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Abstract

Being able to carefully perceive and distinguish the rich complexity in emotional experiences is a key component of psychological interventions. We review research in clinical, social, and health psychology that offers insights into the adaptive value of putting feelings into words with a high degree of complexity (i.e., emotion differentiation or emotional granularity). According to recent research, upon experiencing intense distress, individuals who experience their emotions with more granularity are less likely to resort to maladaptive self-regulatory strategies such as binge drinking, aggression, and self-injurious behavior; show less neural reactivity to rejection; and experience less severe anxiety and depressive disorders. These findings shed light on how negative emotions and stressful experiences can be transformed by people’s emotion-differentiation skill. Besides basic research suggesting that emotion differentiation is an important developmental process, evidence suggests that interventions designed to improve emotion differentiation can both reduce psychological problems and increase various strands of well-being.

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... Characterizing differences in the complexity of emotional life, Wessman and Ricks (1966) first introduced the term "affective complexity." In contemporary research, emotional complexity refers to experiencing positive and negative affect at the same time, and experiencing a variety of emotions (Kashdan et al., 2015). From functionalist perspectives on emotions (Shiota et al., 2014), emotional complexity has been considered an integral part of human experience linking to well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2001). ...
... Emotion awareness includes the cause of an emotional experience (e.g., being fascinated by something novel and sad about something irreversible), the expected sensations, its display rules (i.e., what a person believes they should do with their facial and bodily expressions), and actions to take to adapt to the situation (Barrett et al., 2001). In sum, the highly discrete awareness of complex emotions helps people with their adaptive responses to the perceived demands and opportunities imposed by the situation at hand (Kashdan et al., 2015;Kirby et al., 2014). ...
... On the other hand, others experience emotions in an undifferentiated manner (e.g., "I feel good about it."). According to recent studies, people with the ability to highly differentiate emotions are less likely to be overwhelmed in stressful situations and resort to maladaptive behaviors (e.g., aggression and binge drinking) (Kashdan et al., 2015;Lindquist & Barrett, 2008). These studies suggest that greater emotion differentiation helps people thoroughly consider information related to the emotions (e.g., the causes of the emotions). ...
Article
This paper investigates the effects of experiencing diverse positive emotions in technology use on users' well-being, referred to as positive emodiversity. We examined technology's role in facilitating positive emodiversity and well-being through a questionnaire study (N=116; 580 example cases), in which three sources of emotions were considered: technology as an object, instrument, or enabler. Further, we evaluated how technology-supported hedonic and eudaimonic pursuits are associated with well-being. A regression analysis showed that increased positive emodiversity leads to increased well-being (p<.001). The effect was predicted by the three sources and both hedonic and eudaimonic pursuits. When engaged in positive activities enabled by technology, users experienced more diverse positive emotions, increasing their well-being. The study offers new understandings of the relationships between technologies, emodiversity, and well-being, and provides evidence that designing for a wide diversity of positive emotions, as opposed to generalized pleasure-displeasure distinction, can enrich users' experiences, enhancing their well-being.
... Based on the feeling-as-information perspective (Schwarz, 1990), emotion differentiation provides fine-grained information about a situation, which helps decipher affective cues, decrease misattribution errors, and facilitate adaptive judgement (Gohm & Clore, 2000). People with high emotion differentiation are likely to be engaged in frequent regulatory processes to regulate emotions (Gross, 2015), pursue productive endeavors, and achieve well-being (Gross, 2015;Kashdan, Barrett, & McKnight, 2015). In this sense, emotion differentiation can be a protective factor to optimism because it serves as a type of internal psychological capacities to achieving positive outcomes. ...
... ED was calculated based on the seven-day daily responses on emotion states. Consistent with the literature (Hershfield, Scheibe, Sims, & Carstensen, 2012;Kashdan et al., 2015), ED was perceived as a trait in this study. Following pre-established procedures (Barrett et al., 2001;Pond et al., 2012), NED was calculated by taking the average intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for all NA items across all assessment points. ...
... Men and women tend to adopt different coping strategies (Graves, Hall, Dias-Karch, Haischer, & Apter, 2021), Thus, the findings may not be able to extend to other populations with different sex/gender ratios. Second, following the literature that characterized ED as a relatively stable construct (Kashdan et al., 2015), the current study operationalized ED as the intra-class correlations between five affect items across seven days. Some researchers also suggested using ecological momentary assessment and expanding the scope of affectivity evaluation (Smidt & Suvak, 2015) for assessing emotion differentiation. ...
Article
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Daily life events often trigger and co-occur with various emotional reactions, which activate self-regulatory processes. One possible outcome of self-regulatory processes is optimism. Limited research has examined optimism in daily life and potential daily predictors including stressors, negative emotions, and positive emotions. Emotion differentiation-the ability to identify and label discrete emotional states-has the potential to change the association between daily predictors and optimism. The current study contextualized optimism in the emotion-laden daily life and examined the association of daily stressors and daily negative and positive emotional states to daily optimism and the role of negative and positive emotion regulation on these relationships. The current study adopted a daily diary design and collected self-reported daily responses from a sample of 248 college students over a seven-day study period. The results included concurrent and lagged effects and showed that daily negative affect and positive affect predicted both concurrent daily optimism and the next day's optimism. Greater negative emotion differentiation predicted higher daily optimism. A better ability to differentiate positive emotions predicted a stronger relation between positive affect and daily optimism. The findings underscored the importance of daily affect and emotion differentiation being important markers for optimism interventions and daily practices.
... One last construct with the closest theoretical links to emotional awareness is emotion differentiation (Erbas et al. 2019;Kashdan et al. 2015). Measures of emotional awareness have even previously been discussed as a means of assessing emotion differentiation (Kashdan et al. 2015) because emotional awareness scores are higher when individuals use more differentiated emotional descriptors (e.g., feeling sad/afraid/angry as opposed to just feeling bad/unpleasant; see below for more details). ...
... One last construct with the closest theoretical links to emotional awareness is emotion differentiation (Erbas et al. 2019;Kashdan et al. 2015). Measures of emotional awareness have even previously been discussed as a means of assessing emotion differentiation (Kashdan et al. 2015) because emotional awareness scores are higher when individuals use more differentiated emotional descriptors (e.g., feeling sad/afraid/angry as opposed to just feeling bad/unpleasant; see below for more details). However, other available measures of emotion differentiation take distinct approaches to operationalize and measure differentiation, and few direct tests of the relationship between emotional awareness scores and these other measures have been performed to date (e.g., one study found a positive relationship between emotional awareness scores and greater within-category variance in self-reported emotional experiences; (Smith et al. 2019d)). ...
... Outside of research on the LEAS specifically, empirical work has also shown that explicitly labeling emotions-which arguably requires awareness-can have adaptive effects on emotion regulation and planning (Vine et al. 2019). Some studies have also linked measures of higher emotion differentiation to greater emotion regulation ability (Barrett et al. 2001) and to reduced tendencies to engage in maladaptive regulation strategies involving aggression, substance use, or self-injury (Kashdan et al. 2015). It is also known that, relative to emotion acceptance (and other adaptive regulation strategies), suppressing emotions increases physiological arousal Gross (1998b), Hofmann et al. (2009), which may negatively impact health if chronic. ...
Article
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Emotional awareness is the ability to conceptualize and describe one’s own emotions and those of others. Over thirty years ago, a cognitive-developmental theory of emotional awareness patterned after Piaget’s theory of cognitive development was created as well as a performance measure of this ability called the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS). Since then, a large number of studies have been completed in healthy volunteers and clinical populations including those with mental health or systemic medical disorders. Along the way, there have also been further refinements and adaptations of the LEAS such as the creation of a digital version in addition to further advances in the theory itself. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the evolving theoretical background, measurement methods, and empirical findings with the LEAS. The LEAS is a reliable and valid measure of emotional awareness. Evidence suggests that emotional awareness facilitates better emotion self-regulation, better ability to navigate complex social situations and enjoy relationships, and better physical and mental health. This is a relatively new but promising area of research in the domain of socio-emotional skills. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research.
... Individuals high in emotion differentiation tend to use discrete emotion words (e.g., angry, disappointed, and lonely) in a contextspecific way, whereas individuals low in emotion differentiation tend to use same-valenced emotion words interchangeably across different situational contexts. In particular, the ability to differentiate between negative emotional states [negative emotion differentiation (NED)] has been conceptualized as a trait that facilitates effective emotion regulation and thereby promotes well-being (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2015). Two recent meta-analyses demonstrated a significant but small association between NED and psychosocial functioning: The results by O'Toole et al. (2020) indicated a small positive relation between NED and behavioral adaptation in non-clinical populations, and the results by Seah and Coifman (2021) indicated a small negative association between NED and the enactment of maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression or avoidance. ...
... The fact that the meta-analytic effect sizes were rather small may call into question the importance of NED as an adaptive skill. However, as O' Toole et al. (2020) and others (e.g., Barrett et al., 2001;Kashdan et al., 2015;Ottenstein and Lischetzke, 2020) have argued, high NED can be assumed to be most helpful under circumstances that evoke intense negative emotions (e.g., stressful events). In the present study, we aimed to shed more light on the assumed adaptive value of NED during times of stress. ...
... low) NED may be "better prepared to manage the emotional and behavioral aftermath of stress exposure" (p. 2), decreasing the likelihood that stressful experiences result in depressive symptoms. In a similar vein, Kashdan et al. (2015) argued that high differentiators may be less likely to be overwhelmed in stressful situations. Consistent with Starr et al.'s diathesis-stress model, NED moderated the within-person relation between daily hassles and daily depressed mood in a community sample of adolescents: For low differentiators, daily hassles were more strongly associated with higher daily depressed mood than for high differentiators (Starr et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to differentiate between negative emotional states [negative emotion differentiation (NED)] has been conceptualized as a trait that facilitates effective emotion regulation and buffers stress reactivity. In the present research, we investigated the role of NED in within-person processes of daily affect regulation and coping during times of stress (the first COVID-19-related pandemic lockdown in April 2020). Using intensive longitudinal data, we analyzed whether daily stress had an indirect effect on sleep quality through calmness in the evening, and we tested whether NED moderated this within-person indirect effect by buffering the link between daily stress and calmness in the evening. A non-representative community sample (n = 313, 15–82 years old) participated in a 21-day ambulatory assessment with twice-daily surveys. The results of multilevel mediation models showed that higher daily stress was related to within-day change in calmness from morning to evening, resulting in less calmness in the evening within persons. Less calmness in the evening, in turn, was related to poorer nightly sleep quality within persons. As expected, higher NED predicted a less negative within-person link between daily stress and calmness in the evening, thereby attenuating the indirect effect of daily stress on nightly sleep quality through calmness. This effect held when we controlled for mean negative emotions and depression. The results provide support for a diathesis-stress model of NED, and hence, for NED as a protective factor that helps to explain why some individuals remain more resilient during times of stress than others.
