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Abstract

Although brand authenticity is gaining increasing interest in consumer behavior research and managerial practice, literature on its measurement and contribution to branding theory is still limited. This article develops an integrative framework of the concept of brand authenticity and reports the development and validation of a scale measuring consumers' perceived brand authenticity (PBA). A multi-phase scale development process resulted in a 15-item PBA scale measuring four dimensions: credibility, integrity, symbolism, and continuity. This scale is reliable across different brands and cultural contexts. We find that brand authenticity perceptions are influenced by indexical, existential, and iconic cues, whereby some of the latters' influence is moderated by consumers' level of marketing skepticism. Results also suggest that PBA increases emotional brand attachment and word-of-mouth, and that it drives brand choice likelihood through self-congruence for consumers high in self-authenticity.

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... Finally, extant research found that consumers' authenticity perceptions of domestic agriculture and the food it produces motivate local food choices [44]. Authenticity perceptions are related to aspects such as the continuity, credibility, and symbolism [58] of the local agri-food sector. So far, there is no empirical evidence about possible changes in this perception after the outbreak of the pandemic. ...
... Individuals' local identity was captured with four items, as applied by Makri et al. [64] and developed by Tu et al. [59]. The perceived authenticity of domestic agriculture was measured with an adapted version of the brand authenticity scale by Morhart et al. [58]. Green consumer values, describing consumers' tendency to express the value of environmental protection through their purchases and consumption behaviors, were measured by five items of the GREEN-scale [54]. ...
... Authenticity [58] Local agriculture produces food that is original. Local agriculture puts authentic food on your plate. ...
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Disruptions in agri-food systems caused by crises, such as the COVID-19-pandemic, reveal the vulnerability of global food supply chains. Such crises might consequently impact consumer perceptions about the relevance of local food production and consumption. In this light, this study aims to (i) identify whether the COVID-19 outbreak led to short-term changes in perceptions about local food consumption and (ii) capture how the role of local agri-food systems is perceived in times of crisis. For the first purpose, this study analyzes two waves of survey data collected from an Austrian sample (n = 351) to compare pre-and post-COVID-19 levels of consumer values, beliefs, and attitudes towards local food. For the second purpose, the paper assesses consumer perceptions about the reliability and resilience of the local agri-food sector in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. The results reveal that while consumer perceptions driving local food consumption at an early phase of the pandemic remained stable at large, the perceived relevance of the local agri-food sector attenuated. Consumers showed strong beliefs in the local agriculture as a reliable and trustworthy partner during the pandemic guaranteeing food supply security. Based on these findings, the paper discusses how these insights into consumer perceptions in response to macro-level disruptions might help to better understand short-term demand-side implications of other forms of external crises affecting local food production and supply. Finally, the paper provides recommendations for practitioners and avenues for future research to determine implications from a long-term perspective.
... Brand managers have increasingly recognised the pivotal role of authentic brand behaviour and considered authenticity as a desirable brand characteristic (Guèvremont and Grohmann, 2016). The perception of authenticity is reported to be a significant antecedent of brand trust (Portal et al., 2019;Schallehn et al., 2014), brand attachment (Morhart et al., 2015), relationship quality (Fritz et al., 2017), brand loyalty (Lu et al., 2015) and positive WOM (Morhart et al., 2015). Consumers often make a purchase decision when the product or brand values are congruent with their own values, and this conformity may determine the authenticity of a brand (Schallehn et al., 2014). ...
... Brand managers have increasingly recognised the pivotal role of authentic brand behaviour and considered authenticity as a desirable brand characteristic (Guèvremont and Grohmann, 2016). The perception of authenticity is reported to be a significant antecedent of brand trust (Portal et al., 2019;Schallehn et al., 2014), brand attachment (Morhart et al., 2015), relationship quality (Fritz et al., 2017), brand loyalty (Lu et al., 2015) and positive WOM (Morhart et al., 2015). Consumers often make a purchase decision when the product or brand values are congruent with their own values, and this conformity may determine the authenticity of a brand (Schallehn et al., 2014). ...
... The consequences of brand authenticity illustrate that perceived authentic perception has a beneficial effect on consumers' psychological outcomes and behavioural intention variables (Morhart et al., 2015). It is, thus, logical to assume that sport fans are likely to feel the increased attendance intention and positive WOM intention when they perceive that a sport team's communication and behaviour is congruent with its values and beliefs, while the effects of team identification and online community identification on perceived authenticity remain uncertain. ...
Article
Purpose With the remarkable advancements in information and communication technologies, comprehending online sport fan communities is being pushed further up in the agenda of sport teams worldwide. Based on social identity theory, the main purpose of this research paper is to test the mechanism of how horizontal relationships developed through online communities lead to vertical relationships such as team identification and behavioural intentions. Design/methodology/approach Using a sample of online baseball fan community members in South Korea ( N = 400) and employing structural equations modelling, the current research examined the structural relations among online community identification, team identification, behavioural intention and WOM intention while testing moderating effect of perceived authenticity. Findings This study finds that online community identification has a significant positive impact on team-level consumer outcomes: team identification, behavioural intention and WOM intention. Team identification is verified as a significant determinant of both behavioural intention and WOM intention. Moreover, the partial mediating role of team identification in the relationships between online community identification and behavioural intentions are corroborated. Originality/value The present study furnishes essential information for identifying the underlying mechanism of how fan-to-fan horizontal relationships cultivate team-to-fan vertical relationships in the context of the virtual fan community.
... Rooted in traditions and heritage (Riefler, 2020), brand authenticity has been defined as the extent to which consumers perceive a brand to be faithful and true toward itself and its consumers, and to support consumers being true to themselves (Morhart et al., 2015). An authentic brand is motivated by genuineness Södergren, 2021) and it is perceived as real and sincere by consumers (Athwal and Harris, 2018;Audrezet et al., 2018). ...
... Past studies have identified a significant positive effect of perceived brand authenticity on consumption values derived from a brand (Vredenburg et al., 2020;Kovács et al., 2014). Studies also identified that perceived brand authenticity influences various customer responses to a brand, such as brand attitude (Spiggle et al., 2018), quality expectations of a brand (Moulard et al., 2016), choice likelihood of a brand (Morhart et al., 2015), willingness to pay a premium for the brand (Guèvremont and Grohmann, 2018), brand trust (Portal et al., 2018), brand attachment (Morhart et al., 2015) and brand purchase intention (Fritz et al., 2017). We therefore believe that perceived brand authenticity is likely to moderate the association between customer value perceptions of a brand and their responses to the brand. ...
... Past studies have identified a significant positive effect of perceived brand authenticity on consumption values derived from a brand (Vredenburg et al., 2020;Kovács et al., 2014). Studies also identified that perceived brand authenticity influences various customer responses to a brand, such as brand attitude (Spiggle et al., 2018), quality expectations of a brand (Moulard et al., 2016), choice likelihood of a brand (Morhart et al., 2015), willingness to pay a premium for the brand (Guèvremont and Grohmann, 2018), brand trust (Portal et al., 2018), brand attachment (Morhart et al., 2015) and brand purchase intention (Fritz et al., 2017). We therefore believe that perceived brand authenticity is likely to moderate the association between customer value perceptions of a brand and their responses to the brand. ...
Article
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Rising income and the aspirations of the middle-class have resulted in the emergence of a new category of luxury brands popularly known as "masstige brands". Researchers have attempted to establish masstige branding and masstige marketing as a differentiated research domain from luxury marketing. As an attempt to this end, the current study, which is confined to women's fashion clothing brands, investigates whether various luxury consumption values are equally applicable in inspiring masstige purchase. In addition, this study investigates whether dimensions of perceived authenticity of a masstige brand moderate the association between various consumption values and masstige purchase intention. By employing an online survey, 462 useable responses were collected from middle-income female consumers in India and analysed using PLS-SEM and multi-group analysis. The findings show that functional, experiential and symbolic consumption values inspire masstige fashion purchase but the zero-moment-of-truth consumption value does not. Quality and sincerity (but not heritage) dimensions of perceived brand authenticity enhance the consumption value perceptions leading to masstige purchase. This study is the first of its kind to examine the applicability of various luxury consumption values in masstige consumption besides testing the moderating effect of perceived brand authenticity.
... In the context of brand resurrection, on the one hand, using past narration can appeal to consumers through brand "there-being" (Dasein) and can show a continuous and stable dimension (Rosa 2010, Morhart et al. 2015. On the other hand, present narration expresses the capacity to adapt to present times, to resist instability and obsolescence and it can build the brand's "becoming" (Zukommen), enriching the brand's "there-being" (Dasein). ...
