ArticlePDF Available

Functionalization of cotton fabric at low graphene nanoplate content for ultrastrong ultraviolet blocking


Abstract and Figures

Flexible fabric with remarkable ultraviolet (UV) blocking was deemed as the feasible personal protection to shield human body against external ultraviolet radiation. In this paper, graphene nanoplate (GNP) as a novel UV absorber was utilized to functionalize the surface of cotton fabric at low content (0.05-0.4 wt.%) via pad-dry-cure method. The morphology and structure of the as-obtained modified cotton fabrics were characterized with scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Furthermore, the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was applied to evaluate UV blocking properties of the samples. The results indicated that the modified cotton fabric performed ultrastrong protection against UV radiation, up to 10-fold increment of UPF (from 32.71 to 356.74) was endowed only by incorporating graphene nanoplate 0.4 wt.%.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Multifunctional cotton fabrics with graphene/polyurethane coatings
with far-infrared emission, electrical conductivity, and ultraviolet-
blocking properties
Xili Hu
, Mingwei Tian
, Lijun Qu
, Shifeng Zhu
, Guangting Han
College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071, PR China
Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071, PR
Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071,
PR China
article info
Article history:
Received 9 February 2015
Received in revised form
22 August 2015
Accepted 26 August 2015
Available online 29 August 2015
In order to introduce multifunctional properties into exible cotton fabric, graphene and waterborne
anionic aliphatic polyurethane composites were prepared and then deposited on the surface of the fabric
substrate through facile pad-dry-cure process. The fabrics thus obtained were characterized by scanning
electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and their functional properties such as
far-infrared emission, electrical conductivity, and ultraviolet (UV) blocking were studied. The coating
process enhanced the far-infrared emissivity up to 0.911 in the wavelength range of 4e18
m. In addi-
tion, the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) of the fabric with 0.8-wt% graphene could reach 500, up to
60-fold higher than that of pristine cotton fabric (UPF 8.19), and its electrical resistivity was decreased
from 1.15 10
to 2.94 10
m, which is almost 8 orders of magnitude. The fabrics have also been
found to be stable even after 10 cycles of laundering.
©2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Flexible brous textile functional materials have recently
attracted attention for their electrical conductivity [1], antibacterial
[2],re retardant [3], superhydrophobic [4], and ultraviolet-
blocking properties [5]. Thus, functional properties are commonly
imparted to the fabric via approaches such as pad-dry-cure [6],
ultraviolet curing [7], plasma-induced graft polymerization [8,9],
solegel method [10], magnetron sputter technique [2], and appli-
cation of molecular layer-by-layer self-assembly techniques [11].
Far-infrared rays with a longer wavelength of 6e15
m can
penetrate 2e3mm[12] into most biological materials and exert
strong rotational and vibrational effects at the molecular level,
leading to dilation of blood vessels and therefore, enhancement of
blood microcirculation and metabolism [13,14]. Far-infrared-
emitting materials would transform the energy absorbed from
either sunlight or heat of the human body into far-infrared rays
within a specic wavelength range, and then reemit them to the
human body [15]. Because the far-infrared radiation enhances
blood circulation and metabolism as well as promotes the recovery
of fatigued muscles, much attention has been paid to the applica-
tion of germanium and ceramics to textile materials that have close
contact with the skin, such as mattresses, sheet materials, and
clothing for therapeutic and health care purposes [13e16].
Graphene is a one-atom-thick planar sheet of sp
-bonded carbon
atoms that are tightly packed into a two-dimensional honeycomb
lattice, and is a basic building block for graphite materials of all other
dimensionalities [17e19]. Because of its unique electronic, optical,
thermal, and mechanical properties, graphene differs from most
conventional three-dimensional materials, and has attracted great
attention as building block for advanced materials with diverse ap-
plications [20,21]. Moreover, functional textiles can also be made
using graphene. For instance, some researchers coated textiles with
graphene or graphene composites and introduced several signicant
multifunctional properties such as electrical conductivity [18,22],
*Corresponding author. College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shan-
dong 266071, PR China.
** Corresponding author. College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shan-
dong 266071, PR China.
E-mail addresses: (M. Tian), (L. Qu).
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
journal homepage:
0008-6223/©2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carbon 95 (2015) 625e633
antibacterial activity [17], and thermal conductivity [6]. The potential
of graphene to enhance far-infrared emission has not been explored.
Therefore, in this study, the graphene nanoplate was notably applied
as the functional unit to treat cotton fabric for attaining far-infrared
radiation and other special properties.
In this article, graphene and waterborne anionic aliphatic poly-
urethane composite were reported as a multifunctional nishing
agent for the woven cotton fabric by facile pad-dry-cure process. The
far-infrared radiation emission, electrical conductivity, and
ultraviolet-blocking properties were also investigated. Furthermore,
the durability of the aforementioned properties was evaluated.
2. Experimental
2.1. Materials
A1e3-nm-thick and 20-
m-long graphene nanoplate (GNP)
provided by Ningbo Moxi Science and Technology Ltd, China, was
stably dispersed in an aqueous solution of 25-mg/mL concentra-
tion. Waterborne anionic aliphatic polyurethane (WPU) was sup-
plied by Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd (40 wt%, particle
size <100 nm), and distilled water was used in the preparation of
all solutions. Ultrapure (100%) cotton fabric plain weave (190 g/m
supplied by Jiangsu Hongdou Industrial Co., Ltd, China, was used as
substrate fabric.
2.2. Preparation of multifunctional cotton fabrics
During initial stages of the experiment, GNP and waterborne
polyurethane composite (GNP/WPU) was prepared. GNP is exfoliated
graphite and was used as-received. First, the GNP aqueous solution
was treated continuously with ultrasound (600 W, 40 kHz) for
90 min, and its water bath was kept at a constant temperature of
C by circular ow. The concentration of the nal GNP suspension
was about 25 mg/mL. Then, the GNP solution was mixed with WPU
aqueous emulsion under vigorous stirring for 2 h, until the mixture
becomes homogeneous. Fig. 1 depicts the GNP/WPU composite and
the corresponding chemical structures of relative compounds [5].
The cotton fabric coating was modied with GNP/WPU com-
posite using pad-dry-cure process as follows: The control fabrics
were rst impregnated in aqueous solution of GNP/WPU composite
for 100 min with a liquor ratio of 1:30 at ambient conditions, and
then padded through two dips and two nips with padding nip
pressure set to obtain 100% wet pickup. Afterward, the padded
fabrics were washed with distilled water to remove the unreacted
starting compounds. Then obtained product was dried, followed by
curing in a vacuum oven at 70
C for 10 min and 120
C for 5 min.
