., [2]), as additional materials to supplement lecture-based teaching (e.g., [3]), and as supplementary materials, such as demonstrations and illustrations (e.g., [4]). ...
... When instructors use interactive, dynamic lectures to tell a story, emphasize main points, and build foundational knowledge, lectures play an important role in teaching (Baeten, Dochy, & Sruyven, 2013;Harrington & Zakrajsek, 2017). In a study on lectures, Jensen (2011) found that 88% of undergraduate college students agreed or strongly agreed that lectures were helpful, while 49% agreed or strongly agreed that active learning strategies were helpful. These findings suggest that lectures can play an important role in learning when combined with active learning strategies. ...
... Similarly, some studies reported no difference between active and traditional teaching methods in overall test scores, but found active learning methods superior either on measures of lower-level skills such as recalling facts (Sawyer et al., 2017) or-more often-on measures of higher-level cognitive skills such as critical thinking (e.g., Haak et al., 2011;Persky, 2012;Redekopp & Ragusa, 2013;Richmond & Kindelberger Hagan, 2011;Wiggins, Chiriac, Abbad, Pauli, & Worrell, 2016). Further, although most studies show that students were more engaged in, learned more from, and/or enjoyed more the active learning format as compared with the traditional one (e.g., Allen & Baughman, 2016;Cavanagh, 2011;Frost, 2017;Hoffman & Goodwin, 2006;Lawson, 1995;Owen & Siakaluk, 2011), some studies found just the opposite (e.g., Copeland, Scott, & Houska, 2010;Forsey, Low, & Glance, 2013;Jensen, 2011;Khanova, McLaughlin, Rhoney, Roth, & Harris, 2015;Malmquist & Collins, 2017;Roehling, Root Luna, Richie, & Shaughnessy, 2017;Tsang & Harris, 2016;Venkatesh et al., 2016;White et al., 2014). These conflicting results may not matter much, though, because student ratings of active learning methods show little or no correlation with academic performance as measured by exams, quizzes, or final grades (e.g., Allen & Baughman, 2016; Elliott et al., 2010;Wesp & Miele, 2008). ...
Article
Some studies of active learning methods suggest that they are effective teaching tools, whereas others have found them to be no better than traditional lecture methods. The situation is much like the one that began to play out in the 1950s with respect to the effects of psychotherapy. In that realm, it eventually became clear that the question “does therapy work?” was not the right one. It was more important to ask “which therapies result in clinically significant benefits when delivered by whom in what manner to which clients with what problems and how durable are the benefits”? This article suggests that it is time for researchers in the scholarship of teaching and learning to go beyond asking whether active learning “works” and address instead of a set of deeper questions about it. Doing so will require a more systematic and critical analysis of existing evidence as well as a new generation of research designed specifically to fill in the gaps in our understanding of what active learning methods can and cannot do.
... Others have measured attendance in lectures using sign-in sheets or ID card swiping (e.g. Inglis et al. 2011;Jensen 2011;Phillips et al. 2011;Traphagan et al. 2010). In addition to inconsistencies in collecting attendance data, multiple methods have been used to collect recording data with some studies collecting self-reports of recording use (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lecture capture tends to polarise the views of academic staff. Some view it as encouraging non-attendance at lectures. Others view it as a valuable adjunct, allowing students to revisit the lecture experience and providing opportunities for clarification and repetition of key points. However, data supporting either of these stances remains scarce. Irrespective of these views, a more pertinent question pertains to the impact of lecture attendance and the use of recordings on student achievement. Findings remain unclear due to methodological issues, inconsistent findings, and a lack of differentiation of students by year of study. This paper investigated the impact of attendance, lecture recording, and student attainment across four years of an undergraduate programme. For first year students, attendance and recording use were positive predictors of performance. For weaker students, supplementary recording use was beneficial but only better students use of the recordings helped overcome the impact of low attendance. For second year students, attendance and recording use were positively correlated with, but no longer predictive of, achievement. There was no relationship for honours year students. We found no compelling evidence for a negative effect of recording use, or that attendance and recording use were related. We suggest focusing on improving lecture attendance through monitoring whilst also providing recordings for supplementary use, particularly in first year. Finally, our findings highlight the need to consider third variables such as year of study and first language when conducting and comparing lecture capture research.
