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Curb your neuroticism – Mindfulness mediates the link between neuroticism and subjective well-being

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Abstract

Recent research has shown that mindfulness moderates the negative emotional reactivity associated with neuroticism. In two studies, we investigated how neuroticism and mindfulness are associated with subjective well-being (SWB), assuming a moderated mediation. In Study 1, 147 participants (74.2% female, M = 34.3 years, SD = 11.9) completed an online survey. Mindfulness partially mediated but did not moderate the relationship between neuroticism and SWB, indicating that low levels of mindfulness were partially accountable for lower SWB in individuals high in neuroticism. In Study 2, 108 participants (80.6% female, M = 25.2 years, SD = 6.6) completed daily diaries for 6 days. We found evidence for a moderated mediation in trait as well as daily measures of mindfulness and SWB, in that the lack of mindfulness could explain around one quarter of the negative association between neuroticism and SWB. This mediation was moderated by neuroticism itself in Study 2, in that mindfulness was only a significant mediator for high levels of neuroticism. Our findings demonstrate that negative emotional reactivity associated with neuroticism is partially due to low levels of mindfulness, which offers a promising future research avenue for the role of mindfulness.

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... The second step, differential exposure, involves the experience of negative events. Individuals high in neuroticism are likely to experience a greater number of negative events, compared to people low in neuroticism (Bolger & Zuckerman, 1995;Jeronimus, Riese, Sanderman, & While the neurotic cascade model provides a description of the problematic experience of the highly neurotic individual, recent research has examined the connection between neuroticism and mindfulness as a way to explain the specific mechanisms behind how neuroticism has its harmful effects (Barnhofer, Duggan, & Griffith, 2011;Feltman, Robinson, & Ode, 2009;Fetterman, Robinson, Ode, & Gordon, 2010;Iani, Lauriola, Cafaro, & Didonna, 2017;Wenzel, von Versen, Hirschmüller, & Kubiak, 2015). ...
... Recent work examining the interplay of neuroticism and mindfulness has largely focused on psychological well-being. Some studies (Fetterman et al., 2010;Iani et al., 2017;Wenzel et al., 2015) have found that mindfulness mediates the connection between neuroticism and well-being. However, other research (Barnhofer et al., 2011;Feltman et al., 2009) has found that mindfulness moderates this relation. ...
... Additionally, mindfulness did not moderate the relation between neuroticism and physical symptoms. These results are consistent with Wenzel et al. (2015), who found that mindfulness mediated, but did not moderate, the relation between neuroticism and psychological wellbeing. It also supports the neurotic cascade model (Suls & Martin, 2005) by showing that stress appraisals partially explain the relation between neuroticism, mindfulness, and multiple types of "garden-variety" negative experiences. ...
Article
Neuroticism has several deleterious effects on physical health; the current research examines mindfulness as a potential mechanism of these effects. In two studies, mindfulness was a partial and significant mediator of the relation between neuroticism and physical health (operationalized as physical symptoms). Health was measured both retrospectively (Study 1) and using daily diary and longitudinal methodologies (Study 2). Those higher in neuroticism (i.e., emotional volatility) reported more physical issues, and lower levels of mindfulness (i.e., non-evaluative awareness of the present moment). In addition, the negative relation between mindfulness and physical problems was partially mediated by stress appraisals; those low in mindfulness were more likely to view typical daily events as stressful, which was then associated with higher levels of reported symptoms.
... Along with the increasing investigation of mindfulness in older adulthood, there is growing interest in the interface of mindfulness and personality. Among major dimensions of personality, dispositional mindfulness has been most strongly and consistently associated with lower neuroticism (Giluk, 2009;Hanley, 2016;Wenzel, von Versen, Hirschm€ uller, & Kubiak, 2015). Higher levels of neuroticism reflect a greater tendency to experience negative emotions (Lahey, 2009), and this personality domain subsumes more specific traits including anxious and depressive dispositions, self-consciousness, vulnerability, and in some frameworks, impulsiveness and angry hostility (Costa & McCrae, 1995). ...
... Consistent with this premise, several studies have found interactions of dispositional mindfulness and neuroticism in relation to depressive symptoms and other psychological outcomes. These include interactions of neuroticism and mindfulness predicting depressive symptoms in college and middle-aged community samples (Barnhofer et al., 2011;Feltman, Robinson, & Ode, 2009), as well as subjective well-being in a younger community sample (Wenzel et al., 2015). In each study, protective associations of mindfulness with the outcomes were stronger at higher levels of neuroticism. ...
... We also examined whether any effects of MBSR were moderated by neuroticism. As expected, we found that greater dispositional mindfulness at baseline was more strongly related to lower depressive symptoms and negative affect in individuals high in neuroticism, extending prior studies in younger and middle-aged persons (Barnhofer et al., 2011;Feltman et al., 2009;Wenzel et al., 2015). In contrast, associations of greater mindfulness with better standing on several aspects of positive psychological as well as physical well-being (positive affect, vitality, physical symptoms, and sleep quality) were independent of one's level of neuroticism. ...
Article
Objective: To investigate whether observed interactions of mindfulness with the personality trait neuroticism extend to older adults and to aspects of psychological functioning other than depressive symptoms, and whether effects of mindfulness training in this population depend on levels of neuroticism. Method: We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for community-dwelling older adults. We investigated whether neuroticism moderates associations of dispositional mindfulness with various aspects of psychological and physical functioning at baseline, as well as effects of MBSR on these outcomes. Results: Significant two-way interactions showed that greater mindfulness was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less negative affect at baseline in individuals with average or higher levels of neuroticism. In contrast, mindfulness was associated with greater positive affect and vitality and fewer physical symptoms regardless of the level of neuroticism. There were no effects of MBSR on these outcomes at any level of neuroticism. Conclusion: Mindfulness may be more protective against psychological ill-being in older adults with higher levels of neuroticism, but conducive to positive psychological and physical well-being regardless of this personality trait. The potential moderating role of neuroticism should be further evaluated in studies of mindfulness-based interventions in older adults.
... Plusieurs études ont démontré que la mindfulness dispositionnelle pouvait être aussi associée à un niveau élévé en bien-être subjectif (Baer & al., 2008;Brown & al., 2009;Brown & Ryan, 2003;Howell & al., 2008;Kong & al., 2014;Schutte & Malouff, 2011;Wenzel & al., 2015). ...
... En effet, plusieurs études ont mis en avant que la mindfulness dispositionnelle pouvait être considérée comme une ressource personnelle, favorisant ainsi le bien-être individuel (Grossman & Van Dam, 2011;Leroy & al., 2013). Elles suggèrent des liens corrélationnels entre la mindfulness trait et le bien-être subjectif (Baer & al., 2008;Brown & al., 2009;Brown & Ryan, 2003;Howell & al., 2008;Kong & al., 2014;Schutte & Malouff, 2011;Wenzel & al., 2015). Un degré élevé en mindfulness serait associé au bien-être subjectif avec une haute satisfaction de vie, l'augmentation des affects positifs et une diminution des affects négatifs (Brown & Ryan, 2003). ...
Thesis
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Au cours des vingt dernières années, le concept de mindfulness a été largement investigué dans les recherches scientifiques. De multiples définitions de la mindfulness émanent des études publiées. L’une d’entre elles a particulièrement retenue notre attention, il s’agit de celle de Brown & Ryan (2003). Ces auteurs définissent la mindfulness comme une disposition à être attentif et conscient de ce qui se déroule dans le moment présent. Pour ces auteurs, la mindfulness est une capacité innée ou une ressource psychologique qu’il est possible de développer (Brown & Ryan, 2003; Brown, & Ryan, 2004; Weinstein & al., 2009). Même si quelques études ont établi un lien entre mindfulness et différentes variables liées au travail comme la performance, l’équilibre de vie professionnelle et personnelle ou encore le burnout, trop peu d’études sont menées pour étudier ces effets dans le milieu professionnel (Hülsheger & al., 2013). Cette thèse a pour ambition de répondre à ce constat en étudiant la mindfulness en lien avec la santé au travail. Nous avons souhaité mettre en évidence le rôle de la mindfulness comme une ressource psychologique potentielle pour les individus au travail pouvant leur permettre d’accroître leur bien-être professionnel et les protéger du burnout. Pour cela, nous avons mis en oeuvre quatre études (par questionnaire) permettant de répondre à cet objectif. En conclusion de ces études, les résultats permettent d’enrichir les connaissances, la compréhension du concept et de proposer des pistes d’actions pour élargir son utilisation.
