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The Role of Truck Driver on Sustainable Transportation and Logistics



Purpose- The purpose of our paper is to identify traits and skills of a truck driver for sustainable transportation, develop a theoretical framework and outline further research directions. Design/Methodology/Approach- The present study undertakes a review of extant literature and appreciative inquiry, a quasi-ethnographic approach to identify traits and skills of a truck driver. Further, using a pragmatic approach, a theoretical framework has been developed. Findings- The study proposes a theoretical framework, which can be further used for formulating training modules for truck drivers for sustainable transportation and logistics. Practical implications- The study has outlined recommendations on the basis of a literature review of extant literature and appreciative inquiry. The recommendations can further help policy makers or technical bodies run by a government agencies or privately managed to develop a training module for truck drivers to meet the future challenges of sustainable transportation. Key-Word(s): Truck Driver, Sustainable Transportation and Logistics, Appreciative Inquiry, Institutional Pressures, Top Management Commitment, Personality Traits.
Industrial and Commercial Training
The Role of Truck Driver on Sustainable Transportation and Logistics:
Rameshwar Dubey Angappa Gunasekaran
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Rameshwar Dubey Angappa Gunasekaran , (2015),"The Role of Truck Driver on Sustainable Transportation and Logistics",
Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 47 Iss 3 pp. -
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The Role of Truck Driver on Sustainable Transportation and
Purpose- The purpose of our paper is to identify traits and skills of a truck
driver for sustainable transportation, develop a theoretical framework and
outline further research directions.
Design/Methodology/Approach- The present study undertakes a review of
extant literature and appreciative inquiry, a quasi-ethnographic approach to
identify traits and skills of a truck driver. Further, using a pragmatic approach,
a theoretical framework has been developed.
Findings- The study proposes a theoretical framework, which can be further
used for formulating training modules for truck drivers for sustainable
transportation and logistics.
Practical implications- The study has outlined recommendations on the basis
of a literature review of extant literature and appreciative inquiry. The
recommendations can further help policy makers or technical bodies run by a
government agencies or privately managed to develop a training module for
truck drivers to meet the future challenges of sustainable transportation.
Key-Word(s): Truck Driver, Sustainable Transportation and Logistics,
Appreciative Inquiry, Institutional Pressures, Top Management Commitment,
Personality Traits.
1. Introduction
The steep rise in contributions in the field of sustainable transportation
demonstrates active debate in this area (Black, 1996; Steg and Gifford, 2005;
Litman and Burwell, 2006; Shafiee and Topal, 2009; Amekudzi et al., 2009;
Eyring et al., 2010; Rogers and Weber, 2011; Lai et al., 2013), especially related
to environmental impacts and drivers’ and support staff’s quality of life.
However, there remains scant empirical research which critically focuses on
the role of truck drivers and their skills development, which are important for
achieving sustainable transportation goals. The trucking industry is the
backbone of transportation and logistics sector (Londoño-Kent, 2009) with a
vital role in developing economies, especially in the Indian subcontinent,
although this remains a largely unorganized sector (Parkan and Dubey, 2009).
Most research focuses on clean energy use in transportation (e.g. Shafiee and
Topal, 2009; Windecker and Ruder, 2013; Acciaro, 2014). In contrast, there is
hardly any research which focuses on the skills of a truck driver, who has a
major influence on carbon emissions. The present study is motivated by this
research gap and is guided by three research objectives:
(i) To identify the traits and skills required by the truck driver, as an
integral component of sustainable transportation;
(ii) To propose a theoretical framework to create a talent pool for truck
(iii) To outline further research directions.
To achieve this, the next section focuses on a review of extant literature.
Section three deals with our theoretical framework and its building blocks. In
the fourth section we discuss the implications of the proposed theoretical
framework and provide recommendations. The final section deals with
conclusions, unique contributions, managerial implications, limitations and
further research directions.
2. Related Research
In this section, we have classified our literature based on satisfaction and
frustration of truck drivers, their traits and skills, training requirements and
driver-related skills gaps in the present trucking industry. An exhaustive
literature survey has been undertaken to answer our first research objective.
2.1 Satisfaction and frustration of long distance truck driving
Satisfaction may be regarded as the ultimate source of motivation to choose
and remain in a tough profession like truck driving; conversely, frustration
from various sources may prevent one selecting truck driving as a profession.
Here, we explore possible sources of satisfaction and frustration using a critical
review of extant literature. According to Johnson et al. (2009), sources of
satisfaction include self-dependence, opportunity to travel, decent income, and
most importantly the pleasure of driving; while sources of frustration include
being away from home, rising fuel prices, lack of proper training, local
government pressures and issues around loading and unloading. Williams and
George (2013) adopted the appreciative inquiry (AI) method to reveal the factors
which determine the degree of satisfaction among the truck drivers’
community. Their study found that important satisfaction factors are: passion
for driving, opportunity to travel, and the independent nature of the job. Major
deterrent factors are: boredom, poor job respect and stress resulting from long
driving. These observations corroborate Johnson et al.’s (2009) findings.