... Generally, the past exploited in consumption is associated with the notions of authenticity (Newman & Dhar 2014), continuity and consistency (Morhart et al. 2015) and can elevate the brand to the rank of myth (Kniazeva & Belk 2007). Our research focusing on utilitarian resurrected brands shows that credibility is also an important lever to explain the consumers' reactions towards brands brought back to life. ...
... To have a further understanding of consumers' reactions towards utilitarian brand resurrections, it could also be interesting to integrate other mediators in future research. For instance, since brand authenticity is related to the past narration (Morhart et al. 2015) it seems relevant to analyze it as a mediator of the temporal anchorages on consumer reactions towards resurrected brands. In the same vein, because the temporal anchorages can influence the perception of the brand's ability to adapt or the capacity to honor its know-how, it would be interesting to integrate perceived consistency and adaptability as mediators of the relationship between narrations and consumer reactions towards a resurrected utilitarian brand. ...
Article
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In the context of brand resurrections, we do not know how past and present narrations influence consumers’ reactions towards resurrected brands. Based on the concepts of “there-being” (Dasein) and “becoming” (Zukommen) we conducted two experiments focused on two utilitarian brands and manipulating past and present narrations (three scenarios). Because a resurrected utilitarian brand implicitly refers to both an authentic “there-being” and to the usefulness of the product/service, the results show that the single use of high present narration triggers more positive consumer reactions than the single use of high past narration. In parallel, the mix of past and present narrations generates more positive brand reactions than the single use of high present narration or the single use of high past narration. Moreover, the present research suggests that in order to explain consumers' reactions towards utilitarian brand resurrections, managers should ensure the brand credibility, since it is a stronger lever than brand nostalgia.
... Perceived authenticity is the cornerstone of contemporary marketing and affects how consumers process and value the effects of advertising and products (Brown et al., 2003;Siemens et al., 2020). Empirical studies have shown that perceived authenticity can not only determine consumers' attitudes (Yang et al., 2021;Shoenberger et al., 2020) and purchase intention (Napoli et al., 2014) but also result in positive word-of-mouth and brand identity/recognition (Beverland, 2005;Morhart et al., 2015). ...
... Similarly, indexical authenticity demonstrates how consumers use verifiable information to assess a product's authenticity in marketing. This may include consideration of labels, lists of ingredients, ages, and origins (Grayson and Martinec, 2004;Morhart et al., 2015). Conversely, Leigh, Peters, and Shelton (2006) referred to authenticity as iconic authenticity, representing a reflection of one's beliefs. ...
... While Steiner and Reisinger (2006) defined authenticity as existential authenticity, focusing on the essence of human individuality. According to Morhart et al. (2015), in marketing, existential authenticity emerges from a brand's ability to uncover a consumer's identity. ...
Marketers had high expectations for modified model images in E-commerce, however, the social movements against photoshopped models suggested the high-modified model images may be harmful to consumers which leads to a contradictory phenomenon. So far, the link between high-modified model image and consumers' behavior is not clearly understood. Drawing on a selective accessibility model (SAM), this study investigates the influence of high-modified model images on consumers' purchase intention by introducing the concept of misrepresentation and identifying consumer trust as a mediator. Based on five experiments, we demonstrate that over-modified model images decrease consumers’ perceived authenticity referring to “misrepresentation”, and further lower their purchase intention. By comparing the level of misrepresentation, the results suggest that high-modified model images decrease purchase intention. Moreover, this negative relationship between misrepresentation of modified model images and purchase intention is mediated by consumer trust. Hence, this study makes a step toward explaining how high-modified model images impacts the behaviors of consumers, shedding new light on the application of image modification in online advertising.
... Contexts are the subset of physical and conceptual states of interest to a particular entity (Pascoe 1998 (Morhart et al. 2015) and self-brand connection scale (Escalas 2004). Empirically, brand attachment has been examined across various settings, including products, services, travel, sports, social media, and retailing. ...
... Built on relationship theories, numerous studies argued that if consumers are satisfied with a brand (Tsai 2011;Esch et al. 2006;Kumar 2016), they will trust that brand more (Levy and Hino 2016;Ramadan et al. 2021;Lam and Shankar 2014); in time, consumers will therefore develop brand attachment. Other studies have considered brand attitude (Tan et al. 2018), brand authenticity (Morhart et al. 2015), brand image (Takamatsu 2021), brand likeability (Lim and Kumar 2019), perceived value (Liu et al. 2020;Koronaki et al. 2018), brand familiarity (Grobert et al. 2016), brand heritage (Merchant and Rose 2013), brand involvement (Tsiotsou et al. 2014), and corporate social responsibility perceptions (Heinberg et al. 2021;Hur et al. 2020) as the antecedents of brand attachment. ...
Article
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This paper conducts an integrative review and provides a synthesisation of key themes in the brand attachment literature. A total of 171 papers were selected and analysed using a framework-based approach. In addition to exploring the theories and frameworks, this review summarises the contexts, antecedents, outcomes, mediators, and moderators of brand attachment. Based on the gaps identified in current studies, directions are provided for future brand attachment research. The review suggests that there are multiple directions in which to take the domain further. Theoretical underpinnings require conceptual clarity and consistency with attachment theory, and the development and validation of research frameworks are essential. Furthermore, the application of contextual measurements and rigorous methodologies is warranted to address the shortcomings of the current literature. The recommendations of this review are expected to facilitate advancements in brand attachment research.
... There is a good understanding of what constitutes brand authenticity, its antecedents, and consequences from the brand perspective (Hernandez-Fernandez and Lewis, 2019; Napoli et al., 2014). In addition to being passionate about business (Morhart et al., 2015), brand authenticity is linked to a brand with a history (Morhart et al., 2015), a sense of tradition (Napoli et al., 2014), or heritage (Fritz et al., 2017Song and Kim, 2022). Therefore, a restaurant with cutting-edge technology such as robots may be viewed as less traditional and less authentic in terms of brand image. ...
... There is a good understanding of what constitutes brand authenticity, its antecedents, and consequences from the brand perspective (Hernandez-Fernandez and Lewis, 2019; Napoli et al., 2014). In addition to being passionate about business (Morhart et al., 2015), brand authenticity is linked to a brand with a history (Morhart et al., 2015), a sense of tradition (Napoli et al., 2014), or heritage (Fritz et al., 2017Song and Kim, 2022). Therefore, a restaurant with cutting-edge technology such as robots may be viewed as less traditional and less authentic in terms of brand image. ...
Article
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Cost-saving and sanitation considerations and the challenge of labor shortages have catalyzed the application of service robots in restaurants. Although service robots can perform multiple roles and functions, more research attention is needed in hospitality contexts on how different combinations of using robots and humans at different product/service layers may influence customers’ experiences and behavioral intentions. Building on the literature of product level theory and authenticity, this study empirically investigated this issue with data collected from 364 customers in China. The results show that the use of robots in core and facilitating product levels is less effective in improving consumers’ perceived service and brand authenticity. Consumers’ perceived service authenticity positively influences their brand authenticity and repurchase intention. Consumers’ perceived brand authenticity only positively affects their repurchase intention. Both theoretical and managerial implications are discussed in this paper.
... In the advertising industry, authenticity has become one of the most important buzzwords. Marketing managers agree that to effectively advertise, an authentic ad plays a significant role (Morhart et al., 2015). ...
... Literature shows that a high level of credibility plays a big role when consumers try to associate themselves with an authentic ad (e.g. Morhart et al., 2015). The message is the information that the advertisement transmits. ...
Article
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Being authentic in advertising and using electronic word of mouth (eWOM) to satisfy customers pose significant challenges to managers. Drawing from prior literature, social influence theory, and the anchoring effect this study offers a framework to develop and apply authenticity in advertising and to use eWOM as marketing tools to satisfy customers. Consistent with prior literature, this framework identifies four dimensions of authenticity in advertising when implementing it as a strategy in marketing: brand essence, brand heritage, realistic plot, and message credibility. Firms may choose to attach importance to any of the dimensions of authenticity. Depending on the firm's strategy, managers can use this framework to aid firms to examine and use authenticity in advertising. The authors formulate hypotheses to suggest that depending on the firm's strategy, the effect of each of the four dimensions of authenticity on positive eWOM can be managed differently. Since few studies have focused on the impact of positive eWOM on customer satisfaction, this study addresses the issue by also considering the moderating effect of perceived trustworthiness. This study will help managers to get a better idea regarding how to execute authenticity in advertising and to use positive eWOM to satisfy customers.
... As authentic brands provide symbolic meanings for consumers to construct their selves (Belk, 1988;Leigh et al., 2006), they have the ability to forge stronger consumer-brand connections (Beverland, 2005;Morhart et al., 2015). Hence, relationships with authentic human brands must be more certain, intense, and enduring (Fournier and Eckhardt, 2019). ...