... Mindful selfregulation skills probably cannot be reduced to the absence of neuroticism, but may rather function as an intermediate process between neuroticism and mental health. Some cross-sectional studies have indeed examined mindfulness as a moderator (Feltman, Robinson, & Ode, 2009;Tucker et al., 2014) or mediator (Wenzel, von Versen, Hirschmuller, & Kubiak, 2015) of the effect of neuroticism on emotional well-being. However, as such moderation or mediation analyses require at least three repeated measurements (Kraemer, Stice, Kazdin, Offord, & Kupfer, 2001), especially results of the few available longitudinal studies are relevant. ...
... These results suggest that mindfulness moderates the effect of neuroticism on depressive symptoms. Moreover, preliminary evidence has been found for a moderated mediation model in which the effect of neuroticism on well-being is (partly) mediated by mindfulness in highly neurotic persons only (Wenzel et al., 2015). There is a dearth of longitudinal studies to clarify the possible moderating or mediating role of mindfulness facets in the relation of neuroticism or negative affectivity with psychopathology. ...
Article
Studies examining mindfulness in relation to personality traits have been mainly conducted in non-clinical samples and resulted in mixed findings. The present cross-sectional study examined which mindfulness facets are most strongly associated with Big Five personality domains and facets implicated in the onset and possible re-lapse/recurrence of recurrent depression. Using data from the MOMENT study, we included 278 adult persons with recurrent depression in remission (SCID-I), who had completed baseline measurements of mindfulness (FFMQ) and personality (NEO PI-R). Using exploratory factor analysis, we observed that the mindfulness facets of acting with awareness, non-judging and non-reactivity loaded positively and the neuroticism facets loaded negatively on the first factor (called self-regulation) and that the mindfulness facets of observing and describing and the openness to experience facets loaded positively on the second factor (called self-awareness) of the identified five-factor solution. Lower-level facet analyses taking the multidimensional nature of mindfulness and personality traits into account clearly show that mindful self-regulation skills are associated with neuroticism, which is a known risk factor for relapse/recurrence of depression in persons with recurrent depression. Future longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether these mindful self-regulation skills may constitute a protective factor in the relationship of neuroticism with depression.
... This trend appears in MDMA research, where certain participants initially experience worse symptoms as their avoidance is reduced and they become more able to confront their trauma (Monson et al. 2020). A similar phenomenon exists in mindfulness research, where some meditators experience increased neuroticism and decreased negative affect in a way that is related to increased trait mindfulness (Wenzel et al. 2015). ...
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Rationale The use of psychedelics for medical and recreational purposes is rising. Contextual factors such as expectancy, intention, and sensory and social environment (set and setting) are widely recognized as moderating the effects of these substances. Nevertheless, clinical trials of microdosing — the ingestion of small, sub-hallucinogenic doses of psychedelics — rarely report their set and setting. This fact suggests that such factors are not considered important in the context of microdosing. Objective This paper challenges this assumption and makes the case for the crucial relevance of set and setting in microdosing practice. Building on set and setting theory and placebo theory, we explain why set and setting are of crucial importance in the case of microdosing. Results This reasoning helps elucidate the role of set and setting in determining the outcomes of microdosing and helps explain some of the contradictory results that have emerged in microdosing research in recent years. Conclusion Set and setting are important constructs to be considered especially in the context of microdosing psychedelics. By reporting set and setting, the results of microdosing research can be made more reliable and consistent.
... Sweeny et al. (2020) found in their research that mindfulness was associated with better well-being during stressful circumstances in China [16]. Prior studies [28,29] found that mindfulness significantly correlates with well-being. Regarding mindfulness, our results are similar to Mettler et al. [30], who reported the protective role of trait mindfulness against problematic behavior (e.g., pathological video gaming). ...
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(1) Background: Changes in daily life and academic training has led to uncertainty in the higher education student population during COVID-19. The goal of the study was to examine the impacts of the pandemic on Hungarian students. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted by using self-report questionnaires collected in Google Forms. 827 students (25.29±8.09) took part anonymously. Scales: Well Being Index (WHO-5); Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS); Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14-14). Statistical analyses were performed with IBM SPSS-14.24, results were considered at a significance level p≤0.05. (3) Results: Positive correlation was found between MAAS and WHO-5 (r=0.363, p<0.001) negative correlation between MAAS and PSS-14-14 (r=-0.448, p<0.001), negative correlation between WHO-5 and PSS-14-14 (r=-0.671, p<0.001). Females had higher PSS-14-14 mean score (32.51±10.16) than males (27.71±10.19; p<0.001; Z=-5,703), males (60.92±12.10) had higher MAAS level than females (57.31±12.51; p<0.001; Z=-3,589). No dif-ference was found in gender regarding WHO-5 mean scores. Athletes (7.03±3.27) differ significantly from non-athletes (6.00±3.04) in WHO-5 (p<0.001; Z=-4.349) and MAAS level (p=0.012; Z=-2.498) but showed no difference in PSS-14-14 (p=0.101; Z=-1.641). Students rated mental (3.01±0.99) worse than physical health (3.49±0.98; p<0.001, r=0.426) and the narrowing of social relationships worse (3.83±1.26) than physical (p<0.001, r=-0.212) and mental health (p<0.001, r=-0.408). Females had worse mental health (2.96±9.94) than males (3.20±0.99; p=0.003; Z=-2.924) and rated the narrowing of social relationships worse (3.90±1.23) than males (3.59±1.35; p=0.006; Z=-2.730). (4) Conclusions: Pandemic have negatively impacted students which may have long-term consequences in their mental and physical health and education.
... Mindfulness, for example, seems to be associated primarily with the manifestations of neuroticism and conscientiousness in the Big Five model (Goldberg, 1990). Whereas the relationship between conscientiousness and mindfulness seems to be unclear-and almost unnoticed (Giluk, 2009)-so far, the literature discusses moderating and mediating influences of mindfulness on behavior and experience associated with neuroticism, such as subjective well-being (Wenzel et al., 2015) or the associated development of depressive symptoms and trait anger (Feltman et al., 2009). ...
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Objective: Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly used in health, economic and educational systems. There are numerous studies demonstrating the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in the educational sectors (primary, secondary, and tertiary). This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the current state of research on the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions on the academic performance of students as measured by their grade point average (GPA). Methods: Literature search was conducted in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, and Google Scholar through March 2022. The inclusion criteria were: (1) the use of GPA as a measure of students’ academic performance, (2) a sample that was subjected to a mindfulness-based intervention without medical indication, (3) the student status of the subjects. Meta-analysis was conducted using a random effects model with the generic inverse variance method. Results: The search included a total of 759 studies, of which six randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. In these trials, significant group differences for GPA were found with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.16–1.62 yielding a significant overall effect of d = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.15–0.69) and a low magnitude of heterogeneity of I ² = 37%. Discussion: In conclusion, the first results of this emerging research field seem promising. However, the exact mechanisms of action are still unclear.