Spielholz et al. (2008) explored the level of risk associated with long distance
truck driving, and Shibuya et al. (2010) quantified specific risks associated
with loading and unloading activities. These findings indicate that truck drivers
needs different skills to handle work-related stress and avoid frequent injuries
(Spielholz et al., 2008; Shibuya et al., 2010).
Appropriate training may eliminate some of the discomfort factors (long
working hours, long absence from home and high risk of injury) which lead to
frustration among truck drivers (Beilock and Capelle, 1990). However, it may
also be observed that drivers lack sensitivity towards environment and society,
as reflected in their casual approach, and therefore need skills which prepare
them to become more environmentally aware. Developing the necessary skills
set will help position truck drivers as the most important link in a sustainable
supply chain network.
2.2 Traits and skills needed for sustainable transportation and logistics
We have attempted to answer this question using appreciative enquiry (AI), a
qualitative research method that focuses on interpreting the meanings,
purposes, and intentions of people who share their feelings and experiences. In
our study, due to insufficient literature focusing on the traits and skills of a
truck driver in the context of sustainable supply chain networks, a qualitative
methodology is appropriate (Williams and George, 2013). AI, termed a
discipline of positive change, has emerged in recent years as one of the most
respected qualitative research technique (Cooperrider et al., 2008).
We conducted studies at various locations in India, spending time with
state police, who are responsible for monitoring truck emissions, age,
condition, and traffic laws; drivers themselves; and ten different police
commissioners and deputy commissioners in Nashik, Pune, Mumbai, Kolkata
and Delhi. We asked their opinion about recent challenges in terms of carbon
emissions; their perceptions of drivers’ quality of life; the extent to which
drivers are responsive towards environmental practices; and what traits and
skills a driver should possess.
2.2.1 Traits of a truck driver
We identified the following skills set of an ideal truck driver:
(i) Maturity
Maturity is an important criterion, supported by extant literature (Min and
Emam, 2003; Suszuki et al., 2009; Williams et al., 2011). Mature truck drivers
respect local government rules and generally take more responsibility for
environmental practices like regular engine cleaning, proper maintenance and
driving within speed limits, whereas younger drivers are more irresponsible
and enjoy breaking rules (Min and Emam, 2003; Suszuki et al., 2009; Williams
et al., 2011; Saldanha et al., 2013; Williams and George, 2013).
(ii) Education level
Education level is an important criterion that differentiates responsible from
irresponsible truck drivers. According to senior police officers, most truck
drivers are not even high school graduates. A lack of proper scrutiny over how
drivers obtain their heavy vehicle licenses was reported. However, there was a
belief that tightening up on this could lead to an acute shortage of truck
drivers. We also identified a lack of respect among Indians towards the truck
driving profession. This finding of our AI contradicts findings from the USA and
other developing economies (Saldanha et al., 2013; Williams and George,
2013); in fact, in Western countries truck driving professions are well
respected. This could be linked to country culture, which may further impact
on driver education level (Min and Emam, 2003). Education may be regarded
as a major constraint in India due to popular perception of truck driving.
(iii) Endurance
Endurance is regarded as a key criterion for determining the longevity of a
driver, as poor endurance may lead to frustration (Min and Emam, 2003;
Williams and George, 2013). Our AI suggested that endurance may be linked to
drivers’ demographic profiles (age, educational background, experience), socio-
economic status, and Indian culture by state. Experienced drivers with proper
training from Indian states like Punjab, Bihar and UP tend to have more
endurance than those with less experience from states like West Bengal, Kerala
and Assam.
2.2.2 Skills of a truck driver
(i) Technical knowledge
Technical knowledge includes basic automobile engineering, fundamentals of
logistics and transportation and basic instrumentation awareness for
environmental testing and basic engine diagnostics and maintenance. These AI
findings are corroborated by extant literature (Kuncyté et al., 2003; Raftery et
al., 2008) and this is an area that needs urgent attention. Indian truck drivers
almost entirely lack the skills set of U.S. drivers (Williams and George, 2013),
possibly due to lack of proper motor training schools or institutes.
(ii) Behavioral skills
The AI reveals that due to poor communication skills and inappropriate
attitudes, drivers often end up in direct confrontation with regulatory
authorities in a large country where different languages are spoken. Truck
drivers from states like Punjab, Bihar and UP and are well conversant in Hindi,
but find it difficult to communicate in the South (Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
and Kerala) where English is more widespread.
2.3 Research gaps
To further corroborate our AI data we have undertaken review of extant
literature, identifying many gaps which require urgent attention. There is a
dearth of literature focusing on the sustainable transportation and logistics
training needs of truck drivers. The logistics and supply chain literature has
also failed to address truck drivers’ skills and future training requirements to
meet complex sustainable supply chain network requirements (exceptions: Min
and Emam, 2003; Williams et al., 2011; Williams and George, 2013). There is
thus a lack of a comprehensive theoretical training framework for truck drivers,
and thus a pressing need to develop the training modules required to meet the
future challenges of sustainable transportation and logistics.