... Navarro and Shoemaker [16] studied a matched pair of instructional modes for an MBA macroeconomics course and reported no significant difference between the results. Jensen [9] conducted a study to investigate the learning outcome between in-class and online video modes in an introduction psychology course and indicated that these two modes have similar learning outcomes, but students preferred in class mode. Goette et al. [5] compared delivery approaches for abnormal psychology teaching and noticed that there is almost no difference between in-class face to face and online learning modes. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of learning technologies has increased rapidly during the last two decades, primarily for online learning but also for in-class learning. It has become widely accepted that online learning may offer conveniences and cost reductions. However, a comparison of student performance when engaged in online learning versus in-class learning and the corresponding implications have yet to be thoroughly investigated—especially in STEM education. The gap in the current relevant literature motivates this research. In this paper, two key questions are addressed: (1) which learning mode generates a better student performance in STEM education, in-class or online mode? (2) what types of factors affect learning performance for in-class and online modes? To help analyze these questions, the authors designed and implemented an engineering drawing case study. The case investigated whether there exists a significant statistical difference in the performance of two student groups. In one, 32 students were asked to be physically present in a classroom, to listen to a lecture given by an instructor, and to participate in class discussion prior to taking a quiz. In the other, 32 different students received the same content online and were allowed the same time to study as well as post to an online discussion board before taking an identical quiz. A hypothesis test was then used to analyze the performance difference. The results show that there is no significant learning outcome difference between in-class and online learning modes in engineering drawing content. The relevant previous experience has significant impacts on the learning outcomes for both in-class and online learning modes.
... Further analyses led to the conclusion that using WBLT and attending lectures in person were nearly equivalent in predicting grades. Another study found students scored similarly on weekly quizzes whether they were randomly assigned to attend the lecture in person or to view it online (Jensen, 2011). Students also report that they learn the material better when they can access the recordings to help prepare for exams, reviewing parts of lectures they attended that were unclear (Aldamen, Al-Esmail, & Hollindale, 2015). ...
Article
Web-based lecture technology (WBLT) allows students access to recorded lectures delivered live to the classroom any time and to any device with internet. This technology has become standard across universities. This study of Australian undergraduate psychology students explored many important questions related to WBLT. About 75% of students surveyed utilised recorded lectures. Qualitative responses allowed students to explain many reasons for using WBLT, including to study for exams, regular study throughout the semester, to catch up on lectures they missed attending, and to clarify specific parts of the lecture. Four types of students were identified. Those who: (1) attended lectures regularly and did not access recordings; (2) attended most or all lectures and also accessed recordings to reinforce learning and for exams; (3) attended lectures but when they missed class accessed recordings; also accessed to reinforcing learning and for exams; and (4) did not attend lectures (by choice or due to personal circumstances) and only accessed lecture recordings. No differences in final grades were found based on higher/lower lecture attendance or higher/lower access of lecture recordings. It is concluded that WBLT is flexible, allowing students to apply it in different ways and the different patterns are related to similar academic achievement.
... This may be why fewer cohort 2 respondents enjoyed the flipped lecture (Table 2) as not all had experienced the full flipped teaching event. Accessing online material often mirrors attendance rates at live teaching sessions, so this could reflect a general decline in attendance patterns across a course (Jensen, 2011). The Year 2 students with prior experience of a flipped lecture (cohort 3) tended to view the online recording. ...
Article
Lectures underpin most medical school curricula; however, due to their frequently didactic nature, their pedagogical efficacy and value are continually questioned. The “flipped” lecture is one approach with the potential to increase student collaboration and interactivity within the lecture theatre environment. Increasingly, medical teachers are introducing flipped lectures, reflecting the increasing use of active learning techniques and digital technologies across the higher education sector more generally. This intervention is seen as a solution to the problems of a traditional lecture, yet whether the use of flipped lectures in medical school programmes enhances learning for all students is not clear. This study investigates whether flipped lectures are perceived as a valuable learning resource by undergraduate medical students. By introducing a flipped lecture at two stages of the curriculum to three student cohorts, and determining students’ observations and perceptions of each experience, we discuss why a flipped lecture does not always meet the needs of the increasingly diverse range of students in medical education and propose exercising caution when considering the introduction of flipped lectures to undergraduate programmes.
... Although such lectures have increased the accessibility of learning, they are often viewed in distraction-prone settings (Hollis & Was, 2016) and commonly in the absence of an instructor that might be able to improve students' focus on lecture content. Many students also report that paying attention is more difficult, and rates of student engagement appear to drop more rapidly, when lectures are online as opposed to in-person Jensen, 2011;Kim et al., 2014;Timmons, 2020). All of these concerns heighten the urgency of finding solutions to address the problem of mind wandering during lectures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although online lectures have become increasingly popular, their effectiveness at promoting learning can be attenuated by mind wandering (shifts in attention away from the task at hand towards unrelated thoughts). We investigated whether taking tests on to-be-studied information, also known as pretesting, could mitigate this problem and promote learning. In two experiments, participants viewed a 26-min video-recorded online lecture that was paired with a pretest activity (answering questions about the lecture) or a control activity (solving algebra problems), and with multiple probes to measure attention. Taking pretests reduced mind wandering and improved performance on a subsequent final test compared to the control condition. This result occurred regardless of whether pretests were interspersed throughout the lecture (Experiment 1) or were administered at the very beginning of the lecture (Experiment 2). These findings demonstrate that online lectures can be proactively structured to reduce mind wandering and improve learning via the incorporation of pretests.