... The results may reflect a lack of granularity and specificity in the words people use to categorize their emotional experiences (Kashdan et al., 2015), for both positive and negative emotions, particularly for emotions that fall within the same family (Diener et al., 1995). This seems to be supported in the discrepancy between discrete measurement scores and the dimensional ratings. ...
... It is possible that specificity of responses was impacted by the large number of response options included and/or the particular words chosen. While this exploration was beyond the scope of the current work, exploring people's capacity for emotional differentiation between and within emotional categories is relevant to psychological and social well-being (see Kashdan et al., 2015). The film clips identified here may provide stimuli for further investigation of this skill. ...
... The inclusion of a nine-point Likert scale may have further impacted specificity. Kashdan et al. (2015) suggest people have difficulty differentiating between emotion words that describe similar experiences. Thus, while our intention was to provide participants with a range of options to more discretely describe their emotional response, the large number of options may have had the opposite effect. ...
Article
Film clips are commonly used to elicit subjectively experienced emotional states for many research purposes, but film clips currently available in databases are out of date, include a limited set of emotions, and/or pertain to only one conceptualization of emotion. This work reports validation data from two studies aimed to elicit basic and complex emotions (amusement, anger, anxiety, compassion, contentment, disgust, fear, happiness/joy, irritation, neutrality, pride, relief, sadness, surprise), equally distributed according to valence (positive, negative) and intensity (high, low). Participants rated film clips according to the degree of experienced emotion, and for valence and arousal. Our findings initiate an iterative archive of film clips shown here to discretely elicit 11 different emotions. Although further validation of these film clips is needed, ratings provided here should assist researchers in selecting potential film clips to meet the aims of their work.
... Emotion differentiation is the extent to which one's emotions are felt and described in specific, granular terms (e.g., fear, anger, and sadness are experienced as three clearly different emotions, rather than as a single state of negative affect; Erbas, Ceulemans, . It is sometimes also called "emotion granularity," highlighting a distinction between fine-and course-grained distinctions about emotions (e.g., Kashdan, Barrett, & McKnight, 2015). Emotion differentiation is operationalized as the degree of covariation between similarly valanced emotions across time. ...
... The associations of EI with lower differentiation of positive emotions and higher emotion bipolarity were unexpected, as higher bipolarity and lower differentiation are linked with poorer psycho-social outcomes (Dejonckheere et al., 2018;Kashdan et al., 2015). We hypothesized the oppositethat EI would link to lower bipolarity and higher differentiation. ...
Article
Emotional intelligence (EI) should relate to people’s emotional experiences. We meta-analytically summarize associations of felt affect with ability EI branches (perception, facilitation, understanding, and management) and total scores ( k = 7–14; N = 1,584–2,813). We then use experience sampling ( N = 122 undergraduates over 5 days, 24 beeps) to test whether EI predicts emotion dynamics and complexity. Meta-analyses show that EI correlates significantly with lower negative affect (NA; ρ = −.21) but not higher positive affect (PA; ρ = .05). PA (but not NA) shows a significantly stronger relationship with emotion management (ρ = .23) versus other EI branches (ρ = −.01 to .07). In the experience sampling study, only management significantly related to higher PA, whereas lower NA was significantly related to total EI, perception, facilitation, and management. After controlling for mean affect: (a) only understanding significantly predicted NA dynamics whereas only management and facilitation significantly predicted PA dynamics; (b) management and facilitation predicted lower PA differentiation (EI was unrelated to NA differentiation); and (c) perception and facilitation predicted greater bipolarity. Results show that EI predicts affect, emotion dynamics, and emotion complexity. We discuss the importance of distinguishing between different branches of ability EI.
... Research on alexithymia, a construct related to deficits in identifying and describing emotions, shows that these deficits increase during depressive episodes (Marchesi et al., 2008), suggesting that large acute shifts in negative affective intensity potentially compromise emotional understanding. Meanwhile, other research shows the inability to differentiate emotion may lead to maladaptive behaviors when emotionally aroused (Emery et al., 2014;Kashdan et al., 2015). Thus, if a person is not able to de-termine what emotion they are feeling, their ability to effectively problem solve to manage that emotion will be diminished. ...
... It is thought that one's capacity for emotion differentiation influences their ability to self-regulate affect because the ability to distinguish between emotional states supports employment of better fitting affect regulation and coping strategies (Kashdan et al., 2010(Kashdan et al., , 2015Tamir, 2009). This is particularly relevant to individuals in early AUD recovery who are prone to experiencing stress and emotional vulnerability (Eddie et al., 2020;Sher & Grekin, 2007;Sinha, 2012), which are potent risk factors for AUD relapse. ...
Article
Background: Early recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD) is commonly associated with high levels of negative affect, stress, and emotional vulnerability, which confer significant relapse risk. Emotion differentiation-the ability to distinguish between discrete emotions-has been shown to predict relapse after treatment for a drug use disorder, but this relationship has not been explored in individuals recovering from AUD. Methods: The current study used thrice daily random and up to thrice daily self-initiated ecological momentary assessment surveys (N = 42, observations = 915) to examine whether 1) moments of high affective arousal are characterized by momentary differences in emotion differentiation among individuals in the first year of a current AUD recovery attempt, and 2) individuals' average emotion differentiation would predict subsequent alcohol use measured by the timeline follow-back over a 3-month follow-up period. Results: Multilevel models showed that moments (Level 1) of higher-than-average negative affect (p < 0.001) and/or stress (p = 0.033) were characterized by less negative emotion differentiation, while moments of higher-than-average positive affect were characterized by greater positive emotion differentiation (p < 0.001). At the between-person level (Level 2), participants with higher stress overall had lower negative emotion differentiation (p = 0.009). Linear regression showed that average negative, but not positive, emotion differentiation was inversely associated with percent drinking days over the subsequent 3-month follow-up period (p = 0.042). Neither form of average emotion differentiation was associated with drinking quantity. Conclusions: We found that for individuals in early AUD recovery, affective states are associated with acute shifts in the capacity for emotion differentiation. Further, we found that average negative emotion differentiation prospectively predicts subsequent alcohol use.
... Tako Barrett zaključuje da u svakom budnom trenutku mozak koristi sveukupna prošla (naučena, ne infantilna) iskustva organizirana kao koncepte da bi vodio akciju (ponašanje) i dao osjetima značenje koje se neprestano kategorizra i time diferencira emocije (25). Tako, um nije samo funkcija odnosa mozga-tijela, već i umova-mozgova-tijela drugih ...
... Thus, Barrett concludes that in every waking moment the brain uses overall past (learned, non-infantile) experiences organized as concepts to guide actions (behavior) and give the senses constantly categorized meaning (25). ljudi, fizičkog okruženja, kulture i socijalnog realiteta. ...
Article
In this paper we will present four neurobiological and psychological theories of emotions proposed by neuroscientists. Emotions form the foundations of human behavior, without which we cannot imagine man, society, mental disorders, or psychotherapy. It is difficult to find a mental disorder which does not include emotions as a cause of suffering. We will present the contributions of modern affective neuroscience important for understanding both man and psychotherapy.
... Emotion differentiation (ED; also termed "emotion granularity") refers to the distinction among different like-valanced emotion categories (Barrett, Gross, Christensen, & Benvenuto, 2001;Kashdan, Barrett, & McKnight, 2015). When identifying, labeling, or describing emotional experience, individuals with high ED tend to report their feelings in a fine-grained, nuanced manner. ...
... T A B L E 7 Significant current density differences between highand low-PED group (high > low PED group) in the neutral-reappraisal condition The results indicated that the high-PED individuals presented LPP amplitude enhancement during positive reappraisal, confirming our hypothesis. High-PED individuals could discriminate between discrete positive emotional states, and the reason could be explained as they possessed rich and complex emotional concept knowledge (Kashdan et al., 2015;Lindquist & Barrett, 2008a, 2008b. They might use emotional concept knowledge to reinterpret their emotional states from various perspectives, making new meaning of the emotional stimuli. ...
Article
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Cognitive reappraisal plays an important role in individuals' mental health and adaptation and depends on individual differences in emotion differentiation. However, it is unclear how individual differences in emotion differentiation modulate the electrocortical dynamics of cognitive reappraisal. To this end, we employed event-related potentials (ERPs) and source analysis to characterize temporal dynamics and cortical functions of cognitive reappraisal related with positive emotion differentiation. The electroencephalogram (EEG) data from 36 participants (aged 18-25 years) were recorded when they were required to view neutral, pleasant emotional stimuli, or positively reappraise neutral emotional stimuli. Results showed that, compared with the individuals with low positive emotion differentiation, the individuals with high positive emotion differentiation presented larger late positive potential (LPP) amplitude enhancement during positive reappraisal. Source analysis further found that individuals with high positive emotion differentiation exhibited more activations in the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 11), superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), and inferior frontal gurus (BA 47) when they implemented cognitive reappraisal as compared with their counterparts. Our findings deepen our understanding of the dynamic cortical organization of how positive emotion differentiation impacts cognitive reappraisal and informs cognitive reappraisal interventions for individuals with low emotion differentiation.
... This is particularly remarkable given recent research, which suggests that learning new emotion words and their associated concepts as an adult can boost mental and physical health. For example, acquiring more differentiated emotion concepts may increase individuals' ability to experience emotion in a precise and context-specific manner (such that they are "enraged" or "frustrated" vs. just "angry" or "feeling bad"; Tugade et al., 2004), resulting in improved emotion regulation (Barrett et al., 2001;Kalokerinos et al., 2019) and positive health outcomes (for a review, see Kashdan et al., 2015). Yet, despite their potential import, relatively little is known about how new emotion words and concepts are integrated into the conceptual system. ...
