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... If lead is found in the raw materials for the candy, it poses a challenge to producers having to certify their providers. In the early 1990's high lead concentrations were detected in Mexican candy wrappers and ceramic containers . In 1993 the Mexican Health authorities released a regulation limiting the use of lead in ink . ...
Lead is a neurotoxic metal potentially affecting the developing brain. Children are particularly susceptible since they can absorb between 50% and 100% of ingested lead. There is no safe level for lead, therefore preventing exposure is crucial. We previously reported a positive association between lead concentrations found in candy and concurrent blood lead levels in Mexican children. This first report garnered media and the general public's attention.
To conduct a follow-up study to assess lead concentrations in candy brands that we previously reported with concentrations ≥0.1ppm the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's recommended maximum lead level in candy likely to be consumed frequently by small children.
In 2018 we analyzed 50 additional candy samples. Lead concentrations were analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and lead content per candy unit was calculated.
We found concentrations were typically low, with a marked decrease from prior levels (2008). Nevertheless two candy units had concentrations of 0.1 ppm of lead.
Candy may have lead concentrations up to 0.1 ppm and 1.2 μg per unit. This is a concern because candies are exported and consumed in many countries worldwide potentially resulting in human exposure. Continued public health surveillance is needed to protect populations especially vulnerable to lead exposure, especially children.
... Immigrants bring with them their physiological burden of Pb stored in bone [46,47]. In addition, they bring distinctive cultural and dietary practices  that can result in the significant exposure to Pb discussed in the following sections. ...
As a result of recent media attention to lead (Pb) in consumer products, Pb exposure and toxicity to children has been placed back on the national agenda. This review presents the current literature on sources of Pb in Hispanic sub-populations in the broader context of national lead poisoning trends, sources, and exposure pathways. Pb poisoning among Hispanics is a multi-dimensional issue that is far more complex than for the general population in terms of environmental, cultural, and social dimensions. As a result, a higher percentage of Hispanic children have elevated blood lead levels compared to the general population. Given the additional risks that Hispanics face, all Hispanic children should be defined as "at risk" for lead exposure and included in targeted screening programs. This review concludes with specific public policy recommendations that directly address the increased risk of Pb poisoning to Hispanic children so that Pb will poison fewer children in the future.
... In the Georgian family, the 4-year-old boy had a blood lead level of 31 mg/dL after eating meals containing swanuri marili (Pb 2040 ppm) and kharchos suneli (Pb 23,100 ppm) for several months . Lead also has been found as a contaminant of Middle Eastern flour , calcium supplements , and imported candies . The use of lead-containing or lead-soldered cooking pans, kettles, and glazed pottery to serve food or beverages to the family also may represent an overlooked hazard in the home. ...
Childhood lead poisoning is still an enormous public health issue in the United States, affecting thousands of children and their families. New evidence suggests that even very low blood lead levels, less than 10 microg/dL, can be associated with neurologic injury. This article discusses characteristics of children at high risk for lead poisoning, unusual sources of lead contamination, and new aspects of lead's pathophysiology. It includes current thinking on the clinical management and prevention of childhood lead poisoning.
... These findings suggest that children living in several of the US/Mexico border sites may have BLLs higher than the US mean. Although, the average BLL for children aged 1–5 years in the United States was 22 mg/l in (CDC, 2003), there can be considerable variation in mean BLLs in different areas depending on ARTICLE IN PRESS , 1993, 2002), candy (CDC, 2002; Lynch et al., 2000), and pottery. The challenge has been to change the production of these products so that lead is not added. ...
