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The metabolic demands and ability to sustain work outputs during kickboxing competitions

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  • Mustafa Kemal University, School of Physical Education and Sports

Abstract and Figures

The aim of this study was to determine heart rates, lactate levels and rates of perceived exertion responses to kickboxing competitions. A further aim was to evaluate the number of attacks and leg strength throughout the competitions. Ten kickboxers participated in the study and completed two kickboxing fights with the same opponent, at 1 week apart. After each round, lactate levels and rates of perceived exertion (CR-10 scale) were recorded, and heart rates were measured continuously throughout the competitions. One fighter from each fight was isokinetically tested for identifying lower extremity strength variations during kickboxing competitions. Each fight was also recorded by a video camera to analyse the technical actions performed. The study results suggest that metabolic demands imposed on kickboxing athletes progressively increase from round one to round three, represented by mean cardiovascular responses, lactate levels and rates of perceived exertion. However, concentric quadriceps strength, hamstring strength, hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratio, and number of kicking and punching attempts decreased significantly over the course of consecutive rounds. In summary, it is observed that kickboxers experienced a higher physiological stress and lower work outputs during consecutive rounds.
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The metabolic demands and ability to sustain work outputs
during kickboxing competitions
Yasar Salci
Mustafa Kemal University, Campus of Tayfur Sokmen, The School of Physical
Education and Sports Hatay, Turkey
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine heart rates, lactate levels and rates
of perceived exertion responses to kickboxing competitions. A further aim
was to evaluate the number of attacks and leg strength throughout the
competitions. Ten kickboxers participated in the study and completed two
kickboxing fights with the same opponent, at 1 week apart. After each
round, lactate levels and rates of perceived exertion (CR-10 scale) were
recorded, and heart rates were measured continuously throughout the
competitions. One fighter from each fight was isokinetically tested for
identifying lower extremity strength variations during kickboxing
competitions. Each fight was also recorded by a video camera to analyse
the technical actions performed. The study results suggest that metabolic
demands imposed on kickboxing athletes progressively increase from
round one to round three, represented by mean cardiovascular responses,
lactate levels and rates of perceived exertion. However, concentric
quadriceps strength, hamstring strength, hamstring-to-quadriceps
strength ratio, and number of kicking and punching attempts decreased
significantly over the course of consecutive rounds. In summary, it is
observed that kickboxers experienced a higher physiological stress and
lower work outputs during consecutive rounds.
Key words: kickboxing, isokinetic leg strength, lactate, heart rate, rate of
perceived exertion.
1. Introduction
Kickboxing is a mixture of martial arts based on kicking with bare feet- as in karate-
and punching- as in boxing. During kickboxing, the goal is to use strength, sport-
specific skills and stamina to physically overcome an opponent (Streissguth, 2008). It is
estimated that approximately one million people world-wide participate in kickboxing
exercises for self-defence, cardiovascular fitness or as a contact sport (Gartland et al.,
2001).
A formal kickboxing competition consists of three rounds, each lasting 2 minutes and
with a 1-minute rest interval between rounds. As in many combat sports, the type of
work performed by kickboxing athletes depends on both aerobic and anaerobic power
(Buse, 2009). However, high-power muscular activity consisting of punching and
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport
2015, 15, 39-52.
45-344.
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kicking classifies kickboxing as an anaerobically demanding sport. Lower body
muscular strength is especially important in order to move effectively around the
opponent and to increase the impact of the kick. Furthermore, athletes need to maintain
their performance throughout the competition. Therefore, an adequate level of aerobic
power is required as it enables the athletes to recover between rounds or bursts of
activity. Aerobic power also elicits the athlete’s ability to perform high quality training
and to strengthen the training-induced adaptations of several tissues (Fox et al., 1989).
Measuring heart rate (HR) is a widespread indirect method to evaluate the physiological
stress imposed on athletes during team sport competitions, as well as during combat
sports. Observations of combat sports have demonstrated that the average HR reached
almost 90% of maximum HR during competitions (Degoutte et al., 2003; Ribeiro et al.,
2006; Tabben et al., 2013). This relative work load is above the anaerobic threshold.
Blood lactate (LA) concentration is also used as an indicator of the severity of exercise.
Previous studies on judokas, wrestlers, and karate and kickboxing athletes showed that
post-competition LA concentrations exceeded 10 mmolL-1 (Degoutte et al., 2003;
Karninčić et al., 2010; Laskowski et al., 2012; Lech et al., 2010; Obmiński et al., 2010;
Tabben et al., 2013). These results demonstrate that anaerobic energy turnover is
considerably high during competitions. Alternatively, the internal strain imposed on
athletes can be determined using the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. A strong
relationship has been established between RPE and HR (Borg, 1982). Moreover,
Bonitch et al. (2005) reported that, in judokas, post-competition RPE values strongly
correlated with mean HR.
Despite relatively high metabolic demands, fighters should be able to maintain high
work output and repeatedly perform sport-specific technical abilities effectively
throughout the competition. However, even though there are similarities between the
physiological demands of kickboxing and other combat sports (Zabukovec and Tiidus,
1995), there are very few studies regarding kickboxing. Furthermore, we believe this
study provides the first report on isokinetic strength evaluations throughout
competitions. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine HR, LA and RPE
responses to kickboxing competitions. A further aim was to evaluate work output,
represented by the number of attacks and leg strength throughout the competitions.