... Although previous research has explored the relationship between authenticity and brand love (Beverland, 2005;Morhart et al., 2015;Manthiou et al., 2018) in non-human brands, this study aimed to investigate the same relationship in human brands for which causal evidence was obtained. ...
Chapter
Empowered by traditional and social media, human brands enjoy a prominent position in contemporary societies and benefit from the establishment of strong consumer-brand relationships. However, as current times are marked with uncertainty and fakeness, authenticity has become a critical element for the development of these relationships, especially for human brands. We propose and test a model that depicts the relationship between human brand authenticity, understood as “being true to one-self”, and brand love. A stratified random sample of 748 non-student respondents was obtained from a web-based survey distributed through social media. OLS regression analysis was employed to test the proposed model. Results show that human brand authenticity has a positive and significant effect on brand love. Moreover, differences by human brand contexts are analyzed, offering some insights into how celebrity authenticity is processed across human brand types. Our study revealed that the effect of authenticity is stronger for politicians, CEOs, bloggers, religious leaders and television hosts, for whom showing consistency in behaviors and being true to themselves is critical for the attainment of brand love. In addition, a negative moderation by consumer’s age was identified, signaling to the decreasing importance of authenticity as a driver of brand love as consumers mature. No moderations were found by consumer’s gender. We conclude with important managerial implications suggesting that investments in fostering human brand authenticity will pay off through the establishment of long-lasting, loving and loyal relationships, which are crucial for building brand equity, especially in the contexts where human brand authenticity yielded higher effects on brand love. Instead of aiming for perfection, human brands and their managers must carefully design brand positioning strategies anchored in authenticity. Maintaining similar behaviors over time allows for the stability, continuity and consistency necessary for attaining perceptions of authenticity. In conclusion, human brands may trade in their authenticity for being liked, but to be loved, they must be authentic.
... In addition, there is no conceptual or empirical discussion of this measure of brand heritage relative to other constructs such as perceived authenticity. Finally, although this formative scale was developed in Germany, it has been adapted and tested once later in Europe, but as a reflective scale (Morhart et al. 2015). Merchant and Rose's (2013) unidimensional scale is based on an emic approach of American consumers (using focus groups to generate items). ...
... We surveyed another six brands per country in three product categories. Respondents evaluated the brands on the 21 brand heritage items, as well as 4 items for brand attachment (Whan Park et al. 2010), 2 items for attitude toward the brand (Berger and Mitchell 1989), one item for purchase intention and 15 items for Perceived Brand Authenticity, used to check discriminant validity (Morhart et al. 2015 We initially examined the measurement model for brand heritage by specifying a reflective model for the global sample (i.e., aggregating the three national samples) with 21 items and four dimensions from the EFA. We improved the model by iteratively dropping items that loaded poorly on their dimensions. ...
Article
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While brand heritage research has increased over the last 15 years, most empirical results still come from Western Europe and North America. Three measurement scales have been developed, which all gathered data from a single Western country. Thus, previous research has not developed a measure using multiple cultures nor conducted a cross-cultural comparison of brand heritage. This research systematically compares brand heritage measurement and effects in three countries: the U.S.A, France, and South Korea. The results from three studies develop a measurement scale with similar effects that hold constant across three countries, demonstrate the relevance of heritage branding across three different cultures, and provide an improvement for researchers and managers interested in brand heritage that operate in a cross-cultural context.
... The greater the perceived brand authenticity, the stronger the psychological brand connection (Kumar and Kaushal 2021) because authentic brands offer consumers meaning and identity in their lives (Arnould and Price 2000;Morhart et al. 2015). Appraisals are often based on the consumption of products (Laverie, Kleine and Kleine 2002). ...
... Our research demonstrates that consumers' appraisals and self-esteem link perceived brand authenticity and SE well-being. Our study provides evidence that perceived brand authenticity is positively associated with self-appraisal and reflected appraisal, consistent with the literature that authentic brands give consumers meaning and identity while product consumption influences the self through the appraisal process (Arnould and Price 2000;Laverie and McDonald 2007;Morhart et al. 2015). The findings reveal that a higher degree of brand authenticity, deriving from the perceived sustainability and craftsmanship of sustainable luxury consumption, is associated with a more positive evaluation of consumers themselves and of how they think others would view them; thus, our study provides important implications for luxury marketers. ...
... Brand authenticity is identified by both internal consistency (the brand stays true to its standards, style, and heritage) and external consistency (the appearance and claims made by the firm) (Choi et al., 2015). This consistency must be communicated across four dimensions: continuity, credibility, integrity, and symbolism (Morhart et al., 2015). To communicate continuity and credibility, a brand must integrate its history and heritage as evidenced by its reliability in quality, performance, and expectations over time. ...
... (Green, 1999). The brand authenticity scale by Morhart et al. (2015) contains the four categories that comprise brand authenticity (continuity, credibility, integrity, and symbolism). With this study examining individuals' reactions to social justice advertising with unfamiliar brands, only the items measuring brand integrity were used to assess brand authenticity. ...
Article
Religious individuals have traditionally responded negatively to controversial advertising; however, little has been examined in their response to brand activism in the form of social justice issues. Interestingly, brands may find support from more religious individuals when promoting certain social issues. Across three studies using two social networks (Twitter and Instagram), this research demonstrates that individuals who identify as more religious (compared to those who identify as less religious) consistently display higher attitudes, intentions, and perceptions of authenticity for brands supporting social justice issues (precisely racial inequality, or “Black Lives Matter”). These findings are explained through social identity theory, in which the desire for belongingness increases the efficacy of the influence of religious affiliation. This work provides novel findings of religiosity's impact on brand support of social justice issues.
... This may also attract the attention of government regulators and damage brand reputation. Given that the virtuousness of a brand, that is, its "perceived integrity and absence of ambiguity" (Fritz et al., 2017, p. 328), influences a brand's authenticity, behavior which could bring the brand into disrepute or cause the customer to doubt the integrity of the brand can negatively impact the authentic nature associated with the brand (Morhart et al., 2015). ...
Article
Service employees (SEs) are instrumental in shaping customer brand perceptions. However, to deliver favorable brand experiences, SEs may not always abide by socially constructed norms and guidelines—called institutions—that coordinate service interactions. We explore how SEs navigate internal and external institutions, and the potential implications for brand meaning outcomes. Drawing on qualitative interviews with SEs from five local and international bank brands in Vietnam, and archival data, we discover 10 practices that function as institutional work and identify potential implications for brand meaning outcomes of authenticity, relevance, and legitimacy. Using institutional theory as an enabling lens, we demonstrate how these practices either disrupt or maintain internal and external institutions with dark-side or light-side consequences for brands. Specifically, our findings uncover how dark-side practices may place brand meaning outcomes at risk and how light-side practices, even those that disrupt institutions, can potentially enhance brand meaning, providing significant theoretical and managerial implications.
... As an essential indicator of successful brand-consumer relationships, brand trustworthiness refers to consumers' confidence that a brand will meet their expectations and act in their best interests (De Wulf et al., 2001). Brands that are perceived to be authentic center their actions around their values (Portal et al., 2019), so that their consumers believe that they are committed to fulfilling their promises as expected (Morhart et al., 2015) and develop trust toward the brand. A strong perception of brand trustworthiness can eventually drive consumers' brand loyalty (De Wulf et al., 2001). ...
Purpose Focusing on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication context, the present research aims to understand when and why featuring pride versus empathy in a hospitality brand’s social media post can effectively boost consumers’ loyalty intention. Design/methodology/approach Two experimental studies examined the congruence effects between emotional appeal and sense of power, where power was made situationally salient within the social media post (Study 1) or measured as a personality trait (Study 2). Findings Emotional appeals featuring pride (vs empathy) will lead to higher loyalty intention for individuals with a situational or chronic sense of high (vs low) power. A further examination into the psychological mechanism reveals that such congruence effects are serially mediated through consumers’ perceived brand authenticity and brand trustworthiness. Practical implications Understanding how the sense of power may influence consumer response to social media posts using different emotional appeals can provide useful guidance for marketers about how to creatively segment customers and curate appropriate targeting messages for effective CSR communication and relationship building on social media. Originality/value Extending the message framing research on schema congruity, this research is the first to reveal the congruence effects of emotional appeal and sense of power in CSR communications and uncover the serial mediating roles of perceived brand authenticity and brand trustworthiness in relationship marketing on social media.
... Regarding this standpoint, Loebnitz & Grunert (2022) found that authentic food brands elicit higher purchase intentions. Therefore, positioning GAP cuisine items in the minds of tourists will create perceived food brand authenticity (Morhart et al., 2015). Positioning the gastronomy brand image of the GAP region which dated back to the Neolithic Age (8000 B.C.) in the minds of the visitors by enriching it with historical elements, is a critical point in terms of the sustainability of the destination and its ability to attract tourists. ...