To evaluate lead exposure among children living in border communities, the states of Arizona and New Mexico in the United States (US), and the states of Sonora and Chihuahua in Mexico collaboratively requested that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provide technical assistance to document pediatric blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living along this part of the US/Mexico border. Two studies were conducted to evaluate BLLs of children aged 1-6 years. In 1998, 1210 children were tested in the Arizona/Sonora study; in 1999, 874 children were tested in New Mexico/Chihuahua. Overall geometric mean BLL was 32.5 microg/l (95% Confidence Interval 31.5-33.5) with BLLs ranging from below limit of detection to 320.0 microg/l. Mean BLLs were higher among children living on the Mexican side of the border (43.2 microg/l) compared to those on the US side (22.3 microg/l). Mean BLLs ranged from 14.9 to 31.2 microg/l at the US sites and from 26.9 to 55.2 microg/l at the Mexican sites. This study used a convenience sample and cannot be considered representative of the general population. Nonetheless, the range of mean BLLs among the sites and especially the higher mean BLLs among children living in the border communities in Mexico suggests different exposures to lead and warrants further attention.
... In 1970, lead in gasoline, which had long been used as an anti-knocking agent, was banned by the US Legislature. Seven years later, the maximum concentrations of lead in paints were set at 0.06% . The removal of lead from gasoline and paints led to considerable decreases in environmental lead exposure, but chronic exposures to lower concentrations of environmental lead still exist today in the United States and throughout the world. ...
Geophagia (the pica of pottery, clay, earth, or dirt) is practiced before and during pregnancy in several countries, including Mexico, Turkey, Australia, and some African countries, and has been linked with cul-tural fertility beliefs and the satisfaction of cravings. Unfortunately, consumption of contaminated pottery can represent a source of lead exposure. Concerns regarding ingested pottery are two-fold; first, that people consuming these pots might be exposed to high concentrations of lead, and, second, that ingestion of these pots by pregnant women could result in ele-vated in utero lead exposure for the fetus. Very few published articles exist on this topic. In an effort to investigate "pot eating", this study aims to summarize published case studies on lead poisonings resulting from consumption of contaminated pottery. Addition-ally, several pottery items that are sold for the pur-pose of consumption were located and analyzed. This paper investigates the risk that "pot eating" poses by reviewing the literature, examining case studies, and analyzing the availability and lead concentration of edible pottery. Preliminary research indicates that although it is not common, "pot eating" can represent a high-risk lead exposure for pregnant women and their fetuses.
One of the first steps in addressing the problem of childhood lead poisoning is to identify the possible sources of exposure in specific communities and target high-risk populations with appropriate interventions. Due to several factors, such as lack of funding and lack of blood lead reporting, little information exists regarding the occurrence of childhood lead poisoning and the prevalence of potential exposure sources in the state of Nevada. Following the recent establishment of a Nevada-based Lead Poisoning Program, we compiled the most current information available on Nevadans, and use this knowledge to suggest future research objectives and outreach activities for the state. Accordingly, we identify the characteristics of the vulnerable Nevada populations, explore possible sources of lead exposure unique to Nevada, and summarize the existing data on childhood lead poisoning. Emerging data indicates that Nevada is an area of rapid population growth, characterized by increasing immigration from Latin America, increasing numbers of children from low-income families with no health insurance. Also, childhood lead poisoning may arise from exposure to non-paint sources of lead. After presenting the Nevada statistics, we propose and recommend a set of research and outreach strategies that best suit the needs of Nevada residents.
Although childhood lead poisoning is an important health issue in the United States, it is not distributed evenly across the country. To estimate the prevalence of childhood lead poisoning in Washington State, the authors conducted a birth certificate follow-back survey of 1- to 2-year-old children. Interviewers visited participating families at their homes to conduct blood lead tests with a portable testing device. The estimated prevalence of lead poisoning for all 1- to 2-year-old children in the state was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3-2.7); for Hispanic children in central Washington, it was 3.7% (95% CI: 1.3-10.2), and their risk of lead poisoning was significantly higher than that of all other children in the state (relative risk [RR] = 5.8, 95% CI: 1.3-24.9). Lead poisoning prevalence in Washington State children is lower than the US average and is highest among Hispanic children in central Washington.