2. Methods
2.1. Participants
Ten male kickboxers voluntarily participated in this study. The anthropometric and
physiological characteristics of the participants are presented in Table 1. At the time of
the study, all participants were involved in the competitive period; they had six training
sessions per week, each lasting for 1.5 hours, and had all been competing in national
and international competitions. None of the athletes had any ongoing orthopaedic
injuries that prevented them from maximal effort. The aim and nature of the study was
explained to the athletes, and written consent and ethical approval was obtained from
the University Ethical Committee (Code 2013-183). All procedures were performed in
accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
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Table 1. Characteristics of the subjects (mean ± sd)
Variable
Kickboxers (n=10)
Age (yr)
19.3 ± 1.6
Body height (cm)
175.7 ± 7.0
Body mas (kg)
70.3 ± 6.0
Training (yr)
6.8 ± 3.0
BMI (kg·m-2)
22.2 ± 2.0
Body Fat (%)
9.5 ± 3.5
Maximum HR (beat·min -1)
202.2 ± 3.6
Resting HR (beat·min -1)
62.1 ± 2.5
VO2peak (ml·kg-1·min-1)
48.5 ± 3.0
2.2. Experimental Design
Leg strength evaluation and LA, HR, RPE responses were obtained throughout the
special kickboxing tournament arranged by a local university and representatives of the
National Kickboxing Federation. The matches were played according to International
Kickboxing Federation rules (light-contact) but included a slightly longer recovery time
between rounds (1.38±0.12 min). In the first encounter with the participants,
anthropometric measurements, resting HR, and isokinetic leg strength values were
obtained in the laboratory. After a period of 2 resting days, the multistage shuttle-run
test was administered to each subject to determine maximum HR (HRmax) and peak
oxygen consumption (VO2peak). After 1 week, before the beginning of the tournament,
ten fighters were allocated a pair by their weight classes (63 to 79 kg) and technical
abilities. Competitions were conducted in indoor laboratory conditions on a standard
tatami, between 9:00 11:00 am, at an average temperature of 26 °C. Prior to the
competitions, a standardised warm-up consisting of 5 minutes jogging followed by 5
minutes dynamic stretching, with sport-specific exercises, was performed. The LA and
RPE responses of all the fighters were recorded between round breaks, as well as
immediately after the completion of each match. Furthermore, HR was continuously
measured throughout the competitions. Each match was also recorded by a video
camera to analyse the technical actions performed. In addition, leg strength was
measured before the competition and immediately after each round. To analyse the
consistency of the performance, the physiological variables and technical actions were
re-tested during the course of the second week competitions that were performed with
the same opponent. However, because of the availability of only one dynamometer,
strength evaluations could be carried out for one fighter for each fight during the
competitions of each week. Therefore, unfortunately, the consistency of the strength
measurements could not be determined.
2.3. Body Compositions
Body height and body mass were measured using a calibrated electronic scale (Seca,
France) to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively, with the subject lightly dressed
without shoes. The percentage of body fat was estimated from seven measurements of
skinfold thickness (chest, abdominal, thigh, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, and
midaxillary), as described by Jackson and Pollock (1978). Skinfold thicknesses were
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measured with a skinfold calliper (Holtain Ltd, UK) to the nearest 0.2 mm, on the right
side of the body, using a standard procedure. Skinfold thickness was measured in
duplicate or triplicate, and the mean of the two closest values was used for analysis.
2.4. Determination of resting HR, HRmax and VO2peak
Resting HR was recorded for 10 minutes in a seated position using an HR monitor
(RS800, Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland). Resting HR was determined as the
lowest HR recorded during this period (Dellal et al., 2012). Each subject was required
to undergo the maximal multistage 20 m shuttle-run test (SRT) to determine HRmax
and predict VO2peak. For the SRT, a 20 m running course with a 1m turning area
behind each of the end lines, marked by plastic tape and cones, was set up in the sports
hall. Following an explanation of the SRT protocol, subjects ran back and forth between
two end lines, exactly 20 m apart, within a time period in which audible signals were
emitted. The frequency of the sound signals increased in such a way that running speed
began at 8.5 km·h-1 and was increased by 0.5 km·h-1 each minute. The SRT was
terminated when the subject could not maintain the pace of the sound signals for two
consecutive shuttles, or felt fatigued and thus stopped running voluntarily. Before the
SRT, subjects were instructed to exert their maximal effort and were also encouraged
verbally throughout the SRT to maintain the required pace for as long as possible.
During the SRT, HR was measured with a Polar HR monitor, and an individual HRmax
was determined as the highest HR recorded (Gavarry et al., 1998). In addition, VO2peak
was calculated by using the following equation (Matsuzaka et al., 2004).
[VO2peak = 61.1 - 2.20 x G - 0.462 x A - 0.862 x BMI + 0.192 x S]
[G is gender (male = 0, female = 1); A is age; BMI is body mass index; S is number of
laps completed]
2.5. Measurement and evaluation of LA, HR and RPE responses to competitions
After the completion of each round, blood samples were immediately taken from the ear
lobes of the subjects and LA concentrations were determined using Lactate Plus (L+,
Nova Biomedical, USA). Lactate Plus uses electrochemical lactate oxidase biosensors
for 13-s measurements, and a blood sample of 0.7 µL is required for the lactate analysis.
At the time of blood sampling, RPE was assessed using the CR-10 scale (Karvonen et
al., 1957) and all athletes had been familiarised with the Borg scale during their training
sessions. In addition, to obtain reliable feedback from the athletes, they were instructed
in the proper use of the scale before the beginning of each competition, according to
standardised instructions for RPE (Borg, 1998). HRs were measured throughout the
matches with a sampling frequency of 5 s, using a HR monitor (RS800, Polar Electro
Oy, Kempele, Finland). Athletes also confirmed that HR monitors did not restrict their
activities during the competitions. The data were subsequently transferred to a computer
using Polar ProTrainer 5™ Software (Polar Electro, Finland), followed by analysis
using Microsoft Excel. After excluding the resting HR data during round breaks, the
time spent within the low intensity zone (<70% HRmax), moderate intensity zone (70
85% HRmax) and high intensity zone (>85% HRmax) was determined. Target HR
values were calculated by multiplying the HR reserve (HRmax - HRrest) by the factors
0.70 and 0.85, and adding these values to resting HR value. The percentage of HR
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reserve (%HRres) was also calculated using the following formula (Karvonen et al.,
1957).
[%HRres = (match mean HR resting HR)/(HRmax - resting HR) x 100]
2.6. Strength measurements
Isokinetic strength data were recorded using the Biodex Isokinetic System 4 (Biodex
Medical Systems, Inc., New York, USA) to assess the strength of the muscle groups.
Subjects were placed on the Biodex dynamometer chair in a comfortable, upright seated
position with their hip joint at 90° flexion and were secured using thigh, pelvis and torso
straps in order to minimise extraneous body movements. The lateral femoral epicondyle
was used as the bony landmark for matching the axis of rotation of the knee joint with
the axis rotation of the dynamometer resistance adapter. Values of the isokinetic
variables were automatically adjusted for gravity using the Biodex Advantage Software
(Rev. 3.27).
Pre-exercise strength measurements were preceded by a 5-minute standardised warm-up
on a stationary cycle ergometer at 80 W. Each subject then performed lower extremity
flexibility exercises, including quadriceps, hamstring, and calf stretches. Subjects were
tested for concentric knee extension and flexion strength on their dominant leg at 180º/s.
The dominant leg was defined as the preferred kicking leg. Testing criteria consisted of
three maximal concentric efforts and three submaximal knee extension and flexion
“practise” contractions were allowed before the actual tests. The peak torques of the
knee extensors and flexors across the three trials were normalised to the athletes’ body
weight and hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q) and used for further analysis.