The weight of the obtained graphene-coated fabric was 240 mg/m
and denoted as GNP/WPU-1. Afterward, the above-described entire
process was conducted in the resultant GNP/WPU-1 fabric, which
increased the graphene-coated weight of the fabric to 320 mg/m
denoted as GNP/WPU-2. Furthermore, the entire process was
applied again on GNP/WPU-2, and the resultant graphene-coated
weight of the fabric was 480 mg/m
, denoted as GNP/WPU-3.
2.3. Characterization and measurement
The morphology and structure of GNP material were charac-
terized by the following techniques: the morphology was investi-
gated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, EVO18, ZEISS,
Germany), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-
TEM, HITACHI, H-7650, Japan), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR,
Nicolet 5700, Thermo Nicolet Corp., USA) spectrometer with
wavenumber in the range of 500e4000 cm
(KBr disk), and X-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS Kratos AXIS His spectrometer)
with a monochromatized AI KR X-ray source (1486.6 eV photons) at
a constant dwell time of 100 m s and a pass energy of 40 eV. The
anode voltage and current were set at 15 kV and 10 mA. For peak
synthesis, a Shirley-type background was use.
Moreover, the dispersed state of the GNP in the WPU polymer
matrix was determined by zeta potential measurements. These
measurements were made using a Malvern Zetasizer Nano-ZS90
system with irradiation from a 632.8-nm HeeNe laser. The sam-
ples were lled in folded capillary cells. The zeta potential was
estimated using Smoluchowski approximation as follows [23]:
is the solution viscosity and εis the dielectric constant of
the liquid.
The structural characterization of the resultant GNP/WPU
composite-coated fabrics was also determined using SEM (JEOL
JSM-840, Japan) and FTIR (Thermo Nicolet Corp., USA), and their
properties were measured as follows.
IR-2 dual-band infrared emissivity measuring instrument was
used to test the infrared emissivity of the coated fabrics with
wavelengths in the range of 8e14
C through the active
blackbody radiation source to determine normal reectivity. (Each
sample was tested in six different parts and the average value was
obtained.) Emissivity was measured as a relative value, assuming
that the emissivity of the blackbody is 1. Infrared effect of
graphene-coated fabrics was measured using a thermal infrared
In this study, the surface electrical resistivity of the composite-
coated fabric was measured according to the American Association
of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) Test Method 76-2005 by
four-point probe technique (RTS-8, Probes Tech, China). Each spec-
imen was tested in differentparts of the fabric ve times o n each side,
and the average values were obtained. The environmental tempera-
ture and relative humidity were set at 20
C and 65%, respectively.
Thermal properties (thermal conductivity and thermal resis-
tance) were measured using heat ow meter thermal conductivity
instrumentation (NETZSCH HFM 436 Lambda, Germany). The
measurable range of conductivity 0.05e8.0 W m
, and the
measurement method conforms to the American Society for
Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards, C518-04 and E1530-06.
Furthermore, in order to elucidate the dynamic heat transfer of
the graphene-coated cotton fabrics, we used a setup in our labo-
ratory to simulate the dynamic thermal response of fabric speci-
mens under unsteady-state conditions. As shown in Fig. 2, fabric
specimens were homogeneously scrolled into a tubular shape and a
temperature sensor was placed at the center of the scrolled fabric.
Each scrolled fabric specimen was introduced into a 100-
C air bath
from an initial temperature of 23
C, while the xed temperature
sensor measured the temperature curve, which was recorded by a
computer system at 1-s interval.
The UV-blocking properties of the composite coated fabrics, as
determined by UV protection factor (UPF) and UV transmission
spectra, were recorded by a UV spectrophotometer (UV1000F,
Labsphere Inc., USA). On the basis of the recorded data in accor-
dance with Australia/New Zealand standard AC/NZS 439:1996, UPF
was calculated as follows [24]:
where E
is the relative erythemal spectral effectiveness, S
is the
solar UV spectral irradiance, T
is the spectral transmittance of the
X. Hu et al. / Carbon 95 (2015) 625e633626
specimen (incoming light that passes through the specimen), d
the wavelength increment (nm), and
is the wavelength (nm).
Laundering durability of our prepared fabrics was measured by
subjecting the surface-treated fabrics to the AATCC Test Method 61-
2006. The test was performed using a standard color-fastness in a
washing launder machine (Model SW-12AII, Wenzhou Darong
Textile Instrument Co., Ltd, China) equipped with 500-ml
(75 125 mm) stainless steel lever lock canisters. The fabric was
laundered in a rotating closed canister containing 200-ml aqueous
solution of an AATCC-standard WOB detergent (0.37% w/w) and 10
stainless steel balls. The dimensions of the fabric samples were
50 100 mm for the experimental test.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Morphology and structure of GNP material
The featured characterization of the GNP material was investi-
gated as shown in Fig. 3. A typical SEM image of GNP was shown in
Fig. 3a, in which layer-by-layer structure of graphene edges could
be observed and the at sheets have a lateral size in the order of
m. A TEM image of the GNP was shown in Fig. 3b, in which
the fully exfoliated monolayer graphene could be detected, and
some GNP crumple because of the atomic thickness. Furthermore,
the XPS spectrum was analyzed to identify the surface chemical
composition and variation of GNP. The wide scan and C1s spectra of
the GNP were illustrated in Fig. 3c and d, respectively. The atomic
ratio of carbon could reach a high level at 95% according to the
wide-scan spectrum. In addition, the C1s core-level spectrum of the
GNP was presented, which consisted of ve different chemically
shifted components that can be deconvoluted into sp
omatic rings (284.7 eV), CeOH (285.6 eV), CeOeC (286.8 eV),
respectively, and these assignments were in agreement with the
previous studies [25]. Moreover, the oxygen groups were at lower
Fig. 1. Schematic illustration for the GNP/WPU composite and its corresponding chemical structure.
Fig. 2. Apparatus to simulate the dynamic thermal response of fabric specimens under
unsteady-state conditions. (A color version of this gure can be viewed online.)