3. Theoretical Framework
The foundation of our theoretical framework comprises three elements:
training, skills and institutional theory (see Figure 1). In recent years,
institutional theory (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983) has emerged as a powerful
explanation for the influence of external institutions on organizational decision
making and outcomes. We argue that due to the institutional pressures
detailed below, transport firms must embrace sustainability within their
corporate strategy. However, successful implementation is determined by
several external and internal factors. Our conceptual framework is grounded in
the proposition that institutional forces can only affect truck drivers’ skills after
they are mediated by proper training and moderated by successful top
management intervention.
Figure 1: Theoretical Framework
Coercive pressures are external pressures created by stakeholders
(government agencies, regulatory norms etc.) due to varying expectations from
society (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983). Coercive pressures, mediated through
rigorous training and moderated by top management commitment, result in the
desired technical and behavioral skills of the truck drivers.
Normative pressures are due to professional codes, which expect
professionals to follow specific guidelines. In India, trucking unions play an
important role in creating a sense of environmental responsibility and safe
driving. In our study we have identified, based on extant literature and AI, the
Personality Traits
Coercive Pressures
Mimetic Pressures
Technical Skills
Behavioral Skills
Top management commitment
impacts of normative pressure on the technical and behavioral skills of truck
drivers when mediated by proper training and moderated by top management
Mimetic pressures result from the mimicking action of an organization. When
an organization lacks clarity in terms of goals, or environmental uncertainty is
high (i.e. poor supply of trained and responsible drivers in the market), top
management tends to replicate existing industry trends. Thus mimetic
pressure tends to impact how the technical and behavioral skills of truck
drivers are mediated by training and moderated by top management.
Training can help to translate these institutional pressures into the desired
technical and behavioral skills of a truck driver. As discussed earlier, lack of
appropriate training leads to frustration, sometimes resulting in drivers
quitting the profession (Johnson et al., 2013; Williams and George, 2013) and
is reflected in psychological and physical stress. There is a high risk of injury
during consignment loading and unloading, thus driver training modules
should be developed which mediate between institutional pressures and the
sustainable transportation and logistics skill of truck drivers (i.e. technical
skills and behavioral skills). Mismatch between driver personality traits and the
truck driving profession can limit longevity in the profession, therefore training
must ensure proper fitment between personality traits and the truck driving
profession and must include psychological training to build endurance.
Training should also include a mentor-mentee program to help young drivers
mature under the effective guidance of a senior driver; and technical training
should be provided including fundamental engineering, environmental
awareness, basic logistics and transportation management, as well as the law
(Multimodal Transportation of Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Act).
Technical skills clearly reflect the responsible behavior of the truck drivers.
Many drivers lack of adequate knowledge related to engine and transmission
systems, or control of carbon emissions. Due to lack of legal awareness drivers
come into confrontation with regulatory authorities, especially when lack of
computer skills means they cannot track modifications in the regulations. Poor
reading and writing skill in English may also cause difficulties.
Behavioral skills may determine the longevity of the truck driver. Poor
communication skills or negative attitude may reflect on their performance and
impacts their perception by society. Behavioral skills of truck drivers require
urgent attention, including communication, teamwork, leadership, positive
attitude, community feeling and environmental responsibility.
Personality Traits are included as confounding variables to fully account for
the difference in learning outcomes and the level of skills acquired by truck
drivers through training. This avoids the risk of compromising the internal
validity of the constructs of the framework. We identified maturity (i.e. age),
education level and endurance level as confounding variables.
4. Discussions and Recommendations
The theoretical framework (Figure 1) clearly indicates how the institutional
pressures, under the mediation effect of training and moderation effect of top
management commitment, can successfully help to develop required skills, so
that truck drivers can respond to the pressing need of sustainable
transportation and logistics. Based on this, we offer the following
recommendations so that truck driving can become a respected profession and
truck drivers can be a part of a sustainable supply chain network:
(i) The training must help to assimilate external pressures into technical
and behavioral skills. Four levels of training are required:
(a) Psychological Training;
(b) MentorMentee Program;
(c) Technical Knowledge;
(d) Behavioral Dynamics Laboratory exposure.
(ii) Top management commitment towards training can further help to
create a pool of skilled truck drivers, e.g. by recognizing the
contribution of the truck driver, perhaps nominating responsible
drivers for citizenship awards through professional bodies (Chartered
Institute of Logistics and Transport (India), Asian Council of Logistics
Management (India), Confederation of Indian Industry Institute for
Logistics). Top management must offer high incentives to boost
morale of the truck drivers and provide excellent regular training
opportunities and health check facilities.
(iii) Driver skills identification must be correlated with their personality
traits to allow proper recruitment for the truck driving profession.
Proper awareness needs to be created among young people of the
truck driving profession to create respect for truck driving among
local communities.
5. Conclusions
In response to our first research objective, we have undertaken an in-depth
exhaustive literature review and used AI as a quasi-ethnographic approach to
identify traits and skills of a truck driver from a sustainable transportation and
logistics perspective. Our findings corroborated those of past scholars (Johnson
et al., 2009; Williams and George, 2013) and we have attempted to extend past
research (Jabbour, 2011; Jabbour and Jabbour, 2014).