2.7. Recording matches and technical evaluations
All the competitions were filmed by a fixed camera (Sharp Viewcam VL-Z5U, SHARP
Corporation, Osaka, Japan) positioned behind the fight ring, at an elevation of
approximately 5m. The video recordings were evaluated by an official referee in order
to assess the number of attempted kicks and punches. Intra-observer reliability was
tested by the re-analysis of a randomly designated match by the same observer at 1
week apart. The number of agreements observed between the two analyses was
calculated by using the kappa statistic (Kelly and Drust, 2009). The reliability (kappa)
values for punches and kicks were 0.89 and 0.93, respectively. The kappa statistic was
also used for evaluation of fight-to-fight reliability (between the 1st and 2nd week
competitions), and was 0.83 and 0.99 for punches and kicks, respectively. These results
demonstrate that both intra-observer and fight-to-fight reliability was representative of
an almost perfect strength of agreement according to Landis and Koch (1977).
2.8. Statistical Analyses
The data were statistically analysed using the SPSS software Windows Version 14.0
(SPSS® 2005) and are presented as means and standard deviations. The average values
of LA, RPE, HR and number of attacks performed during the 1st and the 2nd week
competitions were used for the main statistical analyses. The measure of consistency of
metabolic responses was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC),
and the typical error as a coefficient of variation (CV) was also calculated (Hopkins,
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2000). A comparison between the different time points (i.e. first, second and third
rounds) was performed by conducting a one-way analysis of variance for repeated
measures with Bonferroni-corrected post-hoc tests. The level of significance was set at
p < 0.05 for all tests.
3. Results
The ICC and CV values for LA, mean HR, HRreserve, and RPE are reported in Table 2.
Table 2. Consistency analysis of the first and the second figth
Variable
First
Fight
CV (%)
ICC
LA (mmol∙L-1)
1. Round
7.22 ± 1.75
17.2
0.608
2. Round
10.92 ± 2.53
16.0
0.750
3. Round
12.14 ± 2.21
13.2
0.760
Average of three rounds
10.10 ± 2.08
13.2
0.767
HR (beat∙min-1)
1. Round
178.24 ±
11.26
3.6
0.571
2. Round
184.79 ± 5.26
2.6
0.314
3. Round
186.58 ± 5.78
1.6
0.674
Average of three rounds
183.20 ± 5.82
1.7
0.677
HR (%HRreserve)
1. Round
84.15 ± 8.53
5.6
0.643
2. Round
87.97 ± 6.11
6.2
0.211
3. Round
90.12 ± 4.31
2.4
0.725
Average of three rounds
87.41 ± 4.73
3.1
0.688
RPE
1. Round
5.80 ± 0.79
12.2
0.380
2. Round
7.00 ± 0.82
11.1
0.327
3. Round
7.20 ± 1.23
12.7
0.578
Average of three rounds
6.67 ± 0.35
7.0
0.239
During the kickboxing competition, the mean HR was 182.8±5.5 beat·min-1 which
corresponded to 87% of HRmax. The main analysis of the obtained data for the group
of kickboxers demonstrated statistically significant differences in mean HR
(F2,18=11.903, p<0.003, η2=0.56), HRreserve (F2,18=9.15, p<0.005, η2=0.50), blood
lactate (F2,18=59.40, p<0.0001, η2=0.86), RPE (F2,18=5.312, p<0.033, η2=0.37) (Figure
45
1), time spent above 86% HRmax (F2,18=7.43, p<0.008, η2=0.45), and time spent below
70% HRmax (F2,18=7.43, p<0.008, η2=0.45) (Figure 2). However, no significant
differences were observed for the time spent between 70-85% HRmax (F2,18=3.40,
p=0.072, η2=0.27) (Figure 2).
Figure 1. LA (mmol.L-1), HRreserve (%), and RPE responses throughout the kickbox
competitions. *p<.05 first round compared to third round, p<.05 first round compared
to second round, p<.05 second round compared to the third round.
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Figure 2. The time spent comparsions within the low (<70%HRmax), moderate (70
85% HRmax) and high intensity zones (> 85% HRmax) for each rounds. *p<.05 first
round compared to third round.
The main analysis of the isokinetic knee muscle strength showed significant differences
for peak torque to body weight of knee extensors (F3,27=5.95, p<0.004, η2=0.39) (Figure
3), peak torque to body weight of knee flexors (F3,27=9.919, p<0.003, η2=0.52) (Figure
3), and hamstring-to-quadriceps leg strength ratio (F3,27=5.298, p<0.011, η2=0.37)
(Figure 4). Furthermore, the main analysis of the technical actions represented by the
number of attacks demonstrated significant differences for kicking (F2,18=10.206,
p<0.002, η2=0.53) and punching attempts (F2,18=8.087, p<0.013, η2=0.47) (Figure 5).
Figure 3. Leg strength (PT/BW) evaluation throughout the kickbox competitions. #
p<.05 pre-test compared to second round, ††p<.05 pre-test compared to third round,
*p<.05 first round compared to third round.
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Figure 4. Hamstrings to quadriceps strength ratio (%) throughout the kickbox
competitions. *p<.05 first round compared to third round.
Figure 5. Number attacks throughout kickbox competitions. *p<.05 first round
compared to third round for both kicking & punching, p<.05 second round compared to
the third round for punching.
Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction also revealed significant differences in all
pairwise comparisons which are represented in Figures 1 to 5.
4. Discussion
In the present study, LA, HR and RPE responses during kickboxing competitions were
examined. Very few previous studies have examined these parameters in kickboxing
athletes. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this study also provides the first reports on
comparisons between sport-specific technical actions (number of attempted kicks and
punches) and leg strength between rounds. Therefore, the main contribution of this
study is that it provides additional information regarding metabolic demands and
performance evaluations during kickboxing competitions. The study results suggest that
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metabolic demands imposed on kickboxing athletes progressively increase from round
one to round three, represented by mean HR, % HRreserve, time spent above 85%
HRmax, LA and RPE. However, concentric quadriceps strength, hamstring strength,
H/Q strength ratio, and number of kicking and punching attempts significantly
decreased over the course of consecutive rounds.