The effects of lead (Pb(2+)) on human health have been recognized since antiquity. However, it was not until the 1970s that seminal epidemiological studies provided evidence on the effects of Pb(2+) intoxication on cognitive function in children. During the last two decades, advances in behavioral, cellular and molecular neuroscience have provided the necessary experimental tools to begin deciphering the many and complex effects of Pb(2+) on neuronal processes and cell types that are essential for synaptic plasticity and learning and memory in the mammalian brain. In this review, we concentrate our efforts on the effects of Pb(2+) on glutamatergic synapses and specifically on the accumulating evidence that the N-methyl-D-aspartate type of excitatory amino acid receptor (NMDAR) is a direct target for Pb(2+) effects in the brain. Our working hypothesis is that disruption of the ontogenetically defined pattern of NMDAR subunit expression and NMDAR-mediated calcium signaling in glutamatergic synapses is a principal mechanism for Pb(2+)-induced deficits in synaptic plasticity and in learning and memory documented in animal models of Pb(2+) neurotoxicity. We provide an introductory overview of the magnitude of the problem of Pb(2+) exposure to bring forth the reality that childhood Pb(2+) intoxication remains a major public health problem not only in the United States but worldwide. Finally, the latest research offers some hope that the devastating effects of childhood Pb(2+) intoxication in a child's ability to learn may be reversible if the appropriate stimulatory environment is provided.
As part of an investigation into the impact of a potential revision in federal childhood lead poisoning prevention policy that would result in screening children for blood lead levels (BLLs) >or=5 micro g/dL rather than the current 10 micro g/dL, we analyzed the most recent available, nationally representative data to identify prevalence of BLLs >or=5 micro g/dL and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of 1- to 5-year-old children with BLLs >or=5 but <10 micro g/dL.
We performed statistical analyses on data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988-1994) to describe trends in BLLs >or=5 micro g/dL overall and among subpopulations of children <6 years old and to compare risk factors for falling within 1 of 3 groups of children (those with BLLs >or=5 but <10 micro g/dL; >or=10 but <20 micro g/dL; and >or=20 micro g/dL) using the group reported as 0.7 to <5 micro g/dL as the referent.
Overall prevalence of BLLs >or=5 micro g/dL among 1- to 5-year-old children was 25.6%, although most (76%) of these children had BLLs <10 micro g/dL. Children with BLLs >or=5 micro g/dL included 46.8% of non-Hispanic black children, 27.9% of Mexican American children, and 18.7% of non-Hispanic white children; 42.5% of children in housing built before 1946, 38.9% of children in housing built between 1946 and 1973, and 14.1% of children in housing built after 1973 had BLLs >or=5 micro g/dL. Compared with non-Hispanic white children, non-Hispanic black children were 3 times more likely to have a BLL >or=5 but <10 micro g/dL, 7 times more likely to have a BLL of 10-20 micro g/dL, and 13.5 times more likely to have a BLL >or=20 micro g/dL. Similar increases in the association between risk factor and BLL were seen with respect to other known risk factors including age of housing, region of the country, and poverty.
The high prevalence of BLLs >or=5 micro g/dL overall and within US subpopulations will be an important variable in any change in screening and intervention criteria. However, most children with BLLs >or=5 micro g/dL are below the current intervention level of 10 micro g/dL. Exposure to lead from multiple sources is suggested by the prevalence of BLLs >or=5 micro g/dL but <10 micro g/dL among children with uncertain risk factors. The probable presence of one or more known risk factors for childhood lead poisoning increases as BLL increases.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1991 chose 10 μg/dL as an initial screening level for lead in children’s blood.
Current data on health risks and intervention options do not support generally lowering that level, but federal lead poisoning prevention efforts can be improved by revising the follow-up testing schedule for infants aged 1 year or less with blood lead levels of 5 μg/dL or higher; universal education about lead exposure risks; universal administration of improved, locally validated risk-screening questionnaires; enhanced compliance with targeted screening recommendations and federal health program requirements; and development by regulatory agencies of primary prevention criteria that do not use the CDC’s intervention level as a target “safe” lead exposure.
We reviewed the sources of lead in the environments of U.S. children, contributions to children's blood lead levels, source elimination and control efforts, and existing federal authorities. Our context is the U.S. public health goal to eliminate pediatric elevated blood lead levels (EBLs) by 2010.