Article
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Gastro-cultural tours, which are prevalent as part of today's experience-based travel, generate memorable gastronomy encounters for tourists. Gastronomically designed cultural tours also shed light on the past's heritage and cultural identity through the local tastes of the regions by promising distinct stories and experiences to travelers. Regions with gastronomic affluence arouse gastro tourists' interest with their cultural and tourist attractions. One of the critical factors contributing to the awareness of visitors towards a particular destination is the creation of a gastronomy brand image in their minds. A region with a gastronomy brand can also affect the emotional value tourists attribute to the region. From different perspectives, this cuisine-based brand image appears to have the potential to influence tourists' satisfaction with the tour. The Southeastern Anatolia Region, one of Turkey's most prominent culinary centers, is a diverse region with both indigenous gastronomic value and deep-rooted cultural history. From this point of view, the effects of gastronomy brand image on perceived emotional value and tour satisfaction of tourists taking part in gastro-cultural tours were examined in this study. According to the data obtained from the participants, gastronomy brand image has a significant effect on tour satisfaction and the perceived emotional value of the tourists.
... The other influencing factor on sponsorship success is the perceived authenticity of the sponsorsponsee relationship. Authenticity encompasses the dimensions of continuity, credibility, integrity, and symbolism (Morhart et al., 2015). So, managers should pay attention to each dimension and may pre-evaluate the perception regarding those authenticity dimensions before entering a sponsorship deal. ...
Thesis
In service management and marketing, the question of how to engage customers and other relevant actors becomes increasingly important. Customer and actor engagement is understood as social and economic actors’ contributions to an organisation exceeding typical roles and transactional behaviours. From a corporate perspective, a key marketing objective is to foster the engagement of customers and other actors. Customer and actor engagement facilitated by virtual and physical engagement platforms leads to increased revenues, reputation, and cost savings. This emphasises the active role of customers’ and other actors’ as contributors to the creation of value for companies and organisations. Therefore, value co-creation is an appropriate theoretical foundation for addressing this phenomenon because it focuses on various actors’ resource exchanges to co-create value in service ecosystems. Value is always co-created by the interactions of multiple actors. However, value co-creation is a theory on a higher level of abstraction. Thus, applying concepts, such as actor engagement and engagement platforms, is essential to break down abstraction and enable accessibility for empirical research. Engagement platforms are virtual and physical touchpoints. They are provided by focal actors to enable and facilitate actors’ interactions and are embedded in service ecosystems. Although the concepts of actor engagement and engagement platforms have been introduced into the service management and marketing literature, there remain several calls for further research. Therefore, this doctoral thesis aims to advance the understanding of how actors and engagement platforms are interconnected within service ecosystems and how actors’ resource exchange is facilitated by engagement platforms. Thus, the following research question is addressed: How does actor engagement in terms of exchanging resources on engagement platforms contribute to value co-creation in service ecosystems? This doctoral thesis uses empirical insights to extend the theoretical conceptualisations of actor engagement at different levels of analysis. Hence, the analyses were conducted at organisational and dyadic levels (intra- and micro-levels) as well as in triadic relationships and networks (meso- and macro-levels) to allow for a multi-perspective consideration of the research question. As the research context, sport sponsorship and sport management in a broader sense were selected as specific parts of the service industry.
... Few scholars have developed their works in the area of communication, namely, authenticity in tourism [36], authenticity in social media communication [37], social media authenticity [38], brand authenticity [39], and brand authenticity scale [40] . However, Gilpin et al [37] offered a paradigm that determines authenticity in the social media context comprising four factors: authority, engagement, identity, and transparency, which seems to suit the current study's objectives. ...
... The present study adapted three primary constructs from destination images: cognitive image, affective image, and overall image. Delving further into the context of information authenticity, few scholars have established their works within the communication realm (see, i.e., [12][13][14][15][16]). The present study precisely refers to information authenticity as the truthfulness of information and imageries shared by tourists via travel selfies for general view on social media. ...
... First, compared to born-masstige brands, luxury-masstige brands usually have a long history in which the brand acquired a cachet of quality, artisanship (Kim et al., 2019) and brand pedigree (Wuestefeld et al., 2012). Because a brand's heritage enhances its authenticity (Morhart et al., 2015), luxury-masstige brands generally have an established image of luxury, artisanship and quality. In contrast, born-masstige brands, having recently appeared, tend to have a relatively shorter history and heritage. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a Disney collaboration and Disney product line extension type on the perceptions of masstige brands and purchase intentions. By identifying masstige brands as two types (i.e. born-masstige versus luxury-masstige brands), this study investigates how consumers respond to a Disney collection across different types of masstige brands. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted three studies using an experimental approach. Findings Study 1 shows that compared to a traditional collection, a Disney collection lowered perceptions of brand luxury, but the negative effect is stronger for born-masstige brands than luxury-masstige brands. Studies 2 and 3 revealed that an upward extension enhanced perceptions of luxury for the born-masstige brand more than it did with a horizontal extension, whereas there was no difference between upward and horizontal extensions for the luxury-masstige brand. Research limitations/implications This study contributes to understanding how Disney collaborations influence consumers’ perceptions of masstige brands. It has implications for brand positioning and pricing strategies for practitioners collaborating with Disney or similar companies. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to investigate consumer responses to a Disney collaborated collection across two types of masstige brands by exploring their type of product line extensions.
... Authenticity has been studied in different contexts with different conceptualizations such as authenticity as truth or reality (Kennick 1985), perceived genuineness (Rose and Wood 2005); objective authenticity (Beverland, Lindgreen, and Vink 2008); an original (MacCannell 1973) and as sincerity (Fine 2003). Perception of authenticity is subjective and thus, depends on contextual cues (Morhart et al. 2015). In this study, perceived authenticity describes the how real or genuine an influencer seems to a consumer. ...
... Regarding this standpoint, Loebnitz & Grunert (2022) found that authentic food brands elicit higher purchase intentions. Therefore, positioning GAP cuisine items in the minds of tourists will create perceived food brand authenticity (Morhart et al., 2015). Positioning the gastronomy brand image of the GAP region which dated back to the Neolithic Age (8000 B.C.) in the minds of the visitors by enriching it with historical elements, is a critical point in terms of the sustainability of the destination and its ability to attract tourists. ...
... A current phenomenon is that SMIs are increasingly seen to be endorsing and commenting on products and interacting with their followers (Weismueller et al., 2020;Shan et al., 2020). For consumers, this raises the key issue of authenticity, where there is a broad agreement that it is composed of what is perceived as being genuine, real, honest and true (Goldstein & Carpenter 2021;Beverland, 2005;Morhart et al., 2015). Research suggests that consumers today are increasingly prioritising the issue of authenticity. ...
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From a consumer viewpoint, this paper analyses the factors that constitute an authentic SMI when they endorse products on Instagram. The method is exploratory and qualitative, where focus groups were asked to examine the posts of key influencers. Findings have resulted in the authentic influencer model, composed of four explanatory features. Firstly, trustworthiness. The values of the brand and those of the influencer must be closely aligned. Secondly , the SMI must be transparent. Endorsers must be open about their paid connection to a sponsor. Thirdly, there must be relatability between the SMI and the consumer. Fourthly, the SMI must possess expertise in the product. Whilst previous work has been carried out on corporate brand authenticity in social media, relatively little research has so far been conducted on the SMI and consumer perceived authenticity. Consequently, this work assists in filling a gap, where the analysis could be utilised to develop strategies to enhance the authenticity of the SMIs personal brand, and that of the endorsed organisation. The model here could also help spur research, both qualitative and quantitative, in this important area of business and social media marketing.
... Other research shows that simple religious-based cues can be used in marketing communications to prime the broad construct of religion, thereby heightening religiosity (Dotson & Hyatt, 2000;Minton, 2020), which can then be partnered with messages to address specific concerns regarding AI in marketing, such as trust. For example, using the language "creation of flavor" can be enough to prime religion (Minton, 2015), which could then be partnered with messages and in chatbot services/descriptions to communicate how long a company has been in operation, the ethics of their employees that are managing AI use in marketing, or quality control measures in place to handle trust (Morhart et al., 2015). Note that the term religion refers to both religious affiliation (what someone believes) and religiosity (the strength of belief), and while we use the term religion occasionally in this manuscript when reviewing prior research, our studies examine religiosity given similarities in trust across religious affiliations (Minton, 2015). ...