... Video recordings of the consultations were made in their office to create an online resource for the community of peers and subsequent years of students who were not present at to learn from consultation. This created the communal consultation video (CCV). 1 Videos for teaching and learning have become commonplace as a mode of content presentation [2][3][4] or in instructional skills videos on how to perform certain procedures. [5][6][7] This study presents a novel video learning modality that supports students understanding and application of knowledge by observing dialogic exchange. ...
Article
Introduction This study presents a novel, student‐centred, on‐demand video learning modality that supports students as they transition from theory to clinical practice. Authentic, one‐to‐one teacher and student consultations have been video recorded and uploaded online for the peers and subsequent years of students to consume and learn from. This study describes the development and use of these communal consultation videos (CCVs), examines how students perceive this novel intervention and proposes supporting educational theory. Methods A library of 28 CCVs has been archived online, to enable learning for students not present at the original staff consultation. A questionnaire was designed and administered to evaluate student perceptions of this novel learning intervention and administered to see how students used and perceived its benefit. Results The CCV has proven to be popular, well received and valued by students. Students reported the videos were interactive, engaged them cognitively and supported them for assessments and in preparation for the clinical care of their own patients. Students also reported that watching the videos broadened their “clinical” experience of others cases that were different to their own. Conclusion This novel learning modality demonstrates new engaging learning opportunities for students and teachers that support students for assessments and clinical skill practice and afford observational clinical experience.
... For this reason, we suggest that studies focusing on courses within specific academic disciplines and settings be the focus of the literature in order to inform educational practice. Although there are examples in the literature of teaching human development and introductory psychology/social sciences in a hybrid format (e.g., Cottle & Glover, 2011;Jensen, 2011;Lewis & Harrison, 2012), we identified only one study in the literature that compared student outcomes when teaching abnormal psychology in F2F versus hybrid formats conducted with graduate students (Sullivan, 2016). Van Doorn and Van Doorn (2014) note that the learning, educational culture, and social needs of undergraduate and graduate students differ. ...
Article
This study compares the academic performance and perceptions of 114 undergraduate students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course. Specifically, this study focuses on whether face-to-face (F2F) or blended modalities are associated with student learning outcomes. In this study, data analysis was based upon the examination of end-of-course grades, final exams, and an end-of-course survey. The data revealed that the same course presented in a F2F and a hybrid modality was associated with nearly identical learning outcomes in terms of student evaluations and final exam scores. However, students did note differences in course delivery in terms of time, assessment, and overall structure.
... Increased Flexibility: If all learners and teachers are equipped with required gadgets and internet access, online education has an advantage of universal access and increased flexibility (Jensen, 2011). ...
... For this reason, we suggest that studies focusing on courses within specific academic disciplines and settings be the focus of the literature in order to inform educational practice. Although there are examples in the literature of teaching human development and introductory psychology/social sciences in a hybrid format (e.g., Cottle & Glover, 2011;Jensen, 2011;Lewis & Harrison, 2012), we identified only one study in the literature that compared student outcomes when teaching abnormal psychology in F2F versus hybrid formats conducted with graduate students (Sullivan, 2016). Van Doorn and Van Doorn (2014) note that the learning, educational culture, and social needs of undergraduate and graduate students differ. ...
Article
This study compares the academic performance and perceptions of 114 undergraduate students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course. Specifically, this study focuses on whether face-to-face (F2F) or blended modalities are associated with student learning outcomes. In this study, data analysis was based upon the examination of end-of-course grades, final exams, and an end-of-course survey. The data revealed that the same course presented in a F2F and a hybrid modality was associated with nearly identical learning outcomes in terms of student evaluations and final exam scores. However, students did note differences in course delivery in terms of time, assessment, and overall structure.
... Also, as a result of applying FC to middle school students, participation in the class was high, but the student's academic performance was not effective (Choi, 2015). In the middle school student's math class, there were significant differences in mathematical attitudes between experimental and control groups, but no significant differences in academic performance (Hwang, 2017;Scott, 2011). ...
Chapter
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of flipped learning on students' academic achievements in the subject of science at Bilim Innovation Lyceums (BIL) in Kazakhstan. For this purpose, pre and post surveys were conducted on 168 students who were divided into two groups; the experimental group consisting of 84 students who took part in flipped learning classes for seven weeks and the control group consisting of 84 students who experienced the traditional method of classroom instruction at the same period. To achieve the objectives of the study, a final placement test score was used before and after the introduction of the flipped classroom model. The results of the study are summarized as follows. There were a significant difference between the two groups in terms of academic achievement when it measured by test scores before and after the concerned semester. On the basis of these findings, several suggestions were made for the schools to utilize innovative instructional methods including flipped learning for sustainable education in the future.
... Given that some students prefer synchronous learning experiences (Dahlstrom-Hakki et al., 2020;Jensen, 2011), each teaching assistant (TA) and peer tutor teaches one optional discussion section each week. Prior to March 2020, these discussion sections were held onground and also simulcast via Zoom. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, I recall and reflect on teaching virtually an undergraduate group processes class during the COVID-19 pandemic. I explain the parameters and expectations I had for the class, in addition to reflecting on their effectiveness. I end the chapter with teaching tips based on knowledge attained from teaching the course in a new format.