... Individuals with IBD tend to score high on measures of neuroticism, a personality dimension closely related to the experience of anxiety and negative emotion (Sirois, 2015), and lower in psychosocial wellbeing as compared to healthy peers (Jordan et al., 2016). Research conducted by Wenzel et al. (2015) suggests mindfulness may serve as a buffer, moderating the effects of negative emotionality on mood and well-being. Neuroticism was more closely associated with depression in those measuring lower in levels of mindfulness. ...
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The impact of stress and other psychological variables on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) prognosis, treatment response, and functional level is well-established; however, typical IBD treatment focuses on the physiological pathology of the disease and neglects complementary stress-reducing interventions. Recent pilot studies report the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in people living with IBD, but are limited by small sample sizes. Recruitment challenges to in-person studies may be in part due to the difficulty IBD patients often have adhering to fixed schedules and travel as a result of IBD symptoms such as pain, fatigue, and incontinence. The current study aimed to address this barrier by offering participants access to online mindfulness training, allowing individuals to engage with intervention materials to fit their own schedule. Online mindfulness programs have gained popularity in recent years, as they increase access and flexibility and decrease cost to the user; however, the dropout rate tends to be high. The current study compared the rate of adherence and efficacy of mindfulness training as a function of level of support: self-guided versus supported. Analysis revealed no significant difference in the benefits received between participants in the two groups; however, a significant difference group (χ2 = 15.75; p = 0.000, r = 0.38) was found in terms of rate of completion, with 44.1% of the supportive group completing the protocol compared to 11.7% of the self-guided. Common challenges to meditation were measured, but did not significantly predict adherence to the intervention, and experience of these challenges did not significantly change (increase or decrease) over the duration of the study. Implications of the current research, future directions for the use of MBI for IBD patients, and a discussion of methodological considerations are provided.
... [12][13][14][15] The clarity and vividness of the experience and orienting to the present moment with curiosity and openness can facilitate one's psychosocial adjustment to life changes and new environments. [16][17][18] Although a number of studies have reported positive correlations between mindfulness and psychosocial wellbeing, 11,[19][20][21][22][23][24] we only found two studies testing the association between mindfulness and college adjustment. 25,26 One study included 92 first-year students and reported positive associations between mindfulness and college adjustment. ...
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Introduction: College life is a challenging stage for students to transition from adolescence to early adulthood. College students need to adjust to various problems, including those related to learning, campus life, interpersonal relationships, career selection, emotions, and self. The aim of this study was to test the associations between different facets of mindfulness, resilience, and college adjustment, as well as the mediation effect of resilience between mindfulness and college adjustment among first-year college students. Methods: This survey study recruited 765 first-year college students in China. The psychological variables were assessed by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Chinese College Student Adjustment Scale. Results: It has been showed in the current study that mindfulness and resilience were positively correlated with college adjustment. Resilience significantly mediated the associations between four dimensions of mindfulness (ie, describing, acting with awareness, observing and non-reactivity) and college adjustment. Conclusion: The findings support the potential importance of enhancing mindfulness and resilience to facilitate adjustment among first-year college students. Limitations and implications are discussed.
... Although the poor ability to stay focused in the present moment due to being deeply affected by this period of extreme criticality could represent an obstacle to the MBSR's efficacy [84,85], our results highlighted the effectiveness of the MBSR training in improving mindfulness skills, as demonstrated by the significant increase in the total score and nonreact subscale of the FFMQ questionnaire. Previous research indicated positive effects of the MBSR program, including reduced stress and anxiety [86][87][88][89]. It was demonstrated that non-reactivity, defined as the capacity to choose not to react to emotions and negative thoughts and to accept their existence, is a protective factor against stress [90]. ...
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The global pandemic caused by COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown have been widely recognized as traumatic events that pose threats to psychological well-being. Recent studies reported that during such traumatic events, women tend to be at greater risk than men for developing symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Several studies reported that a mindfulness-based stress reduction protocol (MBSR) provides useful skills for dealing with traumatic events. In our study, a sample of Italian females received an 8-week MBSR course plus 6 weeks of video support for meditation practice during the first total lockdown in Italy. We assessed the participants with questionnaires before and after this period to investigate their mindfulness skills, psychological well-being, post-traumatic growth, and psychological flexibility. After the intervention, the meditators group reported improvement in measures associated with self-acceptance, purpose in life, and relation to others compared to the control group. Furthermore, our results showed that participants with greater mindfulness scores showed high levels of psychological flexibility, which in turn was positively associated with higher levels of psychological well-being. We concluded that the MBSR could support psychological well-being, at least in female subjects, even during an unpredictable adverse event, such as the COVID-19 lockdown, by reinforcing key psychological aspects.
... They also found that appraisals of stressful events can in part explain the link between neuroticism and mindfulness. Wenzel, von Versen, Hirschmüller and Kubiak's (2015) research used 255 participants to explore the idea of mindfulness as a moderator of the link between neuroticism and subjective well-being. They found that participants with higher levels of neuroticism experienced lower levels of well-being and mindfulness. ...
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This is the final copy of our research study which contains a summary of past research, methods and procedures used, findings and discussion. Note: As of yet, this research has not been peer-reviewed so caution should be exercised if being referenced.
... Let us take the relationship between well-being and emotional stability in Figure 2.3, which is well documented in the literature to be linear (e.g. Wenzel et al., 2015). There is a significant linear positive relationship between these variables (β=0.52, ...
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This thesis investigates what big data can add to the psychological study of human behaviour; and how Psychological theory can inform developments in machine learning models predicting human behaviour. It works through the difficulties that arise when the fields of machine learning and psychology meet. While machine learning models deal well with big datasets, they are designed for prediction, neglecting psychologists' desire to, not just predict, but understand behaviour. Psychology does well at using theory to specify models and explain the variance within a sample, yet can fail to consider how transferable the findings are to new samples. This research harnesses over a million loyalty card transaction records from a high-street health and beauty retailer linked to 12,968 questionnaire responses measuring demographics, shopping motivations, and individual differences. Equipped with real world behavioural records, and information on potential psychological and demographic drivers of behaviour, this thesis explores the ways in which psychological research can be undergone using big data to better understand three main areas: well-being, environmental behaviours, and anxiety symptoms. This thesis has the goal of marrying the strengths of traditional psychological methodology (utilising theoretical knowledge, quantifying uncertainty, and building interpretable models) with the exciting possibilities afforded by big data, all whilst ensuring that the models are generalisable and do not overfit. The following chapters discuss and evaluate novel research in this space, as well as the difficulties encountered, and compromises made, in undertaking `Big Data Psychology’.
... Mindfulness has not only been of interest in clinical psychology but also benefits of dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness based interventions for personal well-being have been found in non-clinical contexts with empirical research (Bajaj and Pande 2016;Wenzel et al. 2015). The positive impact of mindfulness on well-being includes both hedonic as well as eudaimonic aspects of well-being (Brown and Ryan 2003). ...
Article
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Orientations to well-being, including personal values, motives and goals regarding one’s well-being are often related to the experience of well-being. At the same time, studies show positive effects of mindfulness on well-being. It is conceivable, that the strength of the connection between well-being orientations and experiences depend on the degree of dispositional mindfulness. To explore relationships between orientations and experiences of well-being as well as the potential moderation effect of mindfulness, two cross-sectional online studies with German-speaking participants were conducted. In Study 1 ( N = 414) mindfulness moderated the relationship between life of pleasure (measured by the Orientations to Happiness Scale) and life satisfaction (β = −0.10, p = 0.017) as well as the relationship between life of meaning (β = −0.10, p = 0.028). As hypothesized, mindfulness moderated the connection between life of engagement and life satisfaction (β = −0.14, p = 0.001) as well as the negative relationship between search for meaning and life satisfaction (β = 0.15, p < 0.001). In Study 2 ( N = 731) none of those effects were statistically replicated. Yet, mindfulness moderated the relationship between hedonia (measured by the Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Action Questionnaire) and life satisfaction (β = −0.07, p = 0.048) as well as the relationship between search for meaning and psychological well-being (β = 0.07, p = 0.015). Overall, the results show that mindfulness has no substantial moderating effect on the well-being orientations and experiences relationship. Yet, in both studies, mindfulness and well-being orientations were consistently related to well-being experiences. This points out, that both are related to the experience of well-being, but beyond that not as interacting factors.
