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Abstract

Pipe ramming is a cost-effective trenchless pipe installation method in which percussive blows generated by a pneumatically or hydraulically powered encased piston rammer are used to advance a pipe or culvert through the ground. To evaluate the feasibility of a pipe ramming installation, engineers must be able to reliably predict the pipe drivability and installation stresses. Assessment of the drivability of the pipe and selection of the optimal hammer for pipe ramming installation requires that the static and dynamic soil resistance to ramming at the pipe face and along the casing be reliably estimated. However, pipe ramming-specific models are not currently available, and engineers often resort to the existing traditional pipe-jacking and microtunneling models for static soil resistance computations. This paper describes the results of four full-scale pipes rammed in the field and the corresponding static soil resistance to ramming in granular soils. A companion paper addresses dynamic soil resistance and pipe drivability. The accuracy of the existing pipe jacking and microtunneling-based static soil resistance models is evaluated herein and found to provide unsatisfactory estimates of the face and casing resistance. New semiempirical pipe ramming-specific models are proposed based on the field observations and are found to produce good estimates of static soil resistance for use in pipe drivability evaluations. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

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... Stuedlein and Meskele (2012) outline a general framework for the planning and design of pipe-ramming installations, including efforts to improve estimates of vertical ground movement, vibrations, soil resistance to ramming, and driving stresses to address the surprising lack of engineering approaches available for planning pipe-ramming installations. In a companion paper, Meskele and Stuedlein (2014) further develop the initial framework with regard to new models to estimate the static soil resistance, which consists of face resistance and casing friction resistance distributed along the length of the pipe. This paper is intended to provide an empirical basis for performing pipe drivability analyses and preparing driving curves for the optimal design and specification of pipe-ramming installations using the new static-soil-resistance models described in the companion paper (Meskele and Stuedlein 2014). ...
... In a companion paper, Meskele and Stuedlein (2014) further develop the initial framework with regard to new models to estimate the static soil resistance, which consists of face resistance and casing friction resistance distributed along the length of the pipe. This paper is intended to provide an empirical basis for performing pipe drivability analyses and preparing driving curves for the optimal design and specification of pipe-ramming installations using the new static-soil-resistance models described in the companion paper (Meskele and Stuedlein 2014). The accepted 1D-wave-mechanicsbased approach for pile drivability is adapted to simulate the dynamic response of the pipe during driving, which results in an estimate of the penetration resistance of the pipe (i.e., the number of blows required to produce a unit of penetration distance) and the compressive and tensile driving stresses induced in the pipe. ...
... The performance data from three production installations and a full-scale experimental piperamming test, all in granular soils, were collected, and a database of the penetration resistance, dynamic soil parameters, driving stresses, and hammer-pipe energy-transfer efficiencies was developed. The details of the field observations and the measurement of static soil resistance are presented in the companion paper (Meskele and Stuedlein 2014). The case histories are given in Table 1. ...