... Given that some students prefer synchronous learning experiences (Dahlstrom-Hakki et al., 2020;Jensen, 2011), each teaching assistant (TA) and peer tutor teaches one optional discussion section each week. Prior to March 2020, these discussion sections were held onground and also simulcast via Zoom. ...
Chapter
Teaching Cognitive Psychology online represents an exceptional opportunity to interact and connect with students in diverse and relevant ways. A course in Cognitive Psychology can be strengthened by considering the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. In a world immersed by several sources of information, it is crucial undergraduate students both acquire tools for the analysis and processing of information and develop the ability to examine cognitive and decision-making processes. In this chapter, we present the development of the Cognitive Psychology online course and its implications to address the problems derived from the global health problem. We present the generalities of the course, the different interactions between real phenomena (e.g. beliefs about the fair distribution of income, information processing in reading acquisition, children’s learning of basic mathematical concepts and procedures, cognitive processing in decision-making, COVID-19 pandemic), and the content of the course. We discuss the different dynamics, activities, and assessments that we followed during the online course. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of research to obtain and strengthen knowledge. Finally, we reflect on the advantages and implications of taking the online course and comment on two fundamental ideas for the consolidation of the concepts: 1) the conception and development of an advanced course in cognitive process modeling, and 2) the formulation of an international research seminar in cognitive sciences.
... With the advent of new online educational technologies, there is increasing interest in leveraging web-based resources in university courses. Using these resources, instructors are finding new ways to engage students both inside and outside of class [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. For example, several institutions have incorporated online resources such as multimedia learning modules, computer simulation, e-Text as assignments that students should complete before coming to class in their introductory physics courses [6][7][8][9][10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The advent of new educational technologies has stimulated interest in using online videos to deliver content in university courses. We examined student engagement with 78 online videos that we created and were incorporated into a one-semester flipped introductory mechanics course at the Georgia Institute of Technology. We found that students were more engaged with videos that supported laboratory activities than with videos that presented lecture content. In particular, the percentage of students accessing laboratory videos was consistently greater than 80% throughout the semester. On the other hand, the percentage of students accessing lecture videos dropped to less than 40% by the end of the term. Moreover, the fraction of students accessing the entirety of a video decreases when videos become longer in length, and this trend is more prominent for the lecture videos than the laboratory videos. The results suggest that students may access videos based on perceived value: students appear to consider the laboratory videos as essential for successfully completing the laboratories while they appear to consider the lecture videos as something more akin to supplemental material. In this study, we also found that there was little correlation between student engagement with the videos and their incoming background. There was also little correlation found between student engagement with the videos and their performance in the course. An examination of the in-video content suggests that students engaged more with concrete information that is explicitly required for assignment completion (e.g., actions required to complete laboratory work, or formulas or mathematical expressions needed to solve particular problems) and less with content that is considered more conceptual in nature. It was also found that students’ in-video accesses usually increased toward the embedded interaction points. However, students did not necessarily access the follow-up discussion of these interaction points. The results of the study suggest ways in which instructors may revise courses to better support student learning. For example, external intervention that helps students see the value of accessing videos may be required in order for this resource to be put to more effective use. In addition, students may benefit more from a clicker question that reiterates important concepts within the question itself, rather than a clicker question that leaves some important concepts to be addressed only in the discussion afterwards.
... The traditional flipped classroom approach is through multimedia learning content, like the video (Hwang et al., 2015). However, Jensen (2011) suggested that students are more likely distracted in taped learning outside the more structured classroom environment, undermining learners' attention and engagement during the flipped learning. Therefore, the success of flipped learning depends significantly on how the out-class learning activities can encourage students' engagement and exploration (Lo, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Chemistry education is challenging when many students cannot see the relevance and interest between what they learn at school and their everyday life outside the curriculum. Due to the prevalence of chemicals in real life, students lose interest in those not-so-novel Chemistry problems as they are satisfied with their rudimentary grasp of knowledge. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to draw students’ attention to those day-to-day Chemistry concepts, a task in which augmented reality (AR) can be a competent pedagogical facilitator. Despite its popularity due to the development of smart devices, educators are still averse to adopting AR in teaching because of the doubts about its pedagogical effectiveness and difficulties in implementation. This paper will demonstrate an AR app developed by City University of Hong Kong (CityU) for a year four undergraduate Chemistry course under two UGC’s project funds and CityU’s Teaching Development Grant that aligns with the university’s Discovery and Innovation-enriched Curriculum. The learning theories and technology stack of development and deployment will be shared in this paper. The consideration during preparation, production, and publishing will also be documented. A pilot survey about students’ perception of the AR showed positive feedback for the AR app in terms of enhancing awareness, learning, understanding, and engagement, which addresses the concerns of retaining students’ engagement during teaching and learning real-life Chemistry. We hope that educators who are interested in adopting AR can gain insights from this AR development experience. This research can act as a foundation for further exploration of applying AR in secondary and tertiary Chemistry education.