National, state, and local exposure assessments over the past half century have identified risk factors for EBLs among U.S. children, including age, race, income, age and location of housing, parental occupation, and season.
Recent national policies have greatly reduced lead exposure among U.S. children, but even very low exposure levels compromise children's later intellectual development and lifetime achievement. No threshold for these effects has been demonstrated. Although lead paint and dust may still account for up to 70% of EBLs in U.S. children, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that >or=30% of current EBLs do not have an immediate lead paint source, and numerous studies indicate that lead exposures result from multiple sources. EBLs and even deaths have been associated with inadequately controlled sources including ethnic remedies and goods, consumer products, and food-related items such as ceramics. Lead in public drinking water and in older urban centers remain exposure sources in many areas.
Achieving the 2010 goal requires maintaining current efforts, especially programs addressing lead paint, while developing interventions that prevent exposure before children are poisoned. It also requires active collaboration across all levels of government to identify and control all potential sources of lead exposure, as well as primary prevention.
Conservation medicine examines the linkages among the health of people, animals, and the environment. Few issues illustrate this approach better than an examination of lead (Pb) toxicity. Lead is cheap and there is a long tradition of its use. But the toxic effects of Pb have also been recognized for many years. As a result, western societies have eliminated or greatly reduced many traditional uses of Pb, including many paints, gasoline, and solders because of threats to the health of humans and the environment. Legislation in several countries has eliminated the use of lead shot for hunting waterfowl. Despite these advances, a great many Pb products continue to be readily available. For example, wildlife agencies recognize that angling and shooting sports deposit thousands of tons of Pb into the environment each year. In recent years, our knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects of Pb has grown dramatically. This discussion reviews the effects of lead on wildlife, humans, and domestic animals. It also discusses the importance of bringing together all interest groups to find safe alternatives, to develop new educational and policy initiatives, to eliminate many current uses of Pb, and to clean up existing problems.
Lead-induced neurotoxicity acquired by low-level long-term exposure has special relevance for children. A plethora of recent reports has demonstrated a direct link between low-level lead exposure and deficits in the neurobehavioral-cognitive performance manifested from childhood through adolescence. In many studies, aggressiveness and delinquency have also been suggested as symptoms of lead poisoning. Several environmental, occupational and domestic sources of contaminant lead and consequent health risks are largely identified and understood, but the occurrences of lead poisoning remain numerous. There is an urgent need for public health policies to prevent lead poisoning so as to reduce individual and societal damages and losses. In this paper we describe unsuspected sources of contaminant lead, discuss the economic losses and urban violence possibly associated with lead contamination and review the molecular basis of lead-induced neurotoxicity, emphasizing its effects on the social behavior, delinquency and IQ of children and adolescents.
Lead exposure is an insidious problem, causing subtle effects in children at low exposure levels where clinical signs are not apparent. Although a target blood lead concentration (Pb(B)) of ten micrograms per deciliter (10 microg/dL) has been used as the basis for environmental decision-making in California for nearly two decades, recent epidemiologic evidence suggests a relationship between cognitive deficits and Pb(B) at concentrations < 10 microg/dL. Based on a published meta-analysis of children's IQ scores and their blood lead concentrations, we developed a new blood lead benchmark: an incremental increase in blood lead concentration (DeltaPb(B)) of 1 microg/dL, an increase that we estimate could decrease the IQ score in an average school child in California by up to one point. Although there is no evidence to date for a threshold for the neurobehavioral effects of lead, a one-point IQ decrement was chosen to represent a de minimus change. To safeguard the intellectual potential of all children, additional efforts to reduce or eliminate multiple-source exposures to lead are warranted.