Article
The evaluation of the drivability of a proposed pipe is a critical task in the planning and execution of pipe-ramming installations, because it results in increased efficiency, safe installations, and significant cost savings. The analysis of drivability provides a means for optimizing the hammer energy required for a given pipe-ramming installation, and it minimizes potential damage to the pipe due to overstressing the pipe material. Four full-scale pipes with diameters ranging from 610 to 3,660 mm installed using pipe-ramming hammers were instrumented to observe the measurement of hammer-pipe energy transfer, driving stresses, and total (static and dynamic) soil resistance to penetration and formed the basis for evaluating drivability. First, the hammer-pipe energy transfer calculated from the observed force and velocity time histories was characterized, indicating the quantity of energy that actually results in the penetration of the pipe through soil. Then, the dynamic model parameters known as the soil quake and damping were back-calculated using common signal-matching analyses and presented as a function of normalized soil resistance. Wave-equation analyses used routinely to assess the constructability of pile foundations were adapted to estimate the observed force time histories and driving curves or the variation of penetration resistance with static soil resistance. Wave-equation analyses were also used to estimate the observed compressive and tensile driving stresses and the accuracy of the estimates characterized. The results of this study and those used to develop equations for static soil resistance to ramming can be used as the basis for the evaluation of the drivability of rammed pipes. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
... For example, lubricant injected at the pipe-soil interface is used to minimize F s through a reduction in the effective weight of the pipe string, stabilization of the tunnel bore, and reduction of the pipe-soil interface friction (Milligan and Marshall 1998;Pellet-Beaucour and Kastner 2002;O'Dwyer et al. 2018). In contrast, work stoppages typically cause significant peaks in the jacking force upon resumption of tunneling (e.g., Norris and Milligan 1992;Pellet-Beaucour and Kastner 2002;Meskele and Stuedlein 2015;Cheng et al. 2017;Shi et al. 2018;O'Dwyer et al. 2019). Although a significant body of research conducted over the last 30 years has greatly enhanced our understanding of these effects and their influence on F T , the literature contains many examples by which static rule-based design methods fail to provide a satisfactory prediction of the field behavior (e.g., Norris and Milligan 1992;Rahjoo et al. 2012;Reilly and Orr 2012;Choo and Ong 2015;Barla et al. 2006;Sheil et al. 2016). ...
Article
The proliferation of data collected by modern tunnel boring machines presents a substantial opportunity for the application of data-driven anomaly detection (AD) techniques that can adapt dynamically to site specific conditions. Based on jacking forces measured during microtunnelling, this paper explores the potential for AD methods to provide more accurate and robust detection of incipient faults. A selection of the most popular AD methods proposed in the literature, comprising both clusteringand regression-based techniques, are considered for this purpose. The relative merits of each approach is assessed through comparisons to three microtunnelling case histories where anomalous jacking force behaviour was encountered. The results highlight an exciting potential for the use of anomaly detection techniques to reduce unplanned downtimes and operation costs.
... Another estimate of frictional resistance of pipe protrusions stems from a pipe ramming solution proposed by Meskele & Stuedlein (2015) based on work by Weber & Hurtz (1981). Pariya-Ekkasut (2018) demonstrates how this solution can be adapted to provide an estimate of the force that develops from relative movement of soil and an enlarge annulus. ...
Conference Paper
New segmented pipeline systems, with improved materials and jointing mechanisms , are being employed to address water distribution network vulnerability to seismically-triggered permanent ground movement such as liquefaction-induced lateral spreading and land-sliding. Contrary to their improved performance, these systems typically include connections that are larger in cross-section than standard jointing mechanisms, and therefore develop elevated levels of interaction with surrounding medium in response to the relative soil-pipeline movement needed to accommodate earthquake-induced ground displacements. This assessment builds on existing design equations and full-scale experiments to assess the non-linear resistance force that develops at enlarged pipe bells and joint restraints in response to axial soil-pipeline interaction. Several methods of calculating design values for seismic evaluation are provided and compared against test data normalized to account for pipeline depth and annulus size. Results provide needed inputs for the analysis and design of hazard-resilient pipeline systems.
... Pipe ramming characteristics overlap only slightly with most pipe jacking and microtunneling projects and there is very little research on pipe ramming techniques reported in the literature -mainly what can be found are case history papers with few data. Pipe friction during installation in the presence of the vibration due to hammering plus the optimum levels of external and internal overcut provided by the leading edge are among the questions that appear to be addressed mainly by field experience at the current time although Meskele, and Stuedlein (2015) have investigated the pipe friction associated with pipe ramming. In loose granular fills, vibration settlement of the overlying soils may also be a concern (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a review of the history and development of pipe jacking and microtunneling methods with extensive referencing to the published literature. The application of such methods in comparison with other trenchless technologies is discussed and the various planning, design and construction aspects are introduced. The emphasis of the paper is to trace the academic research and field monitoring results covering critical aspects of design and construction with a particular emphasis on jacking force estimation and the effect of lubrication on jacking forces.