X. Hu et al. / Carbon 95 (2015) 625e633 627
content compared with the C]C bands, indicating the high carbon
atomic ratio. Therefore, such GNP might have outstanding electrical
3.2. The characterization of GNP/WPU composite
Zeta potential is an acceptable parameter to evaluate the aqueous
dispersion. In this study, the zeta potential of GNP/WPUwith different
GNP contents was shown in Fig.4a. Under neutral conditions, thezeta
potential of WPU was set at 11.2 mV (Fig. 4a), resulting from a small
number of carboxyl groups remaining on the edge of WPU. After
incorporating GNP, thezeta potential of GNP/WPUcomposite became
more negative, which generally represents sufcient mutual repul-
sion to ensure the stability of a dispersion [26]. Once the weight ratio
of GNP to WPU reached 0.8 wt%, the zeta potential of GNP/WPU
composite solution was set at 30.8 mV. There was no signicant
change in the zeta potential of the GNP/WPU composite on further
addition of GNP, indicating that the GNP was fully dispersed with
WPU in the aqueous solutionand cannot be dispersedwith more GNP.
Therefore, the 0.8-wt% weight ratio of GNP to WPU was considered
the optimum value for obtaining well-dispersed GNP/WPU compos-
ite. In this study, the 0.8-wt% GNP was used to obtain well-dispersed
GNP/WPU composite, which was induced onto the cotton fabric
substrate to fabricate functional cotton textile.
Furthermore, GNP/WPU composite solutions with graphene
content in the range of 0e1.6 wt% were coated on the surface of the
cotton fabric by pad-dry-cure process. The electrical resistivity of
the samples was illustrated in Fig. 4b, in which the color of the
composite fabric gradually deepened from white to gray initially
and became pure black nally. Also, the electrical resistivity of the
control fabric could dramatically decrease from 1.15 10
m at 0.8 wt%. The electrical resistivity of the composite
fabric was constant with the increase of GNP content to 1.6 wt%.
Therefore, in this study, we considered that the GNP content at
0.8 wt% was the percolation threshold, and the GNP/WPU com-
posite solution with GNP 0.8 wt% was the most remarkable char-
acteristic to modify cotton fabric.
3.3. Morphology and structure of GNP/WPU-coated fabric
The SEM images of the treated and untreated cotton fabrics are
shown in Fig. 5. It can be seen from Fig. 5a and b that the control
cotton fabrics show some typical longitudinal stripes with clean
and smooth surface. However, after GNP/WPU composite coating,
the ber surface of the treated fabrics shows a compact and ho-
mogeneous covering of nanoplates, as shown in Fig. 5ceh, which
removes the original surface strips and makes the ber surface
rough. Furthermore, many irregular wrinkles and protuberances,
which were thought as graphene, were found to be evenly
distributed, indicating that adequate interfacial bonding existed
between GNP/WPU composite and ber substrate.
With an increase of graphene-coated weight, the bers of the
fabric showed a rough surface, and increasing numbers of irregular
graphene wrinkles and protuberances can be found on the ber
surface (Fig. 5ceh), which showed their uniform distribution.
In order to investigate the interaction between graphene and
polyurethane in hybrid aqueous solution, FTIR spectra of GNP, WPU,
and GNP/WPU composite solution are illustrated in Fig. 6a. The ab-
sorption bands of GNP at 3250 and 1635 cm
were assigned to eOH
stretching vibrations in the residual waterand the C]C stretching of
the benzenoid rings of graphene [27]. For WPU, the stretching vi-
brations of the eNH groups occurred at 3320 cm
, together with the
carbonyl bands at 1710 cm
, which indicated the presence of ure-
thane moieties [28]. The GNP/WPU composite solution performed
two characteristic peaks at 3300e3400 and 1650e1750 cm
respectively.The peak located at 3300e340 0 cm
of WPU and GNP/
Fig. 3. (a) SEM image, (b) HR-TEM image, and (c) C1s XPS spectrum of GNP. (d) Wide-scan spectrum in the gure. (A color version of this gure can be viewed online.)
X. Hu et al. / Carbon 95 (2015) 625e633628
WPU composite solution was curve-tted as shown in Fig. 6b, and
there were two characteristic bands embedded ineNH peaks of
WPU, including a free eNH band (3498 cm
) and a hydrogen-
bonded eNH band (3275 cm
). After incorporating GNP, a new
band presented at 3179 cm
indicated the NH/O hydrogen bonds
between eNH in WPU and eOH in GNP [29]. Furthermore, the
detailed location and fraction of curve-tting peaks are listed in
Table 1. Compared with WPU, the lower fraction (10.7%) of free eNH
in GNP/WPU was resulted from the formation of hydrogen bonds
between eNH in WPU and eOH in GNP. This result conrmed the
formation of chemical bonds between GNP and WPU, as shown in
Fig. 1.
3.4. Far-infrared emissivity of coated fabrics
The far-infrared radiation emissivity εof the resultant GNP fabric
was listed in Table 2, compared with far-infrared radiated textile
products on the market (the Venus Styler) [30]. The results indicated
that the emissivity of GNP fabric gradually increased from 0.867
(controlfabric) to 0.911 (GNP/WPU-3), which was alreadybeyond the
emissivity limit of the commercial product (the Venus Styler).
Therefore, low content of graphene (480 mg/m
) could obviously
improve the far-infrared emissivity of GNP/WPU-3 fabric matrix. A
material with ε¼1, which can ideally convert heat energy to elec-
tromagnetic wave energy (i.e., no energy loss), was named as black-
body.Generally, the emissivity of a practical material was inthe range
of 0e1. Theconversion of heatenergy to electromagneticwave energy
was considered valuable when ε~1. Therefore, GNP/WPU-3 fabric
(ε¼0.911) possessed a high efciency to transform heat energy from
sunlight or human body to far-infrared radiation, and the generated
far-infrared radiation might reemit to the human body in the elec-
tromagnetic manner. Then,in order to preserve heat, thehuman body
absorbed the energy and water molecules to produce resonance and
promote blood circulation [31]. Precisely, low content of graphene
could denitely improve the far-infrared radiation properties of ma-
trix, whose mechanism might be investigated in our future work.
Fig. 7a and b shows the images of uncoated and coated cotton
fabrics. There is an obvious difference between the appearances of
the uncoated and coated cotton fabrics, because of the presence of
graphene. The thermal infrared images of GNP/WPU fabrics with
different graphene content were shown in Fig. 7cef. All the images
had the same exposure duration (5 min) after the GNP fabric was
connected to the hand. However, different GNP fabrics showed
different colors in thermal infrared images, which implied that they
could launch different amounts of far-infrared radiation. It is worth
noting that under the same exposure duration, the GNP fabric could
absorb the same heat energy from human hand, but the fabric with
more GNP could transform more heat energy to far-infrared radi-
ation. The far-infrared radiation could reemit to the hand to achieve
the effect of heat preservation.