... Researchers should also consider including measures such as electrocardiography (ECG), which would allow them to assess for post-training differences in interoceptive and embodied processing that may accompany emotion concept learning (such as those indexed by heartbeat-evoked potentials [HEP]; Petzschner et al., 2019;Schandry & Weitkunat, 1990). As new words and concepts for emotions may help to improve emotion differentiation (Barrett et al., 2001;Kashdan et al., 2015), this line of work is particularly compelling. The present findings provide evidence that the N400 indexes novel concept acquisition after even a brief training period and, as such, may lead to interventional strategies that can help build conceptual systems for emotion that are diverse, complex, flexible, and healthy. ...
Article
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The ability to learn new emotion concepts is adaptive and socially valuable as it communicates culturally held understandings about values, goals, and experiences. Yet, little work has examined the underlying mechanisms that allow for new emotion concepts and words to be integrated into the conceptual system. One such mechanism may be conceptual combination, or the ability to form novel concepts by dynamically combining previously acquired conceptual knowledge. In this study, we used event‐related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of novel emotion concept acquisition via conceptual combination. Participants were briefly trained on 30 novel emotion combinations, each consisting of two English emotion words (the components; e.g., “sadness + fatigue”) and a pseudoword (the target; e.g., “despip”). Participants then completed a semantic congruency task while ERPs were recorded. On each trial, two components were presented serially, followed by a target; participants judged whether the target was a valid combination of the preceding components. Targets could be correct or incorrect trained pseudowords, or new untrained pseudowords. Furthermore, components could be presented in reversed order (e.g., “fatigue” then “sadness”) or as synonyms (e.g., “exhaustion” for “fatigue”). Consistent with our main hypotheses, we found a main effect of target, such that the correct combinations showed reduced N400 amplitudes when compared to both incorrect and untrained pseudowords. Critically, this effect held regardless of how the preceding components were presented, suggesting deeper semantic learning. These results extend prior findings on conceptual combination and novel word learning, and are congruent with predictive processing accounts of brain function.
... It is suggested that high emotion differentiation abilities permit an individual to distance themselves from distressing bodily sensations and feelings (Kashdan, Barrett, & McKnight, 2015). Indeed, previous work in adults has shown that alexithymia mediates the relationship between interoceptive processing and anxiety (Palser, Palmer et al., 2018). ...
... That said, it is possible that language is more fundamentally involved in emotion differentiation, wherein learnt emotion terminology is used to categorize incoming sensations, over time contributing to a richer emotional internal world. In line with this possibility, some have argued that those with more limited emotion knowledge, in the form of a reduced emotional vocabulary, will conceptualize sensory inputs in a less differentiated fashion (Kashdan et al., 2015). Similarly, although previous reports have suggested no difference in the resultant bodily maps between memory-based and emotion induction paradigms (Nummenmaa et al., 2014), these studies were conducted with neurotypical individuals. ...
Article
Lay abstract: More research has been conducted on how autistic people understand and interpret other people's emotions, than on how autistic people experience their own emotions. The experience of emotion is important however, because it can relate to difficulties like anxiety and depression, which are common in autism. In neurotypical adults and children, different emotions have been associated with unique maps of activity patterns in the body. Whether these maps of emotion are comparable in autism is currently unknown. Here, we asked 100 children and adolescents, 45 of whom were autistic, to color in outlines of the body to indicate how they experienced seven emotions. Autistic adults and children sometimes report differences in how they experience their internal bodily states, termed interoception, and so we also investigated how this related to the bodily maps of emotion. In this study, the autistic children and adolescents had comparable interoception to the non-autistic children and adolescents, but there was less variability in their maps of emotion. In other words, they showed more similar patterns of activity across the different emotions. This was not related to interoception, however. This work suggests that there are differences in how autistic people experience emotion that are not explained by differences in interoception. In neurotypical people, less variability in emotional experiences is linked to anxiety and depression, and future work should seek to understand if this is a contributing factor to the increased prevalence of these difficulties in autism.
... Thus, emotional awareness requires perceiving one's internal bodily state-a process called interoception-and conceptualizing it in terms of an emotion label that best unites the current context with past experience (Satpute & Lindquist, 2019). This construction of an emotional experience then guides regulatory responses to the individual's current context (Kashdan, Barrett, & McKnight, 2015). Thus, factors that give rise to individual differences in interoception or emotion conceptualization across development may influence emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and ultimately, psychopathology (Brewer, Happé, Cook, & Bird, 2015;Murphy, Brewer, Catmur, & Bird, 2017). ...
Article
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The ability to identify and label one’s emotions is associated with effective emotion regulation, rendering emotional awareness important for mental health. We evaluated how emotional awareness was related to psychopathology and whether low emotional awareness was a transdiagnostic mechanism explaining the increase in psychopathology during the transition to adolescence and as a function of childhood trauma—specifically, violence exposure. In Study 1, children and adolescents ( N = 120, age range = 7–19 years) reported on emotional awareness and psychopathology. Emotional awareness was negatively associated with psychopathology (p-factor) and worsened across age in females but not males. In Study 2 ( N = 262, age range = 8–16 years), we replicated these findings and demonstrated longitudinally that low emotional awareness mediated increases in p-factor as a function of age in females and violence exposure. These findings indicate that low emotional awareness may be a transdiagnostic mechanism linking adolescent development, sex, and trauma with the emergence of psychopathology.
... Our findings suggest that such interventions targeting EA may lead to subsequent reductions in social anxiety. In addition, interventions facilitating emotion identification, emotion differentiation, emotion regulation, and emotional acceptance may be beneficial in treatment for SAD as they can contribute to reducing experiential avoidance (e.g., Boden et al., 2013;Dryman & Heimberg, 2018;Kashdan & Farmer, 2014;Kashdan et al., 2015). Such interventions can complement exposure and dropping of safety behaviors and may be used in cases in which exposure is impossible or is counterindicated (see Aderka and Hofmann, in press, for an example of such a case). ...
Article
Previous studies have found that social anxiety and experiential avoidance (EA) are significantly associated, but the directionality of this relationship has not been firmly established. The present study examined momentary EA and social anxiety using repeated measurements during an opposite-sex interaction. Participants were 164 individuals (50% female): 42 were diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and the remaining 122 were non-socially-anxious individuals (NSAs). Participants formed 42 experimental dyads including one individual with SAD and one NSA individual, and 40 control dyads including 2 NSA individuals. Lower level mediational modeling indicated that for individuals with SAD, a reciprocal relationship was observed in which changes in both EA and social anxiety mediated changes in each other. However, changes in EA explained approximately 89% of changes in social anxiety whereas changes in social anxiety explained approximately 52% of changes in EA throughout the interaction. For NSA individuals, only social anxiety predicted EA. These findings point to a deleterious cycle driven mostly by EA among individuals with SAD, but not NSA individuals. Findings are discussed within the context of previous empirical findings as well as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive-behavioral models of psychopathology.
... The former position finds little empirical support, with recent evidence suggesting that prevalence of the central components of wisdom does not necessarily require downregulated negative affect . Indeed, emotions can both be a source of information (Barrett & Campos, 1987;Kashdan, Barrett, & McKnight, 2015;Kunzmann & Gl€ uck, 2018) and can also lead to biases in judgments and decision-making (Lerner, Li, Valdesolo, & Kassam, 2015). In a similar vein, it remains unclear whether emotion regulation serves as a developmental precursor to wisdom. ...
Article
Interest in wisdom in the cognitive sciences, psychology, and education has been paralleled by conceptual confusions about its nature and assessment. To clarify these issues and promote consensus in the field, wisdom researchers met in Toronto in July of 2019, resolving disputes through discussion. Guided by a survey of scientists who study wisdom-related constructs, we established a common wisdom model, observing that empirical approaches to wisdom converge on the morally-grounded application of metacognition to reasoning and problem-solving. After outlining the function of relevant metacognitive and moral processes, we critically evaluate existing empirical approaches to measurement and offer recommendations for best practices. In the subsequent sections, we use the common wisdom model to selectively review evidence about the role of individual differences for development and manifestation of wisdom, approaches to wisdom development and training, as well as cultural, subcultural, and social-contextual differences. We conclude by discussing wisdom’s conceptual overlap with a host of other constructs and outline unresolved conceptual and methodological challenges.
... Some limitations should be noted. Emotional granularity is related to an individual's age (Carstensen et al., 2000), accrued experience (Kashdan et al., 2015) or the development of emotional concepts (Lane & Garfield, 2005). Alexithymia also seems to be a sustainable personality trait according to a 5-year longitudinal study (Salminen et al., 2006). ...
Article
This study explored the predictive effect of positive personality, positive emotional granularity and alexithymia on individual life satisfaction among 318 Chinese undergraduate students. Online questionnaires were used to assess positive personality, alexithymia, social connectedness and life satisfaction. Participants were also asked to view a series of standardized film clips and rate them on a list of nonprimary emotions to compute their emotional granularity. The results indicated that positive personality and alexithymia could predict an individual's life satisfaction directly or indirectly through social connectedness. Positive emotional granularity could predict alexithymia. However, positive emotional granularity could not predict life satisfaction directly, but it could predict life satisfaction through the path of alexithymia-social connectedness. These results provide implications for enhancing the well-being of Chinese college students by cultivating their positive psychological qualities and strengthening their social bonding.
... A research team conducts an ESM study to investigate between-subject differences regarding dynamics in affective well-being of employees in the travel sector during the Covid-19 pandemic. On the one hand, the underlying MM may differ across employees because people generally differ in their ability to label emotions in a granular way (Barrett, Gross, Christensen, & Benvenuto, 2001;Erbas, Kalokerinos, Kuppens, van Halem, & Ceulemans, 2020;Kashdan, Barrett, & McKnight, 2015). ...
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Intensive longitudinal data (ILD) have become popular for studying within-person dynamics in psychological constructs (or between-person differences therein). Prior to investigating what the dynamics look like, it is important to examine whether the measurement model (MM) is the same across subjects and time and, thus, whether the measured constructs have the same meaning. If the MM differs (e.g., because of changes in item interpretation or response styles), observations cannot be validly compared. Exploring differences in the MM for ILD can be done with latent Markov factor analysis (LMFA), which classifies observations based on the underlying MM (for many subjects and time-points simultaneously) and thus shows which observations are comparable. However, the complexity of the method or the fact that no open-source software for LMFA existed until now may have hindered researchers from applying the method in practice. In this article, we introduce the new user-friendly software package lmfa, which allows researchers to perform the analysis in the freely available software R. We provide a step-by-step tutorial for the lmfa package so that researchers can easily investigate MM differences in their own ILD.
