New magnetic nanobiocomposite based in galactomannan/glycerol and superparamagnetic nanoparticles

ArticleinMaterials Chemistry and Physics 156 · February 2015with 56 Reads
Abstract
In this study, magnetic nanobiocomposites were prepared in different proportions and produced with galactomannan (GM), magnetic nanoparticles of NiZn and glycerol (GL). The microstructure and morphology of the samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Thermal analysis (TG) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The magnetic and dielectric behavior of the films was studied by Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Impedance spectroscopy. The results showed efficient incorporation of NiZn in the polymer matrix. The degradation profiles presented thermal events that were confirmed by endothermic and exothermic processes from DSC measurements. Films presented saturation magnetization (Ms) range from 6 to 17 emu/g and superparamagnetic behavior. It was observed that the values of dielectric constant increased as a function of the nanoparticles concentration in the bionacomposite. Thus, this kind of biocomposite could be used as a versatile magnetic-dielectric in microwave devices.

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    This work presents a methodology for the extraction of galactomannans from seeds of four different species of Leguminosae (Adenanthera pavonina, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Gleditsia triacanthos and Sophora japonica) to be used e.g. in the food and biomedical industries. The galactomannans were obtained by aqueous extraction followed by a precipitation with ethanol. This methodology is simpler and easier to perform than other existing extraction and purification methodologies, and because it avoids the use of organic solvents (other than ethanol), it is able to generate food grade substances and is environmentally friendlier. The yield of extraction in different stages of the process, monosaccharide composition, as well as physical and chemical parameters of the isolated galactomannans were determined and compared with previously published results. The mannose/galactose ratio of the extracted galactomannans ranged from 1.35 (A. pavonina) to 5.75 (S. japonica). The intrinsic viscosity ranged from 11.34 dL/g (C. pulcherrima) to 8.74 dL/g (S. japonica), while the viscosity average molecular mass ranged between 1.81 × 106 Da and 1.17 × 106 Da (A. pavonina > C. pulcherrima > G. triacanthos > S. japonica). The results confirm the suitability of the extraction and purification procedure to obtain galactomannans from non-traditional sources.
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    Pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses extracted from plants were studied in highly hydrated films on BaF2 discs. Distinctive absorption band maxima in the mid-infrared region at 1200–800 cm−1 were shown to be useful for the identification of polysaccharides with different structure and composition. Two series of the hexopyranose and pentopyranose monosaccharides, which are the structural units of the plant cell wall polysaccharides, were also studied by FT-IR spectroscopy in solution (i.e. comparable to the amorphous state of the polymers). Their spectral data showed that the main IR band positions are influenced by the relative position of axial and equatorial (OH) groups on the pyranoid ring.
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    The immobilization of the glucose/mannose-binding lectin from Concanavalia ensiformis seeds (ConA) onto a monolayer made of a galactomannan extracted from Leucaena leucocephala seeds (GML), which was adsorbed onto - amino-terminated surfaces, was investigated by means of ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. The mean thickness of GML monolayer, which polysaccharide consists of linear 1→4-linked β-D-mannopyranosil units partially substituted at C-6 by α-D-galactopyranosyl units, amounted to (1.5±0.2) nm. ConA molecules adsorbed onto GML surfaces forming (2.0±0.5) nm thick layers. However, in the presence of mannose the adsorption failed, indicating that ConA binding sites were blocked by mannose and were no longer available for mannose units present in the GML backbone. The GML film was also used as support for the adsorption of three serotypes of dengue virus particles (DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3), where DENV-2 formed the thickest film (4±2) nm. The adsorbed layer of DENV-2 onto ConA-covered GML surfaces presented mean thickness values similar to that determined for DENV-2 onto bare GML surfaces. The addition of free mannose units prevented DENV-2 adsorption onto ConA-covered GML films by ~50%, suggesting competition between virus and mannose for ConA binding sites. This finding suggests that if ConA is also adsorbed to GML surface and its binding site is blocked by free mannose, virus particles are able to recognized GML mannose unities substituted by galactose. Interactions between polysaccharides thin films, proteins, and viruses are of great relevance since they can provide basis for the development of biotechnological devices. These results indicate that GML is a potential polysaccharide for biomaterials development, as those could involve interactions between ConA in immune system and viruses.