3.5. Electrical conductivity
The initial electrical resistance of untreated control cotton fab-
rics was about 10
m. Graphene has a unique property of high
electrical conductivity, and the inuence of different graphene-
coated weights on substrate cotton samples for the electrical con-
ductivity was investigated in this study, and the results are pre-
sented in Fig. 8. It was evident that the value of surface electrical
resistivity decreases rapidly when the graphene-coated weight
increased from 240 to 480 mg/m
, and reached a maximum value of
2.94 10
m. After 10 times laundering, the surface electrical
resistivity increased from 2.94 10
to 3.35 10
m for GNP/
WPU-3 graphene-coated fabric, and also slightly increased for all
other graphene-coated weight samples. On the basis of the
morphology of the fabric illustrated in Fig. 5ceh, the GNPs were
deposited on the surface ber substrate. The higher the graphene-
coated weight, the more uniform the nanoplates dispersed on the
ber surface (Fig. 5c). However, there was no aggregated con-
struction of GNPs, which could severely reduce the electrical ability
to conductive network. Thus, it can be concluded that more ef-
cient GNPs can distribute well on the ber surface and improve the
electrical conductivity of the fabric.
3.6. Thermal properties of coated fabrics
Thermal conductivity is an intrinsic property of a material that
indicates its ability to conduct heat, which is calculated as the ux
of heat (energy per unit area per unit time) divided by the tem-
perature gradient (Eq. (3))[32,33]. However, thermal resistance
depends on the ratio of thickness to thermal conductivity of the
fabric, and it is calculated using Eq. (4).
ADTt (3)
where Qis the amount of conducted heat (J), Ais the area through
Fig. 4. Zeta potential of GNP/WPU composite (a) and electrical resistivity of GNP/WPU composite-coated cotton fabric (b) with graphene content in the range of 0e1.6 wt.%. (A color
version of this gure can be viewed online.)
X. Hu et al. / Carbon 95 (2015) 625e633 629
which heat is conducted (m
), tis the time of conductivity (s),
the drop in temperature (K), his the fabric thickness (m),
is the
thermal conductivity, and Ris the thermal resistance.
Table 3 lists thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of
sample fabrics. The result showed that the increase of graphene-
coated weight enhanced the thermophysical properties (thermal
conductivity and thermal resistance) of cotton fabrics to nearly 30%.
However, heat conduction of the cotton fabrics was enhanced by
the decrease of graphene-coated weight.
In order to verify this prediction, the temperature curves were
plotted against testing time for the samples in our setup (Fig. 2), as
shown in Fig. 9. Compared with four temperature curves, the
scrolled fabric specimen GNP/WPU-3 was kept at the highest
temperature raising speed throughout the heating process, and the
control cotton fabric expressed the most dilatory temperature
response. As a consequence, the shortest duration (5 min 58 s) was
Fig. 5. SEM images of the untreated (a, b) and treated (ceh) cotton fabrics.
X. Hu et al. / Carbon 95 (2015) 625e633630
Fig. 6. (a) FTIR spectra of ultrasonic-treated GNP, WPU, and the GNP/WPU hybrid solution and (b) peak-tting results of GNP/WPU hybrid solution. (A color version of this gure can
be viewed online.)
Table 1
Location and fraction of curve-tting peaks in the FTIR spectra.
Sample code Free eNH in WPU Hydrogen-bonded eNH in WPU Hydrogen-bonded eOH in GNP
Location (cm
) Fraction (%) Location (cm
) Fraction (%) Location (cm
) Fraction (%)
WPU 3498 16.7 3275 83.3 ee
GNP/WPU 3487 10.7 3295 84.7 3179 4.6
Table 2
Far-infrared emissivity of graphene coated fabrics.
GNP-coated weight (mg/m
) Coated fabrics Far-infrared emissivity Standard deviation
0 Control fabric 0.867 0.008
240 GNP/WPU-1 0.879 0.007
320 GNP/WPU-2 0.908 0.005
480 GNP/WPU-3 0.911 0.006
eVenus styler
0.891 e
A far-infrared radiating textile product on the market.
Fig. 7. Images of (a) uncoated cotton fabric, (b) graphene-coated fabric, (cef) thermographs of graphene-coated fabrics with different coated weights (control cotton fabric, 240,
320, and 480 mg/m [2] graphene-coated fabrics, respectively). (A color version of this gure can be viewed online.)
X. Hu et al. / Carbon 95 (2015) 625e633 631
achieved by the GNP/WPU-3 fabric to reach the destination tem-
perature, that is, 100
C, while the GNP/WPU-2 fabric took 6 min
30 s and the neat cotton fabric exhausted the longest time, 8 min
45 s. These dynamic curves veried the prediction that the fabrics
coated with graphene could have quick temperature response un-
der unsteady-state conditions.
3.7. The UV protection efciency of the treated fabrics
The UV transmission spectra of GNP fabrics are illustrated in
Fig. 10a. In the range of the scanned wavelength (250e450 nm), the
spectra illustrated denite difference among the samples. Particu-
larly, the curves of the control fabric expressed high UV trans-
mittance, especially in the longer-wavelength (320e450 nm)
region. The UV transmission spectra of graphene composite-
incorporated control cotton fabric showed a dramatic decline for
different graphene-coated weights, implying that the low content
of graphene could effectively block UV rays.
The rate of UV protection was assessed by UPF values, as shown
in Fig. 10b. It was found that all GNP/WPU composite-coated
samples expressed higher UPF values than control cotton fabric.
The UPF values basically increased with increase of GNP weight
ratio, and for the GNP/WPU-2 fabric, they could reach 500, which
was already far beyond the excellent-protection UPF rating (50þ)of
Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4399: 1996 and up to 50-
fold increment of control case (UPF ¼8.19). Furthermore, the
laundering durability of each fabric before and after laundering was
compared by their UPF values. It is evident from Fig. 10b that the
UPF values slightly increased no more than 2%, indicating that even
after 10 times laundering, GNP/WPU composite coating was stable
on the fabric surface and effectively blocked UV rays passing
through the fabric. Therefore, the treated fabrics could have long-
term wearability with remarkable laundering durability.