... High levels of dispositional mindfulness have moderated and mediated the relationship between neuroticism and the development of depressive symptoms (Barnhofer, Duggan, & Griffith, 2011) and psychological wellbeing (Iani, Lauriola, Cafaro, & Didonna, 2017;Wenzel, von Versen, Hirschmüller, & Kubiak, 2015), suggesting they are at least somewhat distinct. Further, dispositional mindfulness showed incremental validity over and above Big Five traits when predicting psychological wellbeing (Mehta & Hicks, 2018), psychological distress, life satisfaction, and burnout (Grevenstein, Aguilar-Raab, & Bluemke, 2018). ...
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We sought to determine the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, Big Five personality traits, and psychopathology in a sample of adolescents at high risk for mood and anxiety disorders. The incremental utility of dispositional mindfulness in predicting psychopathology over and above the Big Five was investigated using a facet-level approach. One hundred and thirty-one adolescents (M = 13.76, SD = 1.65) who had a parent with a history of mood or anxiety disorders completed measures of dispositional mindfulness and facets of mindfulness (i.e., attention and awareness, nonreactivity, nonjudgement, and self-acceptance), the Big Five model of personality, psychopathology (i.e., internalizing, externalizing, and total problems scales), and mindfulness experience. Hierarchical multiple regressions were performed. Controlling for sex, mindfulness experience, and theory driven Big Five factors, higher dispositional mindfulness related to fewer internalizing, externalizing, and total problems. Mindfulness facet self-acceptance was key to this association. Nonreactivity moderated effects of attention and awareness, such that higher attention and awareness correlated to fewer internalizing and total problems only when nonreactivity was also high. Therefore, self-acceptance and nonreactive observing may be unique components of mindfulness that have implications for adolescent psychopathological symptoms, even controlling for well-established personality vulnerability factors. Future adolescent mindfulness intervention research and practice should emphasize techniques that involve observation while concurrently enhancing nonreactivity and self-acceptance.
... Previous research studies have found that mindfulness exercise plays a mediating role in enhancing well-being (Kong, Wang, & Zhao, 2014;Wenzel, von Versen, Hirschmüller, & Kubiak, 2015) also documented in various studies involving college students (Bajaj & Pande, 2016;Mandal, Arya, & Pandey, 2011). It is speculated that among these mediators, coping competence of the individual will have an impact on well-being, founding the curiosity behind this study's investigation. ...
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Academy of Psychology (NAOP) India. This e-offprint is for personal use only and shall not be self-archived in electronic repositories. If you wish to self-archive your article, please use the accepted manuscript version for posting on your own website. You may further deposit the accepted manuscript version in any repository, provided it is only made publicly available 12 months after official publication or later and provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication and a link is inserted to the published article on Springer's website. The link must be accompanied by the following text: "The final publication is available at link.springer.com". Abstract Adolescence is a volatile and fragile transitional period of life marked with experiences that threat well-being. The objectives of the study were devised to investigate the relationship between coping competence, mind-fulness, and well-being and to examine the role of coping competence and mindfulness on well-being. The study followed a correlational design. A total sample of 221 adolescents (111 boys and 110 girls; age range 14-19 years) were recruited from schools and colleges through purposive sampling and were administered the following scales: cognitive and affective mindfulness scale-revised, the coping competence questionnaire, and WHO Well-Being Index 5. The obtained quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent samples t test, Pearson's correlation and standard multiple regression. A significant positive relationship between all the three variables, viz. coping competence, mindfulness and well-being was found. Multiple regression analyses indicated that both the variables-coping competence and mindfulness (together as a model) predicted well-being but did not make significant individual contributions in predicting well-being. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
... In addition, it helps individuals reduce negative automatic thoughts and unhealthy behaviors and promotes self-regulation (Ryan & Deci, 2001). Studies have demonstrated a close association between trait mindfulness and well-being (Haver et al., 2015;Short, Mazmanian, Oinonen, & Mushquash, 2016;Wenzel et al., 2015). Studies have also shown that cultivating mindfulness through intensive mindfulness meditation training improves well-being (Aikens et al., 2014;Falkenstrom, 2010;Fredrickson et al., 2008). ...
Thesis
Research tells us that there is a positive effect of prayer on well-being. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. In addition, much of the available data concerning prayer and well-being is based on Christians living in the United States, and our knowledge of how prayer and well-being are functionally interconnected in other faith groups is sparse. The primary aim of this study was to understand how prayer impacts well-being in individuals of the Muslim faith. Specifically, four potential mediators of the relationship between prayer and well-being were examined: optimism, spirituality, mindfulness, and social support. Participants (N=155) were recruited online and completed measures of prayer habits and levels of trait mindfulness, spirituality, optimism, social support, and subjective well-being. The data were analysed using a parallel multiple mediator model to test for the indirect effect of the mediator variables on the relationship between prayer and well-being. Optimism and spirituality were both found to be mediators of frequency of prayer and subjective well-being. Mindfulness correlated with both frequency of prayer and well-being but did not mediate the relationship between the two. Social support correlated with frequency of prayer but not with well-being and was not a mediator in the relationship between prayer and well-being. Implications of findings for culturally informed mental health counselling are discussed.
... In addition, it helps individuals reduce negative automatic thoughts and unhealthy behaviors and promotes self-regulation (Ryan & Deci, 2001). Studies have demonstrated a close association between trait mindfulness and well-being (Haver et al., 2015;Short, Mazmanian, Oinonen, & Mushquash, 2016;Wenzel et al., 2015). Studies have also shown that cultivating mindfulness through intensive mindfulness meditation training improves well-being (Aikens et al., 2014;Falkenstrom, 2010;Fredrickson et al., 2008). ...
Thesis
Research tells us that there is a positive effect of prayer on well-being. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. In addition, much of the available data concerning prayer and well-being is based on Christians living in the United States, and our knowledge of how prayer and well-being are functionally interconnected in other faith groups is sparse. The primary aim of this study was to understand how prayer impacts well-being in individuals of the Muslim faith. Specifically, four potential mediators of the relationship between prayer and well-being were examined: optimism, spirituality, mindfulness, and social support. Participants (N=155) were recruited online and completed measures of prayer habits and levels of trait mindfulness, spirituality, optimism, social support, and subjective well-being. The data were analysed using a parallel multiple mediator model to test for the indirect effect of the mediator variables on the relationship between prayer and well-being. Optimism and spirituality were both found to be mediators of frequency of prayer and subjective well-being. Mindfulness correlated with both frequency of prayer and well-being but did not mediate the relationship between the two. Social support correlated with frequency of prayer but not with well-being and was not a mediator in the relationship between prayer and well-being. Implications of findings for culturally informed mental health counselling are discussed.
... Individuals high in N tend to experience more negative events (Zautra, Affleck, Tennen, Reich & Davis, 2005) and tend to appraise them as threatening (Schneider, 2004). Observing is also positively associated with N (Wenzel, von Versen, Hirschmüller & Kubiak, 2015). We controlled for C because it is associated with lower levels of threat appraisal and perceived stress (Penley & Tomaka, 2002) and higher levels of mindfulness (Giluk, 2009). ...
Article
In the current study, we used a conditional process model to examine the interaction between two facets of mindfulness-observing and acceptance-in predicting threat appraisal and thereby indirectly predicting perceived stress in an academic context. German college students (N = 214) completed questionnaires at two time points during the semester. Results supported our hypotheses. Acceptance moderated the direct effect of observing on threat appraisal and also the indirect effect of observing on perceived stress via threat appraisal. In particular, observing was negatively related to threat appraisal among individuals with high acceptance levels and was positively related among individuals with low acceptance levels. Furthermore, observing exerted an indirect effect on perceived stress via threat appraisal only when acceptance was very high or very low. This study sheds light on the conditions under which observing one's own experiences can be either detrimental or beneficial.