... Extant models of SAD (Clark & Wells, 1995;Hofmann, 2007;Rapee & Heimberg, 1997) have predominantly focused on the role of cognitions and behaviors in the maintenance of the disorder, and have suggested that some emotions such as anxiety, shame, and embarrassment may be associated with SAD. Building on a growing interest in emotions and emotional constructs in psychopathology in general and in SAD more specifically (e.g., Aderka & Hofmann, 2021;Hofmann, 2014;Kashdan, Barrett, & McKnight, 2015;, researchers have recently began to examine additional emotions in SAD (e. g., loneliness; Lim, Rodebaugh, Zyphur, & Gleeson, 2016). Despite this recent interest, very little is known about the experience of discrete emotions in the disorder and many remain unexamined. ...
Article
In the present study we examined envy in social anxiety disorder (SAD) and its potential role in maintaining the disorder. In addition, we examined social contexts and modes of communication that may serve as moderators of envy in SAD, and the temporal relationship between envy and anxiety in the disorder. Our sample included 88 individuals (44 with SAD and 44 without SAD) who underwent an experience sampling procedure in which participants received daily measures of emotions for 21 days. Using multilevel linear modeling we found that individuals with SAD experienced elevated envy compared to individuals without SAD and this was enhanced in social (compared to non-social) contexts. For individuals with SAD, visual modes of communication were associated with elevated envy compared to voice/text communication. Finally, envy predicted subsequent anxiety above and beyond previous anxiety and additional negative emotions. The role of envy in the psychopathology and maintenance of SAD, as well as clinical implications are discussed.
... Finally, even though we examined a variety of measures of emotion dynamics, the study was limited to measures that can be derived from 2 affect questions. Additional measures of emotion dynamics that have been proposed in the literature were not considered here because they require administration of multiple PA or NA items at each measurement occasion (examples are emotional granularity, which captures the extent to which individuals differentiate between multiple emotions of the same valence [50], and emodiversity, which captures the extent to which individuals experience a narrow or wide range of different emotions [51]). ...
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Background: Interest in the measurement of the temporal dynamics of people's emotional lives has risen substantially in psychological and medical research. Emotions fluctuate and change over time, and measuring the ebb and flow of people's affective experiences promises enhanced insights into people's health and functioning. Researchers have used a variety of intensive longitudinal assessment (ILA) methods to create measures of emotion dynamics, including ecological momentary assessments (EMAs), end-of-day (EOD) diaries, and the day reconstruction method (DRM). To date, it is unclear whether they can be used interchangeably or whether ostensibly similar emotion dynamics captured by the methods differ in meaningful ways. Objective: This study aims to examine the extent to which different ILA methods yield comparable measures of intraindividual emotion dynamics. Methods: Data from 90 participants aged 50 years or older were collected in a probability-based internet panel, the Understanding America Study, and analyzed. Participants provided positive and negative affect ratings using 3 ILA methods: (1) smartphone-based EMA, administered 6 times per day over 1 week, (2) web-based EOD diaries, administered daily over the same week, and (3) web-based DRM, administered once during that week. We calculated 11 measures of emotion dynamics (addressing mean levels, variability, instability, and inertia separately for positive and negative affect, as well as emotion network density, mixed emotions, and emotional dialecticism) from each ILA method. The analyses examined mean differences and correlations of scores addressing the same emotion dynamic across the ILA methods. We also compared the patterns of intercorrelations among the emotion dynamics and their relationships with health outcomes (general health, pain, and fatigue) across ILA methods. Results: Emotion dynamics derived from EMAs and EOD diaries demonstrated moderate-to-high correspondence for measures of mean emotion levels (ρ≥0.95), variability (ρ≥0.68), instability (ρ≥0.51), mixed emotions (ρ=0.92), and emotional dialecticism (ρ=0.57), and low correspondence for measures of inertia (ρ≥0.17) and emotion network density (ρ=0.36). DRM-derived measures showed correlations with EMAs and EOD diaries that were high for mean emotion levels and mixed emotions (ρ≥0.74), moderate for variability (ρ=0.38-.054), and low to moderate for other measures (ρ=0.03-0.41). Intercorrelations among the emotion dynamics showed high convergence across EMAs and EOD diaries, and moderate convergence between the DRM and EMAs as well as EOD diaries. Emotion dynamics from all 3 ILA methods produced very similar patterns of relationships with health outcomes. Conclusions: EMAs and EOD diaries provide corresponding information about individual differences in various emotion dynamics, whereas the DRM provides corresponding information about emotion levels and (to a lesser extent) variability, but not about more complex emotion dynamics. Our results caution researchers against viewing these ILA methods as universally interchangeable.
... Barrett recommends that individuals learn to be more specific when labeling an emotion/feeling and calls this "emotional granularity" (Pond et al. 2012). By being more specific, one builds up a larger, more accurate set of emotional/ feeling concepts which is useful for creating the emotion/feeling in the future (Kashdan, Barrett, and McKnight 2015). For the clinician, inviting a client to think about a feeling and to create a specific label for that feeling could help the client to become more specific about the emotional process that led to that feeling. ...
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Lisa Barrett's book, "How Emotions are Made," describes her decades-long work in the field of emotion research and presents her theory of constructed emotion. Dr Murray Bowen's theory places particular importance on the role emotions and feelings play in human functioning. The theory of constructed emotion posits that if one changes their concepts about a subject that this would lead to constructing different emotions/feelings regarding that subject. Bowen theory provides an individual with a rich set of new concepts for how one can think about their relationships and their own functioning. Barrett's theory offers an explanation of how these new concepts can create new emotional (feeling) responses. The implication is that the value of "thinking systems" is that it will create new emotional responses that will support improved functioning.
... Le programme est structuré autour de 4 types d'exercices. Les exercices sont soit didactiques, suivant une courte séquence de psychoéducation, soit de l'auto-observation des émotions (Kashdan, Ferssizidis, Collins & Muraven, 2010 ;Kashdan & Farmer 2014 ;Kashdan, Barrett & McKnight, 2015), soit des exercices comportementaux visant une activation comportementale (Gable, 2000) ou finalement des guidances audios. ...
Thesis
Contexte : La compassion est une motivation qui permet de réduire la souffrance. Ces deux dernières décennies, les recherches sur l’auto-compassion ont clairement montré un rôle bénéfique sur la détresse psychologique. A l’inverse l’autocritique est une relation à soi caractérisée par l’hostilité dans l’épreuve qui favorise l’émergence de troubles psychopathologiques. Ce travail explore pour la première fois le rôle de l’activation de la joie sociale dans la compassion.Objectifs : L’objectif était d’étudier le rôle des émotions positives dans la compassion à un niveau processuel (attention et émotions) dans l’imagerie focalisée sur la compassion. La version française du questionnaire Forms of Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS) ainsi que sa structure factorielle ont été étudiées. L’effet d’un programme à distance d’entrainement à la compassion sur quatre semaines a été exploré. Méthode : La structure factorielle en deux ou trois facteurs et les qualités psychométriques du FSCRS ont été analysés (n=285). Le traitement attentionnel des visages émotionnels, critiques et de compassion, a été évalué grâce à l'ensemble de stimuli « McEwan Faces », avant et après l'exposition à une imagerie de compassion ou une imagerie neutre (n = 80) selon la méthodologie appelée dot probe task. Les émotions des participants (positives et négatives) ont également été mesurées. L’imagerie de compassion a été conçue pour activer de la joie sociale. L’effet de l’autocritique a été explorée. Dans l’intervention en quatre semaines (n=90), un groupe non clinique a été affecté par randomisation stratifiée par bloc en deux groupes équivalents. Nous avons vérifié l’effet bénéfique du programme sur des dimensions de psychopathologie, d’autocritique, de pleine conscience et sur des processus psychologiques liés à la régulation émotionnelle.Résultats : Une analyse factorielle confirmatoire a montré un ajustement des items du FSCRS à un modèle à trois facteurs ainsi que des qualités psychométriques satisfaisantes du questionnaire. Avant l’imagerie, les participants avaient tendance à détourner le regard des visages critiques avec un effet de l’autocritique. Les deux types d'imageries réduisaient le biais d’éloignement des visages critiques lorsque les stimuli étaient présentés pendant 1200 ms. Cet effet interagissait avec l’autocritique dans l’imagerie neutre. L'imagerie de compassion réduisait d’avantage les émotions négatives que l’imagerie de neutre (d = 0,78) et augmentait les niveaux d'émotions positives, alors que l'imagerie neutre réduisait les émotions positives (d = 0,77) sans interaction de l’autocritique sur cet effet. Finalement, les résultats indiquaient un effet significatif de l’intervention sur les variables de compassion, de psychopathologie et de pleine conscience. Cet effet était maintenu après un mois. Conclusion : Les résultats confirment que la version française du FSCRS est un instrument robuste et fiable. Pour la première fois, il a été montré un effet de l’autocritique sur le traitement attentionnel des visages critiques. Les résultats questionnent la possibilité d’un effet de l’imagerie de compassion sur le traitement attentionnel des visages critiques. Les émotions positives et en particulier la joie sociale, définie comme la joie d’une attention ou d’une présence partagée semblent jouer un rôle de régulation émotionnelle dans la compassion. Finalement, le programme d’entrainement à la compassion présentait un effet bénéfique sur la santé psychique et cet effet était maintenu un mois après la fin du programme.
... Group interventions including mindfulness practice and selfsoothing strategies helped participants to acknowledge and sit with acceptance of their feelings, learning that urges did not need to be acted upon. Recognising how they and others used different functions of self-injury at different times could therefore help increase emotional differentiation, which is known to be associated with emotional well-being (Kashdan et al., 2015). ...