4. Conclusion
It is evident from this study that the production of a cotton
fabric with remarkable electrical conductivity, UV protection, and
far-infrared emission properties was possible through the aid of
graphene and polyurethane composite polymer. Particularly, such a
multifunctional fabric could be facile, fabricated by an effective
pad-dry-cure process at room temperature. From the surface
morphology study of SEM images, it has been found that a very
uniform and dense deposition of the GNPs was achieved with the
help of polyurethane. After GNP/WPU composite was coated on the
matrix of fabric substrate, the treated fabrics possessed efcient far-
infrared-emitting property with a far-infrared radiation emissivity
of 0.911. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity of the modied
Fig. 8. (a) IeV curve and (b) variation of surface electrical resistivity of GNP/WPU composite-coated fabrics and uncoated fabrics. (A color version of this gure can be viewed
Table 3
Thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of sample fabrics.
GNP-coated weight (mg/m
) Coated fabrics Thermal conductivity (W/mK 10
) Thermal resistance (m
K/W 10
0 Control fabric 38.500 24.70
240 GNP/WPU-1 45.680 25.02
320 GNP/WPU-2 48.366 28.93
480 GNP/WPU-3 50.633 31.59
Fig. 9. Dynamic temperature curves of control fabric and graphene-coated fabrics. (A
color version of this gure can be viewed online.)
X. Hu et al. / Carbon 95 (2015) 625e633632
fabrics was decreased from 1.15 10
to 2.94 10
m, almost 8
orders of magnitude, and the graphene-coated samples possessed
excellent and durable UV-blocking property even with very low
graphene content. The UPF values basically increased with the in-
crease of GNP weight ratio, and could reach 500 at 320 mg/m
graphene-coated weight, which was already far beyond the excel-
lent protection. Overall, such facile route and the resultant multi-
functional fabrics have proved to be an interesting candidate of
fabrics with excellent electrical, UV-blocking, and far-infrared ra-
diation emission properties.
Financial support of this work was provided by Natural Science
Foundation of China (grant No. 51273097 and 51306095), China
Postdoctoral Science Foundation (grant No. 2014M561887 and No.
2015T80697), and Taishan Scholars Construction Engineering,
Shandong, China.
[1] K.U. Savitha, H.G. Prabu, Polyaniline-TiO2 hybrid-coated cotton fabric for
durable electrical conductivity, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 127 (4) (2013) 3147e3151.
[2] J. Scholz, G. Nocke, F. Hollstein, A. Weissbach, Investigations on fabrics coated
with precious metals using the magnetron sputter technique with regard to
their anti-microbial properties, Surf. Coat. Technol. 192 (2e3) (2005) 252e256.
[3] A.R. Horrocks, B.K. Kandola, P.J. Davies, S. Zhang, S.A. Padbury, Developments
in ame retardant textiles ea review, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 88 (1) (2005)
[4] G.Y. Bae, B.G. Min, Y.G. Jeong, S.C. Lee, J.H. Jang, G.H. Koo, Superhydrophobicity
of cotton fabrics treated with silica nanoparticles and water-repellent agent,
J. Coll. Interface Sci. 337 (1) (2009) 170e175.
[5] L. Qu, M. Tian, X. Hu, Y. Wang, S. Zhu, X. Guo, et al., Functionalization of cotton
fabric at low graphene nanoplate content for ultrastrong ultraviolet blocking,
Carbon. 80 (2014) 565e574.
[6] A. Abbas, Y. Zhao, J. Zhou, X. Wang, T. Lin, Improving thermal conductivity of
cotton fabrics using composite coatings containing graphene, multiwall car-
bon nanotube or boron nitride ne particles, Fibers Polym. 14 (10) (2013)
[7] F. Ferrero, M. Periolatto, M. Sangermano, M.B. Songia, Water-repellent n-
ishing of cotton fabrics by ultraviolet curing, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 107 (2) (2008)
[8] M.J. Tsafack, J. Levalois-Gruetzmacher, Flame retardancy of cotton textiles by
plasma-induced graft-polymerization (PIGP), Surf. Coat. Technol. 201 (6)
(2006) 2599e2610.
[9] K. Kamlangkla, S.K. Hodak, J. Levalois-Gruetzmacher, Multifunctional silk
fabrics by means of the plasma induced graft polymerization (PIGP) process,
Surf. Coat. Technol. 205 (13e14) (2011) 3755e3762.
[10] O.L. Galkina, A. Sycheva, A. Blagodatskiy, G. Kaptay, V.L. Katanaev,
G.A. Seisenbaeva, et al., The sol-gel synthesis of cotton/TiO2 composites and
their antibacterial properties, Surf. Coat. Technol. 253 (2014) 171e179.
[11] Y. Yin, C. Wang, Y. Wang, Fabrication and characterization of self-assembled
multifunctional coating deposition on a cellulose substrate, Coll. Surf. a-
Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 399 (2012) 92e99.
[12] A. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. Zinovev, G. Walker, M. Smith, J. Chamberlain, An
introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,
Phys. Med. Biol. 47 (7) (2002) R67.
[13] N. Ise, T. Katsuura, Y. Kikuchi, E. Miwa, Effect of far-infrared radiation on
forearm skin blood ow, Ann. Physiol. Anthropol. 6 (1) (1987) 31e32.
[14] H. Toyokawa, Y. Matsui, J. Uhara, H. Tsuchiya, S. Teshima, H. Nakanishi, et al.,
Promotive effects of far-infrared ray on full-thickness skin wound healing in
rats, Exp. Biol. Med. 228 (6) (2003) 724e729.
[15] Y. Li, D.-X. Wu, J.-Y. Hu, S.-X. Wang, Novel infrared radiation properties of
cotton fabric coated with nano Zn/ZnO particles, Coll. Surfaces a-Physicochem.
Eng. Asp. 300 (1e2) (2007) 140e144.
[16] K. Honda, S. Inou
e, Sleep-enhancing effects of far-infrared radiation in rats,
Int. J. Biometeorol. 32 (2) (1988) 92e94.
[17] L. Karimi, M.E. Yazdanshenas, R. Khajavi, A. Rashidi, M. Mirjalili, Using gra-
phene/TiO2 nanocomposite as a new route for preparation of electro-
conductive, self-cleaning, antibacterial and antifungal cotton fabric without
toxicity, Cellul. 21 (5) (2014) 3813e3827.
[18] M. Shateri-Khalilabad, M.E. Yazdanshenas, Fabricating electroconductive
cotton textiles using graphene, Carbohydr. Polym. 96 (1) (2013) 190e195.
[19] A.K. Geim, K.S. Novoselov, The rise of graphene, Nat. Mater 6 (3) (2007)
[20] X. Huang, Z. Yin, S. Wu, X. Qi, Q. He, Q. Zhang, et al., Graphene-based mate-
rials: synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications, Small 7 (14)
(2011) 1876e1902.