Plasma lactate concentration is a biomarker of energy production via anaerobic
pathways. It is also used as a diagnostic parameter for fatigue and acidosis. In
accordance with previous studies in combat athletes (Degoutte et al., 2003; Karninčić et
al., 2010; Laskowski et al., 2012; Lech et al., 2010; Obmiński et al., 2010; Tabben et
al., 2013), the present findings indicated that the average LA concentration during
fighting was close to 10 mmolL-1. This result suggests that anaerobic energy turnover
was high during kickboxing competitions (Figure 1). In addition, the LA concentration
obtained following each round was 6.85 1.26, 10.47 2.56 and 11.82 2.55 mmolL-
1 for rounds one, two and three, respectively (Figure 1). Furthermore, the mean relative
intensity was 84.1% HRmax in the first round whereas it reached 90.1% HRmax in the
third round (Figure 1). Indeed, athletes spent significantly more time at the lower HR
interval (below 70% HRmax), and less time at the higher HR interval (above 85%
HRmax) during the first round compared with the final round (Figure 2). The results
presented here also indicate that athletes perceived the consecutive rounds as being
harder, despite attempting less punches and kicks (Figures 1 and 5). These results imply
that higher metabolic demands during the consecutive rounds could be the result of
accumulated fatigue. This conclusion is supported by the study of simulated taekwondo
combat. Campos et al. (2012) reported that a 1-minute resting interval seems to be
insufficient to reduce cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain from the previous
round, as evidenced by the high oxygen consumption during the round breaks. The
progressive decrease in leg strength throughout the competition also supports these
conclusions (Figure 3).
Throughout the kickboxing competitions, athletes stand in positions of slightly low
stance with their legs flexed, which involves many consecutive small jumps for
extended periods of time. These positions predominantly require using the quadriceps
muscles. Kickboxing is also characterised by full contact between fighters who punch
and especially kick during the competition, which requires intensive muscular activity
of the knee flexors and extensors. The sustainability of this dynamic activity with
powerful attacks is important for successful fights to ensure the effectiveness of
offensive actions forced on the opponent.
Current study results support and extend previous studies on quadriceps and hamstring
strength, and their strength ratio, in athletes of various forms of combat sports (Andrade
Mdos et al., 2012; Fong et al., 2013; Machado et al., 2009; O’Donovan et al., 2006). No
previous studies have, however, investigated the strength characteristics of combat
athletes prior to participating in matches (pre-exercise), as well as after the first, second
and the third rounds, consecutively. This study reveals that concentric quadriceps and
hamstring strength was not maintained throughout the competitions (Figure 3). There
was a progressive reduction in the strength of knee extensors and flexors from pre-
exercise to the end of the first, second and third rounds. The decrement percentages for
the knee extensors and flexors were 5%, 5.8%, 5.6% and 4%, 9.4%, 13.7%,
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respectively. The decrement in knee flexor strength for the second and third rounds,
compared to knee extensors, appears to be two-fold higher. There was also a significant
decrease in the H/Q strength ratio (Figure 4). However, maintenance of the H/Q ratio
throughout the competition is crucial for physical performance or effective mobility in
the fight area. The lack of increased torque of hamstrings relative to quadriceps may
decrease the ability to control knee movements, and increase the strain on lower
extremities, thus implicating a potential mechanism for increased lower extremity
injuries (Hewett et al., 2005; Hewett et al., 2008; Markolf et al., 1995). If the hamstring
peak torque decreased, the quadriceps activation should also be decreased, since a net
external flexor moment is needed to flex the knee joint (Hewett et al., 2008). Thus, the
decrease in hamstring strength limits the potential of muscular co-contraction for
protecting knee joint ligaments (Hewett et al., 2008). Therefore, specific training of the
hamstring muscles should be a structural part of a combat athletes training program.
The present study has only quantified the conventional strength ratio of knee muscles.
However, further studies combining data on conventional H/Q ratios with functional
H/Q (eccentric hamstring-to-concentric quadriceps) ratios may provide a more
comprehensive description of the muscular strength properties. In addition, there are
also some other limitations of this study that need to be considered when interpreting
the findings. The small number of subjects limits the generalisation of the findings, but
studying homogeneous experienced kickboxers may help to identify the metabolic
needs required to attain the best performance capacity in kickboxing competitions.
Additionally, the effect of multiple fights should also be investigated to confirm the
tendency of physiological responses and work outputs throughout the tournament as
kickboxers are obliged to fight several times in a tournament day.
It is also important to demonstrate whether metabolic demands imposed on athletes are
similar between competitions or not. For this reason, in the present study,
reproducibility of the physiological responses was also investigated. The ICC and CV
analyses showed that the fight-to-fight consistency of the physiological responses was
found to be moderate-to-high (Table 2). However, the ICC value for RPE was quite
low, which may be a result of the small sample size in the consistency test.
Furthermore, the kappa statistic demonstrated that consistency of technical actions were
almost perfect. Nevertheless, the results of the present study suggest that the metabolic
demands imposed on kickboxers and the technical actions that were carried out were
similar, at least when the athletes fought with the same opponent.
In conclusion, based on LA, HR, and RPE responses, the current study demonstrates
that kickboxers experienced a higher physiological stress during consecutive rounds. By
contrast, technical actions and leg strength values decreased significantly. This
reduction was most pronounced with regard to concentric hamstring strength. Therefore,
supplementary strength workouts should be systematically included in exercise
programs. Indeed, strength exercises that aim to improve hamstring strength may
decrease the injury occurrence risk and potentially enhance the physical performance to
maintain the effectiveness of movements performed throughout the competition.
Furthermore, athletes should improve their aerobic power, as this contributes to the
recovery of muscle creatin phosphate stores more quickly during round breaks and
50
between high intensity efforts. This could result in maintenance of the work output
throughout the competitions, which is of particular importance when fighters compete
in several fights during a tournament day.
5. Acknowledgements
The author is grateful to all the kickboxers that took part in this study for their
enthusiasm and commitment. The author would also like to thank Ahmet Kasik
(Representative of the Turkish Kickbox Federation) for taking part as a referee in fights
and analysing the technical actions. Special thanks are also given to Dr. Alper Aslan for
his valuable discussion.
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... Kickboxing is a full-contact combat sport with the goal of punching and kicking an athlete's opponent without being punched and kicked in return (Slimani, Chaabene, Miarka, & Chamari, 2017). However, studies investigating performance of kickboxing athletes have widely used non-specific tests such as isokinetic strength, vertical jumps, cycle ergometer, treadmill or field running (Haugen, Breitschädel, Wiig, & Seiler, 2020;Machado et al., 2009;Ouergui et al., 2014;Salci, 2015). It is crucial to note that tests with non-specific tasks may decrease ecological validity, since the nature of a kickboxing match requires intermittent or repeated actions with short rest periods (Salci, 2015;Slimani et al., 2017 Although the FSKT also appears to be an appropriate test to measure kickboxing performance, no studies have used this test in kickboxing athletes. ...