... The error of the maximum pipe velocity amplitude in simpler model I is less than 0.25% relative to elastic model III. The comparison of the solutions obtained by the two models shows that in case when the impulse duration is much longer than the time of to and fro travel of wave along the pipe at a rod velocity, the pipe and plug motion can be described using the simplified model (1), (2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Different modes of advance of a pipe with a soil plug under rectangular impulse are investigated numerically and analytically with regard to dry friction between the pipe and plug and between the pipe and external stationary medium. The two model solutions are compared with and without regard to the pipe and plug elasticity. It is shown that elasticity of the pipe and plug is neglectable in case of a long-duration impulse.
... Jacking force variations correlate closely with the nature of ground conditions. Jacking force variations can be caused either by ground closure or unfavourable pipe friction resulting from excessive pipe deviations or by jacking between various soils (Stein et al. 1989;Rogers and Yonan 1992;Shimada and Matsui 1998;Chapman and Ichioka 1999;Pellet-Beacour and Kastner 2002;Sofianos et al. 2004;Khazaei et al. 2004;Staheli 2006; Barla et al. 2006;Shou et al. 2010;Ni and Cheng 2011b;Ni and Cheng 2012a;Rahjoo et al. 2012;Choo and Ong 2015;Cui et al. 2015;Yen and Shou 2015;Meskele and Stuedlein 2015;Ong and Choo 2016;Shen et al. 2016;Cheng et al. 2017a, b;2018a;Zhang et al. 2017Zhang et al. , 2018Du et al. 2017). Significant variations in the jacking force can not only eat up the jacking capacity, but can also cause damage to the pipe itself (Shen et al. 2014;Zhen et al. 2014;Bergeson 2014) as well as to adjoining properties, despite grouting techniques being available for building protection purposes (Shen et al. 2013;Shen et al. 2017;Cheng et al. 2018b). ...
Article
Generally, when there are only a few boreholes present along a tunnel design alignment, geological understanding of the worksite may not be adequate and the ability to optimise the tunnelling parameters is limited. This lack of boreholes will cause an increased potential of geo-hazards during tunnelling works. This study proposes an alternative method to determine the major and other components of ground under such circumstances. Five factors, cutter wheel torque, sieve residue, flow rate of feedline, pressure in the feed and discharge lines and density of bentonite slurry, are adopted for determining the major and other ground components. Comparisons of the soil types based upon the results of grading and Atterberg limits tests on the spoil and soil samples, respectively, and those resulting from the proposed method indicate good consistency. The proposed method provides an opportunity for establishing a more comprehensive geological structure for refining the tunnelling parameters, reducing the potential of geo-hazards associated with the inappropriate tunnelling parameters.
... Many attentions have been paid on this method in recent years. Milligan [3], Meskele [4] and Barla [5] investigated the pipe-soil interaction mechanisms of pipe jacking. Shou [6], Shimada [7] and Zhou [8] investigated the characteristics of different injected slurry (or lubricants) and their effects. ...
Article
Full-text available
A rectangular pedestrian underpass of 94.5m long, 7m wide and 4.3m high was constructed across the existed metro tunnels using pipe jacking method. The minimum distance from underpass bottom to tunnel crown was 4.5m. In order to investigate the effects of pipe jacking on existed underlying tunnels, the instruments were installed in the tunnels and structural responses were extensively monitored. Based on the field observations, the vertical displacement, horizontal displacement and diameter convergence of the tunnel were analyzed. The results indicate that in the whole pipe jacking process, the tunnel vertical displacement mainly goes through three different stages, namely, initial settlement stage, quick heave stage and steady heave stage. The horizontal displacement of ballast bed is much smaller than that of tunnel crown and is almost negligible. The tunnel was horizontally compressed and vertically stretched after pipe jacking construction. Pipe jacking construction has a greater effect on the tunnel structures just below the underpass than that beyond the width scope of underpass, whether it is vertical displacement, horizontal displacement or diameter convergence of the tunnel.
... However, it is not likely that excess pore pressures was developed during shearing of the soil along the wetted pipe interface because of the high hydraulic conductivity of the sand and gravel penetrated. Meskele and Stuedlein (2015a, 2015b describe the factors affecting the static soil resistance and impact of hammer-pipe connection on energy transfer in pipe-ramming installations in detail, respectively. ...