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    Granular systems composed by nanostructured magnetic materials embedded in a non-magnetic matrix present unique physical properties that depend crucially on their nanostructure. In this work, we have studied the structural and magnetic properties of NiZn-ferrite nanoparticles embedded in SiO2, a granular system synthesized by sol-gel processing. Samples with ferrite volumetric fraction x ranging from 6% to 78% were prepared, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Our results show the formation of pure stoichiometric NiZn-ferrite in the SiO2 matrix for x < 34%. Above these fraction, our samples presented also small amounts of Fe2O3. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed the superparamagnetic behaviour of the ferrimagnetic NiZn-ferrite nanoparticles. The combination of different ferrite concentration and heat treatments allowed the obtaintion of samples with saturation magnetization between 1.3 and 68 emu/g and coercivity ranging from 0 to 123 Oe, value which is two orders of magnitude higher than the coercivity of bulk NiZn-ferrite.
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    In the present work, a nanocomposite material formed by bacterial cellulose (BC) networks and calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders was synthesized and characterized. The HAp nanoparticles were previously prepared by a wet chemical precipitation method, starting from aqueous solutions of calcium nitrate and di-ammonium phosphate salts. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy reveals that the prepared HAp corresponds to calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite. BC-HAp nanocomposites were prepared by introducing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) into the bacteria culture media. HAp nanoparticles were then introduced and remained suspended in the culture medium during the formation of cellulose nanofibrils. The maximum gel thickness was obtained after 21 days of bacteria cultivation. X-ray diffractograms showed the difference of crystallinity among the materials involved in the formation of nanocomposites. The inorganic and organic bonds that corresponded to hydroxyapatite and bacterial cellulose respectively, were depicted by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements confirmed the formation of networks and fibres with smaller diameter corresponding to BC synthesized in the presence of CMC. Image analysis was also used to assess the orientation distributions and Feret diameters for networks of BC and BC-CMC. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the amount of the mineral phase is 23.7% of the total weight of the nanocomposite. Moreover, HEK cells were cultivated and the biocompatibility of the materials and the cell viability was demonstrated.
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    The seeds of Cassia spectabilis DC (family: Leguminoseae), an Indian fast growing spreading tree, contain about 40% of endosperm and possess the characteristics of becoming a potential source of commercial gum. The purified galactomannan shows Mw 1.1 x 10(6), intrinsic viscosity [eta] 615ml/g with k' = 1.706 x 10(-1), and a mannose to galactose ration of 2.65. The hydrolysis of the fully methylated polysaccharide reveals clearly the expected structure of legume galactomannans. The orthorhombic lattice constants of the hydrated gums are as follows: a = 9.12 A, b = 25.63 A and c = 10.28 A. The results of X-ray fiber studies show that the b dimension of the unit cell is very sensitive to relative humidity (RH), galactose substitution and orientation of the films. The probable space group symmetry of the unit cell is P2(1)2(1)2. Rheological studies of the galactomannan have shown that the transition from semi-dilute to dilute regime occurs at a critical concentration Cc* = 2.75. The slope of the log-log plot of specific viscosity versus C at zero shear rate is 5.87 in the more concentrated regime. The viscoelastic and critical shear rate behavior indicate the characteristics of a coil polymer. The large dependence of the viscosity on the coil overlap parameter is probably due to polymer-polymer interactions and peculiarity of the galactose distribution along the chain. Above 20 g/L concentration, the rheological behavior of the gum is like the one of a weak-gel.