... A recent review has confirmed that neuroticism was negatively related to describing, acting with awareness, nonjudgment, and nonreactivity but that it was not associated with observing (Rau et al., 2016). However, because negative attentional biases are present in neurotic individuals (Ormel et al., 2013), a positive relationship between neuroticism and observing appears plausible and was indeed observed (Wenzel, von Versen, Hirschmüller, & Kubiak, 2015). ...
... Mindfulness is both a practice and a way of being in everyday life and is characterized by a connection with one's raw living experience as opposed to one's narrative and judgmental thought stream. Research indicates that levels of mindfulness are strongly associated with a variety of positive outcomes including reduced stress and anxiety, and increased subjective well-being (Kong et al. 2014;Wenzel et al. 2015), which is defined as a person's cognitive and affective evaluations of their happiness and life satisfaction (Diener et al. 2002). ...
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Objectives Resilience is a protective factor against stress and research indicates that mindfulness is associated with increased resilience. Few mindfulness studies have specifically focused on African American college students, who are at heightened risk to the effects of stress due to race-related factors such as social, economic, and political exclusion relative to their Caucasian counterparts, who have received the bulk of mindfulness research attention. It is important to understand how mindfulness is related to resilience within this population and to examine if specific components of mindfulness are particularly predictive of increased resilience. Methods In this study, African American undergraduate students attending a Historically Black University administered the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS). Results Mindfulness was found to be positively associated with resilience (r = .68). A multiple hierarchical regression indicated that the nonreactivity facet of mindfulness, the capacity to pause before responding to stimuli, explained the largest amount of unique variance (∆R² = .11, p < .001) compared to acting with awareness (∆R² = .07), nonjudging (∆R² = .03), and describing (∆R² = .02), as unique predictors. Conclusions Results indicated that the capacity for nonreactivity may play a unique potentiating role in the relationship between mindfulness and resilience in African American college students, which could inform the development of college programming. The results indicate that it may be useful to create new mindfulness-based interventions specifically with the intention of building the skill of nonreactivity in order to cultivate resilience.
... As personality traits are relatively stable by the age most students enter medical school, "treating" neuroticism is a less promising health-promoting intervention when compared to conveying stress management skills. Mediating effects in regard to neuroticism and subjective well-being could be reached through anti-stress techniques, for example, mindfulness training [25,26]. ...
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BACKGROUND: Despite the growing evidence of a negative impact of medical school on students' health and well-being, little is known about protective factors for staying healthy and well during medical education. Therefore, a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies aiming to identify such predictors was conducted. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and PsychInfo were systematically searched by using preselected MeSH terms to identify English- and German-language peer-reviewed articles (observational studies) examining predictors for medical students' health and well-being, published between January 2001 and April 2018. Two authors independently selected abstracts reporting predictors for medical students' health and well-being. Further, two authors extracted information from the identified studies, needed for methodological quality assessment of the studies, as well as for comprehensive description of identified predictors. RESULTS: From 5013 hits in the database search, six observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. These studies were of heterogeneous design and quality. They featured a wide variety of health and well-being related outcomes and of its predictors. Lower levels of perceived stress, as well as lower levels of neuroticism were found to predict better health-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Further research, by using harmonized tools for the assessment of outcomes, as well as predictors, is needed to determine what keeps students healthy and well during medical education. Identifying protective factors is an essential prerequisite for the design of evidence-based health-promoting interventions.
... Mindfulness refers to one's general tendency to attend to the present moment nonjudgmentally and purposefully (Brown & Ryan, 2003) or with openness and acceptance (Bishop et al., 2004). Mindfulness is considered as a promising cognitive-affective mechanism contributing to the higher negative affectivity in neurotic individuals (Wenzel, von Versen, Hirschmüller, & Kubiak, 2015). In this study, we preferred regarding mindfulness as a kind of trait, even though there are several disagreements about the definition of mindfulness (personality train versus dynamic practice) (Black, 2011). ...
Article
Previous studies have shown that neuroticism is associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals who have experienced traumatic events. This study investigated dispositional mindfulness as one pathway in which neuroticism is related to PTSD and depression symptoms among Chinese adolescents who have experienced trauma by considering the role of dispositional mindfulness. Participants were 443 Chinese adolescents who had experienced a severe tornado a year prior to this study. The results showed that our model fitted the data well (χ²/df = 2.113, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.981, Tucker–Lewis index (TLI) = 0.969, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) (90% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.061 [0.047, 0.080]) and revealed that dispositional mindfulness partially mediated the relationship between neuroticism and PTSD and depression symptoms. The clinical implications and limitations of our research and recommendations for future research are discussed in this article.
... PWB involves a range of areas of a person's life such as the quality of their relationships and their sense of meaning and purpose in life (Ryff 1989;Ryff and Keyes 1995). Mindfulness is associated with increased PWB (e.g., Brown and Ryan 2003;Hanley et al. 2015;Hollis-Walker and Colosimo 2011;Howell et al. 2011;Klainin-Yobas et al. 2016) and increased SWB (e.g., Hanley et al. 2015;Wenzel et al. 2015). Being more mindfully present and being wilfully open and nonjudging towards what arises in the field of consciousness appears to be associated with better well-being and quality of life, although the precise mechanisms of this relationship need further elucidation. ...
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The Buddhist construct of nonattachment is a related, yet distinct construct to mindfulness. Whereas mindfulness refers to an individual’s open, present-centred awareness of what is happening in their field of consciousness, nonattachment denotes an absence of attempts to control what is happening in their field of consciousness. The aim of the present research was to determine whether nonattachment is a mechanism of mindfulness that mediates its relationship to psychological and subjective well-being, depression, anxiety and stress. Two sequential studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 516) established that nonattachment mediated the relationship of mindfulness to psychological and subjective well-being. Study 2 (N = 416) demonstrated that nonattachment also mediated the relationship of mindfulness to depression, anxiety and stress. In combination, these studies are the first to demonstrate that the relationship of mindfulness to a broad range of psychological outcomes is at least partially determined by nonattachment. These findings provide insight into how mindfulness impacts mental health and have implications for the development and assessment of mindfulness-based interventions.
... Furthermore, Eberth and Sedlmeier's (2012) metaanalysis (N = 39 studies) on the effects of MBIs on various psychological variables found MBIs to have a strong positive effect on subjective well-being (SWB). In contrast, however, Wenzel et al. (2015) found that the association between MBIs and SWB depended on variables such as neurosis and training/test group composition (i.e., whether the sample consisted of university students or employed participants). ...
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Prolonged exposure to ‘toxic stress’ caused by financial hardship and social exclusion can result in reduced well-being, increased risk of illness and impaired cognitive function and can negatively impact the physiological processes underlying ageing. Evidence suggests that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) may reduce stress and improve well-being in clinical and non-clinical populations, and recent studies indicate they may also help address well-being-related effects of poverty. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of delivering an adapted MBI training to adults living with the psychosocial stress caused by poverty and its effectiveness in improving participants’ well-being. In this mixed method, non-randomised waitlist-controlled feasibility pilot study, 40 adults (n = 20 in the training group) from regeneration areas in Scotland earning less than the Living Wage completed the adapted MBI. Delivery proved feasible, even though, as with previous studies on psychosocial interventions in socioeconomically deprived (SED) areas, the rate of participant attrition from recruitment (n = 107) to completion (n = 40) was high (58%). The results showed significant increases in well-being post training for the training group only (p < 0.001). No changes in mindfulness were found in either group. Further qualitative analyses suggested a possible shift in participants’ conceptualisation of well-being from being difficult to manageable or workable. These results indicate that MBI training can be feasibly delivered within SED communities and potentially improve the well-being of course participants. The practicalities of developing accessible MBIs for those living in areas of multiple deprivation are discussed.