... Without such motivation and a certain prior level of knowledge, the flipped classroom would fail (Hao 2016). Research showed that students may find the video lectures less engaging and have difficulties in maintaining attention (Jensen 2011;Burke and Fedorek 2017) and, due to the extra workload, the flipped learning strategy is useful only for motivated students (Yang 2017). Moreover, students with higher motivation are more likely to achieve more with flipped learning (Chuang et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Flipped learning is considered an increasingly common strategy along with some drawbacks. Gamification has the significant potential to deal with the drawbacks. This study presents a systematic literature review on the use of gamification in flipped learning research. To demonstrate its effectiveness clearly, the only empirical research was covered related to this topic. The Web of Science, Scopus, Wiley Online Library, ERIC and Science Direct databases were surveyed and a total of twenty two articles were selected for the review. The findings reveal that adding game elements into a flipped classroom yields higher motivation, participation and better learning performance. Yet there is insufficient evidence to generalize the results. It is also found that the platforms, Moodle and Kahoot, are the most preferred platforms and points, badges and leaderboards are the most used game elements for gamification.
... However, these findings are not uniform across all student demographics or for all courses of study. For example, students taking an introductory psychology class reported they preferred in-class to online lectures (Jensen, 2011), and students in an undergraduate medical microbiology course rated their preference for the course lower when it was taught under a BL model (Daley, Reddigan, Clarke, & Shorlin, 2013). Finally, despite being often branded as "Digital Natives," students born from the early 1980s to the mid-1990s reported significantly less engagement and interaction in a BL setting than did "Gen-X" or "boomer" students (Dziuban, Moskal, & Hartman, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Hybrid or blended learning (BL) has been shown to be equivalent to or better than face-to-face (FTF) instruction in a broad variety of contexts. We randomly assigned students to either 50/50 BL or 100% FTF versions of a research methods and statistics in psychology course. Students who took the BL version of the course scored significantly lower on measures of quantitative mastery of statistical concepts than those who took the FTF version; however, the size of this effect was quite small. We detected no significant difference between BL and FTF in the expression of critical thinking through writing or writing mechanics. The greatest difference in performance was among instructors regardless of instruction type. We discuss these results in the context of increasing online and BL instruction, particularly with regard to teaching psychological statistics, research methods, and critical thinking.
... Talley and Scherer (2013) found a significant increase in final grades for a flipped physiological psychology section when compared to final grades of a previously taught lecture-based physiological psychology section. However, some comparable studies have produced opposing findings (Jensen, 2011;Roehling et al., 2017). One study comparing the test performance of undergraduates enrolled in an introduction to psychology course (with flipped units) to the test performance of students who experienced the traditional format of the same course the previous semester showed that, as a whole, students performed better in the traditional classroom format (Roehling et al., 2017). ...
Article
This brief report summarizes the basic principles and common applications of the flipped classroom, highlighting its use in the teaching of psychology. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of the inverted teaching model is reviewed and an argument for its use within graduate-level psychology courses is provided. Two examples of graduate-level psychology courses (i.e., cognitive abilities and objective personality assessment) that incorporate elements of the flipped classroom are presented, along with suggestions for other applied courses. Finally, the authors discuss potential benefits and barriers for redesigning a traditionally formatted class to adhere to an inverted format.
Conference Paper
The traditional in-class methodology was developed for small classrooms of 15-20 students. Low student to teacher ratios, typically under 20 students per teacher, have been preferred and recommended to maximize student achievement, engagement, and retention from research starting in the 1970's [1] [2] [3]. Actual classroom sizes for K-12 vary depending on a variety of factors [4]. Today, some undergraduate Engineering courses consist of more than ten times that many students: some who are interested, some who just want a passing grade, and others who are not yet ready for college and do not properly prepare to study material. In fact, according to a national survey consisting of 560 colleges and universities in 2016, 20% of first-year college students had difficulty learning and getting help with coursework [5] [6]. As classroom sizes increase and varying levels of experiences of students, this situation will only exacerbate existing problems and deficiencies utilizing current teaching methodologies and tools. An automated tool that can provide similar recommendations would free up all that time and allow for more meaningful discussions. Also, students would save hours individually in terms of getting stuck, waiting for responses, and then spending time to get back to where they were later when they got stuck. This is potentially even more beneficial for students who do not typically ask questions when they get stuck, hoping that attending lecture or discussion will answer their questions. Utilizing latent semantic analysis (LSA), a natural language processing algorithm, recommendations can be created through mathematical searching and categorizing sources using singular value decomposition (SVD). The automated tool can pre-emptively suggest additional reading and viewing material, allowing the student to continue their studies without a long wait interval.