[21] S. Bai, X. Shen, Graphene-inorganic nanocomposites, Rsc Adv. 2 (1) (2012)
[22] J. Molina, J. Fernandez, A.I. del Rio, J. Bonastre, F. Cases, Chemical and elec-
trochemical study of fabrics coated with reduced graphene oxide, Appl. Surf.
Sci. 279 (2013) 46e54.
[23] J.S. Ronan, L. Mustafa, N.C. Jonathan, The importance of repulsive potential
barriers for the dispersion of graphene using surfactants, New J. Phys. 12 (12)
(2010) 125008.
[24] S. Tragoonwichian, E.A. O'Rear, N. Yanumet, Double coating via repeat
admicellar polymerization for preparation of bifunctional cotton fabric: ul-
traviolet protection and water repellence, Coll. Surfaces a-Physicochem. Eng.
Asp. 349 (1e3) (2009) 170e175.
[25] S. Stankovich, D.A. Dikin, R.D. Piner, K.A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, et
al., Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfo-
liated graphite oxide, Carbon 45 (7) (2007) 1558e1565.
[26] D. Li, M.B. Mueller, S. Gilje, R.B. Kaner, G.G. Wallace, Processable aqueous
dispersions of graphene nanosheets, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3 (2) (2008) 101e105.
[27] M. Tian, L. Qu, X. Zhang, K. Zhang, S. Zhu, X. Guo, et al., Enhanced mechanical
and thermal properties of regenerated cellulose/graphene composite bers,
Carbohydr. Polym. 111 (2014) 456e462.
[28] X. Wang, Y. Hu, L. Song, H. Yang, W. Xing, H. Lu, In situ polymerization of
graphene nanosheets and polyurethane with enhanced mechanical and
thermal properties, J. Mater Chem. 21 (12) (2011) 4222e4227.
[29] L. Qu, M. Tian, X. Hu, Y. Wang, S. Zhu, X. Guo, et al., Functionalization of cotton
fabric at low graphene nanoplate content for ultrastrong ultraviolet blocking,
Carbon 80 (2014) 565e574.
[30] J. Chung, S. Lee, Development of nanobrous membranes with far-infrared radi-
ation and their antimicrobial properties,Fibers Polym. 15 (6) (2014) 1153e1159.
[31] C.-A. Lin, T.-C. An, Y.-H. Hsu, Study on the far infrared ray emission property
and adsorption performance of bamboo charcoal/polyvinyl alcohol ber,
Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng. 46 (11) (2007) 1073e1078.
[32] K. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, Effectively decoupling electrical and thermal
conductivity of polymer composites, Carbon 65 (2013) 105e111.
[33] K. Zhang, S. Wang, Thermal and electronic transport of semiconducting
nanoparticle-functionalized carbon nanotubes, Carbon 69 (2014) 46e54.
Fig. 10. (a) UV transmission spectrum of GNP/WPU-coated fabrics and (b) UPF and UVA&UVB transmittance values of sample fabrics (the gray column UPF0represents the UPF
values of these fabrics after 10 times laundering). (A color version of this gure can be viewed online.)
X. Hu et al. / Carbon 95 (2015) 625e633 633
... The PEI absorption band around 200 nm is known to be associated with intramolecular charge-transfer interaction, while 300 to 400 nm are related to intermolecular ones while higher [37,38]. The absorbance spectra of LIG (dispersed in ethanol) exhibited excellent absorption in the visible range of 200 to 300 nm, which is similar to those of graphene [39,40]. ...
... The PEI absorption band around 200 nm is known to be associated with intramolecular charge-transfer interaction, while 300 to 400 nm are related to intermolecular ones while higher [37,38]. The absorbance spectra of LIG (dispersed in ethanol) exhibited excellent absorption in the visible range of 200 to 300 nm, which is similar to those of graphene [39,40]. Two absorption peaks were noticed in Figure 4a. ...
Full-text available
This research introduces a readily available and non-chemical combinatorial production approach, known as the laser-induced writing process, to achieve laser-processed conductive graphene traces. The laser-induced graphene (LIG) structure and properties can be improved by adjusting the laser conditions and printing parameters. This method demonstrates the ability of laser-induced graphene (LIG) to overcome the electrothermal issues encountered in electronic devices. To additively process the PEI structures and the laser-induced surface, a high-precision laser nScrypt printer with different power, speed, and printing parameters was used. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed similar results for laser-induced graphene morphology and structural chemistry. Significantly, the 3.2 W laser-induced graphene crystalline size (La; 159 nm) is higher than the higher power (4 W; 29 nm) formation due to the surface temperature and oxidation. Under four-point probe electrical property measurements, at a laser power of 3.8 W, the resistivity of the co-processed structure was three orders of magnitude larger. The LIG structure and property improvement are possible by varying the laser conditions and the printing parameters. The lowest gauge factor (GF) found was 17 at 0.5% strain, and the highest GF found was 141.36 at 5%.
... Furthermore, graphene can be processed in the form of a 'nanoplate', a plate with a thickness of less than 100 nm, by stacking graphene in several layers, and research using graphene nanoplates is being actively conducted. 10,11) Graphene oxide obtained by oxidation of graphite is known to have unique functions, such as excellent water solubility, amphiphilicity, and surface functionalization. In particular, it has hydrophilic functional groups (-OH, -COOH) and excellent solubility. ...
... 4,5 Graphene is widely used in biomedicine, 6 energy storage, 7 composite, 8 aerospace, and for other applications. 9 Efforts have also been made to use graphene in the field of fiber and textiles, [10][11][12] mainly by padding, coating, or self-assembly processes to improve performance properties of materials. 13,14 In such an application, multiwall carbon nanotubes and reduced GO, were partially vacuum-filtrated directly onto Ni-coated cotton fabrics for supercapacitor applications. ...
Full-text available
Wool fabrics are preferred over synthetic and cellulosic fibers by consumers because of their good elasticity, warmth, and high moisture sorption. How to use new materials and new methods to break the bottleneck of high pollution and high energy consumption in wool dyeing and finishing, and develop new functional wool materials has become an urgent need of wool development. In this paper, wool is colored and functionalized with antistatic properties using one-step ecofriendly process by superfine graphene oxide (GO). The results of the assembly mechanism show that the adsorption thermodynamic behavior of GO on wool is more consistent with Langmuir model and the process is exothermic similar to the adsorption of conventional acid dyes on wool fibers. The kinetic behavior results indicated that adsorption behavior of GO on wool was identified, and the phenomenon was more in line with the quasi-secondary dynamics model. The antistatic test results showed that the antistatic performance of the wool fabric that was colored by GO was obviously improved and the half-life of the GO colored wool fabric could be as low as 0.17. The strategy of colored fabrics with GO and imparting additional functionality can provide a basis for the ecological processing and formation of wool fabrics with designed functions.