... The second internal factor, mindfulness, was found to be significantly related to PWB. This is also consistent with previous literature, which found that mindfulness was negatively associated with stress, anxiety, depression ( Baer et al., 2006;Feldman et al., 2007) and positively correlated with psychological wellbeing ( Wenzel et al., 2015;Klainin-Yobas et al., 2016). Mindfulness was described as 'paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally' (Kabat-Zinn, 1994, p. 4). ...
... Also, as predicted, individuals low in mindfulness reported significantly higher feelings of depression and anxiety, and significantly lower feelings of subjective happiness, than their high in mindfulness counterparts. These findings are consistent with previous research, which has found that mindfulness is inversely related to negative affect, neuroticism, depression, and anxiety, but positively related to subjective well-being and happiness (Barnhofer et al. 2011;Feltman et al. 2009;Lee and Bowen 2014;Pearson et al. 2015;Wenzel et al. 2015). These findings support the conceptualization of dispositional mindfulness as a protective factor in buffering against psychological distress, as well as a contributing factor to the enhancement of satisfaction and overall wellbeing. ...
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We sought to further clarify the underlying connections between facets of mindfulness, alcohol use, and mental health. A total of 203 at-risk college students at a southeastern university participated in this quantitative, cross-sectional study. We specifically explored (1) the extent to which dispositional mindfulness correlated with neuroticism (i.e., anxiety, depression, and happiness) and (2) the connection between facets of mindfulness and problematic alcohol use, including the predictive ability of mindfulness traits to recent drinking-related consequences. Results revealed low mindfulness was associated with higher negative emotion and lower happiness. In contrast, nuanced relationships were found among mindfulness facets and risky alcohol use. Specifically, Acting with Awareness was a significant negative predictor of recent drinking-related consequences, while Nonjudging was a significant positive predictor. Mindfulness appears to be a protective factor for neurotic subtraits, though further research is needed to clarify the impact of mindfulness facets on alcohol and other substance use behaviors.
... One key concept here is mindfulness, which promotes positive receptivity and involves being non-evaluative and non-defensive in processing information about one's experiences (Brown et al. 2007). Since negative emotional reactivity associated with neuroticism is partially due to low levels of mindfulness (Wenzel et al. 2015), increasing mindfulness among employees may operate as a buffer against cognitive weaknesses from dispositions. Mindfulness is also likely to help employees with poor work experiences. ...
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Various studies have verified the detrimental effects of rumination as a maintenance factor for depressive symptoms (Spasojević et al. in: Papageorgiou, Wells (eds) Depressive rumination: Nature, theory and treatment. Wiley, Hoboken, 2004). Much less is known about the dynamics of rumination as an outcome of powerful stressors that trigger negative thoughts and affect (Lyubomirsky et al. in Ann Rev Clin Psychol 11:1–22, 2015). The study contributes to the literature by investigating rumination among non-clinical, adult participants, using data from a convenience sample of white-collar employees from the US and Turkey (N = 383). We tested the mediational role of rumination in the relationship between job satisfaction and subjective well-being, controlling for the potential moderational effect from self-efficacy. In support of our hypotheses, the results reveal that people who are less satisfied with their job tend to ruminate more and, therefore, they feel less satisfied and less happy. The expected moderation effect of self-efficacy could not be supported by the data in our study. Our findings suggest that employees may find it difficult to offset rumination resulting from having low job satisfaction, even when they possess high self-efficacy.
... This suggests that DM might reduce rumination, which in turn protects against psychological ill health. In a similar vein, studies have indicated that DM is associated with reduced neuroticism, which is a trait that encapsulates negative thinking and is a risk factor for ill health (Barnhofer et al. 2011;Feltman et al. 2009;Wenzel et al. 2015). ...
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Interest in the influence of dispositional mindfulness (DM) on psychological health has been gathering pace over recent years. Despite this, a systematic review of this topic has not been conducted. A systematic review can benefit the field by identifying the terminology and measures used by researchers and by highlighting methodological weaknesses and empirical gaps. We systematically reviewed non-interventional, quantitative papers on DM and psychological health in non-clinical samples published in English up to June 2016, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A literature search was conducted using PsycINFO, PubMED, Medline and Embase, and 93 papers met the inclusion criteria. Within these, three main themes emerged, depicting the relationship between DM and psychological health: (1) DM appears to be inversely related to psychopathological symptoms such as depressive symptoms, (2) DM is positively linked to adaptive cognitive processes such as less rumination and pain catastrophizing and (3) DM appears to be associated with better emotional processing and regulation. These themes informed the creation of a taxonomy. We conclude that research has consistently shown a positive relationship between DM and psychological health. Suggestions for future research and conceptual and methodological limitations within the field are discussed.
... Much research demonstrates that mindfulness-related traits are generally associated with lower symptoms of distress (Baer et al. 2006;Eberth and Sedlmeier 2012;Lotan et al. 2013), neuroticism (Fetterman et al. 2010;Giluk 2009;Wenzel et al. 2015), and psychological symptoms (de Vibe et al. 2012;Keng et al. 2011;Sedlmeier et al. 2012), perhaps with the exception of the mindfulness trait observing (Baer et al. 2006;Baer et al. 2008). Moreover, studies suggest that mindfulness meditation (MM) practices and related psychological therapies are broadly helpful in mental healthcare (Brown et al. 2013;Heeren and Philippot 2010;Hofmann et al. 2010;Khoury et al. 2013), with some studies further showing that improvements in mindfulness traits partially mediate reductions in distress and psychological symptoms (Bowlin and Baer 2012;Carmody et al. 2008;Harnett et al. 2016;Kiken et al. 2015). ...
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Despite findings linking low trait mindfulness to higher distress, neuroticism, and psychopathology, and a large literature broadly supporting the efficacy of mindfulness meditation (MM)-related interventions in mental healthcare, surprisingly, little is yet known about what persons with psychological disorders actually experience when they practice MM. We therefore undertook such an investigation in a pilot study of 25 mental health help-seeking participants. In summary, we found that (1) psychopathological symptoms occur during MM practice with some frequency in at least a subset of persons seeking mental health treatment; (2) the experience of psychopathology during MM practice likely represents a source of distraction from focused attention (FA) toward breathing, as measured by strong correlations between increased experience of psychopathological symptoms during MM and lower Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS); (3) psychopathological symptoms occurring during MM are negatively associated with certain facets of trait mindfulness; and (4) the association between trait mindfulness as a predictor of psychopathology during MM practice is partially mediated by poor FA toward the breath (i.e., MBAS). Study limitations and future research directions are discussed.
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The Conservation of Resources theory has been set in motion to understand the psychological wellbeing at work-place-focused foothold of the realm in light of the JD-R theory. Life insurance agents experience multifarious stressors and challenges that negatively impact their psychological wellbeing. The current pandemic situation of the COVID-19 outbreak has directed significance to workplace health promotion as a novel postulation addressed in this study. This research is the first to empirically test and investigate the predicting effects of perceived stress, mindfulness, social support, and self-efficacy on psychological well-being among 794 Life Insurance Agents in India. This non-experimental research method incorporates the reflective model analysed through Smart PLS-3. A power analysis is executed by drawing evidence from India recruited through random sampling. Results show mindfulness as the strongest and most effective predictor of positive psychological well-being. This study underpins the significance of mindfulness-based interventions in unprecedented times during the COVID-19 pandemic where the mindful selling of the right policies surges and assists the agents to build a long-term relationship with the customers. Future studies should try to test these interventions with multi-centred research that can further enhance the robustness of research findings.