... However, studies investigating performance of kickboxing athletes have widely used non-specific tests such as isokinetic strength, vertical jumps, cycle ergometer, treadmill or field running (Haugen, Breitschädel, Wiig, & Seiler, 2020;Machado et al., 2009;Ouergui et al., 2014;Salci, 2015). It is crucial to note that tests with non-specific tasks may decrease ecological validity, since the nature of a kickboxing match requires intermittent or repeated actions with short rest periods (Salci, 2015;Slimani et al., 2017 Although the FSKT also appears to be an appropriate test to measure kickboxing performance, no studies have used this test in kickboxing athletes. ...
... However, to our knowledge, unlike other combat sports, kickboxers do not have a valid and functional choice in terms of kickboxingspecific tests. Based on the many similarities of Kickboxing with combat sports such as karate, taekwondo, boxing and muay thai (Salci, 2015;Slimani et al., 2017), we aimed to investigate the extent to the reliability of a test developed for these sports can be when used in kickboxers. For example, FSKT was originally developed to measure a skill based on kicking as fast as possible in 10 seconds for taekwondo athletes (Jonatas Ferreira da Silva Santos & Franchini, 2016, 2018Ferreira da Silva Santos et al., 2020). ...
Conference Paper
Although there is a wealth of sport-specific performance test for combat sports but current literature is void of valid and functional tests to measure kickboxing-specific tasks. The aim of this study was to determine the test–retest reliability, (standard of error of measurement) SEM, minimal detectable change (MDC), smallest worthwhile change (SWC), and typical error (TE) values of Frequency Speed of Kicks Test (FSKT) and to compare the reliability values of FSKT with counter movement jump test (CMJ). Twenty-eight junior male kickboxing athletes (mean and standard deviation; age: 16.4 ± 1.2 years; body mass: 67.7 ± 7.1 kg; height: 175.6 ± 7. cm; experience: 5.0 ± 1.2 years) participated in this study. Participants performed the CMJ and FSKT twice times with three days of rest between test and retest sessions. Pearson product–moment correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship (r = 0.717) between CMJ and FSKT. Paired t-test demonstrated that there was no significant difference between test and retest values for both CMJ and FSKT. However, difference between test and retest in CMJ had a small effect size while FSKT had trivial effect size. ICC values for CMJ and FSKT were accepted “good” (r = 0.855) and “excellent” reliability (r = 0.963), respectively. FSKT had a greater absolute agreement between test and retest scores due to having lower SEM values compared with CMJ. TE, which used to estimate trial-to-trial variation, was lower in the FSKT than CMJ. In addition, the findings indicated that MDC value was lower in the FSKT than CMJ thus FSKT could allow to determine lower performance changes compared with CMJ. In conclusion, this study suggested that FSKT could be considered a reliable method and presented reproducible results in evaluating the performance of kickboxing athletes until a functional kickboxing-specific field-test is developed.
... Ouergui et al., 2013;Ulupinar, Özbay, Gençoğlu, & Ince, 2021) these tests have low ecological validity in kickboxing due to the mechanical patterns, activity profile, combat area, and nature of kickboxing rules (C. Salci, 2015;. Kickboxing includes high-power muscular activity consisting of punching and kicking instead of basic athletic skills (i.e., jump, running, change of direction, and cycling; I. Ouergui, Hssin et al., 2014;Salci, 2015;Slimani, Chaabene, Miarka, Franchini et al., 2017). ...
... Salci, 2015;. Kickboxing includes high-power muscular activity consisting of punching and kicking instead of basic athletic skills (i.e., jump, running, change of direction, and cycling; I. Ouergui, Hssin et al., 2014;Salci, 2015;Slimani, Chaabene, Miarka, Franchini et al., 2017). Moreover, kickboxers need to maintain their performance throughout the whole competition duration despite the high physiological demands induced of one-toone struggle stress (I. ...
Article
Purpose: This study investigated the test-retest reliability and discriminant validity of the Kickboxing Anaerobic Speed Test (KAST) and established a comparison with the maximal cycling sprint test (MCST). Methods: Forty-two male kickboxing athletes (18 elite and 24 sub-elite) participated in this study. Kickboxers performed the tests in both single and multiple forms. The KASTsingle was composed of kicks and punches, performed as quickly as possible until 5 reps of a 4 techniques’ combination (i.e., straight left punch, right-roundhouse kick, straight right punch, and left-roundhouse kick) were completed. The MCSTsingle was composed by a single 6-s maximal effort. The KASTmultiple was performed using 5 sequential sets of the single form following a 10s rest interval between sets. The MCSTmultiple was performed using 5 × 6 s repeated cycling efforts with 10s rest intervals. The tests and retests were carried out on separate occasions. To establish the test’s discriminatory capability, elite and sub-elite athletes were compared. Results: All tests’ performance scores showed excellent relative and absolute reliability (ICC > 0.900, SEM ≤ 0.98 s for KASTs and ≤ 0.74 W•kg−1 for MCST tests). Significant correlations between the identical versions were “large” (r > 0.70). Receiving operating characteristic analyses indicated that the KASTs and cycling tests were able to effectively discriminate between elite and sub-elite kickboxers. Additionally, the findings showed that KASTsingle, MCSTsingle, KASTmultiple, and MCSTmultiple correctly classified the groups by 78.6%, 73.6%, 88.1%, and 78.6%, respectively. Conclusions: This study supported the test-retest reliability and the discriminant validity of the KASTsingle and KASTmultiple to evaluate kickboxing athletes.
... Kickboxing is a mix of martial arts that is based on barefoot kicking as in Karate and punching as in Boxing (SALCI, 2015). As a North American combat sport, created in the 70s by karate practitioners who were dissatisfied with their sport's limiting rules, in which it was not possible to hit the opponent with force, and just score (BRUENO, TORRES, 2014). ...