... The pad-dry-cure approach was employed by Lijun et al. to functionalize cotton fabric coated with low graphene nanoplate (GNP) (0.05-0.4 wt.%). With only 0.4% weight of GNP, the modified cotton gave outstanding UV protection, with a 10-fold increase in UPF (from 32.71 to 356.74) (Qu et al. 2014). Pandiyarasan et al. proposed a new way for increasing the UPF value of cotton fabric by using a non-toxic hydrothermal technique to deposit reduced graphene oxide (rGO). ...
Full-text available
The ultraviolet rays from sunlight pose a natural hazard to human health and can cause serious health problems. Some medical artificial lights also emit ultraviolet radiation. Unprotected human skin exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light can cause serious health problems, including skin aging, photosensitivity (rash), erythema (redness of the skin), and melanoma (skin cancer). To protect human skin from UV radiation, UV-blocking or protective products are used. According to medical professionals, UV protection products must be safe, chemically inert, non-irritating, non-toxic, and resistant to light, and completely block the replication of UV rays. Sunscreen cream/lotion products are used for UV protection, but these products cannot provide complete protection. According to experts, one of the most efficient strategies to avoid sun damage is to wear protective gear. Researches are going on the manufacture of smart textiles that can be deployed as a protective shield with an adornment look to wear. Therefore, researchers have paid great attention to the development of fibers with anti-ultraviolet function. This review discusses the upshot of UV radiation on textile materials in particular cotton fabrics. It also describes the correlation between ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) and the physicochemical and structural properties of cotton fabrics. This review focuses on the manufacturing of UV protective cotton fabrics by applying UV absorbers and nanoparticles, their application process, and effects.
Pearl is a pure natural material, which has multifunctional properties such as anti-ultraviolet, anti-static and far-infrared physiotherapy. In this study, a series of polyacrylonitrile/pearl nanofibrous membranes (PPFM) with different pearl powders were prepared by the electrospinning method. The membranes were then investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and their functional properties such as far-infrared emission, ultraviolet (UV) protection, and electrical resistivity were also studied. The experimental results reveal that pearl powders can significantly enhance the far-infrared emission of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and the average emissivity was increased up to 0.795 in the wavelength range of 8–14 μm when the pearl powder mass fraction increased to 9 %. In addition, the UV protection factor (UPF) of the membrane with 9 % pearl powder could reach 968, while the UPF of the pristine PAN membrane was only 11, and the electrical resistivity of PPFM was also improved after blending with pearl powders. The study proves that pearl powder can efficiently endow the PAN with multifunctional properties for more promising applications.
Paper-based artifacts, such as ink and wash paintings, paper cuts, etc., when exposed in environment for a long time, are prone to embrittling, yellowing and ageing because of ultraviolet light and weather elements. In a museum, special measurements are adopted to avoid these damages, but for common households, a functional coating is a good solution. However, this is not an easy task as the coating must be removable and cannot damage the articles. Graphene oxide (GO) has the potential as ultraviolet shielding material for the protection of paper-based artifacts, but the application of monolithic GO coatings on paper-based artifacts is difficult. In this work, feasible GO/polyacrylonitrile composite films were prepared and their protection properties for rice paper were explored experimentally. When GO loading reached 2 %, the UV-A and UV-B blocking percentages of the film were 57.47 % and 70.86 %, respectively, with a visible light transmittance of 77.09 %. These films also performed good moisture resistance. With a good flexibility, they could be easily transferred onto and peeled off the rice paper surface without damaging the paper texture and patterns on it. These films basically meet the demand of paper-based artifacts protection.
Modern communication technologies require new materials with uncompromising electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. To this end, dispersing nano-flakes of functional particles in a polymer matrix is not amenable to meeting the stringent requirements of EMI shielding. Hence, herein, a multilayered architecture is proposed with a unique strategy of the ‘absorbing-reflecting-absorbing’ approach. This offers enhanced attenuation with the right choice of the constituting layers. We report a smart textile consisting of a reflecting core made from ‘mussel-inspired’ seeding of silver nanoparticles on cotton fabric (Ag-CF) and an ‘absorbing shell’ made of a solvent-free coating consisting of carbonaceous nanoparticles like carbon nanofibers (CNF) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP). The Ag-CF was prepared by polydopamine-assisted deposition-a green and safe method compared to the other existing methods. This work highlights the optimization of the deposition process for seeding time and the synergistic improvements in shielding effectiveness (SE) using CNF and GNP that give maximum EM attenuation. We observed both the Ag-CF and the CNF/GNP coating work to enhance thermal stability, ultraviolet (UV) blocking, and microwave shielding. The developed multifunctional textile showed a microwave SE of −50 dB, 99.99% UV blocking with exceptionally high values of UV protection factor (UPF) – 175, and a limiting oxygen index of 27%, demonstrating its high thermal stability. The developed hybrid textile shows excellent heat dissipation properties by cooling to 34 °C from 93 °C in just 60 s. It also proved to be a robust material showing no change in properties against washing-laundering cycles. To gain mechanistic insight into this approach, instead of seeding Ag on CF, it was seeded directly onto the carbon nanostructures (to yield [email protected] and [email protected], respectively) and coated on the fabric. It was observed that layer positioning in the smart textile plays a crucial role in maximizing attenuation. The smart textile with an absorbing-reflecting-absorbing strategy attenuates the incoming EM radiation much more efficiently than dispersing the hybrid structures (like [email protected] and [email protected]) on the textile.
Full-text available
Textile thermoregulation and thermal protection are crucial for human health and safety. Individual thermophysiological comfort control and flame retardancy are lacking in traditional garments. Novel nanomaterial innovations have solved these limitations and have facilitated the development of next‐generation intelligent textiles. Smart textiles based on graphene and graphene derivatives material have attracted substantial attention owing to its superior electrical conductivity, high thermal conductivity, and flexibility. This review provides an overview of the current progress on the smart textiles using graphene and graphene derivative material with a focus on personal thermal management and flame retardancy. It covers mechanics, material developments, fabric designs, and on‐body applications, offering a comprehensive knowledge and scope of the entire area. Innovations in chemistry and materials with worldwide collaboration will push the frontiers of graphene‐based smart textiles, promoting the development of genuine commercial goods on the market.