Article
Pipe ramming installations generally induce high levels of ground vibrations that may affect the structural integrity of nearby buildings and utilities. This paper investigates the ground vibrations associated with pipe ramming installations and develops reliable models for estimating the ground vibration levels in an effort to avoid the undesirable effects of the vibrations. The study presents field observations of ground vibrations in which an open-ended steel casing 1,070 mm in diameter and 37 m long was driven into granular soils using two pneumatic hammers of varying energy. The ground vibrations observed during the installation are presented as a function of magnitude of peak particle velocity, frequency content, and direction of propagation. Observations indicate that a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies is possible, ranging from 1 to 100 mm/s and 20 to 100 Hz, respectively, for the case of forward and laterally propagating vibrations. The forward-propagating vibrations were observed to exceed the safe limit vibration criteria for a proposed pipe alignment for close source-to-sensor distances, indicating a potential for damage caused by pipe ramming-induced vibrations. The attenuation characteristics of the pipe ramming-induced vibrations were assessed by adopting and calibrating the existing scaled-distance empirical model and compared to those for a number of common construction operations.
Article
An accurate estimation of the jacking forces likely to be experienced during microtunnelling is a key design concern for the design of pipe segments, the location of intermediate jacking stations and the efficacy of the pipe jacking project itself. This paper presents a Bayesian updating approach for the prediction of jacking forces during microtunnelling. The proposed framework is applied to two pipe jacking case histories completed in the UK including a 275 m drive in silt and silty sand and a 1237 m drive in mudstone. To benchmark the Bayesian predictions, a ‘classical’ optimisation technique, namely genetic algorithms, is also implemented. The results show that predictions of pipe jacking forces using the prior best estimate of model input parameters provide a significant over-prediction of the monitored jacking forces for both drives. This highlights the difficulty in capturing the complex geotechnical conditions during tunnelling within prescriptive design approaches and the importance of robust back-analysis techniques. Bayesian updating is also shown to be a very effective option where significant improvements in the mean predictions, and associated variance, of the total jacking force are obtained as more data is acquired from the drive.
Article
Microtunnelling is an increasingly popular means of locating utilities below ground. The ability to predict the total jacking force requirements during a drive is highly desirable for anomaly detection, to ensure the available thrust is not exceeded, and to prevent damage to the pipe string and/or launch shaft. However, prediction of the total jacking force is complicated by site geology, the use of a lubricated overcut, work stoppages, tunnel boring machine driving style and pipe misalignment. This paper introduces a probabilistic observational approach for forecasting jacking forces during microtunnelling. Gaussian process regression is adopted for this purpose which allows forecasts to be performed within a probabilistic framework. The proposed approach is applied to two recent UK microtunnelling monitoring projects and the forecasts are appraised through comparisons to predictions determined using design methods currently applied in industry. The results show that the proposed framework provides excellent forecasts of the monitored field data and highlights a significant opportunity to complement existing prescriptive design methods with probabilistic forecasting techniques.
Article
The application of trenchless technology is the trend of underground public facilities’ installation, replacement and repairing. As the soil-engaging component during penetrating bore, the working resistance of penetration head has remarkable effect on energy consumption of the whole working process. Some typical soil-digging animals, like pangolin and earthworm, they own special micro structures on their surface. It has been widely proved that some micro geometrical structures can effectively reduce adhesion resistance. Four kinds of bionic penetration heads were designed by imitating micro geometrical structures inspired by the soil animals. In this work, the real time jacking forces of the bionic penetration heads were measured and compared with a smooth penetration head (control group) without micro geometrical structures. The result indicated that the jacking forces of the bionic penetration heads were smaller than that of the smooth penetration head. This proved that the bionic penetration heads have the ability of reducing adhesion resistance. The vertical concave penetration head got the smallest jacking force, of which the average jacking force was 18.7% lower than that of the smooth penetration head. The interaction between soil and bionic surface of penetration head was discussed on the condition of wet friction. The bionic surface reduced the adhesion resistance by disturbing the soil and braking the continuous water film between soil and the surface of the penetration head.