In response to our second research objective, we proposed the theoretical
framework (Figure 1) that shows how training can translate institutional
pressures with support of top management into skills for sustainable
transportation and logistics. Current skills of truck drivers in the Indian
subcontinent are not up to expected international levels. However, the
framework is based on our pragmatic approach guided by extant literature and
AI data, and needs to be empirically validated.
5.1 Unique Contributions
This may be the first attempt to propose a theoretical framework for truck
driver skills from a sustainable transportation and logistics perspective. The
present study has attempted to contribute to institutional theory. It has further
validated the studies of Johnson et al. (2009) and Williams and George (2013).
The role of sustainable transportation and logistics in sustainable supply chain
networks has attracted major attentions from scholars in past. Truck drivers,
regarded as the heart of the road transportation system, somehow received
little attention from researchers. Past research failed to connect two very
important aspects of SCM (i.e. human resource and sustainable supply chain
network) (Ellinger and Ellinger, 2014). Our present study used literature review
and AI to explore the traits and skill for truck driving from a sustainable
transportation and logistics perspective, thus contributing to supply chain
management literature.
5.2 Managerial Implications
The present study can help practitioners and policy makers to formulate
training modules for truck drivers for sustainable transportation and logistics.
Second, it may attract an urgent attention from specialized institutions from
developing countries. Existing training needs a complete overhaul to address
the pressing needs of the time. The framework can help to further outline the
personality traits and skills of the truck drivers as per the needs of sustainable
transportation and logistics. Professional societies can further respond to our
call by institutionalizing awards for truck drivers in local and national forums
and companies may reward and recognize the true contributions of truck
drivers towards achieving sustainable development. Regulatory authorities and
other members of the supply chain network must pay due respect to truck
drivers as equal, or perhaps even the most, important members of the supply
chain network. Imagine how our lives would be without them
5.3 Limitations and Further Research Directions
The present study has limitations, but we feel these provide impetus for further
research. The study proposed a theoretical framework based on literature
review and AI outcomes; this needs to be statistically validated using survey
data. Moreover, the proposition of our theoretical framework needs to be tested
using hierarchical regression analysis. In using AI in our study, we only
interviewed selected senior police officials, leading to a risk of bias, which can
be reduced by including other regulatory authorities and managers from
transportation companies. However, this is difficult in this unorganized sector
in the Indian subcontinent characterized by small companies (5 to 10 trucks)
with no human resource manager. However, interviews with truck owners may
provide useful insights.
Acknowledgements: The authors are most grateful to two anonymous
reviewers for their constructive and helpful comments which helped to improve
the presentation considerably.
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... According to Douglas and Swart (2017), truck accidents result in enormous economic and societal losses. Thus, truck drivers (TDs) form the backbone and strongest link in this chain of bulk petroleum distribution (Dubey & Gunasekaran 2015). The TDs are crucial in ensuring that petroleum products are delivered to customers on time, in full, and safely. ...
... On the contrary, petroleum companies should have effective breakdown recovery procedures in place to minimize vehicle downtime caused by failures. Identifying and recognizing truck drivers and vehicles' performance can be accomplished through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs) that assist businesses in managing performance (Dubey & Gunasekaran, 2015). Key performance indicators are metrics that focus on the aspects of business performance that are critical to the corporation's current and future success (Parmenter 2015). ...
... This sector is responsible for activities such as crude oil refining, the sale and distribution of a variety of products to clients (Elhuni& Ahmad 2017), as well as storage (Li & Jiang, 2016). The downstream sector is crucial for the role of drivers and trucks in transporting petroleum supplies from refineries to depots (Ambituuni, Amezaga, & Werner, 2015).According to The Global Economy, (2021)truck transportation is a critical component of modern supply chains, and truck drivers and vehicles are viewed as critical to the effectiveness of these supply chains (Dubey & Gunasekaran 2015). Road transport is frequently utilized to deliver petroleum products between depots and clients (Al Chukwuma &Atelhe 2015). ...
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Fuel supply is classified under critical and dangerous goods distribution. Truck Drivers (TD) and trucks are the two components involved in every stage of fuel road-distribution hence a focus on driver and vehicle key performance indicator measurements. The study examines the significance of driver key performance indicators and vehicle performance indicators on organisational performance and on customer satisfaction in the bulk fuel supply chain. A quantitative research methodology was conducted with 91 respondents drawn from the fuel sector. SMART PLS 3.3.3 was utilised for data analysis. The study found that there are positive and significant relationships between Vehicle KPIs and Driver KPIs; Driver KPIs and Organisational Performance (OP); Vehicle KPIs and OP; Driver KPIs and Customer service (CS), and OP and CS. The study also noted that Driver KPIs have significant mediating impact on OP. The mediating role of OP on CS was found to be insignificant.