The recent Colorado Gold King Mine waste-water spill and Michigan’s water supply re-routing program catastrophe, has directed renewed public attention towards resurgent environmental lead contamination threats. Leaded environments present social justice issues for children and mothers possessing blood lead levels (BLLs) > 5 μg/dL. Childhood lead exposure remains a continual U.S. public health problem manifesting in lifelong adverse neuropsychological consequences. The 2007 Inspector General Report demonstrated low BLL screening rates across the U.S. and this study examined the regularity of children’s BLL screening rates. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Lead Poisoning National Surveillance 2010–2014 children’s BLL screening rates, were examined to assess BLL screening regularity in states traditionally known to have regularly occurring BLL screenings: New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The results extracted from the CDC data showed that < 50% of children were BLL screened by six-years of age across the states that were sampled. The findings highlight that without a “clear map” of lead exposed areas through accurate and consistent BLL screenings, how the potential for such disparities within – and between-states within the U.S. could arise due to environmental social justice issues in relation to BLL screening barriers. Barriers preventing children’s BLL screenings were considered, and public health interventions recommended to improve screening rates included: routine BLL screening for all pregnant women, lactating mothers, and children; while, removing known lead exposure sources within communities. This study calls for action during a time of renewed public attention to resurgent lead poisoning within the U.S.
Significant lead poisoning has been associated with imported nonpaint products.
To describe cases of pediatric lead intoxication from imported Indian spices and cultural powders, determine lead concentrations in these products, and predict effects of ingestion on pediatric blood lead levels (BLLs).
Cases and case-study information were obtained from patients followed by the Pediatric Environmental Health Center (Children's Hospital Boston). Imported spices (n = 86) and cultural powders (n = 71) were analyzed for lead by using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The simple bioaccessibility extraction test was used to estimate oral bioavailability. The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children was used to predict population-wide geometric mean BLLs and the probability of elevated BLLs (>10 microg/dL).
Four cases of pediatric lead poisoning from Indian spices or cultural powders are described. Twenty-two of 86 spices and foodstuff products contained >1 microg/g lead (for these 22 samples, mean: 2.6 microg/g [95% confidence interval: 1.9-3.3]; maximum: 7.6 microg/g). Forty-six of 71 cultural products contained >1 microg/g lead (for 43 of these samples, mean: 8.0 microg/g [95% confidence interval: 5.2-10.8]; maximum: 41.4 microg/g). Three sindoor products contained >47% lead. With a fixed ingestion of 5 microg/day and 50% bioavailability, predicted geometric mean BLLs for children aged 0 to 4 years increased from 3.2 to 4.1 microg/dL, and predicted prevalence of children with a BLL of >10 microg/dL increased more than threefold (0.8%-2.8%).
Chronic exposure to spices and cultural powders may cause elevated BLLs. A majority of cultural products contained >1 microg/g lead, and some sindoor contained extremely high bioaccessible lead levels. Clinicians should routinely screen for exposure to these products.
This paper presents an overview of the global extent of naturally occurring toxic metals in groundwater. Adverse health effects attributed to the toxic metals most commonly found in groundwater are reviewed, as well as chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions between these metals. Synergistic and antagonistic effects that have been reported between the toxic metals found in groundwater and the dietary trace elements are highlighted, and common behavioural, cultural, and dietary practices that are likely to significantly modify health risks due to use of metal-contaminated groundwater are reviewed. Methods for analytical testing of samples containing multiple metals are discussed, with special attention to analytical interferences between metals and reagents. An overview is presented of approaches to providing safe water when groundwater contains multiple metallic toxins.
In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead concentrations in hot sauces.
Elevated blood-lead levels put children at risk for neurobehavioral-cognitive deficits,
such as IQ deficiency, behavioral disorders and impaired hearing. We examined several
factors that contribute to elevated lead levels in U.S. children to help define the
extent to which lead toxicity from these sources continues to be a problem. The results
of our review suggest that elevated levels of lead in paint, dust, soil, imported
pottery and ceramic ware, ethnic remedies, and some imported candies continue to be
areas of concern, while typical levels in food products appear to be acceptable. It
is important to continue monitoring lead levels in children as well as in environmental
and food sources.