Article
This paper describes the content and multi‐method evaluation of a compassion‐focused cognitive behavioural psychotherapy (CBT) group for people who self‐harm/injure. Quantitative questionnaires and a qualitative focus group were used for the three participants. Reflective diary contents were analysed. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the questionnaires. These demonstrated positive reductions in the GAD‐7 and PHQ‐9 scores but no significant change in self‐compassion scores. The Cognitions of Self‐Injurious Behaviour Scale demonstrated some positive belief changes. Participants reported improved self‐awareness, alternative coping and improved emotional regulation. All participants reported anger, anxiety and sadness in their diaries; one reported self‐hatred, and another reported feeling dead and numb. Distraction was considered a useful strategy to avoid or delay self‐harm. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used and identified six superordinate themes: ‘The secret's out! Openness & Honesty’, ‘Care without fear: calm acceptance’, ‘Skills not Spills’, ‘We're all in it together', ‘Compassion, not competition nor comparison’ and ‘Fear of flying solo’. Despite the small number of participants, the combination of compassion‐focused therapy and CBT appears to hold future promise for further research on effectiveness.
... Thus, contrary to appraisal theories that defend an emotional triggering based on the appraisal of an event, the psychological constructionism theories suggest that the triggering of a specific emotion results from the socially learned association between the event and emotional response. Not all life experiences are categorized as emotionally charged; however, the emotional categorization of events is dependent on the individual's knowledge about emotions [47] and their linguistic and cultural background [48]. Thus, not surprisingly, the expression of all components of emotion "depends upon the category that is used to construct an emotion in the situation in which is it occurring" [25]. ...
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This paper presents an Artificial Intelligence approach to mining context and emotions related to olfactory cultural heritage narratives, particularly to fairy tales. We provide an overview of the role of smell and emotions in literature, as well as highlight the importance of olfactory experience and emotions from psychology and linguistic perspectives. We introduce a methodology for extracting smells and emotions from text, as well as demonstrate the context-based visualizations related to smells and emotions implemented in a novel smell tracker tool. The evaluation is performed using a collection of fairy tales from Grimm and Andersen. We find out that fairy tales often connect smell with the emotional charge of situations. The experimental results show that we can detect smells and emotions in fairy tales with an F1 score of 91.62 and 79.2, respectively.
... Researchers conduct an ESM study to investigate between-subject differences regarding dynamics in the affective well-being of adolescents in different contexts. On the one hand, the underlying MM may differ across adolescents because people generally differ in their ability to label emotions in a granular way (Barrett et al., 2001;Erbas et al., 2020;Kashdan et al., 2015). The "high differentiators" differentiate more between specific emotions such as feeling content or happy than the "low differentiators", who focus more on the valence of a feeling and, thus, whether an emotion is positive or negative (Barrett, 1998;Erbas et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Intensive longitudinal data (ILD) have become popular for studying within-person dynamics in psychological constructs (or between-person differences therein). Before investigating the dynamics, it is crucial to examine whether the measurement model (MM) is the same across subjects and time and, thus, whether the measured constructs have the same meaning. If the MM differs (e.g., because of changes in item interpretation or response styles), observations cannot be validly compared. Exploring differences in the MM for ILD can be done with latent Markov factor analysis (LMFA), which classifies observations based on the underlying MM (for many subjects and time-points simultaneously) and thus shows which observations are comparable. However, the complexity of the method or the fact that no open-source software for LMFA existed until now may have hindered researchers from applying the method in practice. In this article, we provide a step-by-step tutorial for the new user-friendly software package lmfa, which allows researchers to easily perform the analysis LMFA in the freely available software R to investigate MM differences in their own ILD.
... ively had more severe reactions to the moral transgression. Cameron et al. claimed that: unskilled emotion differentiators may simply report that they "feel bad" (focusing on unspecified negative valence), without distinguishing between negative emotions such as disgust and anger (they would report equivalent levels of disgust and anger because 27 Kashdan et al. 2015. Kashdan et al. are referring to 'negative' emotions in the sense of intense negative affect. 28 It is important to note that moods are different from emotions in several respects. Where moods are diffuse, emotions have specific intentional objects (e.g. being angry about something in particular), and emotions have propositional content, which is why they ...
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On an account of virtue as skill, virtues are acquired in the ways that skills are acquired. In this paper I focus on one implication of that account that is deserving of greater attention, which is that becoming more skillful requires learning from one’s failures, but that turns out to be especially challenging when dealing with moral failures. In skill acquisition, skills are improved by deliberate practice, where you strive to correct past mistakes and learn how to overcome your current limitations. A similar story applies to virtue acquisition, as moral failures will be a part of anyone’s life, and we will all have to learn from these experiences. However, despite the importance of being able to learn from our mistakes, this is very difficult in practice, given that failure of any kind can be distressing, and especially so for moral failure. The distress created by a recognition of moral failure often prompts responses of anger, avoidance, or defensiveness; rather than attempts to make amends and when necessary to work on self-improvement. The most potentially distressing response to moral failure is shame, as it is often associated with defensiveness. It is here where emotion regulation will be important to manage that distress, and I focus on the skill of emotion differentiation. I argue that emotion differentiation is a promising strategy for distinguishing the emotions we may experience in the wake of failure, including shame, and to encourage those emotions that motivate self-improvement. Thus, emotion regulation is important for virtue acquisition.
... The Difficulty Identifying Feelings subscale of the TAS-20, which demonstrated significant positive relationships with emotion dysregulation in the current analyses, is conceptually similar to several other constructs in the literature, including low private self-consciousness (i.e., attention directed inward toward thoughts, feelings, and behaviors; Fenigstein et al., 1975), poor emotion differentiation (Kashdan et al., 2015), and difficulties with interoception (i.e., emotional awareness; Craig, 2002). A common underlying dimension of these constructs is an impairment in the ability to notice, to attend to, and to label internal states, which are necessary skills for successful psychotherapy (Hungr et al., 2016). ...
Article
Objective Alexithymia is common among people who abuse alcohol, yet the mechanisms by which alexithymia exerts its influence remain unclear. This analysis tested a model whereby the three subscales of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale exert an indirect effect on alcohol problems through difficulties with emotion regulation and psychological distress. Method Men and women (n = 141) seeking alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Short Inventory of Problems, and the Alcohol Dependence Scale. Results The Difficulty Identifying Feelings subscale of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale was positively associated with alcohol problems through emotion dysregulation and psychological distress. The other two subscales, Difficulty Describing Feelings and Externally oriented Thinking, were not associated with any other variables. Conclusion People with alexithymia may consume alcohol to help regulate undifferentiated states of emotional arousal. Given the prevalence of alexithymia among people who abuse alcohol, treatment supplements that enhance the identification of emotions are needed.
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Research in clinical neuroscience is founded on the idea that a better understanding of brain (dys)function will improve our ability to diagnose and treat neurological and psychiatric disorders. In recent years, neuroscience has converged on the notion that the brain is a ‘prediction machine’—in that it actively predicts the sensory input that it will receive if one or another course of action is chosen. These predictions are used to select actions that will (most often, and in the long‐run) maintain the body within the narrow range of physiological states consistent with survival. This insight has given rise to an area of clinical computational neuroscience research that focuses on characterizing neural circuit architectures that can accomplish these predictive functions, and on how the associated processes may break down or become aberrant within clinical conditions. Here, we provide a brief review of examples of recent work on the application of predictive processing models of brain function to study clinical (psychiatric) disorders, with the aim of highlighting current directions and their potential clinical utility. We offer examples of recent conceptual models, formal mathematical models, and applications of such models in empirical research in clinical populations, with a focus on making this material accessible to clinicians without expertise in computational neuroscience. In doing so, we aim to highlight the potential insights and opportunities that understanding the brain as a prediction machine may offer to clinical research and practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent condition negatively affecting one’s sense of self and interpersonal functioning. Relying on cognitive but integrating interpersonal and evolutionary models of SAD as our theoretical base, we review basic processes contributing to the maintenance of this condition (e.g., self-focused attention, imagery, avoidance), as well as the treatment techniques geared to modify such processes (e.g., exposure, attention modification, imagery rescripting). We discuss cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) as combining multiple treatment techniques into intervention “packages.” Next, we review the existing empirical evidence on the effectiveness of CBT. Although CBT has accumulated the most support as superior to other credible interventions, we suggest that many treatment challenges remain. We conclude by discussing the ways to enhance the efficacy of CBT for SAD. Specifically, we highlight the need to (a) elucidate the complex relationship between basic processes and techniques, (b) advance personalized interventions, and (c) include a more diverse and comprehensive array of outcome measures.
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Emotion is an important topic in tourism research; however, its complexity has prevented researchers from providing a complete picture. Prior research has covered aspects such as valence and specific emotion, but diversity of emotions (i.e., emodiversity) is missing. Emodiversity becomes particularly important in tourism, considering that people experience more diverse emotions during vacation than when at home. We introduce the concept of emodiversity and demonstrate how and why it is beneficial for tourists’ well-being. The effect of emodiversity is valid for both positive and negative emotions. The findings shed light on a new way to perceive emotions; rather than simply selling positive emotions for the sake of pleasantness, tourism managers should reconceptualize tourism as “emodiversity-seeking” instead of “pleasure-seeking” experiences.
Article
Emotion recognition (ER) can be conceived of as an integration of affective cues in working memory. We examined whether reduced working memory capacity and brain lesions in neural networks involved in emotion processing interactively impair ER of both one’s own and another person’s emotions. To assess the recognition of one’s own and other’s emotions, pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and facial expressions from the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (KDEF) database representing fear, anger, disgust, and sadness were presented to 40 lesioned patients and 40 healthy students. To manipulate working memory, a math task was imposed between exposure to the stimuli and collection of responses. Participants indicated the intensity of each of the four emotions for each picture. ER was computed as the difference between trials where the elicited emotion matched the requested emotion and trials where the elicited and requested emotions did not match. Whereas lesions impaired ER in both self and others, working memory load exclusively decreased recognition of other persons’ emotions.