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    Phellinus linteus is a well-known oriental medicinal fungus that has various biological activities such as stimulation of humoral and cell mediated immunity, anti-mutagenicity activity, and anti-cancer activity. The process of isolating and purifying a water-soluble glycan from P. linteus was achieved by hot water extraction, filtration, solvent precipitation, dialysis, and freeze-drying. Acidic fractions of the polysaccharide were separated from crude polysaccharides by DEAE-cellulose anion exchange chromatography at 0.4 M NaCl. The molecular weight of the proteo-heteroglycan after Sepharose CL-4B gel filtration chromatography was about 150,000. The acidic proteo-heteroglycan consisted of 72.2% polysaccharide and 22.3% protein. The sugar of the proteo-heteroglycan was composed of mannose, galactose, glucose, arabinose, and xylose. The amino acid pattern showed that the fractions contained large amounts of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine, and serine. The fractions for both alpha-glycan at 860 cm(-1) and beta-glycan at 910 cm(-1) had the characteristics of IR spectrum absorption as compared to those for beta-glucan derived from Lentinus edodes. A 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopy showed that the acidic proteo-heteroglycan was a noble biomolecule mixed both alpha- and beta-linkages, and a (1,6) branched type (1,3) glycan.
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    This review provides an introduction to the field of thin films formed by Langmuir-Blodgett or self-assembly techniques and discusses applications in the field of biosensors. The review commences with an overview of thin films and methods of construction. Methods covered will include Langmuir-Blodgett film formation, formation of self-assembled monolayers such as gold-thiol monolayers and the formation of multilayers by the self-assembly of polyelectrolytes. The structure and forces governing the formation of the materials will also be discussed. The next section focussed on methods for interrogating these films to determine their selectivity and activity. Interrogation methods to be covered will include electrochemical measurements, optical measurements, quartz crystal microbalance, surface plasmon resonance and other techniques. The final section is dedicated to the functionality of these films, incorporation of biomolecules within these films and their effect on film structure. Species for incorporation will include antibodies, enzymes, proteins and DNA. Discussions on the location, availability, activity and stability of the included species are included. The review finishes with a short consideration of future research possibilities and applications of these films.
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    The formation of liposomes with low polydispersity index by application of ultrasounds was investigated considering methodology specifications such as sonication time and sonication power. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes were formed by the evaporation-hydration method. The vesicles were sonicated using several sonication conditions. The liposomes were then characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM). Correlation functions from DLS were treated by cumulants method and GENDIST to obtain the mean radius and polydispersity index. These calculations allowed to fix an optimal sonication time (3000 s) and a useful interval of ultrasound power between 39 and 91 W. DLS and FFEM results confirmed that vesicle size, lamellarity and the polydispersity index decreased with the increase of sonication power. Thus, we propose a systematic method to form liposomes in which the physical characteristics of the vesicles may be controlled as a function of sonication time and power.
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    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are CD117 (C Kit) positive mesenchymal neoplasms, that may arise anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Their current therapy is imatinib mesylate before or after surgery. We describe a case of 17-year-old female with metastasis to the cervix uteri of a primary mesenteric gastrointestinal tumor. Surgery remains the mainstay of known curative treatment. The manifestations of GIST are not restricted to the typical locations within the bowel; may have very unusual metastatic sites or infiltrations per continuitatem.
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    • M J O S Bezerra
    M.J.O.S. Bezerra, Síntese e Caracterizaç~ ao da ferrita de MnZn obtida pelo m etodo dos citratos precursores Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 2007.
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    • M I Yoshida
    M.A. Oliveira, M.I. Yoshida, et al., An alise t ermica aplicada a f armacos e for-mulaç~ oes farmac^ euticas na indústria farmac^ eutica, Quím. Nova 34 (2011) 1224e1230.
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    • E J J Mallmann
    • J C Oes
    E.J.J. Mallmann, J.C. G OES, et al., Microstructure and magneto-dielectric properties of the chitosan/gelatin-YIG biocomposites, Express Polym. Lett. 5 (2011) 1041e1049.