Childhood lead poisoning is one of the most common preventable pediatric health problems in the United States. Well-documented past sources of lead exposures are from paint, gasoline, contaminated soils and dust, soldered cans, water pipes, pottery, jewelry, and home remedies and cosmetics. Lead has also been detected in a number of consumer products and food items such as home remedies, cosmetics, crayons, chocolates, and candy. The focus of this article is to highlight the issue of lead in imported candy as a possible source of lead exposure in children.
Compulsory in Brazil, toy certification aims to prevent possible risks in toy use. The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology (INMETRO) establishes the maximum concentration of toxic elements (TE) that may be present in toys. This study evaluates the presence of TE in different crayons, gouache and modeling clays using X-ray fluorescence. This technique is fast, has low operating cost and minimum sample pretreatment, resulting in a clean procedure without reagent consumption and waste generation. Bromine (in gouache) and Barium (in crayons) were the only potentially TE identified in the samples studied.
In this study, we investigate socioeconomic inequities related to the spatial distribution and potential exposure from lead in the rapidly urbanizing region of Phoenix, AZ. We use soil lead concentrations from 200 samples collected across Phoenix as indicators of potential lead exposure, and compare them with population characteristics aggregated at the census tract level from the 2000 census, using regression and spatial autocorrelation. Percent Hispanic and percent renters are the two major regressors for lead distribution, which indicates that wealth is a weaker predictor of inequitable lead exposure than race/ethnicity and housing tenure in metropolitan Phoenix. Inequitable distribution of soil lead, likely from lead paint, reflects diminished social power, authority, and funds of neighborhoods with a high percentage of nonwhite residents living in rental housing to mitigate the potential hazard of historic lead-based paint.
The dangers of ingesting lead, especially in childhood, are well documented. Some studies, recently reported in the media, have found a correlation between Mexican candies and cases of childhood lead poisoning. A few researchers have found lead in some brands of imported Mexican candies sold in the United States; it has not been conclusively determined whether the lead contamination originates in the candy itself or the wrapper. This ongoing project utilizes atomic absorption spectrophotometry to test several brands of candies, as well as their packaging material, for lead content.
Recent studies have shown that lead exposure continues to pose a health risk in Mexico. Children are a vulnerable population for lead effects and Mexican candy has been found to be a source of exposure in children. There are no previous studies that estimates lead concentrations in candy that children living in Mexico City consume and its association with their blood lead level.
To evaluate whether there is an association between reported recent consumption of candies identified to have lead, and blood lead levels among children in Mexico City.
A subsample of 171 children ages 2–6 years old, from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort study was assessed between June 2006 and July 2007. The candy reported most frequently were analyzed for lead using ICP-MS. The total weekly intake of lead through the consumption of candy in the previous week was calculated. Capillary blood lead levels (BLL) were measured using LeadCare (anodic stripping voltammetry).
Lead concentrations ≥0.1 ppm, the FDA permitted level (range: 0.13–0.7 ppm) were found in 6 samples out of 138 samples from 44 different brands of candy. Median BLL in children was 4.5 µg/dl. After adjusting for child’s sex, age, BMI, maternal education & occupation, milk consumption, sucking the candy wrapper, use of lead-glazed pottery, child exposure behavior, living near a lead exposure site and use of folk remedies, an increase of 1 µg of lead ingested through candy per week was associated with 3% change (95% CI: 0.1%, 5.2%) in BLL.
Although lead concentrations in candy were mostly below the FDA permitted level, high lead concentrations were detected in 4% of the candy samples and 12% of brands analyzed. Although candy intake was modestly associated with children’s BLL, lead should not be found in consumer products, especially in candy that children can consume due to the well documented long-lasting effect of lead exposure.
Plastic sheet and film are often printed by flexography, a variation of the letterpress process widely used in printing magazines. It has previously been shown that some letterpress inks used in magazines contained about 29,000 ppm lead and that the colored pages from magazines may have been the major source of lead in the diet of a child. The knowledge that letterpress inks are used in printing plastics led the authors to examine the lead content of printed polyethylene bags used for packaging foods.