Article
This paper presents a case study of constructing a large-section long pedestrian underpass using pipe jacking method in Nanjing, China. The underpass, having a width of 7 m and a height of 4.3 m, was jacked 94.5 m in muddy silty clay under a busy roadway with 6.2 m overburden soil, meanwhile it traverses above the existed shield metro tunnels with just 4.5 m from the underpass bottom to tunnel vault. This paper introduced the design and construction schemes of this project in detail. A pre-construction three dimensional numerical simulation was conducted to investigate the responses of the roadway and metro tunnels to pipe jacking construction. Based on the simulation results, the field monitoring program was proposed, and the tunnels deformation and ground settlement were constantly monitored. The field performances of the metro tunnels and roadway were analyzed according to the monitoring data. In the jacking process, the micro-underbreak method was adopted. In order to decrease the tunnels uplift and ground settlement, the actual volume of soil conveyed out from soil chamber to ground surface was kept 95–98% of theoretical soil volume cut by cutter head. In general, this project is completed successfully without taking any additional time and money-consuming deformation control measures. The ground traffic and underneath metro runs well during the whole construction process.
Article
Full-text available
Experiments with instrumented displacement piles have shown that the ultimate shaft friction that can develop in a given sand horizon decreases as the pile tip penetrates to deeper levels. This phenomenon, which is now commonly referred to as friction fatigue, is investigated here using centrifuge model piles equipped with lateral stress sensors, and by drawing on other experimental data from the laboratory and the field. It is shown that the primary mechanism controlling friction fatigue is the cyclic history imparted during pile installation to soil elements at the pile-sand interface. For a given installation method the stationary lateral stress acting at any given level on a displacement pile can be described as a relatively unique function of the cone penetration test end resistance and the number of cycles imposed during installation. The strong influence of cycling, which is also seen in cyclic constant normal stiffness interface shear tests, is attributed to contraction of a narrow shear zone at the shaftsoil interface that is surrounded by soil with a relatively high lateral stiffness.
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents the results of a series of field tests performed to study the causes of friction fatigue experienced by displacement piles. Four instrumented model piles were installed at a dense sand test-bed site. The test series was designed to impose different levels of cyclic loading during pile installation. Static and cyclic load tests were subsequently performed to study the differences in the axial capacities developed for ostensibly monotonic and cyclic installations. The test results indicated that the mobilized horizontal effective stress regime that controls pile side friction primarily depends on the in situ sand state, as reflected by the cone penetration test CPT q c resistance. A zone of highly stressed sand that produced a concentration of high shear resistance was mobilized in the vicinity of the pile base. The horizontal effective stress that acted on the pile shaft reduced in response to cyclic loading, with the largest reductions occurring for high-intensity cyclic loading or when the pile had experienced only a few load cycles during installation. Although cyclic loading caused a reduction in the horizontal effective stress that acted on the pile shaft, the elevated stress built up in the vicinity of the pile base during installation remained higher than that remote from the base. The elevated stress in the vicinity of the pile base only dissipated after cyclic tension loading had been applied.
Book
Prepared by the Pipe Ramming Task Force of the Trenchless Installation of Pipelines Committee of the Pipeline Division of ASCE. Pipe Ramming Projects presents the latest and best practices used by engineers and construction professionals for the design and construction of road and railroad crossings using pipe ramming technologies. The manual is divided into seven sections and is based upon the results of case studies, workshops, project reviews, technical papers, and other information contributed by industry experts. Part 1 presents general concepts and includes an introduction, history, recent innovations, applicable documents, typical applications, and a glossary of terms. Parts 2 through 5 provide important information on the planning, design, preconstruction, materials, and construction phases of the pipe ramming method. Part 6 presents several case studies, and Part 7 contains a list of references. Providing both introductory and advanced design and construction information to support the safe, cost-effective, and efficient application of the pipe ramming method, this manual will be valuable to both new and experienced engineers, as well as utility owners, contractors, and other industry professionals. © 2008 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. All Rights Reserved.
