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Cultural differences in recognition of subdued facial expressions of emotions

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A relative in-group advantage for recognizing emotional facial expressions presented at full intensity has been documented. The present study examined whether this in-group advantage also existed for the recognition of subdued expressions. American and Chinese participants judged Caucasian and Chinese angry, sad, and happy expressions at subtle, low, and moderate intensity levels. An in-group advantage was found at the low and moderate intensity levels for angry expressions (the effect was partial at moderate intensity), and at the moderate intensity level for sad expressions. But at milder expression intensities, the in-group advantage disappeared, replaced by a main cultural effect in recognition accuracy. American judges were more accurate than Chinese judges in judging both Caucasian and Chinese expressions at the subtle intensity level for angry expressions and at both the subtle and low intensity levels for sad expressions. The present findings suggest that the in-group advantage resides in recognizing expressions of mid-range intensities but diminishes in recognizing milder expressions, and when the in-group advantage stops, cultural differences in sensitivity to very subtle expressions come to fore, at least for negative emotions involving potential threats to social harmony. The present findings suggest that Americans may be better able to detect very subtle facial expressions of sadness and anger, which may have implications for our understanding of cross-cultural differences in emotion.
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... ) 。しかし研究が 進むにつれ,その文化固有性,つまり感情をいつ,ど のように表出あるいは認知するのかといった文化間で 異なる調整方法の存在も主張されるようになり (Ekman, 1972;Ekman & Friesen, 1975工藤訳 1987Ekman et al, 1987;Russell, 1994) ,様々な文化間の比較でその差異が 示されてきた (Matsumoto & Ekman, 1989;Matsumoto et al., 2002;Zhang, Parmley, Wan, & Cavanagh, 2015 , 1998Kitayama & Markus, 1994) 。文化的自己観 は,他者から分離した独自なものとして自己を捉える 「相互独立的自己観」と,他者と互いに結びついた人間 関係の一部として自己を捉える「相互協調的自己観」か らなる (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) 。前者の代表として 北アメリカを含む西洋文化が,後者の代表として日本 や中国を含む東洋文化が挙げられる。このように異な る文化的自己観を持つ東西文化間では,感情認知にお ける文化差が多く示されてきた (Hutchison, Gerstein, & Kasai, 2018;Matsumoto et al., 2002;Matsumoto & Ekman, 1989;Matsumoto et al., 1999;Russell, 1994;Zhang et al., 2015) ...
... ) 。しかし研究が 進むにつれ,その文化固有性,つまり感情をいつ,ど のように表出あるいは認知するのかといった文化間で 異なる調整方法の存在も主張されるようになり (Ekman, 1972;Ekman & Friesen, 1975工藤訳 1987Ekman et al, 1987;Russell, 1994) ,様々な文化間の比較でその差異が 示されてきた (Matsumoto & Ekman, 1989;Matsumoto et al., 2002;Zhang, Parmley, Wan, & Cavanagh, 2015 , 1998Kitayama & Markus, 1994) 。文化的自己観 は,他者から分離した独自なものとして自己を捉える 「相互独立的自己観」と,他者と互いに結びついた人間 関係の一部として自己を捉える「相互協調的自己観」か らなる (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) 。前者の代表として 北アメリカを含む西洋文化が,後者の代表として日本 や中国を含む東洋文化が挙げられる。このように異な る文化的自己観を持つ東西文化間では,感情認知にお ける文化差が多く示されてきた (Hutchison, Gerstein, & Kasai, 2018;Matsumoto et al., 2002;Matsumoto & Ekman, 1989;Matsumoto et al., 1999;Russell, 1994;Zhang et al., 2015) ...
... さ れ う る こ と(Matsumoto et al., 1999;Zhang et al., ...
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... In the next experiment, we tested the robustness and cross-cultural consistency of this result pattern since cultural differences (e.g. Western cultures vs. Eastern Asian cultures) modulate emotional perception (Gendron et al., 2014;Matsumoto et al., 2002;Zhang et al., 2015). ...
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