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Prior research is limited that examines how consumers respond to artificial intelligence (AI) used by businesses and in marketing. Specifically, more research is needed that explores which consumers are more likely to support AI use in marketing as well as why this occurs to develop targeted marketing campaigns toward these consumers. Through three studies, our research addresses these gaps by testing the role of religiosity on AI evaluations. Study 1 shows that religiosity positively influences perceptions of AI in marketing, which is mediated by greater trust in AI. Study 2 primes religiosity to demonstrate the causality of the effects, showing that consumers exposed to a religiosity prime more positively evaluate companies and their employees when AI is used. Study 3 then better confirms the underlying mechanisms of these effects using a virtual conversational agent context by showing that higher religiosity consumers are more trusting of the unseen, which leads to greater trust of a company, and ultimately positively influences evaluations of companies using AI. We contribute to belief congruence theory in identifying the role of trust (specifically trust in the unseen related to AI) in the belief‐behavior relationship. We also identify how marketers can use religious cues to increase trust in AI in marketing.
... Therefore, this paper examines how and why Chinese luxury brand managers develop Chinese luxury brands inconspicuously. The verb to "craft" refers to products or fashion created with skill, especially by hand (Morhart et al., 2015;Elliot, 2016). This kind of activity often includes weaving, hand block printing, embroidery, silversmithing, jeweler's work, furniture-making, etc. ...
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Currently, we are witnessing a trend toward subtle or absent hints of luxury, reflecting the rise of inconspicuousness. We seek to address why and how Chinese luxury brand managers, instead of matching conspicuous branding of many Western brands, develop inconspicuous strategies and craft authentic attributes in their brand communication. In the Chinese luxury brand context, we use the ethnographic research method with in-depth interviews, field visits, and photographs of eight Chinese luxury brands with inconspicuous preferences to reveal three main themes contributing to inconspicuousness. First, an inconspicuous approach of Chinese luxury brands is derived from the rise of inconspicuous consumption in China and a rejection of status brands due to being less famous than well-known Western brands, superficiality of status branding, and limited production capability. Second, we argue that inconspicuous branding can encompass developing luxury brands that avoid overtly displaying wealth and social status. Third, we identify three ways of crafting brand authenticity to build inconspicuous brands by using (a) nature to craft quality commitment dimension of authenticity (places and rare raw materials); (b) traditional Chinese craftsmanship and symbols to craft heritage dimension of authenticity; and (c) sincere stories (of how innovations are used in traditional craftsmanship), and the use of sustainability (sustainable raw materials, traditional craftsmanship, luxury production process, and saving resources) to craft sincerity dimension of authenticity in developing inconspicuous brands.
... Camus (2004) identifies three dimensions, which are origin, projection of the consumer to the product, and uniqueness, capable of encapsulating the concept of product authenticity concerning an agri-foodstuff. Authentic products are often considered local, regional, and/or traditional (Kadirov, 2015), real, sincere, and genuine (Beverland and Farrelly, 2010;Morhart et al., 2015). For specific products, such as fruit and vegetables, the naturalness dimension of authenticity is crucial, underlying respect for the environment, healthiness, and freshness (Binninger, 2017). ...
... It adds to the value proposition to consumers who seek meaning and true self (Bruhn et al. 2012). Previous research has found that brand authenticity is positively related to consumer attitudes regarding the brand (Morhart et al. 2015), their behavior, and ultimately brand love and emotional attachment to the brand (Ballantyne et al. 2006). The specific role of brand authenticity in motivation-based consumption is the focus of Guevremont and Grohmann's (2016, p. 614) research which reveals "that authentic brands help consumers satisfy contextually evoked or individual-level motivations." ...
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Drawing on Russell's model of affect, this study examines brand love and emotional attachment as serial mediators of the relationship between market-related (brand popularity and authenticity) and individual-related (social self and inner self-expressiveness) cognitions, and addictive buying and loyalty as their behavioral outcomes. Our findings indicate that emotional attachment is an additional affective mediator that follows brand love in the chain toward desired brand outcomes. In addition, a brand's authenticity and inner self-expressiveness of a brand play the most important roles for brand love and behavioral outcomes. Notably, the social self-dimension of self-expressiveness plays no role in our developed conceptual framework, while brand popularity is relevant but has an inferior influence. The study contributes to the literature on brand-consumer relationships by revealing new cognitive and affective predictors of brand loyalty. It also improves Russell's model of affect and relates it to under-researched contexts such as brand management. In addition, this study enriches the existing body of knowledge regarding the mediating effects of brand love. In terms of practical implications, the findings shed light on the cognitive characteristics that brand managers and investors should consider in brand development process to encourage repeat purchases and achieve an increase in profits.The article title mismatches between the title page and manuscript. We have followed the manuscript title. Please check and confirm.We confirm the title from the manuscript you correctly placed here. Thank you.Kindly check and confirm inserted city, country names are correctly identified.All is OK.
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Social media influencers are emerging as a new force in shaping public discourse and raising public awareness of socio-political agendas in the digital space. This paper explores the role of influencers as part of the citizens group in nation branding by looking into their interactions with followers through the lens of authenticity. It analyzes the networked narratives generated by the influencers and followers, using the mixed methods of blending content analysis with social network analysis. The findings identify the potential of influencers evolving as a crucial force in contributing to a representative national brand informed through imbuing authenticity with engagement, featuring valued-based content, interactivity, creativity and intrinsic motivations within an ethical communication mechanism. It advances influencer studies in nation branding by underpinning the two-way construct of authenticity in generating influence; and informs the development of strategies for engaging citizens in nation branding through influencers using authenticity. Considering the central role of China in international economics, politics and culture, this article has significant domestic and regional implications.
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Tourism destinations strive to develop a strong and enduring relationship with travelers to gain a competitive edge. In this regard, previous studies have validated numerous marketing constructs for building strong and enduring relationship orientation among travelers. The importance of authentic experiences in providing innumerable benefits to tourism destinations and travelers has long been acknowledged. This study extends the scope of the benefits of destination authenticity in developing and maintaining an enduring relationship orientation among travelers towards heritage tourism destinations in India. After examining the data collected from 409 respondents, findings suggest that perceived authenticity in tourism destination brands helps develop and foster relationship orientation among travelers. Moreover, such induced relationship orientation generates favorable behavior, i.e., promoting revisit intentions and destination advocacy. The study offers multiple implications for researchers and practitioners.
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The sports industry seems to be embedded in the global culture to such a degree that many activities positioning or using sports elements seem to emerge every day, such as esport, competitive video games. At the same time, other activities, which have the legal status of a sport, such as chess, are mostly not considered as sports by consumers. A paradox thus seems to exist between the classification of an activity as a sport and the categorization and mental representation that consumers have of it.Based on this observation, the first objective of this research is to understand and measure the elements that influence the perception of leisure activities as sports by consumers. This measurement, called perceived sportivity, is carried out through an initial historical and sociological review of the concept of sport. We go back to its origin and analyze its evolution to understand its components and influences. Then, based on a series of qualitative and quantitative studies, we develop a measurement instrument to measure this perception and categorization as a sport by consumers. This measurement instrument consists of 8 items divided into two dimensions called physicality (5 items) and equipment (3 items).Once this instrument measuring perceived sportivity has been created and validated from a convergent and discriminating point of view, but also within a nomological network, we propose to test it in two contexts. First, we test the effects of perceived sportivity in a field study. This field study uses one of the most-watched and most-played video games in the world: League of Legends. In this field study, we test and confirm the effects of perceived sportivity on brand perception, i.e. brand personality, brand identification, and perceived brand legitimacy. Finally, we also measure and confirm the influence of brand perception on 3 variables: consumer engagement, perceived value, and purchase intention. These results are then replicated in an experiment where the two dimensions of sportivity are manipulated through visual and textual stimuli.
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Prior research conceptually assumes that sponsorships might have a stronger impact on brand attitude than do celebrity endorsements primarily due to the more indirect and less commercial intent to persuade. However, empirical evidence is lacking on why and under what conditions this assumed effect of sponsorships actually occurs. This paper empirically analyses potential mediating and moderating drivers of the effect of sponsorships compared with that of celebrity endorsements. The results reveal that higher level of perceived brand authenticity mediates the effect of sponsorships versus celebrity endorsement on brand attitude. Furthermore, the effect of sponsorships on brand authenticity is superior when (a) relative corporate social responsibility (CSR) spending in the industry is low and (b) the corporate reputation of the firm is good.