Full-text available
An attempt has been undertaken to assess the effect of UV radiation on the structure of polyamide and polypropylene fibres, which are characterised by various macroscopic features, colours and additives. Based on the measurements we performed, we were able to conclude that UV radiation under the exposure conditions used brings about changes in both the fibre structure and mechanical properties. The extent of these changes is clearly dependent on the initial fibre structure, added modifiers and macroscopic features.
This study investigated the incorporation of nanoscale germanium (Ge) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) particles into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers with the aim of developing nanostructures with far-infrared radiation effects and antimicrobial properties for biomedical applications. Composite fibers containing Ge and SiO2 were fabricated at various concentrations of Ge and/or SiO2 using electrospinning and layered on polypropylene nonwoven. The morphological properties of the nanocomposite fibers were characterized using a field-emission scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The far-infrared emissivity and emissive power of the nanocomposite fibers were examined in the wavelength range of 5-20 μm at 37 °C. The antibacterial properties were quantitatively assessed by measuring the bacterial reductions of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. Multi-component composite fibers electrospun from 11 wt% PVA solutions containing 0.5 wt% Ge and 1 wt% SiO2 nanoparticles exhibited a far-infrared emissivity of 0.891 and an emissive power of 3.44·102 W m−2 with a web area density of 5.55 g m−2. The same system exhibited a 99.9 % bacterial reduction against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and showed a 34.8 % reduction of Klebsiella pneumoniae. These results demonstrate that PVA nanofibrous membranes containing Ge and SiO2 have potential in medical and healthcare applications such as wound healing dressings, skin care masks, and medical textile products.
A novel and efficient process is reported for fabrication of electroconductive, self-cleaning, antibacterial and antifungal cellulose textiles using a graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. Cotton fabric was loaded with graphene oxide using a simple dipping coating method. The graphene oxide-coated cotton fabrics were then immersed in TiCl3 aqueous solution as both a reducing agent and a precursor to yield a fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. The crystal phase, morphology, microstructure and other physicochemical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy. Electrical resistance, selfcleaning performance, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of treated fabrics were also assessed. The electrical conductivity of the graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite-coated fabrics was improved significantly by the presence of graphene on the surface of cotton fabrics. The self-cleaning efficiency of the treated fabrics was tested by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV and sunlight irradiations. The results indicated that the decomposition rates of methylene blue were improved by the addition of graphene to the TiO2 treatment on fabrics. Moreover, the graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite-coated cotton samples had negligible toxicity and possessed excellent antimicrobial activity.
A polyaniline–TiO2 hybrid was coated on cotton fabric to make it electrically conductive. A One-pot method of synthesis with acetic acid medium was used, in which TiCl4 was used as precursor. The oxidative polymerization of aniline adsorbed on TiO2 (anatase form) was performed in the presence of cotton fabric. Fabric crystallinity was least affected by the coatings, as confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR studies revealed interactions between fiber and hybrid. The morphological study through SEM showed the uniform coating of hybrid over the fibers of the cotton fabric and AFM analysis revealed the rod-like structure of the hybrid. The strength of the coated fabrics was assessed using abrasion tests. The electrical conductivity was determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).The conductivity value varied with respect toTiO2 content and ranged in the order 10−4 to 102S/cm. The effect of atmospheric aging was assessed. A more durable conductivity was observed in hybrid-coated fabric than pristine polyaniline-coated fabric. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013
Graphene, a two-dimensional, single-atom-thick carbon crystal arranged in a honeycomb lattice, shows extraordinary electronic, mechanical, thermal, optical, and optoelectronic properties, and has great potential in next-generation electronics, optics, and optoelectronics. Graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials have witnessed a very fast development of both fundamental and practical aspects in optics and optoelectronics since 2008. In this Feature Article, the synthesis techniques and main electronic and optical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials are introduced with a comprehensive view. Recent progress of graphene-based nanomaterials in optical and optoelectronic applications is then reviewed, including transparent conductive electrodes, photodetectors and phototransistors, photovoltaics and light emitting devices, saturable absorbers for ultrafast lasers, and biological and photocatalytic applications. In the final section, perspectives are given and future challenges in optical and optoelectronic applications of graphene-based nanomaterials are addressed.
Present work is devoted to investigation of structure and functional properties of hybrid nanomaterials based on the TiO2 -modified cellulose fibers of cotton. The titania hydrosol was successfully prepared using the titanium tetraisopropoxide as precursor and the nitric acid as peptizing agent via the low-temperature sol–gel synthesis in aqueous medium and applied to cotton fabric. For cross-linking of titania nanoparticles to cotton the 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) was used as a spacer. The morphology and composition of the surface pure and TiO2 modified cotton fibers were investigated by the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The cotton/TiO2 composite was characterized by the dielectric permittivity. For the estimation of total titania concentration, all samples were calcined at 650 °C. The antimicrobial activity of the treated TiO2 cotton fibers was investigated against Escherichia coli as a model Gram – negative bacteria after exposure to UV-irradiation for 10 minutes.
In this research, modified cotton fabrics were prepared by pad-dry-cure technique from the aldehyde chitosan solution containing 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA) respectively. The structural characterization of the modified cotton fabrics was performed by attenuated total reflection ATR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG) analysis and physical mechanical properties were measured. The adsorption kinetics of modified cotton fabrics were also investigated by using the pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic model. The dyeing rate constant k1, k2 and half adsorption time t1/2 were calculated, respectively. The results show that the mechanical properties of different modified cotton fabrics were improved, and the surface color depth values (K/S), UV index UPF and anti-wrinkle properties were better than those of untreated cotton. Dyeing kinetics data at different temperatures indicate that Direct Pink 12B up-take on the modified cotton fabrics fitted to pseudo second-order kinetic model.
Graphene, multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and fine boron nitride (BN) particles were separately applied with a resin onto a cotton fabric, and the effect of the thin composite coatings on the thermal conductive property, air permeability, wettability and color appearance of the cotton fabric was examined. The existence of the fillers within the coating layer increased the thermal conductivity of the coated cotton fabric. At the same coating content, the increase in fabric thermal conductivity was in the order of graphene > BN > MWCNT, ranging from 132 % to 842 % (based on pure cotton fabric). The coating led to 73 %, 69 % and 64 % reduction in air permeability when it respectively contained 50.0 wt% graphene, BN and MWCNTs. The graphene and MWCNT treated fabrics had a black appearance, but the coating had almost no influence on the fabric hydrophilicity. The BN coating made cotton fabric surface hydrophobic, with little change in fabric color.