Article
Departments of transportation are increasingly embracing pipe ramming for culvert installation under roadways due to its cost effectiveness and ability to mitigate problems associated with open-cut trenching. Despite the increase in use, little technical guidance is available for the engineering of pipe-ramming installations. This study presents the analysis of the performance of an instrumented 610-mm-diameter steel pipe installed using pipe ramming. Measurements include ground surface movement and dynamic force and velocity waveforms to obtain driving stresses, hammer-pipe energy transfer, and static and dynamic soil resistance during the installation. Ground movements are compared to existing settlement prediction models. Inverted normal probability distribution models commonly used in tunnel engineering were evaluated and were observed to capture the observed settlement close to the center of the pipe but did not accurately predict the observed transverse settlement profiles. The transfer of energy was observed to range from as low as 17-39% of the estimated hammer energy. Compressive stresses were observed to remain relatively constant over the penetration length observed and were well below the yield stress of the pipe. Soil resistance derived from wave equation analyses were compared to four pipe-jacking models to evaluate their accuracy and applicability for planning pipe-ramming installations. The jacking models bracketed the static soil resistance components of the wave analysis, indicating that the models may be adopted for pipe-ramming applications pending empirical modification. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Article
Installation of new buried pipes and culverts, and replacement of existing ones utilizing trenchless technologies, is increasing in popularity because these methods mitigate many of the surface disturbances associated with conventional open-cut placement. Pipe ramming is an efficient technique that allows installation of casings in soils that can present difficulties for other trenchless technologies. Despite increasing usage, little technical guidance is available to owners and engineers who plan installations with pipe ramming. This paper provides an overview of the pipe ramming technique, possible design procedures, and governing mechanics associated with pipe ramming, with the goal of providing a baseline for engineered installations and identifying areas for further research. Methods to estimate soil resistance to ramming, analysis of ground deformations, and ground vibrations are discussed and compared with measurements observed in field installations. Soil resistance predictions based on conventional jacking methods are shown to underpredict measured resistances inferred from dynamic load testing. Empirical Gaussian settlement models commonly employed in tunnel engineering were shown to result in somewhat inaccurate predictions for an observed pipe ramming installation in cohesionless soils. Field measurements of the ground vibrations resulting from ramming are presented and compared with commonly used safe vibration standards developed for residential structures; the frequencies of vibration generally range from 20-100 Hz, are considerably high for small source-to-site distances, and attenuate rapidly with radial distance. In general, the study lays a basis for planning pipe installation projects with the intent of providing technical advancement in pipe ramming.
Article
The evaluation of the drivability of a proposed pipe is a critical task in the planning and execution of pipe-ramming installations, because it results in increased efficiency, safe installations, and significant cost savings. The analysis of drivability provides a means for optimizing the hammer energy required for a given pipe-ramming installation, and it minimizes potential damage to the pipe due to overstressing the pipe material. Four full-scale pipes with diameters ranging from 610 to 3,660 mm installed using pipe-ramming hammers were instrumented to observe the measurement of hammer-pipe energy transfer, driving stresses, and total (static and dynamic) soil resistance to penetration and formed the basis for evaluating drivability. First, the hammer-pipe energy transfer calculated from the observed force and velocity time histories was characterized, indicating the quantity of energy that actually results in the penetration of the pipe through soil. Then, the dynamic model parameters known as the soil quake and damping were back-calculated using common signal-matching analyses and presented as a function of normalized soil resistance. Wave-equation analyses used routinely to assess the constructability of pile foundations were adapted to estimate the observed force time histories and driving curves or the variation of penetration resistance with static soil resistance. Wave-equation analyses were also used to estimate the observed compressive and tensile driving stresses and the accuracy of the estimates characterized. The results of this study and those used to develop equations for static soil resistance to ramming can be used as the basis for the evaluation of the drivability of rammed pipes. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Article
An automated prediction scheme is presented which utilizes both force and acceleration records measured at the pile top during driving to compute the soil resistance forces acting along the pile. The distribution of these forces is determined, and the dynamic and static resistance forces are distinguished such that a prediction of a theoretical static load versus penetration curve is possible. As a theoretical basis stress wave theory is used, derived from the general solution of the linear one-dimensional wave equation. As a means of calculating the dynamic pile response, a lumped mass pile model is devised and solved by the Newmark β-method. Wave theory is also employed to develop a simple method for computing static bearing capacity from acceleration and force measurements. Twenty-four pile tests are reported, 14 of them with special instrumentation, i.e., strain gages along the pile below grade. The piles tested were of 12-in. (30-cm) diameter steel pipe with lengths ranging from 33 ft. to 83 ft. (10 m to 25 m).