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Purpose This study examines the relationship between brand digitalization and brand market performance, mediated by brand competence and brand warmth and moderated by brand familiarity, from a consumer perspective. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted a 2 (brand digitalization: yes vs no) × 2 (brand familiarity: high vs low) between-subject experiment and administered a survey with 693 valid responses. Two-way analysis of variance, Hayes' PROCESS macro and a linear regression model were used to analyze the data. Findings Brand digitalization positively affects brand market performance, which is mediated by brand competence and brand warmth. In addition, brand familiarity has a moderating effect on the relationship between brand digitalization and brand market performance, as well as on the mediating effect of brand competence and brand warmth. Practical implications Brand managers should enhance the integration of digital technologies into brand building and management and develop brand communication strategies that emphasize brand digitalization based on consumers' brand familiarity. Originality/value This study advances current knowledge of the drivers of brand performance by constructing the concept of brand digitalization and examining its role in improving brand market performance. Additionally, this study deepens our understanding of the relationship between digital technology usage and consumer brand response by examining the mediating effect of brand competence and brand warmth and the moderating effect of brand familiarity.
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Purpose This study conceptualizes and validates a model of participation intentions in online brand communities by including perceived brand authenticity and consumer-brand relationship as its antecedents. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from different online brand communities' members. In total, 465 responses were analyzed through structural equation modeling. Findings The study's findings establish that the continuity, credibility, and integrity dimensions of perceived brand authenticity significantly strengthen the consumer-brand relationship, which ultimately influences the consumers' participation intentions in online brand communities. Research limitations/implications Future research should examine the applicability of the proposed model to the customer-created online brand communities. Consumer participation intentions may be compared across product categories. Originality/value The findings contribute to the emerging and important area in marketing by highlighting the importance of brand authenticity and consumer-brand relationship in developing an urge to participate in online brand communities.
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Since the COVID-19 pandemic was declared, the advertising industry has struggled to adapt to a new reality. The current study aims to explore the impact of emotional advertising during this pandemic on The Lebanese consumers’ behavior. We are particularly interested in fast-food chains due to the contradiction between their unhealthy offerings and their empathetic marketing. A convenience sample of 270 respondents was analyzed. Findings show that positive attitudes towards emotional marketing create positive actions towards the brand, which are mediated by more positive emotions towards the brand–even in times of crises. However, there was no effect of perceived lack of authenticity on attitudes or actions.
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Over the past few decades, scholars have outlined several corporate social responsibility (CSR) classifications to analyse the wide range of brand CSR initiatives. This has resulted in independent and fragmented research that is mostly not comparable due to the focus on different CSR types. Previous literature reviews have analysed the overall CSR domain or focused on specific brand CSR activities, like cause‐related marketing. A comprehensive review of CSR classifications is not available to the best of the authors’ knowledge. This article synthesises the literature on CSR classification and proposes a holistic brand CSR mechanism classification schema. The study systematically reviews the CSR classifications outlined in 104 academic resources published between 1979 and 2021. These resources include 103 articles (across 47 ABDC listed journals) and one book. The review utilises the 5W1H – Who, Why, What, When, Where, and How – analytical framework to reveal the underlying rationale of different CSR classifications. The 5W1H analysis indicates that the majority of CSR classifications are from the overall business perspective rather than the product brand perspective. It also suggests the importance of the CSR delivery mechanism, i.e., how CSR is delivered. The review finds a lack of conceptual basis in the extant brand CSR mechanism classifications and a near absence of CSR co‐creation options – an essential emerging domain in brand CSR. To address these challenges, we propose a conceptually grounded classification schema for brand CSR mechanisms with 10 classes to capture the feasible options holistically and parsimoniously. We describe the proposed classes and sub‐classes, provide real‐life illustrations, and assess the proposed classification’s robustness. The implications of this study for theory, practice, and consumers are discussed. Leveraging the proposed classification, we identify several avenues for further research.
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The aim of the study is to determine the effect of brand authenticity on brand love and perceived value. In the research model created in this context, brand authenticity elements (continuity, reliability, originality and naturalness), brand love and perceived value variables are included. In order to find out the relationship between the variables in the research model, a total of 318 people over the age of 18 living in Uşak, reached online, answered the questionnaires. Convenience sampling’s been used in the research. After testing the validity of the data obtained from the participants by explanatory factor analysis and later reliability, the formed hypotheses were also tested by SEM analysis. As a result of the analysis, it has been seen that the elements of naturalness, reliability and originality, have a significant effect on the perceived value and naturalness and reliability have a significant effect on the brand love. Finally, it has been observed that perceived value has a significant effect on brand love.
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In response to high‐profile calls, and the apparent demand from consumers, brands in a wide variety of categories have sought to define, articulate, communicate, and act according to their “brand purpose.” But what is brand purpose? Human purpose is seen as a long‐term commitment to act consistently with one’s values, leading to productive engagement with the world that transcends the self. However, the use of the term purpose as applied to brands raises a number of questions. In what ways is brand purpose similar to, and different from, human purpose? How do consumers react to brand purpose? How might a brand’s purpose impact consumers? In this review, we explore the concept of brand purpose and its potential impact on consumer behavior, drawing upon the literature on human purpose. Additionally, we propose that engagement with, and connections with, authentically purposeful brands may contribute to consumers’ own purposeful lives, ultimately helping consumers achieve their own eudaimonic well‐being. We develop a framework highlighting the relationship between brand purpose and consumer eudaimonic well‐being to guide future research in this domain.
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This study develops a robust theoretical framework in order to explain the effect of destination brand experiences in armchair tourism on the brands’ authenticity and the consumers’ loyalty. The study proposes sensory, behavioral, intellectual, and affective subfactors as the four subfactors of the destination brand experience in armchair tourism. The analytical outcome confirmed that the study’s eight hypotheses were supported. Specifically, destination brand experiences in armchair tourism have a meaningful effect on a brand’s authenticity, which in turn has a significant effect on the tourists’ loyalty. The study’s results successfully demonstrated the importance of the destination brand experience in armchair tourism, and it provides meaningful insights into its positive effect on tourists.
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In Philip Kotler’s Hyper-connected, social-based market 4.0, consumers and businesses are formed in horizontal relationships through countless channels, and consumers decide whether to consume their products or services through their individuality and awareness of the people around them. Therefore, the importance of the brand as a company's intangible asset is growing. This paper tried to analyze brand identity based on Kapferer brand identity prism model. Based on Kapferer's theory that strong brands come from the combination of brand identity and image, it tried to identify whether brand identity and brand image match through semantic network analysis by using text extracted from social media and web page of Samsung Electronics, which ranked 7th in global brand value in 2017. As a result of the analysis, it was confirmed that the brand identity and the image were consistent and that there was no significant difference.
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Due to the power of premium brand identities, West Lake Longjing tea (西湖龙井茶), the most famous representative of Chinese tea varieties, faces competition around the matter of its authenticity. The 2001 adoption of production area classifications by local governments promoting rural economic and social development has fueled the expansion of the Longjing tea brand. By introducing the idea that Longjing tea (龙井茶) could be identified with areas outside West Lake, this policy has made room for new views of varietal authenticity. For China's new consumer society, traditional standards of authentic taste and appearance have also been challenged. Based on long-term observations and interviews, this paper explores the conflict and compatibility between politics and markets, land and technology, tradition and innovation. It analyzes how Longjing tea has created a social narrative for “expanded authenticity", which provides a case for the development of China's consumer society under market demand and policy management.
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This study addresses a lack of research on the effects of consumer brand authenticity, brand image, and age, on brand loyalty in time-honored restaurants. Time-honored restaurants are long-established and well-recognized traditional restaurants that offer local or national foods and culinary culture. Empirical data were collected from 437 respondents in Beijing, China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to ascertain relationships between variables, and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) validated the SEM results. The three brand authenticity dimensions were found to have differing effects on brand image and loyalty. True-to-fact authenticity had a significant effect on true-to-self authenticity, while true-to-ideal authenticity had a significant effect on brand image. True-to-self authenticity affects brand loyalty directly and indirectly through brand image. Some of the relationships were also moderated by consumer age. The results uncover the complexity inherent to consumer brand authenticity evaluations. They have implications for time-honored restaurants’ marketing and brand positioning strategies.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to systematically review authenticity in the branding context and suggest avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach This study applies a systematic literature review process and analyzes a total of 171 articles published from 1988 to 2021 and three items that are books or book chapters. Findings Brand authenticity has several definitions and dimensions. Although some common ground can be found among researchers, the study of authenticity is very fragmented. Even so, brand authenticity is often associated with a brand being genuine, real, true to itself and its consumers, and with consistent behavior, reflecting its values. A growing number of studies about the topic have been published, most of them empirical, applied in different industries and different geographical contexts. The authors also present several constructs associated with the topic (antecedents and consequences). Finally, this study shows paths for scholars to build on. Research limitations/implications The main limitations are associated with the inherent subjectivity related to the inclusion and exclusion criteria defined to select articles for the analysis. Originality/value This systematic review maps the past, structures existing knowledge about authenticity in the branding context, and sheds light on what could be future research in this field.