... Bulk truck drivers (BTDs) are thus the cornerstone and strongest link of this bulk fuel supply chain (Dubey & Gunasekaran 2015;Lima et al. 2018). The BTDs play a critical role in ensuring that petroleum products reach customers on time, in full and in a safe manner. ...
... It is in the downstream sector that the role of truck drivers in the delivery of petroleum products from refineries to depots is critical (Benantar & Ouafi 2012). Mittal et al. (2018) argue that transporting goods by trucks provides a crucial link in modern supply chains and truck drivers are thus perceived as being central to the success of these supply chains (Dubey & Gunasekaran 2015;Leuschner, Lambert & Knemeyer 2012). ...
... Open Access that customers are serviced satisfactorily (Dubey & Gunasekaran 2015;Leuschner et al. 2012). Good driver performance ultimately enhances customer satisfaction (Dubey & Gunasekaran 2015;Leuschner et al. 2012). ...
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Background: The distribution of bulk fuel products to customers is one of the key activities in the downstream petroleum supply chain. For this activity to be effected successfully, three groups of supply chain participants, drivers, supervisors and customers, play key roles. Truck drivers are responsible for conveying the final product to the customer, whilst supervisors ensure that trucks are dispatched on time, driver performance is monitored and performance feedback is properly communicated to drivers. Customers, who purchase the final products, are the foundation of business success. Business success is only possible by meeting or exceeding customer expectations, and it is therefore imperative that the performance of employees is measured and monitored regularly.Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the impact of measuring driver performance on the bulk fuel supply chain and on customer service.Method: A quantitative research methodology was conducted using structured questionnaires which were disseminated before and after the key performance indicators were implemented to three target groups.Results: The study found that the performance of drivers improved because of the performance feedback they received from supervisors who were perceived to have improved in their performance through the effective utilisation of key performance indicators, and as a result, this increased customer service levels.Conclusion: Whilst the research was limited to a single petroleum company, the results can provide management with guidance and insight on how to improve performance of employees through the use of key performance indicators, with a goal of providing excellent customer service.
... Downing et al. [1] analysed the effect of carbon emission in the society and techniques to control the environmental pollution. Dubey and Gunasekaran [2] studied the role of truck driver on sustainable transportation and logistics. Karmakar et al. [3,4] have kept a special destination to tackle the problem of the learning effect in any production process extensively. ...
... Thus, the total average joint inventory system cost (z) can be obtained by accumulating equations [1,2,10,11,13,15,17,18,32] and get ...
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This article deals with a pollution-sensitive production-transportation supply chain (SC) model, based on a fuzzy strategic game matrix approach. We know, the environmental pollution that comes from several industrial set-ups has some adverse effects throughout the globe. Therefore, in this study we develop a cost minimization SC problem with the effect of pollution. The amount of pollution exhausted from the production plant is estimated by percentage through defining some pollution functions and they are considered as constraints of the proposed problem. We convert our original problem into an equivalent game problem via fuzzification (because of natural flexibilities) of all the model parameters in which the producer plays the role of player I in one side and the customers play the role of player II on the other side exclusively. Moreover, this game problem has been solved with the help of random strategic weight vectors, the Gaussian strategy vectors and bi-objective optimization techniques respectively. For numerical computations, few novel C programming via solution algorithm (For data validation a hyperlink is also given in the numerical section) have been established. Numerical illustrations with comparative study are also provided to validate the model. The basic advantage of this study is that the use of random strategic weight vectors could ultimately optimize the model compared to some other new existing methods as per literature survey concerned. Finally, the sensitivity analysis and the graphical illustrations are made followed by a conclusion to justify the proposed model.
... In the literature, several articles are available which are associated with cost minimization problem where the demand rate and the order quantity are the decision variables. Dubey and Gunasekaran (2015) studied the role of truck driver on sustainable transportation and logistics. Aarthi (2017) studied to measure the pollution in air which is mainly producing from different sponge iron industries. ...
The issues of environmental pollution due to several industrial set up are the basic focus of interest throughout the globe. This article deals with a pollution sensitive production-transportation supply chain (SC) model based on Binomial (via Bernoulli trials) and Gaussian (standard normal) strategic fuzzy game approach. We develop an average inventory cost minimization problem in a SC model with the effect of pollution due to production and transportation. In fact, we discuss the emissions of pollutants like carbon dioxide (CO2), Sulphur dioxide (SO2) etc. during industrial manufacturing and various types of transportation. The amount of pollution exhausted from production plant is estimated by the percentage via some pollution function. We split the original problem into equivalent game problem in which the producer plays the role of player I in one side and the customer plays the role of player II in the other side exclusively. The general fuzzy and fuzzy game theoretical approach have also been incorporated for comparative study. The numerical illustrations are done with the help of a solution algorithm. A comparative study reveals that Gaussian strategy suppresses the Binomial strategy to optimize the proposed SC problem. Finally, sensitivity analysis and graphical illustrations are made to justify the novelty of the proposed model.