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Gender dysphoria affects people’s social and psychological adjustment. One dimension of social incompatibility in people with gender dysphoria is the feeling of isolation and loneliness. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits and emotional schema with feelings of loneliness in Iranian people with gender dysphoria and the mediating role of mindfulness. Participants included 105 individuals with gender dysphoria who were asked to complete the UCLA Loneliness Scale-third version, Hexaco Personality Questionnaire, Leahy Emotional Schema Scale and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. The results showed that emotionality, extraversion, and emotional schema have a significant relationship with loneliness (p < .05). Higher correlation has been found between loneliness and extraversion (r = –0.51). The direct effect of emotional schema (β = 0.17; p = .044) and mindfulness (β = −0.36; p < .001) on loneliness were significant. Furthermore, the mindfulness factor indirectly related extraversion and emotional schemas to loneliness. Thus, emotionality, extraversion and emotional schema probably reduce, directly and indirectly, the loneliness of people with gender dysphoria through the mindfulness as a mediating factor. It can be concluded that in clinical practice, therapeutic interventions based on mindfulness and schema-oriented can possibly reduce the feeling of loneliness of people with gender dysphoria.
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Achieving happiness is essential to boost social emotional development among children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there has been limited reviews on a wide range of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that facilitate well-being outcomes among individuals with ASD. This review article provides a summary on dispositional, social, and contextual factors that promote well-being among children and adolescents with autism. Personal factors that have been found to influence happiness among individuals with autism include personality, self-esteem, and emotion regulation. Social factors such as parents, peers or friends, and teachers also contribute to well-being among youth with ASD. Importantly, the role of contextual and broader ecological factors such as inclusive educational policies has been elaborated.
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This study analyses the mediating role of Core Self-evaluation (CSE) on the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and mental wellbeing. A sample of 184 Muslim students (Mage = 22.08) studying in the different universities completed the self-report measures of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Core Self-evaluations Scale (CSES), and the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS). The collected responses are subjected to multiple regression and mediation analyses. The results revealed that dispositional mindfulness and core self-evaluations significantly predicted mental well-being. It is found that core self-evaluation fully mediates the effect of dispositional mindfulness on mental well-being. Moreover, it is also observed that measures of dispositional mindfulness, core self-evaluation, and mental well-being are indifferent with respect to students’ gender. Therefore, the study highlights the importance of core self-evaluation and explains a possible process by which depositional mindfulness enhances Muslim students' mental well-being.
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Chapter
Das Kapitel „Mindfulness-based Therapy: Achtsamkeit vermitteln“ erläutert die Anwendungsmöglichkeiten von Achtsamkeit in therapeutischen Kontexten und die Möglichkeit das Therapieziel „Wohlbefinden“ damit zu fördern. Achtsamkeit beschreibt die eigene Aufmerksamkeit absichtsvoll und nicht wertend auf das bewusste Erleben des augenblicklichen Moments zu richten. In therapeutischen Kontexten wird Achtsamkeit durch achtsamkeitsinformierte oder achtsamkeitsbasierte Ansätze vermittelt. „Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR)“ von Kabat-Zinn (1990) und „Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy for Depression (MBCT)” von Segal et al. (2002, 2013) werden als achtsamkeitsbasierte therapeutische Interventionen beschrieben, die Akzeptanz und Annahme als zentrale Therapieziele verarbeiten. Die konkrete Vermittlung von Achtsamkeit geschieht des Weiteren durch die therapeutische Haltung sowie durch formelle und informelle Achtsamkeitsübungen.
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In this study, we tested the reliability and validity of the Korean Version of nonattachment scale(K-NAS) that Sahdra et al., had developed to measure for nonattachment. In result, the internal consistency coefficient(Cronbach`s alpha) of the K-NAS was (.94) high, correlation coefficients of item-total were to .32 from .69. The result of factor analysis showed that single factor accounted for 37.77 % of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis and additional exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the 1 factor model was satisfactory. K-NAS was positively related to experiences scale, self-compassion, psychological well-being and mindfulness, and negatively related to depression. These findings suggest that the Korean Version of Nonattachment Scale(K-NAS) was reliable and valid scale to measure for nonattachment. Finally, The implication of this study and direction for future study were discussed.
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A consensus has emerged that neuroticism is associated with negative affect and extraversion is associated with positive affect. However; it is unclear whether these personality traits are associated with magnitude of affective reactions (Affective-Reactivity view), with levels of tonic affect (Affect-Level view), or with both. To assess these views, affective state was manipulated using film clips, measured at multiple time points, andrelated to measures of neuroticism and extraversion (H. J. Esyenck) and dispositional negative affect and positive affect (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen). Results supported both Affective-Reactivity and Affect-Level views, and this support was more robust for neuroticism and extraversion than for dispositional negative affect and positive affect.
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The repeated measurement of moods in everyday life, as is common in ambulatory monitoring, requires parsimonious scales, which may challenge the reliability of the measures. The current paper evaluates the factor structure, the reliability, and the sensitivity to change of a six-item mood scale designed for momentary assessment in daily life. We analyzed data from 187 participants who reported their current mood four times per day during seven consecutive days using a multilevel approach. The results suggest that the proposed three factors Calmness, Valence, and Energetic arousal are appropriate to assess fluctuations within persons over time. However, calmness and valence are not distinguishable at the between-person level. Furthermore, the analyses showed that two-item scales provide measures that are reliable at the different levels and highly sensitive to change.
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Neuroticism’s prediction of negative emotional outcomes has been linked to negative reactivity tendencies. Dispositional mindfulness, defined in terms of being attentive and aware (versus not) of present-moment reality, appears to mitigate negative reactivity tendencies. The present two studies, involving 289 undergraduate participants, sought to integrate these two personality-processing perspectives. Neuroticism was an inverse predictor of mindfulness and both neuroticism and mindfulness independently predicted trait anger (Study 1) and depressive symptoms (Study 2). Of more importance, neuroticism–outcome relations were stronger (weaker) among individuals low (high) in mindfulness. The results document the role that dispositional mindfulness appears to play in moderating neuroticism’s pernicious correlates. Results are discussed from personality, cognitive, emotional, social, and clinical perspectives.
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The Buddhist construct of mindfulness is a central element of mindfulness-based interventions and derives from an age-old systematic phenomenological program to investigate subjective experience. Recent enthusiasm for "mindfulness" in psychology has resulted in proliferation of self-report inventories that purport to measure mindful awareness as a trait. This paper addresses a number of intractable issues regarding these scales, in general, and also specifically highlights vulnerabilities of the adult and adolescent forms of the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale. These problems include (a) lack of available external referents for determining the construct validity of these inventories, (b) inadequacy of content validity of measures, (c) lack of evidence that self-reports of mindfulness competencies correspond to actual behavior and evidence that they do not, (d) lack of convergent validity among different mindfulness scales, (e) inequivalence of semantic item interpretation among different groups, (f) response biases related to degree of experience with mindfulness practice, (g) conflation of perceived mindfulness competencies with valuations of importance or meaningfulness, and (h) inappropriateness of samples employed to validate questionnaires. Current self-report attempts to measure mindfulness may serve to denature, distort, and banalize the meaning of mindful awareness in psychological research and may adversely affect further development of mindfulness-based interventions. Opportunities to enrich positivist Western psychological paradigms with a detailed and complex Buddhist phenomenology of the mind are likely to require a depth of understanding of mindfulness that, in turn, depends upon direct and long-term experience with mindfulness practice. Psychologists should consider pursuing this avenue before attempting to characterize and quantify mindfulness.
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A decade ago, Bolger and Zuckerman (1995) incorporated personality into the study of daily life events and psychological distress. Their approach put an entirely new cast on research and theorizing in this area. In their work, they focused on the predominantly negative personality trait of Neuroticism. In this article we extend their work to include theory and measurement of positive events and indicators of well-being. Integrating these research strands offers the possibility of a comprehensive yet highly sensitive and dynamic approach to the study of emotions, stress, and health in everyday life.