... ). In Kickboxing, the actions that score/attack are decisive by the ATP-CP anaerobic pathways and glycolysis(SALCI, 2015).Most of the analysis demonstrated adequate protein consumption and higher amounts than recommended. Karate athletes of both sexes have been shown to be hyperprotein consumers(RIBAS et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Kickboxing is a combat sport modality which prioritizes classifying competitors by weight categories for their participation. The aim of this study was to analyze Kickboxing athletes'food intake. Fourteen Kickboxing fighters aged seventeen to twenty-eight participated in the study: twelve men and two women. The 24-hour food recall was used as an instrument. Athletes' food intake data was analyzed in the Virtual Nutri Plus® program. Average daily caloric intake was below the limit recommended in both sexes (2142.85 kcal/day-2125.74 kcal/day median). As for macronutrients; carbohydrates (484g ± 302g) 70% of the sample, lipids (71.3g ± 28.4) 60% and protein (1.76 ± 1.03 g/kg weight) 22% were all below the recommended amount. Fiber consumption was 60% lower than recommended, while 50% of volunteers consumed sodium above the amount recommended. This study found inadequacies in the consumption of macronutrients and micronutrients, underlining the importance of multidisciplinary work between nutritionists and other professionals responsible for an athlete's performance.
... (Branco et al., 2016). Kickboxing is a mix of combat sports based on kicking barefoot like karate and punching with the fists like boxing (Salci, 2015) and an estimated two hundred thousand individuals practice kickboxing. (Cbkb, 2021). ...
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Introduction: One of the major public health concerns worldwide is the growing rate of psychopathological diseases such as anxiety and depression. We know that physical exercise plays an important role as an adjuvant in the prevention and treatment of these psychopathologies. Objective: To compare the mood of regular jiujitsu , kickboxing and non-sports practitioners. Methods: Twenty-six jiujitsu practitioners, twenty-four kickboxing practitioners, and twenty-five non-practitioners of sports participated in this study (all adult males). As instruments, the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) questionnaire was used to assess mood (this questionnaire analyzes six mood variables, i.e., tension-anxiety, depression-melancholy, hostility-anger, fatigue-inertia, vigor-activity and confusion-disorientation) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to analyze the level of physical activity. Mood dimensions were assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the unpaired t-test was used to compare the mean values of the groups. To test the hypotheses in relation to the multiple variables, the Pillai, Roy, Wilks and Hotelling-Lawley tests were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Results: For the jiujitsu and kickboxing groups, there was no difference between the averages (p > 0.05) with both being in an excellent mood. When comparing the group of practitioners of sports with the group of non-practitioners, all negative variables (tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, hostility-anger, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-perplexity) obtained higher scores in the non-practitioners of sports group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: People who regularly practice combat sports had better mental health compared to non-practitioners. We recommend the indication of these sports by psychiatrists, psychologists, and general practitioners to combat and prevent anxiety and depression.
... The development of general body strength is a basic component of the preparation of a kickboxer to effectively use hand and foot techniques and to improve performance during the fight [4,48,49]. Furthermore, strength training is effective in protecting against injuries that are common in contact sports [50,51]. The results of our research show that it is advisable to use CrossFit training as a supplement to basic kickboxing training in the preparation period. ...
Article
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Background: Kickboxing is a combat sport that is complex in technique, tactics, and movement structure, and requires an adequate level of motor skills as a foundation for activities during competitions. General physical fitness, defined as the effect of the externalization of motor skills, is the basis for athletic training regardless of the sport. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of modified training based on the principles of CrossFit on the development of general physical fitness in a group of kickboxers compared to a control group. Methods: The study was experimental in nature and was conducted in a group of 60 kickboxers, divided into experimental and control groups. Participants were selected by purposive sampling, and the criteria were training experience, sports skill level (minimum class 1 athletes), and consent to participate in the experiment. The intervention in the study group involved the introduction of CrossFit-based training into a conventional kickboxing training program. General and special physical fitness of the athletes were diagnosed. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in general fitness in terms of abdominal strength (p < 0.001), pull-ups (p < 0.001), dynamometric measurement of handgrip force (p < 0.001) (kg), clap push-ups (p < 0.001), standing long jump (p < 0.001), shuttle run (p < 0.001), sit-and-reach (p < 0.001), and tapping (p < 0.001). Furthermore, changes in special fitness were also demonstrated for the special kickboxing fitness test (SKFT) (p < 0.02), the total number of punches (p < 0.001), punching speed (p < 0.001), and hip turning speed (p < 0.001). There was also a correlation between characteristics of general fitness and special fitness (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The experimental training program based on the principles of CrossFit training had a positive effect on the general and special kickboxing physical fitness.
... The significant changes in ABB parameters and blood oxygen and carbon dioxide saturation immediately after the bout indicate a large contribution of anaerobic metabolism in generating the physical work and gas exchange rate in kickboxers. The examinations conducted by other authors in kickboxers immediately after each of three rounds or after an entire bout showed a significant decline in muscle strength, and a progressive increase in blood lactate levels and heart rates [43][44][45]48]. In our study there were very weak correlations between activity in attacks and rise of hydrogen ion levels, but a significant positive link between activity and post bout increase of total CO 2 level. ...
Article
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Background: Acid–base balance (ABB) is a major component of homeostasis, which is determined by the efficient functioning of many organs, including the lungs, kidneys, and liver, and the proper water and electrolyte exchange between these components. The efforts made during competitions by combat sports athletes such as kickboxers require a very good anaerobic capacity, which, as research has shown, can be improved by administering sodium bicarbonate. Combat sports are also characterized by an open task structure, which means that cognitive and executive functions must be maintained at an appropriate level during a fight. The aim of our study was to analyze the changes in ABB in capillary blood, measuring levels of H+, pCO2, pO2, HCO3􀀀, BE and total molar CO2 concentration (TCO2), which were recorded 3 and 20 min after a three-round kickboxing bout, and the level of technical and tactical skills presented during the fight. Methods: The study involved 14 kickboxers with the highest skill level (champion level). Statistical comparison of mentioned variables recorded prior to and after a bout was done with the use of Friedman’s ANOVA. Results: 3 min after a bout, H+ and pO2 were higher by 41% and 11.9%, respectively, while pCO2, HCO3􀀀, BE and TO2 were lower by 14.5%, 39.4%, 45.4% and 34.4%, respectively. Furthermore, 20 min after the bout all variables tended to normalization and they did not differ significantly compared to the baseline values. Scores in activeness of the attack significantly correlated (r = 0.64) with pre–post changes in TCO2. Conclusions: The disturbances in ABB and changes in blood oxygen and carbon dioxide saturation observed immediately after a bout indicate that anaerobic metabolism plays a large part in kickboxing fights. Anaerobic training should be included in strength and conditioning programs for kickboxers to prepare the athletes for the physiological requirements of sports combat.
... Both HR and exercise intensity were constantly rising in the subsequent rounds. It was observed that kickboxers experienced higher physiological stress and lower work outputs during consecutive rounds (Salci, 2015). Ouergui et al. (2019) observed a similar effect in their study. ...