... Indeed, the built-in sensors of various onboard systems in modern trucks assess not only the work of the vehicle itself, but also the work of the driver. A number of truck models also include driver digital assistants, which tell them the optimal actions while driving [9]. Moreover, there are technologies that allow to assess the degree of fatigue of drivers, for example, using cameras to monitor blinking. ...
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Management of a process assumes the availability of metrics to reflect its status. During road freight transportation, nowadays various sensors provide you with a full picture of what is happening with the vehicle and freight. Accordingly, in case of deviation from the specified transportation parameters, the company's CEO can exercise his/her management to adjust the transportation process. However, the influence of the human factor on the reliability of transportation is still considerable. So, methods and approaches are required to assess actions and business activities of personnel quickly and efficiently. It is currently relevant for the transportation process not only to collect data on driver behavior, but also to deeply analyze the behavior of operators of the fleet management information system.
... According to Dubey and Gunasekaran, [21] can be a remark that drivers do not care about the environment or society, as manifested in their behavior. Therefore, they should have skills that make them more ecologically aware. ...
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Multi-criteria decision-making methods (MCDM) represent a very powerful tool for making decisions in different areas. Making a rational and reliable decision, while respecting different factors, is a challenging and difficult task; MCDM models have a great impact on achieving this goal. In this paper, a new MCDM technique is presented—ranking alternatives by defining relations between the ideal and anti-ideal alternative (RADERIA), which was tested for the evaluation of human resources (HR) in a transportation company. The RADERIA model has three key advantages that recommend it for future use: (1) the RADERIA model has a new approach for data normalization that enables defining the normalization interval according to the judgments of a decision-maker; (2) an adaptive model for data normalization of the RADERIA model allows tough conversion into various forms of decreasing functions (linear, quadratic equation, etc.); and (3) the resistance of the RADERIA model to the rank reversal problem. Furthermore, in many simulations, the RADERIA method has shown stability when processing a larger number of datasets. This was also confirmed by a case study with 36 alternatives, as considered in this paper. The results and verification of the proposed new method were acquired through a comprehensive verification of the complexity of the results. The complexity of the results was executed through (1) comparison with four other multi-criteria methods, (2) checking the resistance of the RADERIA model to the rank reversal problem, and (3) the analysis of the impact of changes in the measurement scale on the ranking results.
... VI) Operational (OP) Risks Delay Risk(R24) Transportation delays lead to disruption of delivery schedules, need for extra trips, increased cost, driver stress etc Sanchez-Rodrigues et al. (2010), Demir et al. (2015), Nguyen et al. (2019) Vehicle Routing and Scheduling Risk (R25) Inefficient route planning and scheduling results in empty running and increased travel distance, which can impact on the environment and economic efficiency Piecyk and McKinnon (2010), Vega-Mejía et al. (2017) Material Handling Risk (R26)Chances of product damage during transshipment cause monetary losses and wastage of resourcesDubey and Gunasekaran (2015) ...
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A combination of sustainability-related regulations and increased demand from stakeholders has pressed firms to adequately address sustainability-related risks. This issue is particularly important, and challenging, for the freight transportation sector due to its exposure to a large number of inherent sustainability risks. Despite the growing significance of sustainability risks, there is a lack of research related to sustainability risk management, which may be due to the difficulties in identifying and evaluating sustainability risks. We aim to fill this research gap by identifying, measuring and modelling sustainability risks in the context of freight transportation. Our research makes three primary contributions. First, we introduce the concept of a sustainability risk index (SRI) to understand the risk exposure of freight transportation systems (FTSs) in the context of India, an emerging market. The SRI is a mathematical tool used to measure sustainability risks andto quantify a firm’s exposure to sustainability-related risks. Second, we propose an integrated two-phase model based on an interval 2-tuple linguistic model and a digraph matrix approach to calculate the SRI. In contrast to other existing techniques, the proposed approach can effectively deal with uncertain and incomplete linguistic assessments without suffering a loss of information. Third, we propose a framework for calculating both the disruption scores and influencing power of sustainability risks to evaluate the associated criticality and triggering power. For a robustness check, we also conduct a sensitivity analysis of the impact of risk variations on the SRI. Unlike conventional perceptions, our results show that organisational and governmental risks, which are mostly behavioural and skills-induced, are more significant for sustainable FTSs compared to financial risks. Our research helps the managerial community in thefreight transportation sector in emerging markets to engage in more informed decision-making to proactively mitigate sustainability risks, which have potentially devastating financial, environmental and societal impacts.
... The effect of skillset on driving behavior has been studied in the literature (22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36), as well as the reasons for dissatisfaction with the profession (37)(38)(39)(40). Many studies have attempted to identify truck drivers' views on the contributing factors for accidents, and found issues such as stress (5, 8, 10-13, 24, 38, 41), sleep disorder (6,10,13,17,23,30,(41)(42)(43)(44), fatigue (6,10,13,14,25,27,29,(45)(46)(47), anxiety (17,18), over speeding (8,12,22,39), rash driving (22,39), low income, depression (4-6, 10, 15, 22, 35, 38, 43, 48), and driving for an extended period (5-8, 13, 15, 18, 24, 25, 28, 42, 46). Apart from these factors, personal factors such as age (23,40,41,46,49), education level (16,24,31,37,49,50), experience (1,3,8,11,34), and physical health condition of the drivers (6,10,13,23,47) were also studied. ...