Article
Zusammenfassung. Theoretischer Hintergrund: Ergebnisse aus Querschnittstudien weisen darauf hin, dass Emotionsregulationsstrategien den Effekt zwischen dem Emotionsbewusstsein und depressiven Symptomen vermitteln. Es fehlen jedoch prospektive Studien, die diesen Effekt bestätigen. Fragestellung: Diese Studie überprüft, ob die Veränderung in der Nutzung adaptiver und maladaptiver Trauer-Regulationsstrategien über drei Monate die Beziehung zwischen dem Emotionsbewusstsein zu T1 und der depressiven Symptomatik zu T2 vermittelt. Methodik: Bei N = 136 Jugendlichen (55.9 % ♀, M = 11.53 Jahre; SD = 0.82) wurde zu T1 das Emotionsbewusstsein erfasst. Adaptive sowie maladaptive Strategien zur Trauerregulation und die Depressionssymptomatik wurden zu zwei Messzeitpunkten, zwischen denen ein Abstand von M = 15 Wochen ( SD = 4.22) lag, erhoben. Ergebnisse: Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass ein hohes Emotionsbewusstsein zu T1 über eine Zunahme maladaptiver Regulationsstrategien mit einer stärkeren depressiven Symptomatik zu T2 verknüpft ist. Ein vermittelnder Effekt über die Veränderung adaptiver Regulationsstrategien fand sich nicht. Eine Zunahme adaptiver Strategien stand in Zusammenhang mit niedrigen Depressionswerten zu T2. Schlussfolgerung: In der Prävention sollte das Emotionsbewusstsein in Kombination mit Techniken zur Beendigung maladaptiver Trauer-Regulationsstrategien vermittelt werden. Adaptive Strategien zur Bewältigung von Trauer sollten systematisch aufgebaut und eingeübt werden.
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We have introduced a common wisdom model to establish a shared language, clarify underlying theoretical assumptions, advance assessment tools, and foster evidence-based interventions for stimulating wisdom during challenging societal times. The common wisdom model synthesizes the views of numerous contemporary scientists working on wisdom and includes two components: perspectival meta-cognition and moral aspirations. Having received insightful commentaries on our model, here we consider the overall motivation for the model, address remaining jingle-jangle fallacies, clarify the meaning of morality for wisdom, and expand upon the relationship between moral and meta-cognitive components within the common wisdom model. We reflect on how the common wisdom model provides a nexus for integrating insights across multiple areas of research, affording plentiful opportunities for future research into wisdom’s development, function, and underlying processes. We situate our reflections in the context of present-day pandemic-related uncertainties and unfolding societal shifts.
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The cognitive–developmental theory of ‘levels of emotional awareness’ (LEA) addresses an individual's capacity to experience and express emotion, a capacity highly relevant to psychotherapy. Previous papers on LEA and psychotherapy addressed the aspect of LEA theory pertaining to the ‘trait’ (i.e. enduring) aspects of an individual's emotional functioning over time. LEA theory also applies to the construction of emotional experience at any given moment, in which levels emerge or disappear in a process of microgenetic construction as a function of arousal and other variables. This state‐related perspective is supported by recent research showing that people vary in their LEA from moment to moment. Momentary changes in LEA correspond to the variations in lived experience that occur in relationships, including the therapy relationship, and provide the context for corrective emotional experiences that promote change. In this paper, the construction of emotional experience at different levels of organisation is discussed separately in relation to clients and therapists. Key phenomena relevant to psychotherapy include the transition from bodily sensations to specific differentiated emotional feelings, the ability to be aware of multiple feelings that may be contradictory or counter‐intuitive, and the appreciation of how complex combinations of feelings may differ in self and other. This perspective adds to the literature on how the integration of emotion and cognition contributes to change in psychotherapy. The clinical and research implications of this perspective are discussed.
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Objective: Negative affect intensity is robustly related to binge eating, but the relationship between negative emotion differentiation (i.e., the ability to differentiate negatively-valenced emotions) and binge eating is unclear. Further, little is known about factors that might reduce emotion intensity and/or enhance emotion differentiation, thereby reducing binge eating. Self-compassion is consistently linked to less binge eating, which may be due to decreased negative affect and/or an enhanced ability to differentiate emotions. The current study examined the roles of negative emotion intensity, negative emotion differentiation, and self-compassion in binge eating using ecological momentary assessment. Method: Participants were 201 university students (52.2% female) who completed questionnaires assessing affect seven times a day, and engagement in loss of control (LOC) eating episodes at the end of each day, for 10 days. The average of sadness, fear, guilt, and hostility subscales represented negative emotion intensity; intraclass correlations across negative affect subscales defined negative emotion differentiation. Both daily (i.e., within-person) and trait (i.e., between-person) emotion variables were examined as predictors. Results: Between-person negative emotion intensity, but not negative emotion differentiation, significantly predicted LOC eating occurrence. Self-compassion had a significant effect on LOC eating frequency, and this relationship was partially mediated via negative emotion intensity, but not via negative emotion differentiation. Discussion: Lower levels of negative emotion intensity partially account for the relationship between greater self-compassion and less frequent LOC eating. These findings highlight the importance of cultivating self-compassion to down-regulate negative emotions and to reduce LOC eating. Public significance statement: Our findings suggest that university students who approach their limitations compassionately experience fewer negative emotions in daily life and engage in less loss of control eating. Lower levels of negative affect partially explain this relationship between self-compassion and loss of control eating. These results highlight the importance of cultivating an understanding and a compassionate attitude toward oneself for reducing eating pathology.
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Variability and flexibility in emotion regulation (ER) are considered important ingredients in adaptive ER. Few attempts at operationalizing variability and flexibility in ER have been made. In two 10‐day experience sampling studies (N = 51 and 39), healthy participants rated their momentary emotions and their ER efforts in response to those emotions. We evaluated the association between ER (i.e., between and within ER strategy variability and ER flexibility, operationalized as putatively adaptive, putatively maladaptive and total strategies) and measures of well‐being (psychological distress, satisfaction with life) in general (person‐level) and in everyday life (day‐level). Higher within‐variability indicated that a strategy was used more at some occasions and less at others. Higher between‐variability indicated variation in the extent to which different strategies were engaged at the same time point. Overall, results were mixed, but in some instances, indicators of ER variability and ER flexibility were related to each other and measures of well‐being differently. Total within ER variability was negatively associated with well‐being at the person and day level. Putatively adaptive between and within ER variability were associated with less well‐being at the person level. At the day level, putatively adaptive and maladaptive between ER variability and maladaptive within ER variability were negatively associated with well‐being. Putatively adaptive ER flexibility was negatively associated with satisfaction with life. This study adds to the literature on indicators of variability and flexibility in ER and their potential adaptiveness. The results indicate that variability in ER could be a maladaptive property, but more research is needed to understand this in terms of putatively adaptive and maladaptive strategies. Future studies on the adaptiveness of these indicators should obtain more contextual information.
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Emotion differentiation, the extent to which same-valenced emotions are experienced as distinct, has been found to be associated with various positive outcomes. However, little is known about its role in relational contexts. The present work examines couples in the transition to parenthood, a particularly emotionally demanding period, and explores the associations between emotion differentiation and both concurrent (3-month post-partum) and prospective (6-month post-partum) relationship quality adjusting for pre-partum relationship quality. Both negative emotion differentiation (NED) and positive emotion differentiation (PED) were computed from daily affect ratings completed over 21 days by both partners in 88 couples. They were then examined as predictors of relationship quality (relationship satisfaction and perceived partner responsiveness) using actor–partner interdependence models. NED was found to be concurrently associated with elevated perceived partner responsiveness for one’s self and for one’s partner, and with elevated relationship satisfaction when the partner’s NED was low. Positive emotion differentiation was found to be concurrently associated with relationship satisfaction for one’s self and one’s partner. Prospectively, partner NED and partner PED were associated with greater relationship satisfaction. The findings suggest that NED may function as a compensatory or shared dyadic resource, and that PED, whose effects in previous studies have been mixed, may also be constructive. Individuals undergoing emotionally demanding periods (such as the transition to parenthood) may benefit from developing more nuanced emotional experiences.
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Emotional regularity is the degree to which a person maintains and returns to a set of emotional states over time. The present investigation examined associations between emotional regularity and extant emotion measures as well as psychologically relevant dimensions of personality, health, and real-world occupational outcomes. Participants included 598 U.S. adults who provided daily experience sampling reports on their emotional states for approximately two months. Results suggest that emotional regularity was related to, but distinct from, well-established measures of emotion including emotional intensity, variability, covariation, inertia, granularity, and emodiversity. Furthermore, emotional regularity significantly predicted measures of personality, psychological health, and occupational outcomes even when accounting for extant emotion measures and sociodemographic covariates. Finally, it explained modest (7.5%) improvement (in terms of cross-validated RSq.) over baseline models containing emotional intensity, variability, and sociodemographic covariates. These findings suggest that emotional regularity may provide an important indicator of healthy emotional functioning and may be a promising area for further scientific discovery.
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Objective Serious games are a promising means of fostering socio-emotional skills in children on the autism spectrum (AS). However, empathy and related constructs have not yet been addressed comprehensively and together with emotion recognition, and there is a lack of randomized controlled trials (RCT) to investigate skill maintenance and the transfer to functional behavior. Method The manualized, parent-assisted serious game Zirkus Empathico (ZE) was tested against an active control group, in a six-week multicenter RCT. Eighty-two children aged 5–10 years on the AS were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up. Empathy and emotion recognition skills were defined as the primary outcomes. The secondary outcomes included measures of emotional awareness, emotion regulation, autism social symptomatology (Social Responsiveness Scale), and subjective therapy goals. Results Training effects were observed after the intervention for empathy (d = 0.71) and emotion recognition (d = 0.50), but not at follow-up. Moderate effects on emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and autism social symptomatology were indicated by the short and mid-term assessments. Parents reported treatment goal attainment and positive training transfer. Conclusion While a six-week training with ZE failed to induce lasting changes in empathy and emotion recognition, it may be effective for improving emotional awareness and emotion regulation, and mitigate general autism symptomatology. Clinical trial registration information Zirkus Empathico – Promoting socioemotional competencies in 5- to 10-year-old children with autism spectrum conditions using a computer-based training program; https://www.drks.de/****; DRKS-ID: ***; Universal Trial Number (UTN): ***
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The tendency to reflect on the emotions of self and others is a key aspect of emotional awareness (EA)—a trait widely recognized as relevant to mental health. However, the degree to which EA draws on general reflective cognition vs. specialized socio-emotional mechanisms remains unclear. Based on a synthesis of work in neuroscience and psychology, we recently proposed that EA is best understood as a learned application of domain-general cognitive processes to socio-emotional information. In this paper, we report a study in which we tested this hypothesis in 448 (125 male) individuals who completed measures of EA and both general reflective cognition and socio-emotional performance. As predicted, we observed a significant relationship between EA measures and both general reflectiveness and socio-emotional measures, with the strongest contribution from measures of the general tendency to engage in effortful, reflective cognition. This is consistent with the hypothesis that EA corresponds to the application of general reflective cognitive processes to socio-emotional signals.