Preprint
Full-text available
Recording lectures is a topic which tends to polarise the views of academic staff. Some view it as something which encourages non-attendance at lectures by students. Others view it as a valuable adjunct, allowing students to revisit the lecture experience and providing opportunities for clarification and repetition of key points. However, data supporting either of these stances remains scarce. Irrespective of these views, a more pertinent question pertains to the impact of lecture attendance and the use of recordings on student achievement. Findings in this area remain unclear due to methodological issues, inconsistent findings. and a lack of differentiation of students by year of study. This paper investigated the impact of attendance, lecture recording and student attainment across four years of an undergraduate degree programme. For first year students, attendance and recording use were positive predictors of performance. For weaker students, supplementary recording use was beneficial but only better students use of the recordings helped overcome the impact of low attendance. For second year students, attendance and recording use were positively correlated with, but no longer predictive of, achievement. There was no relationship for honours year students. We found no evidence for a negative effect of recording use, or that attendance and recording use were related. We suggest focusing on improving lecture attendance through monitoring whilst also providing recordings for supplementary use, particularly in first year.
Chapter
Within many areas of higher education, online resources such as lecture videos or recorded webcasts have become part of the classroom environment. This book chapter provides a summary of the findings from research studies focused on the incorporation of online lecture videos in undergraduate courses and the impact these tools have on student learning. There are both benefits and challenges associated with lecture video usage. Key reported benefits include increased learning performance, elevated attention and motivation, improved study habits, and control over learning. Some of the identified challenges include reduced class attendance and the amount of time an instructor must invest in order to create the videos. Overall, while there are limitations, the inclusion of lecture videos in courses seems to be widely favored by students and appears to offer value to their learning experience.
Chapter
Online learning is considered to be self-regulated learning, which means that the learner has to initiate, manage, and sustain the learning process. Past studies suggested that the use of integrated videos could lower the extraneous cognitive load of learners. However, it was not clear whether this benefit is produced from the closer spatial proximity between the two sources of information or the integration (rather than segmentation) of the two sources of information. The current study examined how spatial distance and integration of an instructor’s close-up video on PowerPoint slides reduce cognitive load when the material is low or high in terms of difficulty. Four conditions were formed by combining two levels of integration (high vs. low) and spatial proximity (high vs. low). Participants were randomly assigned to 1 out of the 4 conditions to watch one video of easy material and one video of difficult material in a counterbalanced order. Perceived mental effort and learning performance were measured for each condition. Results showed that there was a significant effect of task difficulty for both recall and transfer tests. Moreover, there was a two-way interaction with difficulty and spatial distance on the transfer test: When the material was difficult, participants performed poorer when the instructor was presented near the textual information than when she was presented further away. There was no effect of spatial distance when the material was easy. Future designers can consider customizing the online learning systems based on learners’ experience with the content and their familiarization with online technologies, as well as other factors to increase the motivationMotivation of the learners.
Chapter
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of flipped learning on students' academic achievements in the subject of science at Bilim Innovation Lyceums (BIL) in Kazakhstan. For this purpose, pre and post surveys were conducted on 168 students who were divided into two groups; the experimental group consisting of 84 students who took part in flipped learning classes for seven weeks and the control group consisting of 84 students who experienced the traditional method of classroom instruction at the same period. To achieve the objectives of the study, a final placement test score was used before and after the introduction of the flipped classroom model. The results of the study are summarized as follows. There were a significant difference between the two groups in terms of academic achievement when it measured by test scores before and after the concerned semester. On the basis of these findings, several suggestions were made for the schools to utilize innovative instructional methods including flipped learning for sustainable education in the future.
Chapter
Computer-unterstütztes kooperatives Lernen (CSCL) bedeutet, dass mehrere Lernende gemeinsam Lernaufgaben bearbeiten und dabei von Computern unterstützt werden. Basierend auf Merkmalen von Lernaufgaben sowie verschiedenen technischen Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten wird hier ein Modell von CSCL-Szenarien vorgestellt. Das Modell ermöglicht es Wirkzusammenhänge von Unterstützungsmaßnahmen für CSCL-Szenarien einschätzen und überdauernde Gestaltungsmerkmale für CSCL-Szenarien entwickeln zu können.
Chapter
Lernvideos zählen zu den wichtigsten digitalen Medien in der Hochschullehre. Kein anderes multimediales Format ist so unkompliziert herzustellen und zu publizieren wie das Lernvideo. Überdies ist keines so gut wissenschaftlich untersucht. Dieses Kapitel nimmt zunächst eine Begriffsbestimmung der verschiedenen Videoformate für die Lehre vor, beginnend bei der Vorlesungsaufzeichnung bis zum 360° Virtual Reality Video. Anschließend wird der typische Produktionsprozess eines Lernvideos beschrieben, Herausforderungen identifiziert und Lösungen benannt. Nach der Vorstellung verschiedener Einsatzmöglichkeiten in Präsenzveranstaltungen, Blended Learning Szenarien und kollaborativen Lernformaten wird ein ausführlicher Blick auf die vielfältige und nicht immer ganz widerspruchsfreie Wirkungsforschung zum Einsatz von Videos in der Hochschullehre geworfen.