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India ranks first in the global fatalities rate related to traffic accidents. India’s trucking industry is highly unorganized compared with that in developed countries, as a result of which drivers do not get professional recognition in society. Low income, job insecurity, high-fatigue conditions, and continuous exposure to external environmental conditions cause job dissatisfaction, and the majority of traffic accidents in India are caused by driver negligence. This study aims to systematically examine the underlying factors that cause drivers’ unsafe behavior from the following four assessment levels: personal, professional, organizational, and external factors. A purposeful sampling-based survey method was employed to collect the data. The findings of this study were compared with the opinions of the experts and results from previous studies in the literature. The study results found that the contribution of professional and organizational factors to unsafe behavior is greatest compared with external and personal factors. The study concludes with recommendations for reducing drivers’ risk through planned driving schedules, ensuring social security through welfare schemes, and improving driving performance through proper training programs for preventing and minimizing damage caused by accidents, and recommends policy-based measures to trucking companies and regulatory bodies for minimizing accident occurrence.
This article deals with a pollution sensitive production-transportation supply chain (SC) model with backorder under three-layer marketing executives’ performance based fuzzy strategic game approach. Each executive group follows a cycle time dependent performance function according to some rules. Considering a real case study, we develop a cost minimization centralized two-layer SC model under the effect of pollution. The amount of pollution is estimated by percentage via some pollution function studied for the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) during industrial production and road transportation. We split the original problem into equivalent game problem in which the producer (vendor) plays the role of player 1 in one side and the buyer (customer) plays the role of player 2 in the other side exclusively. The game problem is studied under different scenarios namely performance indices, game strategy and with and without pollution measures. Utilizing the data set of case study over sponge iron industry we perform some numerical computations with the help of LINGO software. Our findings reveal that, whenever the Gaussian probabilistic strategies with row interchanging performance matrix is employed on numerical illustrations then the centralized SC cost gets minimum with reduced pollution level. Finally, a comparative study, sensitivity analysis and graphical illustrations are done to justify the robustness of the proposed model.
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Background Every year, the life science field spends billions of dollars on educational activities worldwide. The continuing professional development of employees, especially in this field, encompasses great challenges. Emerging technologies appear to offer opportunity, but relatively little research has been done on the effectiveness of pedagogies and tools that have been used in the life sciences, and even less research has been devoted to understanding the potential power of emerging options that might determine the field’s future. Objective In collaboration with the Life Sciences Trainers & Educators Network (LTEN), this study investigated the current state of the pedagogies and tools currently adopted by corporate training professionals in the life sciences as well as the professionals’ perceptions of the impacts of emerging technologies on training. Methods This study adopted a mixed methods approach that included a survey and a follow-up interview. The survey consists of 18 broad questions with 15 subquestions in each of the five specific sectors of the life sciences field. Interviews were conducted by phone and lasted approximately 40 minutes, covering 18 questions designed to follow-up on findings from the survey items. Results Both survey and interview results indicated that the professionals were not satisfied with the status quo and that training and education in this field need to change. Most of the techniques and tools currently used have been used for some time. The professionals surveyed were not satisfied with the current techniques and tools and did not find them cost-effective. In addition, the respondents pictured the future of training in this field to be more engaging and effective. Conclusions This is the first study in a series designed to better understand education and training in the life sciences on a macro level, in order to build a foundation for progress and evolution of the future landscape. Next steps involve developing strategies for how to extend this vision throughout individual organizations.
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The number of registered heavy vehicles (HV) in Australiahas risen 22% since 2005 and, with the national freight task projected to double by 2030, the number of HVs on Australian roads is set to continue to increase. In the 12 months to the end of June 2010 crashes involving heavy vehicles resulted in 239 fatalities while around one third of all work-related road crash fatalities occur within the freight industry. Heavy vehicle safety for both the trucking industry and the general community remains an important issue. In recognition of this the Australian Trucking Association has commissioned a research scan to develop a knowledge base that may be used to guide the strategic direction and development of effective outcomes in the area of heavy vehicle safety. The scan focussed on five key areas: factors associated with HV crashes, road and vehicle design, human and social factors, speed management and enforcement, and the effectiveness of accreditation schemes. This scan identified a number of gaps in knowledge and recommendations for future research were suggested in the areas of fatigue, seat belt use, traffic management, and technology.
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The trucking industry provides the majority of transportation services in the United States. Truck drivers, particularly their driving performance, which influences how customers perceive motor carriers, are integral to the success of their firms. Hence, driver management is a topic of great interest to the trucking industry, logistics practitioners, and logistics researchers. Although the logistics literature does address issues relating to driver management, advice is scarce regarding how motor carriers might manage drivers to improve operational performance and thus the bottom line. Our results shed light on the processes whereby some formal controls directly influence operational performance, whereas others indirectly influence operational performance; that is, in the latter case, the influence of formal controls on operational performance is mediated by certain informal controls. According to our findings, motor carrier firms that employ a combination of formal and informal controls perform better operationally than firms that do not do so. And, thus, those employing such a combination of controls will realize a larger market share.