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Personality has consequences. Measures of personality have contemporaneous and predictive relations to a variety of important outcomes. Using the Big Five factors as heuristics for organizing the research literature, numerous consequential relations are identified. Personality dispositions are associated with happiness, physical and psychological health, spirituality, and identity at an individual level; associated with the quality of relationships with peers, family, and romantic others at an interpersonal level; and associated with occupational choice, satisfaction, and performance, as well as community involvement, criminal activity, and political ideology at a social institutional level.
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During recent years, mindfulness-based approaches have been gaining relevance for treatment in clinical populations. Correspondingly, the empirical study of mindfulness has steadily grown; thus, the availability of valid measures of the construct is critically important. This paper gives an overview of the current status in the field of self-report assessment of mindfulness. All eight currently available and validated mindfulness scales (for adults) are evaluated, with a particular focus on their virtues and limitations and on differences among them. It will be argued that none of these scales may be a fully adequate measure of mindfulness, as each of them offers unique advantages but also disadvantages. In particular, none of them seems to provide a comprehensive assessment of all aspects of mindfulness in samples from the general population. Moreover, some scales may be particularly indicated in investigations focusing on specific populations such as clinical samples (Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale, Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire) or meditators (Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory). Three main open issues are discussed: (1) the coverage of aspects of mindfulness in questionnaires; (2) the nature of the relationships between these aspects; and (3) the validity of self-report measures of mindfulness. These issues should be considered in future developments in the self-report assessment of mindfulness.
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www.intensivelongitudinal.com : A complete, practical guide to planning and executing an intensive longitudinal study, this book provides the tools for understanding within-subject social, psychological, and physiological processes in everyday contexts. Intensive longitudinal studies involve many repeated measurements taken on individuals, dyads, or groups, and include diary and experience sampling studies. A range of engaging, worked-through research examples with datasets are featured. Coverage includes how to: select the best intensive longitudinal design for a particular research question, model within-subject change processes for continuous and categorical outcomes, distinguish within-subject from between-subjects effects, assess the reliability of within-subject changes, assure sufficient statistical power, and more. Several end-of-chapter write-ups illustrate effective ways to present study findings for publication. Datasets and output in SPSS, SAS, Mplus, HLM, MLwiN, and R for the examples are available on the companion website (www.intensivelongitudinal.com).
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Elaborating on our understanding of the construct of mindfulness is currently a priority as mindfulness-based therapeutic interventions proliferate (Bishop et al., 2004). Two studies examined the relationship between measures of everyday mindfulness, mindfulness during meditation, and the five-factor model per-sonality domains. These studies also investigated the effect of sitting meditation on mood. Two samples were largely nave to formal sitting meditation, and the third sample was screened for meditation experi-ence. The first study found that everyday mindfulness correlated positively with agreeableness and consci-entiousness, and correlated negatively with neuroticism. Little to no relationship was found between mindfulness during meditation and everyday mindfulness across all three samples. Changes in mood fol-lowing meditation varied across studies.
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The response styles theory (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) was proposed to explain the insidious relationship between rumination and depression. We review the aspects of the response styles theory that have been well-supported, including evidence that rumination exacerbates depression, enhances negative thinking, impairs problem solving, interferes with instrumental behavior, and erodes social support. Next, we address contradictory and new findings. Specifically, rumination appears to more consistently predict the onset of depression rather than the duration, but rumination interacts with negative cognitive styles to predict the duration of depressive symptoms. Contrary to original predictions, the use of positive distractions has not consistently been correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in correlational studies, although dozens of experimental studies show positive distractions relieve depressed mood. Further, evidence now suggests that rumination is associated with psychopathologies in addition to depression, including anxiety, binge eating, binge drinking, and self-harm. We discuss the relationships between rumination and worry and between rumination and other coping or emotion-regulation strategies. Finally, we highlight recent research on the distinction between rumination and more adaptive forms of self-reflection, on basic cognitive deficits or biases in rumination, on its neural and genetic correlates, and on possible interventions to combat rumination. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.
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There has been substantial interest in mindfulness as an approach to reduce cognitive vulnerability to stress and emotional distress in recent years. However, thus far mindfulness has not been defined operationally. This paper describes the results of recent meetings held to establish a consensus on mindfulness and to develop conjointly a testable operational definition. We propose a two-component model of mindfulness and specify each component in terms of specific behaviors, experiential manifestations, and implicated psychological processes. We then address issues regarding temporal stability and situational specificity and speculate on the conceptual and operational distinctiveness of mindfulness. We conclude this paper by discussing implications for instrument development and briefly describing our own approach to measurement.
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Baer's review (2003; this issue) suggests that mindf ulness-based interventions are clinically efficacious, but that better designed studies are now needed to substantiate the field and place it on a firm foundation for future growth. Her review, coupled with other lines of evidence, suggests that interest in incorporating mindfulness into clinical interventions in medicine and psychology is growing. It is thus important that professionals coming to this field understand some of the unique factors associated with the delivery of mindfulness-based interventions and the potential conceptual and practical pitfalls of not recognizing the features of this broadly unfamiliar landscape. This commentary highlights and contextualizes (1) what exactly mindfulness is, (2) where it came from, (3) how it came to be introduced into medicine and health care, (4) issues of cross-cultural sensitivity and understanding in the study of meditative practices stemming from other cultures and in applications of them in novel settings, (5) why it is important for people who are teaching mind-fulness to practice themselves, (6) results from 3 recent studies from the Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society not reviewed by Baer but which raise a number of key questions about clinical applicability, study design, and mechanism of action, and (7) current opportunities for professional training and development in mindfulness and its clinical applications.
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Mindfulness is purposefully and nonjudgmentally paying attention to the present moment. The primary purpose of this study is to provide a more precise empirical estimate of the relationship between mindfulness and the Big Five personality traits as well as trait affect. Current research results present inconsistent or highly variable estimates of these relationships. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize findings from 32 samples in 29 studies. Results indicate that, although all of the traits display appreciable relationships with mindfulness, the strongest relationships are found with neuroticism, negative affect, and conscientiousness. Conscientiousness, in particular, is often ignored by mindfulness researchers; results here indicate it deserves stronger consideration. Although the results provide a clearer picture of how mindfulness relates to these traits, they also highlight the need to ensure an appropriate conceptualization and measurement of mindfulness.
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Mindful individuals orient to ongoing events and experiences in a receptive, attentive manner. This experiential mode of processing suggests implications for the perception of and response to stress situations. Using laboratory-based, longitudinal, and daily diary designs, four studies examined the role of mindfulness on appraisals of and coping with stress experiences in college students, and the consequences of such stress processing for well-being. Across the four studies (n’s = 65 − 141), results demonstrated that mindful individuals made more benign stress appraisals, reported less frequent use of avoidant coping strategies, and in two studies, reported higher use of approach coping. In turn, more adaptive stress responses and coping partially or fully mediated the relation between mindfulness and well-being. Implications for the role of mindfulness in stress and well-being are discussed.
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We conducted 2 longitudinal meditational studies to test an integrative model of goals, stress and coping, and well-being. Study 1 documented avoidance personal goals as an antecedent of life stressors and life stressors as a partial mediator of the relation between avoidance goals and longitudinal change in subjective well-being (SWB). Study 2 fully replicated Study 1 and likewise validated avoidance goals as an antecedent of avoidance coping and avoidance coping as a partial mediator of the relation between avoidance goals and longitudinal change in SWB. It also showed that avoidance coping partially mediates the link between avoidance goals and life stressors and validated a sequential meditational model involving both avoidance coping and life stressors. The aforementioned results held when controlling for social desirability, basic traits, and general motivational dispositions. The findings are discussed with regard to the integration of various strands of research on self-regulation.