Article
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Background: Kickboxing is a combat sport with various forms of competition. Kickboxing according to the K1 rules is one of the most interesting and quickly developing forms of kickboxing. According to the K1 rules, it is possible to use a variety of techniques with great force. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses during a real sports fight and to perform a technical and tactical analysis of the kickboxing bout according to the K1 rules. Methods: This study was conducted during two cycles of the international kickboxing league according to the K1 rules in a group of 15 elite athletes. The indicators of technical and tactical training were evaluated in real sports bout. Blood lactate (LA) levels and heart rate (HR) were measured during and after the bout. Results: The efficiency of the attack was on average 59.3 ± 2.7, its effectiveness was 50.3 ± 10.01, and its activeness was 112.3 ± 29. The peak LA concentration was 14.6 ± 1.9 mmol/L. LA concentration did not decrease to baseline after 20 min of recovery. Conclusion: A kickboxing bout was found to induce strong physiological stress for the participants. Reported HR and LA concentration show that the intensity of the fight was close to maximal, and anaerobic metabolism played an important role during a fight.
... The strength of the muscles of upper and lower limbs plays an important role in winning in a kickboxing fight [12]. The results of isometric strength (e.g., the grip strength) are greatly accepted as indicators of the level of a kickboxer's strength [13,14]. The training process of kickboxers is diversified both in the context of the intensity of the training and the necessity of developing a wide range of motor skills [8,15]. ...
Article
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Background: Kickboxing is a dynamically progressing combat sport based on various techniques of punches and kicks. The high level of physical fitness underlies the optimal development of technique in the competitors. The objective of this study was the assessment of the level of fitness of kickboxers and the relationships between fitness and technical and tactical training. Methods: The study included 20 kickboxers aged 18–32 demonstrating the highest level of sporting performance. Their body mass ranged from 75 to 92 kg and their height from 175 to 187 cm. The selection of the group was intentional, and the criteria included training experience and the sports level assessed by the observation of the authors and opinion of the coach. The level of fitness was evaluated with the use of selected trials of International Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Tests and Eurofit tests. Aerobic capacity was tested and indicators of efficiency, activeness and effectiveness of attacks were calculated. Results: A significant correlation between the indicators of technical and tactical training and results of fitness tests was shown. Conclusions: There exists a correlation between efficiency, activeness and effectiveness of attacks and the speed of upper limbs, explosive strength, static strength of a hand, agility, VO2max and abdominal muscle strength.
... The boy fat % showed in both groups in our study were higher than those found in kickboxers [2] and less than found in traditional karate players [3]. ...
Article
Introduction: This study was designed to determine the anthropometric and the physical profile of Tunisian elite kyokushinkai athletes. Summary of facts and results: The sample consisted of 33 kyokushinkai athletes divided into 2 groups: 16 elites and 17 regional athletes. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Aerobic endurance, maximal strength, muscular power, muscle strength endurance and flexibility were measured. Athletes in both groups were similar in their mean age, body mass and body mass index. Kyokushinkai fighters in the elite group have less fat body mass (P ≤ 0.006) and more lean body mass (P ≤ 0.002) than regional athletes. The athletes in elite group achieved significantly higher performance in countermovement jump test (P ≤ 0.0.3) and Medicine ball throw test (P ≤ 0.008) and had significantly higher repetition in pushups (P ≤ 0.004) and sit ups (P ≤ 0.02) than regional athletes. No significant differences were observed between groups in flexibility and VO2 max values. Conclusion: Elite Tunisian kyokushinkai athletes had important maximal strength, abdominal and upper body strength endurance. The findings of the present study provided coachs and conditioning trainers working with kyokushinkai athletes a valuable tool for monitoring training and performance.
... As a result, there is a significant decrease in concentric quadriceps strength, hamstring strength, hamstringquadriceps strength ratio, and kicks and punches towards advancing rounds. (Salci, 2015) During the fight, kickboxer tries to dominate by using the kicking and punching techniques thanks to his robust conditional features, and by developing the best tactics against the opponent by considering his weaknesses thanks to his superior characteristics. A sweeping technique, one of the critical techniques, is used to disrupt the balance of the opponent by reducing the resistance of the opponent for a good attack. ...
Article
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https://epasr.penpublishing.net/makale_indir/1896 This study aims to analyze the impact of slackline exercises on the balance skills of university student on their learning. Twenty university student kickboxers voluntarily attended the study (8 women and 12 men). They were randomly divided into two groups (each group four females and six males) as the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG), each consisting of 10 subjects. CG only followed regular training, while EG applied supervised slackline exercises for two days a week and 10 min sessions in addition to regular training for 4-week. Some tests were done before and after slackline exercises in the evaluation of all participants: counter movement jump, standing long jump, leg strength test, back strength test, static balance test “Stork Stand Balance” (SST) and dynamic balance test. According to the post-test results, the SST values which are the static balance test of EG were significantly higher than the CG. As a result, if slackline exercises, which are organized in addition to the regular training sessions specific to the branch, are applied in more extended periods, it can contribute to the balance skill learning and the balance necessary for performing technical movement.
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The development of specific training designed to enhance physiological aspects of performance relies heavily on the availability of accurate and validity physiological data. In the combat sport of Wushu, katas are used to develop aerobic fitness. It is arguably important to assess and monitor heart rate ( HR) and lactate ( La) responses when designing effective training programs. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate heart rate and lactate responses to forms execution among Wushu combatants. Male elite modern Wushu athletes (n = 4) from a South Brazilian regional team participated in the study. Athletes were aged 22.5 +/- 2.08 years old and had at least eight years of Wushu experience. Athletes carried out the Changquan and Daoshu forms in random order, HR and La were measured pre- and post-exercise. Results indicate that HR was 176 +/- 3 and 176 +/- 2 bpm and La was 4.38 +/- 1.3 and 5.15 +/- 1.07 mmol.l(-1) for Changquan and Daoshu forms, respectively. There were no significantly differences in HR and La between the two forms. HR values represent 89.2 +/- 1.1 and 89.1 +/- 1.8% of age-predicted maximal heart rate and lactate was near of 4 mmol.l(-1) point. In conclusion, training programs to Wushu combatants could target the range of physiological values cited above with no differences between two forms.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of a 20-m shuttle-run test as an aerobic fitness test for Japanese children, adolescents, and young adults. Participants were 62 boys and 70 girls aged 8-17 years and 56 men and 99 women aged 18-23 years. Stepwise regression analysis was used to elucidate the relationship between shuttle-run performance, age, gender, and anthropometric parameters (as independent variables) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), determined directly on a treadmill, as a dependent variable. We observed high multiple correlations for adults (R2 = .88) and for children and adolescents (R2 = .80). Therefore, it is suggested that our multiple regression equations are more appropriate for predicting VO2peak in Japanese children, adolescents, and adults.