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Purpose This study aims to highlight the mediating role of value co-creation between social media marketing, its dimensions – entertainment, customization, interaction, electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and trendiness – and brand authenticity. Design/methodology/approach Data from 288 consumers was collected using both online and paper-based questionnaires. Partial least squares–structural equation modeling was used for hypothesis testing. Findings When studied compositely, the results of this study indicate that social media marketing impacts value co-creation and brand authenticity, while value co-creation mediates this relationship. However, value co-creation only mediates the impact of customization, interactions and eWOM on brand authenticity. Moreover, entertainment and trendiness directly affect brand authenticity without the mediating role of value co-creation. Originality/value The significance of value co-creation as the underlying mechanism between social media marketing and brand authenticity has received little scholarly attention. Likewise, the question of whether social media marketing dimensions help build brand authenticity perceptions has not been investigated. Thus, this study contributes to the marketing literature by empirically testing and establishing that interaction, customization and eWOM are essential social media marketing features that significantly affect brand authenticity with the mediating role of value co-creation.
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Several recent destination crises have brought difficult challenges to the world’s travel, hospitality, and tourism activities. We explore how the brand image of a tourist destination is influenced by health crises, specifically within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted interviews and online data collection in China. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to develop, purify, and verify scale items that measure perceived destination brand image, destination brand self-congruence, destination brand engagement, destination brand love, and perceived risk of destination health crisis. We identified key associations among the constructs of the study. This study offers a tested and validated destination brand image and tourist behavior (DBITB) scale to understand tourist behavior toward destination brands during and after health crises. Important theoretical and practical implications are discussed to inform future research on destination branding.
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Günümüzde her alanda internetin kullanımının artması, işletmelerin internet üzerinden alışveriş yapma olanağını artırmış ve tüketiciler açısından da pek çok avantaj sağlaması tüketicileri de internet üzerinden alışverişe yöneltmiştir. Teknolojinin gelişmesiyle artan üretim miktarı ve pazarda birbirine benzer çok sayıda ürünün ihtiyaçları karşılayabilecek niteliğe sahip olması, tüketicilerin seçim yaparken birtakım zorluklarla karşılaşmasına neden olmaktadır. Tüketicilerin özgünlük aramalarının nedeni ise alacakları ürünlerin kullanımın amaçlarına hizmet etmesinin yanında markaların süreklilik göstermesi ve tatmin duygularını giderebilmesidir. Tüm bu faktörler değerlendirildiğinde çalışmanın amacı, X ve Y kuşağının internet alışverişinde marka özgünlüğün marka tercihindeki etkisi ve marka güveninin aracılılık rolünün olup olmadığını belirlemektir. Çalışmanın bir diğer amacı ise, marka özgünlüğü, marka tercihi ve marka güvenine yönelik algılarının X ve Y kuşağına göre farklılık gösterip göstermediğini araştırmaktır. Araştırma, tesadüfi olmayan örnekleme yöntemlerinden kolayda örnekleme yöntemi ile online anket düzenlenerek yapılmıştır. 478 katılımcının anketleri SPSS paket programı ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda; X ve Y kuşağının marka özgünlüğü, marka tercihi ve marka güvenine yönelik algıları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık bulunmamıştır. X ve Y kuşağının internet üzerinden alışveriş yapma tutumları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıklar bulunmuştur. Marka özgünlüğü ve marka tercihi arasındaki ilişkide marka güveninin kısmi aracılık rolü olduğu tespit edilmiştir.
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Purpose This study examined the effects of perceived brand localness (PBL) and perceived brand globalness (PBG) on consumer behavioral intentions (CBIs) (PI – purchase intentions, PP – price premium and WOM – word of mouth) via brand authenticity (BA). Additionally, this study considered the moderating impact of uncertainty avoidance (UA) and the control variable brand familiarity (BF) in emerging markets (EMs), specifically from China and Pakistan contexts. Design/methodology/approach This study scrutinized 1,638 responses (China, n = 804 and Pakistan, n = 834) from consumers who used discussed local and global brands. The proposed hypotheses were evaluated using the PLS-SEM technique. Findings The findings indicated that the PBL and PBG favorably impacted BA, which significantly affected CBIs in both EMs. Specifically, PBL strongly influenced BA in China, whereas PBG strongly affected BA in Pakistan. The direct effects of PBL and PBG supported CBIs (PI, PP and WOM) in Pakistan. Likewise, PBL was significant on PP and WOM, whereas PBG was significant on PP in China. In Pakistan, UA had a significant moderating impact on PBL and BA. Similarly, UA acted as a positive moderator between BA and CBIs (PI and WOM) in Pakistan but was not supported in China. Research limitations/implications This study examined only two EMs. Future studies may examine emerging vs developed markets. Theoretically, PBL and PBG are important brand signals associated with brand authenticity that communicate to mitigate information asymmetry in EMs. Likewise, brand authenticity was recognized as a positive signal that effectively corresponds to CBIs (in terms of their PI, PP, WOM) by fulfilling brand promises in both EMs. Additionally, UA was proved an effective moderator, improving consumer perceptions of brand authenticity about local brands and increasing PI and WOM toward perceived authentic brands in Pakistan. Practical implications This research revealed important recommendations to help local and global managers in developing and executing several branding strategies in EMs (China and Pakistan). Practically, by improving the brand's localness and globalness, local and global managers may successfully position their brands to influence consumers' perceptions in EMs. Similarly, brand authenticity is a vital positioning tool for managers that favorably influence consumer behavior. Additionally, managers can segment and target their markets by classifying high and low UA consumers, particularly in Pakistan. Originality/value Following signaling theory, this is the first study that contributes toward CBIs in EMs via brand authenticity and considering cultural factors (uncertainty avoidance) from the domestic and international branding perspectives.
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The authors describe commercial friendships that develop between service providers and clients as one important tvoe of marketing relationship. They report results of five studies that employ quantitative and qualitative data analysis They develop a measure of commercial friendship, identify important correlates, and illustrate how friendships form Context and tension between instrumental and expressive goals circumscribe commercial friendships but friendships are associated with satisfaction, strong service loyalty, and positive word of mouth. Qualitative data illustrate varied temporal ordering among satisfaction, loyalty, and friendship for both service providers and clients. The authors identify implications of their findings for an array of industries in which commercial friendships may form.
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working papers are produced by the Bradford University School of Management and are to be circulated for discussion purposes only. Their contents should be considered to be preliminary. The papers are expected to be published in due course, in a revised form and should not be quoted without the authors' permission. ABSTRACT This article articulates a concept of "heritage brands," based primarily on field case research and studies of practice. We define brand heritage as a dimension of a brand's identity found in its track record, longevity, core values, use of symbols, and particularly in an organisational belief that its history is important. A heritage brand is one with a positioning and value proposition based on its heritage. The work grew from our lengthy study of Monarchies as corporate brands. We describe how to identify the heritage that may reside in a brand and how to nurture, maintain, and protect it, particularly through the management mindset of brand stewardship to generate stronger corporate marketing.
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This research examines automatic behavioral effects of priming brands that are anthropomorphized. It posits that anthropomorphized brands trigger people’s goals for a successful social interaction, resulting in behavior that is assimilative or contrastive to the brand’s image. Three studies show that consumers are more likely to assimilate behavior associated with anthropomorphized partner brands that they like, consistent with the goal of drawing in the liked coproducer, and servant brands that they dislike, consistent with the goal of pushing the disliked would-be helper away by signaling self-sufficiency. Results also show a contrastive behavior when primed with disliked partner brands and liked servant brands. These effects are observed in contexts unrelated to the brand prime. For example, priming Kellogg’s, a liked partner brand associated with healthfulness, led to greater willingness to take the stairs than the elevator in a purportedly unrelated study. No effects were observed of priming brands that were not anthropomorphized.