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Background: This study explored the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between everyday emotion dimensions and internalizing symptoms during the transition to early adolescence. We tested associations between children's intensity and instability of daily negative emotions (NE), positive emotions (PE), and daily NE differentiation (NED) with children's self-reported and their mothers' report of children's internalizing symptoms, across six waves, each wave separated by six months. Methods: The sample included 199 ethnically diverse mother [Mage at baseline = 40.1 years (SD = 6.1] and child [Mage at baseline = 10.1 (SD = 0.90), 51% girls] dyads, who participated in six 7-day waves of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). During each wave, children reported on PE (i.e. happy and joyful) and NE (i.e. mad, sad, and stressed) up to eight random times per day through smartphone-based EMA. Children and mothers reported on children's internalizing symptoms at each wave. We used random-intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPMs) to test within- and between-person effects. Results: At the within-person level, increased NE and decreased PE intensity, more unstable NE and PE, and decreased NED at any given wave were positively associated with children's self-reported internalizing symptoms but not with mother-reported child symptoms. However, emotion dimensions did not predict child-reported nor mother-reported child symptoms at the next wave. At the between-person level, higher average NE, more unstable PE and NE, and lower NED were positively associated with average child-reported and mother-reported child internalizing symptoms. Conclusions: This study suggests that emotional intensity, instability, and differentiation could be conceptualized as manifestations of internalizing symptoms but not as risk factors for its progression, or residual manifestations of it, among typical children.
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Emotion differentiation captures the detail with which people describe their emotional experiences. A compelling body of research has linked low and negative emotion differentiation to a host of adverse psychological outcomes, yet conceptual and methodological questions and issues remain. We think that the time is right to review and reflect on this growing literature to gain clarity that can be applied to future research. We first review assessment of emotion differentiation while highlighting the methodological variation across studies. Then supported by the literature review, we discuss disconnections between the conceptualization and measurement of differentiation. Finally, to motivate future research, we propose factors that we hypothesize are associated with potentially beneficial effects of emotion differentiation in a given situation (i.e., related to state emotion differentiation) and more generally across time (i.e., related to trait emotion differentiation).
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The objectives of this series of studies were to develop and evaluate a visual self-report measure, the Depicted Action Tendencies (DAT), for the assessment of action tendencies, and to examine relations between action tendencies and emotions. In three independent studies, 938 participants evaluated drawings depicting individuals engaged in actions, reflecting four classes of action tendencies; the tendency to approach reward, approach threat, avoid threat, and avoid reward. The DAT instrument showed specificity in terms of associations with emotions and verbal action-tendency items with minimal overlap between drawings (Study 1). The specificity of the drawings extended to settings in which participants recalled events from their lives (Study 2 and 3). The findings suggest that the drawings can capture different action tendencies in contexts labeled with the same emotion and provide initial support for the DAT instrument as a valid and reliable measure of action tendencies. We believe the DAT instrument offers potential value both in experimental and clinical settings. Given its pictorial format, the DAT is easy to comprehend and may represent a valuable instrument for assessing action tendencies in a quick manner at the momentary level. It may also be useful to individuals with limited linguistic skills or difficulties in verbalizing sensations and feelings.
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The processes of career development and forming a crystallized identity can be fraught with emotional turmoil. One multidimensional construct known to reduce emotional reactivity is dispositional mindfulness (DM). We used canonical correlation analysis to examine relationships involving measures of resources for establishing a vocational identity (Hirschi, 2012a) and facets of DM in emerging adults (134 women, 38 men). Observing, describing, and nonreactivity to inner experiences contributed uniquely to the first canonical function with career agency and occupational engagement. Observing, describing, and nonjudging contributed uniquely to the second function with occupational engagement and negative career outlook. These results shed light on key facets of DM that help emerging adults to effectively utilize emotion within the context of career‐life planning. Future research should examine relationships between DM facets and additional constructs subsumed within the career resources model. Counselors may find utility in understanding how clients conceptualize conscious emotional experience and use it in career‐life planning.
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In this chapter, we discuss the hypothesis people help to regulate each other’s bodies (for better or for worse), and this is a main mechanism through which culture wires a human brain. Cultural transmission prepares the developing brain and body to meet recurrent demands within a particular cultural context, thereby supporting the development of an internal model that is sufficiently tuned to specific environments. In this way, a human brain becomes wired to run a model of the world that will control the body in an efficient, predictive manner. Our approach provides an empirically inspired account of how a human brain becomes a cultural artifact.
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This review organizes a variety of phenomena related to emotional self-report. In doing so, the authors offer an accessibility model that specifies the types of factors that contribute to emotional self-reports under different reporting conditions. One important distinction is between emotion, which is episodic, experiential, and contextual, and beliefs about emotion, which are semantic, conceptual, and decontextualized. This distinction is important in understanding the discrepancies that often occur when people are asked to report on feelings they are currently experiencing versus those that they are not currently experiencing. The accessibility model provides an organizing framework for understanding self-reports of emotion and suggests some new directions for research.
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People have a fundamental need to belong that, when satisfied, is associated with mental and physical well-being. The current investigation examined what happens when the need to belong is thwarted-and how individual differences in self-esteem and emotion differentiation modulate neural responses to social rejection. We hypothesized that low self-esteem would predict heightened activation in distress-related neural responses during a social rejection manipulation, but that this relationship would be moderated by negative emotion differentiation-defined as adeptness at using discrete negative emotion categories to capture one's felt experience. Combining daily diary and neuroimaging methodologies, the current study showed that low self-esteem and low negative emotion differentiation represented a toxic combination that was associated with stronger activation during social rejection (versus social inclusion) in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula-two regions previously shown to index social distress. In contrast, individuals with greater negative emotion differentiation did not show stronger activation in these regions, regardless of their level of self-esteem; fitting with prior evidence that negative emotion differentiation confers equanimity in emotionally upsetting situations.
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The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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The construct of mood awareness is presented as a form of attention directed toward one's mood states. Two dimensions of mood awareness were investigated through the development and validation of the Mood Awareness Scale. Mood monitoring refers to a tendency to scrutinize and focus on one's moods, whereas mood labeling refers to the ability to identify and categorize one's moods. The role of these two dimensions in self-reported affective experience was explored in four studies using various measures of personality, affect, and mood regulation. Mood monitoring predicted the experience of negative affect, neuroticism, intense affective reactions, and greater rumination on negative mood. Mood labeling predicted the experience of positive affect, extraversion, high self-esteem, and greater satisfaction with social support. The usefulness of these dimensions for predicting affective outcomes is discussed.
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Distinct literatures have developed regarding the constructs of emotional clarity (people's meta-knowledge of their affective experience) and emotion differentiation (people's ability to differentiate affective experience into discrete categories, e.g., anger vs. fear). Conceptually, emotion differentiation processes might be expected to contribute to increased emotional clarity. However, the relation between emotional clarity and emotion differentiation has not been directly investigated. In two studies with independent, undergraduate student samples, we measured emotional clarity using a self-report measure and derived emotion differentiation scores from scenario-based (Study 1) and event-sampling-based (Study 2) measures of affect. We found that emotional clarity and emotion differentiation are: (i) associated to a very small and statistically insignificant degree; and (ii) differentially associated with trait and scenario-based/event-sampling-based measures of affect intensity and variability. These results suggest that emotional clarity and differentiation are distinct constructs with unique relations to various facets of affective experience.
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A growing body of research has revealed that labeling an emotion, or putting one's feelings into words, can help to downregulate that affect, as occurs with intentional forms of emotion regulation, such as reappraisal and distraction. We translated this basic research to a real-world clinical context, in which spider-fearful individuals were repeatedly exposed to a live spider. Using a between-subjects design, we compared the effects of affect labeling, reappraisal, distraction from the feared stimulus, and exposure alone during this brief course of exposure therapy on subsequent fear responding. At a 1-week posttest involving a different spider in another context, the affect-labeling group exhibited reduced skin conductance response relative to the other groups and marginally greater approach behavior than the distraction group; however, the affect-labeling group did not differ from the other groups in self-reported fear. Additionally, greater use of anxiety and fear words during exposure was associated with greater reductions in fear responding. Thus, perhaps surprisingly, affect labeling may help to regulate aspects of emotion in a clinical context.
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Individuals differ considerably in their emotion experience. Some experience emotions in a highly differentiated manner, clearly distinguishing among a variety of negative and positive discrete emotions. Others experience emotions in a relatively undifferentiated manner, treating a range of like-valence terms as interchangeable. Drawing on self-regulation theory, we hypothesised that indivi-duals with highly differentiated emotion experience should be better able to regulate emotions than individuals with poorly differentiated emotion experience. In particular, we hypothesised that emotion differentiation and emotion regulation would be positively related in the context of intense negative emotions, where the press for emotion regulation is generally greatest. To test this hypothesis, parti-cipants' negative and positive emotion differentiation was assessed using a 14-day diary protocol. Participants' regulation of negative and positive emotions was assessed using laboratory measures. As predicted, negative emotion differentiation was positively related to the frequency of negative emotion regulation, particularly at higher levels of emotional intensity.
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This study examined the affective dysregulation component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) from an emotional granularity perspective, which refers to the specificity in which one represents emotions. Forty-six female participants meeting criteria for BPD and 51 female control participants without BPD and Axis I pathology completed tasks that assessed the degree to which participants incorporated information about valence (pleasant-unpleasant) and arousal (calm-activated) in their semantic/conceptual representations of emotions and in using labels to represent emotional reactions. As hypothesized, participants with BPD emphasized valence more and arousal less than control participants did when using emotion terms to label their emotional reactions. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
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Some people are adept at using discrete emotion categories (anxious, angry, sad) to capture their felt experience; other people merely communicate how good or bad they feel. We theorized that people who are better at describing their emotions might be less likely to self-medicate with alcohol. During a 3-week period, 106 underage social drinkers used handheld computers to self-monitor alcohol intake. From participants' reported experiences during random prompts, we created an individual difference measure of emotion differentiation. Results from a 30-day timeline follow-back revealed that people with intense negative emotions consumed less alcohol if they were better at describing emotions and less reliant on global descriptions. Results from ecological momentary assessment procedures revealed that people with intense negative emotions prior to drinking episodes consumed less alcohol if they were better at describing emotions. These findings provide support for a novel methodology and dimension for understanding the influence of emotions on substance-use patterns.