Article
The flipped-classroom method is acquiring importance as a pedagogical technique to improve the learning performance of students. So far, most studies have examined the possible applications of the flipped-classroom method in the natural sciences realm, with most analyses certifying its positive impact. Its has been applied much less frequently in the social sciences realm, particularly in political science. Our project aims to generate data about active learning in political science by conducting an experiment in a class entitled “Regional Studies: Latin America.” Using quantitative analysis, we study academic performance in a flipped class, and through qualitative analysis, we explore student perceptions about the flipped classroom and other active-learning techniques.
Article
Full-text available
As online class offerings continue to proliferate and more students take at least one online class in college, more research is needed to explore factors that impact students’ perceptions of their online classes. Past research has found a positive relationship between students’ computer self-efficacy and their satisfaction with online learning, but little research has explored how learning management system and online learning self-efficacy relate to perceptions of satisfaction and perceived usefulness of online classes. In addition to confidence, students must also implement and apply their learning skills in an online environment; thus self-regulation and time management as well as past online learning experience are additional factors that have been shown to be related to satisfaction with and usefulness of online learning. This study explores how students’ confidence regarding their ability to use online learning platforms, utilize self-regulation strategies, and their confidence in their ability to learn in online classes predict both their satisfaction with and perceived usefulness of online classes. Multiple regression analyses revealed that students’ confidence to learn online was the strongest positive predictor of satisfaction and usefulness of online classes. The results indicate that exploring students’ purpose and reasons for taking online classes, beyond a students’ skill set and learning strategies, are fruitful directions to pursue when assessing evaluations of online classes.
Article
Although flipped classroom pedagogies have been widely touted for their ability to foster diverse 21st-century learning objectives, previous syntheses of flipped learning have focused almost exclusively on outcomes related to academic achievement. Using data from 317 studies, our research addresses this deficit by providing a comprehensive meta-analysis of the effects of flipped versus lecture-based learning on academic, intra-/interpersonal, and satisfaction-related outcomes in higher education. Overall, flipped classroom interventions produced positive gains across all three learning domains, and we found significant advantages of flipped over lecture-based instruction for seven out of eight outcomes (gs = 0.20–0.53). At the same time, there was substantial heterogeneity in flipped learning effects, and we identified several variables that influenced the relative efficacy of flipped versus traditional courses. Of the three types of moderators examined (contextual, design-based, and methodological), educational context (e.g., discipline, location) accounted for the most variability in flipped learning outcomes.
Article
The goal of this study is to evaluate the application of the flipped classroom (FC) format in the international studies curriculum. Previous research has examined the impact of the FC on students’ performance, operationalized by test scores, and demonstrated the utility of this technique in the learning process. Our research goes beyond student performance to evaluate the impact of the FC on student class attendance and the development of a set of soft skills, such as teamwork, critical thinking, self-efficacy, academic self-concept, and perception of learning. In our experiment, we compare an FC with a non-flipped class that combines traditional lecturing with other active learning techniques, such as presentations, teamwork activities, and problem-based debates. The study finds that the FC did not have a substantial impact on either students’ performance, attendance, or soft skills. The differences between the two groups were too small to corroborate any tendency in favor of one or the other format. For the most part, students performed in a similar way. This can suggest that the benefits of an FC format might be less when compared with other active learning techniques.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An Examination of Exam Anxiety of University Students Who Have to Continue Education Online During Covid 19 Period in Terms of Various Variables
Article
Full-text available
The current levels of enthusiasm for flipped learning are not commensurate with and far exceed the vast variability of scientific evidence in its favor. We examined 46 meta-analyses only to find remarkably different overall effects, raising the question about possible moderators and confounds, showing the need to control for the nature of the intervention. We then conducted a meta-analysis of 173 studies specifically coding the nature of the flipped implementation. In contrast to many claims, most in-class sessions are not modified based on the flipped implementation. Furthermore, it was flipping followed by a more traditional class and not active learning that was more effective. Drawing on related research, we proposed a more specific model for flipping, “Fail, Flip, Fix, and Feed” whereby students are asked to first engage in generating solutions to novel problems even if they fail to generate the correct solutions, before receiving instructions.
Article
Both large lectures and online formats are encouraged as viable options for the delivery of course material in higher education today, especially in large general education courses. However, how do such delivery formats impact student learning? In an effort to understand how lecture format impacts cognitive learning, this study investigated how the delivery format impacts the actual and perceived cognitive learning of students in a basic communication course in a midsized Midwestern university. Using one-way between-subjects ANOVA, earned exam grades, coded written reflections, and scores from a cognitive learning perception scale were compared across online, hybrid, and face-to-face lecture delivery formats. As predicted, no significant differences on any of the dependent variables were identified, indicating a lack of influence of delivery format on actual or perceived levels of cognitive learning. However, aspects of teacher immediacy, student learning preferences, and degree of interaction in recitation sections is discussed, along with implications for future research.