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Background: The aim of this study was to assess the concentration of blood lactate during the men's judo competition in order to investigate the impact of selected factors (the number and frequency of attacks and other variables) affecting it. Material/Methods:The study involved one professional judoist from the Sport Club (KS) of the Polish University Sports Association (AZS) Gdańsk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland (AWFiS) who is also a member of the national junior judo team. To determine the participant's aerobic capacity the test until exhaustion was performed during the tournament-specific preparation period. Additionally anaerobic efficiency was measured in the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Finally blood samples were taken during an international junior judo tournament before and after each five fights as a material for the analysis of the concentration of lactate. Additionally technical and tactical data of the five fights were recorded. Results:The highest concentration of blood lactate (25.1 mmol·l -1) was observed after the fourth fight, whereas the lowest (9.8 mmol·l -1) value was recorded after the last fight. The technical and tactical data have shown that the subject performed the highest number of attacks (10) in the first and fourth fight. Conclusions:According to our study, in-competition blood lactate concentration (as measured after each fight) exceeds the concentration obtained through the Wingate effort. This suggests that a single effort exerted during the WAnT is inadequate diagnostic index of glycolytic processes in tournament judo. Further, the frequencies of attacks, numbers attacks, forceful attacks are not the only factors affecting glycolysis process.
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Investigate the physiological responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in elite karate athletes and examine the relationship between a subjective method (Session-RPE) and two objective heart-rate (HR)-based methods to quantify training-load (TL) during international karate competition. Eleven karatekas took part in this study, but only data from seven athletes who completed three matches in an international tournament were used (four men and three women). The duration of combat was 3 min for men and 2 min for women, with 33.6±7.6 min for the first interval period (match 1-2) and 14.5±3.1 min for the second interval period (match 2-3). HR was continuously recorded during each combat. Blood lactate [La(-)] and (RPE) were measured just before the first match and immediately after each match. Means total fights time, HR, %HRmax, [La(-)], and session-RPE were 4.7±1.6 min, 182±9 bpm, 91±3%, 9.02±2.12 mmol.L(-1) and 4.2±1.2, respectively. No significant differences in %HRmax, [La(-)], and RPE were noticed across combats. Significant correlations were observed between RPE and both resting HR (r=0.60; P=0.004) and mean HR (r=0.64; P=0.02), session-RPE and Banister training-impulse (TRIMP) (r=0.84; P<0.001) and Edwards TL (r=0.77; P<0.01). International karate competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses and high [La(-)]. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate the zone between 90 and 100% HRmax. Karate coaches could use the RPE-method to follow competitor's competition loads and consider it in their technical and tactical training.
Article
Background This study attempted to produce answer to the question: Is physical endurance in judo contestant at junior age and Study Aim: related to the adopted fighting strategy and the level of sports performance?Material/Methods: The study covered 10 judo contestants from three clubs in Poland. First stage encompassed registration of their competitive activity level. On the basis of this record, contestant's fighting activity, efficiency and level of perfor- mance was assessed. Another stage of the investigations focused of evaluation of their aerobic and anaerobic en- durance on the basis of testing methods used in the Institute for Human Physiology in the University School of Physical Education in Cracow. The strength of the relationship was concluded based on the value of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.Results: As was observed on the basis of statistical analysis, level of anaerobic endurance shows strong relationship with the method of fighting observed among young judokas. Time to reach maximal power seems to be of particular importance. Its value correlated with efficiency of contestants' actions taken during second phase of fight and with the level of sports achievement.Conclusions: The results of the present study should be taken into consideration by judo club coaches during planning and implementation of training schedules among young contestants.
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Background: Taekwondo (TKD) is a popular combat sport renowned for its kicking techniques. With repeated practice, it may enhance the sensorimotor performance and balance of its practitioners. Research question: This study aimed (1) to compare the effects of short-term and long-term TKD training on the lower limb joint proprioception, muscle strength and balance performance of adolescents, and (2) to explore the relationships among these three outcome measures. Type of study: Observational study. Methods: Thirty-one adolescents including long-term (n=11), short-term (n=10), and non-practitioners (n=10) of TKD participated in the study. The knee joint position sense, isokinetic strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings, and sway in prolonged single-leg standing were measured. Results: Long-term TKD practitioners made significantly smaller errors in the knee joint repositioning test than the control group (p<0.01). No significant difference was found in the body-weight-adjusted isokinetic peak torque of the quadriceps (p>0.01) or hamstrings (p>0.01) among the three groups. Both short and long-term TKD practitioners swayed significantly slower than control participants while standing on one leg (p<0.01). The accuracy of knee joint angle repositioning was significantly correlated with sway velocity (r = 0.499, p<0.01). Conclusions: More than one year of TKD training can improve single-leg standing balance. The better postural stability demonstrated by long-term TKD practitioners may be associated with better knee joint position sense rather than knee muscle strength. Physiotherapists may therefore suggest long-term TKD exercise for adolescents to improve balance.
Article
Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. Methods—One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. Results—A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (p≤0.01). Soft tissue trauma was the most common type of injury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (p≤0.05). Annual injury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. Conclusions—The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less.
Article
To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (p< or =0.01). Soft tissue trauma was the most common type of injury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (p< or =0.05). Annual injury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk and knee strength in practitioners of hard-style martial arts. An additional objective was to examine reaction times in these participants by measuring simple reaction times (SRT), choice reaction times (CRT) and movement times (MT). Thirteen highlevel martial artists and twelve sedentary participants were tested under isokinetic and isometric conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Response and movement times were also measured in response to simple and choice auditory cues. Results indicated that the martial arts group generated a greater body-weight adjusted peak torque with both legs at all speeds during isokinetic extension and flexion, and in isometric extension but not flexion. In isokinetic and isometric trunk flexion and extension, martial artists tended to have higher peak torques than controls, but they were not significantly different (p > 0.05). During the SRT and CRT tasks the martial artists were no quicker in lifting their hand off a button in response to the stimulus [reaction time (RT)] but were significantly faster in moving to press another button [movement time (MT)]. In conclusion, the results reveal that training in a martial art increases the strength of both the flexors and extensors of the leg. Furthermore, they have faster movement times to auditory stimuli. These results are consistent with the physical aspects of the martial arts.