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Previous research has found that understanding one's emotions and attending to them are 2 dimensions of emotional awareness. In this research, we examined whether improved subscales for measuring clarity of and attention to emotions could be developed by selecting the best items from 2 frequently used measures of emotional awareness. Using multidimensional scaling and confirmatory factor analysis, we analyzed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (Bagby, Parker, & Taylor, 1994) and the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, & Palfai, 1995) data from 867 college students. Results supported distinct clarity and attention constructs. New subscales were internally consistent and fared as well as or better than previous versions in terms of internal consistency and convergent validity.
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The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) is based on a new cognitive-developmental model of emotional experience. The scale poses evocative interpersonal situations and elicits descriptions of the emotional responses of self and others which are scored using specific structural criteria. Forty undergraduates (20 of each sex) were tested. Interrater reliability and intratest homogeneity of the LEAS were strong. The LEAS was significantly correlated with two measures of maturity: the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (SCT) of Ego Development, and the Parental Descriptions Scale-a cognitive-developmental measure of object representation. In addition, the LEAS correlated positively with openness to experience and emotional range but not with measures of specific emotions, repression or the number of words used in the LEAS responses. These findings suggest that it is the level of emotion, not the specific quality of emotion, that is tapped by the LEAS.
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Age differences in emotional experience over the adult life span were explored, focusing on the frequency, intensity, complexity, and consistency of emotional experience in everyday life. One hundred eighty-four people, age 18 to 94 years, participated in an experience-sampling procedure in which emotions were recorded across a 1-week period. Age was unrelated to frequency of positive emotional experience. A curvilinear relationship best characterized negative emotional experience. Negative emotions declined in frequency until approximately age 60, at which point the decline ceased. Individual factor analyses computed for each participant revealed that age was associated with more differentiated emotional experience. In addition, periods of highly positive emotional experience were more likely to endure among older people and periods of highly negative emotional experience were less stable. Findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of socioemotional selectivity theory.
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Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory capacity (WMC). The authors discuss the enormous implications of this individual difference for a host of dual-process theories in social, personality, cognitive, and clinical psychology. In addition, the authors propose several new areas of investigation that derive directly from applying the concept of WMC to dual-process theories of the mind.
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In this article, I introduce an emotion paradox: People believe that they know an emotion when they see it, and as a consequence assume that emotions are discrete events that can be recognized with some degree of accuracy, but scientists have yet to produce a set of clear and consistent criteria for indicating when an emotion is present and when it is not. I propose one solution to this paradox: People experience an emotion when they conceptualize an instance of affective feeling. In this view, the experience of emotion is an act of categorization, guided by embodied knowledge about emotion. The result is a model of emotion experience that has much in common with the social psychological literature on person perception and with literature on embodied conceptual knowledge as it has recently been applied to social psychology.
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An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
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Positive emotion (PE) has not been well studied in anorexia nervosa. Low positive emotion differentiation (PED), which involves a diminished ability to distinguish between discrete PEs, may contribute to PE dysregulation in anorexia. Specifically, low PED may interact with elevated PE intensity to both motivate and reinforce weight-loss and evaluation behaviors. Using ecological momentary assessment, we examined PE and weight-loss behaviors reported during a 2-week period. As hypothesized, low PED predicted more vomiting, laxative use, exercising, weighing, checking for fat, and restricting. Furthermore, participants with low PED who experienced elevated average PE intensity reported even more frequent behaviors. Within-subjects analyses indicated that for participants with low PED, more weight-loss behaviors at one recording predicted elevated PE at the subsequent recording. Similarly, for participants with low PED, higher momentary PE predicted more subsequent weight-loss behaviors. Thus, low PED in anorexia may reinforce and motivate weight-loss behavior.
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A fundamental ingredient of psychoanalytic treatment is the ability of the analysand to become consciously aware of his or her own emotional responses. We propose that the conscious awareness of emotion is a type of information processing that can be viewed as a separate domain of cognitive function, that the transition from unconscious (implicit) to conscious (explicit) aspects of emotion can be understood developmentally in the manner described by Piaget for cognitive functions generally, and that explicit emotional processes have a modulatory effect on implicit processes. We then present a parallel hierarchical model of the neural substrates of emotional experience supported by recent neuroimaging work. We describe how the neural substrates of implicit and explicit aspects of emotion are dissociable, and we discuss the neural substrates of implicit aspects of emotion, background feelings, focal attention to feelings, and reflective awareness of feelings. This framework constitutes an alternative to traditional psychoanalytic understandings of insight. We conclude by discussing the implications of this model for psychoanalysis, including the nature of clinical change, the psychological processes involved in change with and without insight, and a framework for conceptualizing how to promote emotional change in a variety of clinical settings.
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Changing people's emotions can change their moral judgments, even when the emotions are incidental to the judgment and hence morally irrelevant. It has commonly been assumed that people lack the motivation or ability to correct against such incidental emotional influences. We provide evidence that the ability to make fine-grained distinctions between emotions is an important moderator of these effects. In two experiments, we found that measured (Experiment 1) and manipulated (Experiment 2) emotion differentiation calibrated the relationship between incidental disgust and moral judgments. Whereas unskilled emotion differentiators made stronger moral judgments after incidental disgust priming, skilled emotion differentiators did not. Emotion differentiation may sharpen moral perception, by enabling people to discount incidental emotions while making moral judgments.
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Although mindfulness has been generally linked to superior emotional functioning, several areas remain unclear. In extending prior work, the current report evaluated the link between trait mindfulness and physiological patterns of recovery from negative emotion and . investigated possible associations between trait mindfulness and emotion differentiation. After completing a trait mindfulness measure, 80 healthy volunteers were block randomized (matched on gender and relatively high versus relatively low trait mindfulness) to complete either emotional (EN) or (NE) neutral writing tasks first. In the EN order, participants wrote about an upsetting experience and, in the NE order, about the events of an average day. In partial support of expectation, relatively more mindful men showed greater physiological reactivity to an emotional task followed by superior recovery, but only in the EN order; supplementary analyses suggest that greater non-reactivity scores among males may be involved in the physiological regulation of emotional stress. As expected, relatively more versus relatively less mindful participants also differentiated more among discrete negative emotions but, again, only in the EN order. Taken together, findings offer preliminary evidence that the more differentiated emotional responding associated with aspects of trait mindfulness may facilitate more adaptive responding under stress and contribute to superior mental and physical health.
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Both common wisdom and findings from multiple areas of research suggest that it is helpful to understand and make meaning out of negative experiences. However, people’s attempts to do so often backfire, leading them to ruminate and feel worse. Here we attempt to shed light on these seemingly contradictory sets of findings by examining the role that self-distancing plays in facilitating adaptive self-reflection. We begin by briefly describing the “self-reflection paradox.” We then define self-distancing, present evidence from multiple levels of analysis that illustrate how this process facilitates adaptive self-reflection, and discuss the basic science and practical implications of this research.
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It is typically assumed that people always want to feel good. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates that people want to feel unpleasant emotions, such as anger or fear, when these emotions promote the attainment of their long-term goals. If emotions are regulated for instrumental reasons, people should want to feel pleasant emotions when immediate benefits outweigh future benefits, but when future benefits outweigh immediate benefits, people may prefer to feel useful emotions, even if they are unpleasant. In this article, I describe an instrumental account of emotion regulation, review empirical evidence relevant to it, and discuss its implications for promoting adaptive emotional experiences.
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The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning ("RULER") is designed to improve the quality of classroom interactions through professional development and classroom curricula that infuse emotional literacy instruction into teaching-learning interactions. Its theory of change specifies that RULER first shifts the emotional qualities of classrooms, which are then followed, over time, by improvements in classroom organization and instructional support. A 2-year, cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to test hypotheses derived from this theory. Sixty-two urban schools either integrated RULER into fifth- and sixth-grade English language arts (ELA) classrooms or served as comparison schools, using their standard ELA curriculum only. Results from multilevel modeling with baseline adjustments and structural equation modeling support RULER's theory of change. Compared to classrooms in comparison schools, classrooms in RULER schools exhibited greater emotional support, better classroom organization, and more instructional support at the end of the second year of program delivery. Improvements in classroom organization and instructional support at the end of Year 2 were partially explained by RULER's impacts on classroom emotional support at the end of Year 1. These findings highlight the important contribution of emotional literacy training and development in creating engaging, empowering, and productive learning environments.
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Understanding how a human brain creates a human mind ultimately depends on mapping psychological categories and concepts to physical measurements of neural response. Although it has long been assumed that emotional, social, and cognitive phenomena are realized in the operations of separate brain regions or brain networks, we demonstrate that it is possible to understand the body of neuroimaging evidence using a framework that relies on domain general, distributed structure-function mappings. We review current research in affective and social neuroscience and argue that the emerging science of large-scale intrinsic brain networks provides a coherent framework for a domain-general functional architecture of the human brain.
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Some individuals have very specific and differentiated emotional experiences, such as anger, shame, excitement, and happiness, whereas others have more general affective experiences of pleasure or discomfort that are not as highly differentiated. Considering that individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have cognitive deficits for negative information, we predicted that people with MDD would have less differentiated negative emotional experiences than would healthy people. To test this hypothesis, we assessed participants' emotional experiences using a 7-day experience-sampling protocol. Depression was assessed using structured clinical interviews and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. As predicted, individuals with MDD had less differentiated emotional experiences than did healthy participants, but only for negative emotions. These differences were above and beyond the effects of emotional intensity and variability.
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Laypeople and scientists alike believe that they know anger, or sadness, or fear, when they see it. These emotions and a few others are presumed to have specific causal mechanisms in the brain and properties that are observable (on the face, in the voice, in the body, or in experience)-that is, they are assumed to be natural kinds. If a given emotion is a natural kind and can be identified objectively, then it is possible to make discoveries about that emotion. Indeed, the scientific study of emotion is founded on this assumption. In this article, I review the accumulating empirical evidence that is inconsistent with the view that there are kinds of emotion with boundaries that are carved in nature. I then consider what moving beyond a natural-kind view might mean for the scientific understanding of emotion. © 2006 Association for Psychological Science.
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