Article
A method is presented for the analysis of load distribution of piles driven in sand and subjected to static vertical loads. This method is unique in that it considers the existence of residual stresses due to driving. It uses the results of standard penetration tests to obtain the load transfer curves for friction and point resistance. These curves are modeled by hyperbolas which start at the residual friction and residual point pressure for zero displacement. The design method is based on a simple theory and a 33-pile data base. Since each pile had sufficient instrumentation and a sufficiently complete load test program, the residual stresses and transfer curves could be determined with reasonable accuracy from the data base.
Traditional methods of underground utility installation and replacement generally employ conventional open cut methods. These trenching methods in most urbanized settings typically create road closures, traffic delays, unnecessary detours, loss of access to homes and business, unsightliness, noise, and general disruption. Faced with population growth and an aging underground utility system, China has looked to emerging technologies to assist in providing sustainable solutions to addressing this situation. Three trenchless construction methods that have currently been adopted in China are horizontal directional drilling (HDD), pipe bursting, and pipe ramming. HDD is a technique that enables the installation of conduits and pipelines with minimum need for open-cut surface excavation. Pipe bursting is an accepted method for trenchless pipe replacement where an existing sewer or utility pipeline is replaced with a totally new structural pipe of equal or greater inside diameter. Pipe ramming is an established technology that provides a cost efficient alternative for placing steel casings under roads, railroads, finished landscapes, and structures. This paper describes each of the three trenchless construction methods and discusses several applications for sustaining underground utility networks through case histories of successful projects in China.
Chapter
Half TitleTitleCopyrightForewordPrefaceSymbolsContents
Article
Friction forces usually constitute the main component of jacking loads. As a result of their increase with jacking length, it is these forces which limit the drive length. Therefore, it seems important to be able to quantify them accurately. The field monitorings, carried out as a part of the French National Project ‘Microtunnels’, have shown the effects of parameters such as lubrication, stoppages, deviation and overbreak on friction force values. Frictional stress, deduced from field monitoring, is compared with empirical results extracted from the literature and with the results of most frequently used calculation models.
Article
Field research on fourteen case histories of microtunneling and pipe jacking projects was presented. Pertinent project details were provided including pipe materials, site geometry, geotechnical information, construction sequencing, lubrication injection, and jacking force records. Jacking force records for each project were separated into isolated segments along the alignment to analyze jacking stresses. Unlubricated segments of the microtunneling drive records were analyzed to compare actual and predicted jacking forces using the proposed model. The predictive model was compared to other models currently available for predicting the frictional component of jacking forces. Lubrication effects on jacking forces were analyzed to determine how the interface friction coefficient changed once lubrication was applied to the pipeline. Two types of lubrication strategies were identified and predicted lubricated jacking forces were shown. A step-by-step guide for using the jacking force predictive model was presented for design applications and estimating lubricated interface friction values. Dr. J. David Frost, Committee Chair ; Dr. G. Wayne Clough, Committee Co-Chair ; Dr. William F. Marcuson III, Committee Member ; Dr. Paul W. Mayne, Committee Member ; Dr. Susan Burns, Committee Member. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2007.
Article
Work carried out in The Dept. of Engineering Science. BLDSC reference no.: D203867. Thesis (D. Phil.)--University of Oxford. 1998. Includes bibliographical references.
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