Article
Full-text available
A meta-analysis of the comparative distance education (DE) literature between 1985 and 2002 was conducted. In total, 232 studies containing 599 independent achievement, attitude, and retention outcomes were analyzed. Overall results indicated effect sizes of essentially zero on all three measures and wide variability. This suggests that many applications of DE outperform their classroom counterparts and many applications perform more poorly. Dividing achievement outcomes into synchronous and asynchronous forms of DE produced a somewhat different impression. In general, mean achievement effect sizes for synchronous applications favored classroom instruction while for asynchronous applications they favored DE. However, significant heterogeneity remained in each subset. Three clusters of study features—research methodology, pedagogy, and media—entered into weighted multiple regression, revealed, in general, that methodology accounted for the most variation followed by pedagogy and media, suggesting that Clark's (1983, 1994) claims of the importance of pedagogy over media are essentially correct. We go on to suggest that researchers move beyond simple comparisons between DE and classroom instruction to more pressing and productive lines of inquiry that may contribute more to our knowledge of what works best in DE.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract One of the most common uses of a course management system in the on-campus environment is to offer lecture resources to students. Few researchers have investigated how students use such resources. This study considers student use of lecture resources that offer a representation of the lecture presented (i.e. lecture outline, lecture summary, audio recording) and the relationship of the use of such resources to examination performance and attendance. The present research is argued to be an extension of research that investigated the benefits of providing students instructor notes conducted some 30 years ago. The Internet provides a practical way to apply some of these ideas and to collect data on the reaction of students to the opportunity to view lecture resources. Students made very little use of the audio recordings. We suggest audio recordings may be regarded by students as less efficient and less useful than text-based lecture summaries. The use of online lecture resources, lecture attendance, and examination performance were positively related. For one of three examinations, there was a significant negative interaction of note use and attendance in predicting examination performance providing some support for the hypothesis that students may be able to successfully compensate by viewing online lecture resources when unable to attend class. Because students in this study were not asked to explain their use of these resources, the present findings are regarded as speculative. However, given the interests of many practitioners in providing students lecture resources, the descriptive data and the relationships observed here encourage additional investigation.
Article
Full-text available
Meta-analytic techniques were used to examine the effectiveness of Web-based instruction (WBI) relative to classroom instruction (CI) and to examine moderators of the comparative effectiveness of the 2 delivery media. The overall results indicated WBI was 6% more effective than CI for teaching declarative knowledge, the 2 delivery media were equally effective for teaching procedural knowledge, and trainees were equally satisfied with WBI and CI. However, WBI and CI were equally effective for teaching declarative knowledge when the same instructional methods were used to deliver both WBI and CI, suggesting media effects are spurious and supporting Clark's (1983, 1994) theory. Finally, WBI was 19% more effective than CI for teaching declarative knowledge when Web-based trainees were provided with control, in long courses, and when trainees practiced the training material and received feedback during training. Study limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Since online learning technology, such as streaming video, was introduced to the college distance-learning environment, there has been a need to study the attitudes of college students toward the use of this modality in hybrid courses. Understanding students’ attitudes toward using online materials and the impact on class attendance is not only essential to ascertain how effectively the online content is delivered, it also helps teaching faculty prepare online courses and education programs. This paper studies the attitudes of college students’ about online materials in a hybrid upper division communications class. Student attitudes towards combining distance-learning techniques with traditional lecture tended to be positive. Students held the belief that hybrid courses have a negative impact on attendance, but they did not self-report an actual impact. Students do believe that they benefit from this technology, but the belief is strongest in those who are most computer/Internet literate. How these attitudes/beliefs impact the student in the context of a rural culture will be discussed.
Article
Mixed or hybrid method has become an increasingly popular course delivery model in recent years, but research regarding the effect of mixed learning is limited because of its recent debut in the landscape of educational technology. This one-year exploratory study looked at 78 elementary teacher candidates' view of learning in four mixed courses that used Blackboard Learning Management System (LMS) to supplement as well as replace some portions of face-to-face instruction. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from surveys designed to measure students' satisfaction and perspectives of hybrid learning. Results suggested high level of satisfactions but also revealed several important issues and complexities involving hybrid course implementation.
Article
We developed a hybrid course format (part online, part face-to-face) to deliver a high-enrollment, introductory environmental biology course to resident (living on or near campus), non-science majors at a large, public university. The hybrid course was structured to include bi-weekly online assignments and weekly meetings in the lecture hall focused on active-learning exercises. To evaluate the effectiveness of the web-based component of the hybrid course, we taught the hybrid course simultaneously with a traditional course in which we used passive lectures to cover material in the online assignments. Both courses received the same active-learning activities in class. Students in the hybrid course reported that the quality of interaction with the instructor was high, that they read the text more often and studied in groups more frequently. Performance on a post-course assessment test indicated that the hybrid course format was better or equivalent to the traditional course. Specifically, online assignments were equivalent to or better than passive lectures, and that active-learning exercises were more effective when coupled with online activities. Performance gains were greater for upperclassmen than for freshmen, indicating that hybrid course formats might be a superior option for upperclassmen when satisfying general science requirements.