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Through a controlled experiment, this study demonstrates that an ad with an embedded cause-related marketing (CRM) message, compared with a similar one without a CRM message, elicits more favorable consumer attitude toward the company. This is so regardless of the level of fit between the sponsoring brand and the social cause. Furthermore, when the embedded CRM message involves high versus low brand/cause fit, consumer attitudes toward the ad and the brand are more favorable. Such positive effect of brand/cause fit, however, only emerges for consumers who are high in brand consciousness; for those who are low in brand consciousness, brand/cause fit has no impact on ad or brand evaluations. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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Great philosophers such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and Sartre have clearly been preoccupied by the possibility of authenticity. In this study, Jacob Golomb looks closely at the literature and writings of these philosophers in his analysis of their ethics. Golomb's writings shows his passionate commitment to the quest for the authenticity - particularly in our climate of post-modern scepticism. He argues that existentialism is all the more pertinent and relevant today when set against the general disillusionment which characterises the late twentieth century. This book is invaluable reading for those who have been fascinated by figures like Camus's Meursault, Sartre's Matthieu and Nietzsche's Zarathustra. © 1995 Jacob Golomb Phototypeset in Garamond by Intype, London All rights reserved.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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It is well established that differences in manufacturing location can affect consumer preferences through lay inferences about production quality. In this article, the authors take a different approach to this topic by demonstrating how beliefs in contagion (the notion that objects may acquire a special aura or "essence" from their past) influence perceptions of authenticity for everyday consumer products and brands. Specifically, they find that due to a belief in contagion, products from a company's original manufacturing location are viewed as containing the essence of the brand. In turn, this belief in transferred essence leads consumers to view products from the original factory as more authentic and valuable than identical products made elsewhere. The authors further reveal that consumers who are higher in sensitivity to contagion are more likely to exhibit this effect and that activating the concept of contagion enhances preferences for products made in the brand's original factory. The authors close by discussing theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
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I describe a test of linear moderated mediation in path analysis based on an interval estimate of the parameter of a function linking the indirect effect to values of a moderator—a parameter that I call the index of moderated mediation. This test can be used for models that integrate moderation and mediation in which the relationship between the indirect effect and the moderator is estimated as linear, including many of the models described by Edwards and Lambert (200710. Edwards, J.R., & Lambert, L.S. (2007). Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: A general analytical framework using moderated path analysis. Psychological Methods, 12, 1–22.[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]View all references) and Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes (200743. Preacher, K.J., Rucker, D.D., & Hayes, A.F. (2007). Assessing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 185–227.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references) as well as extensions of these models to processes involving multiple mediators operating in parallel or in serial. Generalization of the method to latent variable models is straightforward. Three empirical examples describe the computation of the index and the test, and its implementation is illustrated using Mplus and the PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS.
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Although consumer demand for authentic market offerings has often been mentioned in consumer research, the meaning of the term "authentic" has not been sufficiently specified. Thus, some important differences among authentic market offerings have not been recognized or examined. This article uses Peirce's semiotic framework to distinguish between two kinds of authenticity - indexical and iconic. We identify the cues that lead to the assessment of each kind, and, based on data collected at two tourist attractions, we show that these cues can have a different influence on the benefits of consuming authenticity. Our results also contribute to an understanding of the negotiation of reality and fantasy as a part of consumption.
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Corporate branding plays a crucial role in building a sustainable bond between the branded company and its customers. Because consumers’ corporate brand image develops over time, previous experience with a company and its products/services are of particular importance. During recent years, the question of brand heritage and how past, present and future merge to create corporate brand image has gained growing interest in both marketing research and managerial practice. The aim of the present study is to probe the importance of brand heritage on consumer brand image construction based on attitudinal components of brand strength. Using a conceptual model focusing on the antecedents of brand heritage and its effects on attitudinal components of brand strength, we present the methodology and the results of our empirical study based on a PLS-PM approach. The results support the assumption that consumers search for authentic brands with genuine history in an increasingly global and dynamic marketplace.
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Creating emotional brand attachment is a key branding issue in today's marketing world. One way to accomplish this is to match the brand's personality with the consumer's self. A key question, however, is whether the brand's personality should match the consumer's actual self or the consumer's ideal self. On the basis of two empirical studies of 167 brands (evaluated by 1329 and 980 consumers), the authors show that the implications of self-congruence for consumers' emotional brand attachment are complex and differ by consumers' product involvement, consumers' individual difference variables, and the type of self-congruence (fit of the brand's personality with the consumer's actual self versus with the consumer's ideal self). On a general level, actual self-congruence has the greatest impact on emotional brand attachment. Product involvement, self-esteem, and public self-consciousness increase the positive impact of actual self-congruence but decrease the impact of ideal self-congruence on emotional brand attachment. The authors discuss important managerial and academic implications of these findings.
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Postmodern consumers use brands to create an authentic self and to reconnect to place, time, culture and others. Although previous research has identified that consumers draw on a range of cues in order to attribute authenticity to branded objects, no scales exist to measure the construct of brand authenticity. Building on the existing literature, this paper uses quantitative methods to develop a psychometrically robust measure of brand authenticity from a consumer's perspective. Findings demonstrate convergent, discriminant and predictive validity, whereby 14 items represent three interrelated first order factors labeled quality commitment, sincerity and heritage that correspond with a higher order brand authenticity construct. This study extends our understanding of the consumption of authenticity. Moreover, it provides a tool by which firms can evaluate the effectiveness of strategic decisions designed to deliver an authentic brand offering to consumers. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
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This article investigates the linkages between brand authenticity, brand trust, and SME growth from a CEO perspective. Brand authenticity is operationalized as consisting of three factors: brand consistency, brand customer orientation, and brand congruency. The hypotheses derived in this paper will be tested with new measures and data from 285 German SMEs using structural equation modeling. The results confirm that brand consistency and congruency foster brand trust, which in turn drives SME growth.
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A 9-item Likert-type scale was developed to measure consumer skepticism toward advertising Skepticism toward advertising, defined as the general tendency toward disbelief of advertising claims, was hypothesized to be a basic marketplace belief that vanes across individuals and is related to general persuasability. A nomological network was proposed, unidimensionality and internal consistency of the scale were established, and a series of studies were conducted to establish the scale's validity and to investigate the effects of ad skepticism.
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This chapter reviews the scientific research on subjective well-being. Subjective well-being consists of a person's cognitive and affective evaluations of his or her life. First, the authors will provide a brief historical review of research on subjective well-being. Second, they will summarize the main measurement issues (e.g., the validity of self-reports, memory bias). Third, they will present the major theoretical approaches to this area of research (e.g., need and goal satisfaction theories, process or activity theories, genetic and personality predisposition theories). Finally, the authors will review current findings (e.g., hedonic adaptation, the effect of intervention, cultural variation) and suggest future directions for the study of subjective well-being.
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In branding literature, the employee role is recognised as crucial in delivering the service as promised by the brand. A plethora of existing insights have been gained through practitioners' and customers' perspectives. Little empirical research has been undertaken with employees. Therefore, this study aims to reveal their perceptions towards their role and the techniques that enable them to fulfil the brand promise. A case-study approach is adopted using a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. In-depth interviews reveal that employees feel that their actions are vital to the brand, and findings from a survey of 699 respondents demonstrate positive relationships among internal branding instruments and their brand promise delivery. These tools influence the employees' brand attitudes, namely brand identification, brand commitment and brand loyalty. Ultimately, these attitudes also influence the manner in which employees deliver the service. Therefore, internal branding not only directly influences the extent to which employees perform their role in relation to the brand promise, but also influences the attitudes employees have towards the brand, which in turn affects employee performance.
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Marketing concepts such as corporate identity, image, and branding are important strategies for nonprofit organizations. In particular, brand personality has been advocated by practitioners but has not been empirically investigated in the nonprofit context. According to social exchange theory and trust, the authors argue that nonprofit stakeholders perceive nonprofit organizations at an abstract level because of the organizations’ intangibility and social ideals. This study develops and refines a parsimonious measure of brand personality specifically for the nonprofit context. The authors conduct a series of six multimethod studies of nonprofit stakeholders to validate the role of brand personality in nonprofit organizations. The results yield four dimensions of brand personality for nonprofits: integrity, nurturance, sophistication, and ruggedness. Thus, current and potential donors ascribe personality traits to nonprofit organizations and differentiate between nonprofits on the basis of the organizations’ personality. Finally, nonprofit brand personality may influence potential donors’ likelihood to contribute.
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Considerable research in consumer experimental psychology has examined the self-expressive role of brands but has found little support for the premise that the interaction of the personality traits associated with a brand and those associated with an individual's self-concept influence attitudes. The current research focuses on the influence of the malleable self-concept on consumer attitudes toward a brand, based on its personality associations. The results of two experiments demonstrate that traits that are made accessible by salient situational cues and those that are chronically accessible (schematic traits) positively influence consumer attitudes toward a brand based on its personality associations. More important, these effects are tested in a set of theory-based interactions that rely on the self-monitoring individual difference variable. Self congruity is enhanced for low versus high self-monitoring subjects, whereas situation congruity is enhanced for high versus low self-monitoring subjects. Together, these experiments shed light on the self-expressive use of brands and the role or the malleable self-concept in influencing consumer attitudes.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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There have been a number of published measures of generalized consumer attitudes, perhaps the most familiar being the Index of Consumer Sentiment of the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center. What this article proposes is an "index of consumer sentiment toward marketing," which is intended to be a validated, longitudinal, aggregate measure of national consumer sentiment toward marketing practice, to be reported at regular intervals to the marketing and consumer research communities. The article describes the measure and measurement procedure and provides validation evidence. Since this study also involved replication of prior research on this issue, information on the recent evolution of consumer sentiment toward marketing is presented.