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Abstract

Philosophers such as Eric Katz and Robert Elliot have argued against ecological restoration on the grounds that restored landscapes are no longer natural. Katz calls them "artifacts," but the sharp distinction between nature and artifact doesn't hold up. Why should the products of one particular natural species be seen as somehow escaping nature? Katz's account identifies an artifact too tightly with the intentions of its creator: artifacts always have more to them than what their creators intended, and furthermore the intention behind some artifacts might explicitly be to allow things to happen unpredictably. Indeed, to build any artifact is to employ forces that go beyond the builder: in this sense all artifacts are natural. Recognizing the naturalness of artifacts can help encourage the key environmental virtues of self-knowledge and humility.
... Aún con las restricciones a la movilidad impuestas por muchos gobiernos, hemos podido acceder a medicamentos y víveres a través de las aplicaciones instaladas en nuestro teléfono celular. También hemos creado dentro de nuestras ciudades artefactos naturales 5 (Vogel, 2003) como jardines, parques y senderos que aumentan nuestra sensación de bienestar y confort urbano. "Todo esto nos lleva a creer que hemos hecho nuestro propio entorno y ya no dependemos del que nos brinda la naturaleza. ...
... There were, of course, significant exceptions, such as Andrew Light, who challenged strong rejections concerning ecological restoration as unhelpful(Light 2009) or Steven Vogel's attempts to bring attention to the unfair status of artifacts in environmental ethics(Vogel 2015(Vogel , 2003. ...
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