This paper presents in-service data collected from over 300 alternative fuel vehicles and over 80 fueling stations to help fleets determine what types of applications and alternative fuels may help them reduce their environmental impacts and fuel costs. The data were compiled in 2011 by over 30 organizations in New York State using a wide variety of commercial vehicle types and technologies. Fuel economy, incremental vehicle purchase cost, fueling station purchase cost, greenhouse gas reductions, and fuel cost savings data clarifies the performance of alternative fuel vehicles and fuel stations. Data were collected from a range of vehicle types, including school buses, delivery trucks, utility vans, street sweepers, snow plows, street pavers, bucket trucks, paratransit vans, and sedans. CNG, hybrid, LPG, and electric vehicles were tracked.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is mainly to show how training may support low-carbon operations and production management in a more sustainable organizational context. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework to facilitate the integration between training and low-carbon operations and production is presented. Findings – To accomplish better training in a low-carbon organization, some steps should be followed. Challenges may occur, including the necessity of collaboration across the supply chain. Research limitations/implications – The proposed framework should be applied and improved based on the actual conditions in organizations. Originality/value – Low-carbon organizations are part of the future corporate world. But the link between training and low-carbon operations and production management is not yet clear. This paper contributes to this discussion and presents an original framework.
In the last few years, sulphur emissions to air from shipping have been of heightened interest to policymakers and the media, and more stringent regulation is on the way. Various alternatives are available in the shipping industry to comply with emission regulation and minimise impacts on shipowners' bottom-line. New regulation is adding complexity to managerial decision-making, so that advanced decision support tools can provide useful contributions to management processes. The present paper presents an analysis of the options available to shipowners taking into consideration the value of deferring the investment decision vis-à-vis the advantages obtainable from the exploitation of fuel price differentials. The model shows that there is a trade-off between low LNG prices and LNG capital expenses. While in most cases it would not be recommended to invest in LNG as early as today, the model shows that investment in LNG can make economic sense as early as 2015. This is highly dependent on the capital costs necessary for retrofitting ships with LNG engines and the difference between LNG prices and distillates prices.
Despite the need for environmental management in shipping, there is no extant measurement scale that comprehensively captures green shipping practices (GSP) in shipping operations. In view of this research void, we investigate the construct of and develop a measurement scale for evaluating GSP implementation in the shipping industry. Based on conceptualisation of GSP in an earlier study and survey data collected from 107 shipping firms, we develop, refine, and test a six-dimensional GSP measurement scale specifically for evaluating GSP implementation in the sea transportation context. The six GSP dimensions include company policy and procedure (CPP), shipping documentation (SD), shipping equipment (SE), shipper cooperation (SC), shipping materials (SM), and shipping design for compliance (SDC). We construct two measurement models at first- and second-order levels for evaluating the implementation of GSP and validate them by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The empirical findings suggest that both of the measurement models for evaluating GSP implementation are reliable and valid. This study makes a novel contribution to the shipping literature by empirically developing and validating the construct of GSP implementation. Practically, we contribute a validated measurement scale useful for shipping companies to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their greening efforts and identify areas for improvement.
Research on truck driver retention addresses how traditional variables impact drivers’ decisions to stay with a particular carrier, yet many of the traditional research methods have been called into question. Additionally, research is sparse on understanding whether unique driver need-based segments exist. Therefore, the authors present a theoretical framework and examine an exploratory study for incorporating numerous constructs that pertain to a driver’s intention to drive for a firm. Empirical results indicate that drivers’ value pay, personal safety, and time at home are most important when deciding to remain with a firm. In addition, three unique truck driver need-based segments were identified. The authors offer retention recommendations based on the specific needs of each segment.
Purpose – There is an ongoing shortage of talented supply chain managers with the necessary skills and business-related competencies to manage increasingly complex and strategically important supply chain processes. The purpose of this paper is to propose that organizations can create and maintain competitive advantage by leveraging the expertise of human resource development (HRD) professionals to provide a range of developmental and change-oriented interventions related to critical supply chain manager skill sets that are currently in short supply. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper. Findings – This is a conceptual paper. Practical implications – Supply chain management (SCM) decisions significantly influence financial performance since firms expend up to 75 percent of their revenue on supply chain activities. HRD professionals' intervention capabilities in training and development, organizational development and change management uniquely equip them to disseminate a deeper and broader understanding of the SCM concept within organizations, to help prioritize the development of supply chain managers and to address the complex interpersonal issues associated with helping people to work together collaboratively to foster operational innovation and make increasingly complex supply chain processes function effectively. Originality/value – The requisite skill sets for effective supply chain managers are described, linkages between HRD and SCM are highlighted, and areas of HRD professionals' expertise that can be exploited to better develop supply chain managers' skill sets and competencies are considered.