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The Convergence of Historical Facts and Literary Fiction: Jorge SEMPRÚN's Autofiction on the Holocaust

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There are many testimonies preserved in archives that recount the horror of the Holocaust and that have become resources for historical and social research. In addition to testimonies produced with descriptive intention or in the full awareness of becoming documents for historians, some testimony writers have signed their books with a literary intention, but the very nucleus of their work is to explain the nature of their experience in the concentration camps without resorting to describing their own cases. These works blur the boundaries between history and literature, because, while they present themselves as works of fiction, they feed on testimonial autobiography. The testimony writers want to explain the horror that they experienced by fictionalizing their own experience. These are works which contain truth and which are narrated with a literary intention, works which reach a general audience and have a profound impact. This is the case of the Spanish writer Jorge SEMPRÚN, who attempts to "invent" the truth in his literary work. His autobiographic-novelistic testimony is situated in the ambiguous no-man's-land of autofiction. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1103144
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The Convergence of Historical Facts and Literary Fiction:
Jorge SEMPRÚN's Autofiction on the Holocaust
Rosa-Auria Munté
Abstract: There are many testimonies preserved in archives that recount the horror of the
Holocaust and that have become resources for historical and social research. In addition to
testimonies produced with descriptive intention or in the full awareness of becoming documents for
historians, some testimony writers have signed their books with a literary intention, but the very
nucleus of their work is to explain the nature of their experience in the concentration camps without
resorting to describing their own cases. These works blur the boundaries between history and
literature, because, while they present themselves as works of fiction, they feed on testimonial
autobiography. The testimony writers want to explain the horror that they experienced by
fictionalizing their own experience. These are works which contain truth and which are narrated with
a literary intention, works which reach a general audience and have a profound impact. This is the
case of the Spanish writer Jorge SEMPRÚN, who attempts to "invent" the truth in his literary work.
His autobiographic-novelistic testimony is situated in the ambiguous no-man's-land of autofiction.
Table of Contents
1. Autobiography and Autofiction: Testimonies and Questions of Truth
2. Jorge SEMPRÚN's Autofiction
Author
Citation
In memory of Jorge SEMPRÚN
(Madrid, December 10, 1923 –
Paris, June 7, 2011)
1. Autobiography and Autofiction: Testimonies and Questions of Truth
The representation of the Holocaust has always been a problematic issue. After
the liberation of the Nazi concentration camps, the survivors realized the intrinsic
difficulties that the narration of their experience would involve:
"As of those days, however, we saw that it was impossible to bridge the gap we
discovered opening up between the words at our disposal and that experience which,
in the case of most of us, was still going forward within our bodies. How were we to
resign ourselves to not trying to explain how we had got to the state we were in? For
we were yet in that state. And even so it was impossible. No sooner would we begin
to tell our story than we would be choking over it. And then, even to us, what we had
to tell would start to seem unimaginable" (ANTELME, 1998 [1947], p.3). [1]
The discovery of the horror of the Nazi extermination passed virtually unremarked
in the post-war years and only had a significant impact on exiled Jewish
intellectuals. Theodor ADORNO (1967 [1955]) postulated the impossibility of
representing the horror of the Nazi genocide; Hannah ARENDT (1963) spoke of
the banality of evil in a detailed study of the bureaucrat Adolf EICHMANN in the
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Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research (ISSN 1438-5627)
Volume 12, No. 3, Art. 14
September 2011
FORUM: QUALITATIVE
SOCIAL RESEARCH
SOZIALFORSCHUNG
Key words:
autofiction; life-
history; Holocaust;
collective memory;
Jorge Semprún
FQS 12(3), Art. 14, Rosa-Auria Munté: The Convergence of Historical Facts and Literary Fiction:
Jorge SEMPRÚN's Autofiction on the Holocaust
trial in Jerusalem; George STEINER (1967) criticized the literature of the
immediate post-war period for not knowing how to approach the cataclysm that
had just occurred with the necessary intensity; and Elie WIESEL (1977), among
others, specifically stated that literary imagination could not be used to deal with
the Holocaust, particularly by those who had not experienced it. [2]
These ideas about the representation of the Holocaust notably marked its
representation, above all in the era in which it was infrequently represented, given
that no term had as yet even been defined to differentiate the genocide of the
European Jews from the rest of the horrors of the Second World War. Little by
little, representation of the Holocaust has begun to emerge. In subsequent years,
new representations of the Holocaust were accepted, although the concept of the
limits of representation of the Holocaust was applied (FRIEDLANDER, 1992),
until the end of the 1990s when we can finally speak of the globalization of the
Holocaust (HUYSSEN, 2002). [3]
Today, more than sixty years after the liberation of the camps, the silence has
been overcome and the Holocaust has been globalized as a potent image of evil.
But in spite of the abundance of publications, the problem of how to represent the
Holocaust has been present since the very beginning. This is because the
Holocaust was a limit event: the sort of event that "before it happened, was not—
perhaps could not have been—anticipated or imagined, and one does not quite
know what is verisimilar or plausible in its context" (LaCAPRA, 2004, p.133). The
fact that it had been so unforeseeable meant that it was particularly resistant to
the attempts to represent it. [4]
The historian Dominick LaCAPRA establishes a useful triple distinction of different
ways in which an event as traumatic as the Holocaust can be represented. The three
approaches he defines are testimony, fiction, and history. They may share certain
features, for instance on the level of narrative, but they also differ, notably with
respect to claims to truth and the way that an account is framed.
"Testimony makes claims of truth about experience or at least one's memory of it
and, more tenuously, about events (although obviously one hopes that someone who
claims to be a survivor did experience the events in reality). Still, the most difficult and
moving moments of testimony involve not claims of truth but experiential 'evidence'—
the apparent reliving of the past, as a witness, means going back to an unbearable
scene, being overwhelmed by emotion and for a time unable to speak.
History makes claims of truth about events, their interpretation or explanation, and
more tenuously, about experience. [...] Fiction, if it makes historical truth claims at all,
does so in a more indirect but still possibly informative, thought-provoking, at times
disconcerting manner with respect to the understanding or 'reading' of events,
experience, and memory" (p.131). [5]
History can use testimonial documents like oral reports, diaries and memoirs, but
all of these are clearly different from testimony. Fiction also explores the
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traumatic experience and the emotional dimensions of that experience: it talks
about its emptiness or its fragmentation. [6]
LaCAPRA's generic typology provides us with a clear distinction of different types
of Holocaust texts. There are many examples of each text type and they differ
widely in relation to who writes them, ranging from the obvious emotive proximity
of testimony to the "objective" distance necessary for historical discourse. My
objective is not to make a complete analysis of these three types, but to use this
typology to discuss a genre where testimony and fiction meet. This genre is
autofiction: the domain of the author-eyewitness who, instead of recording his
memories, decides to fictionalize his experience in the Nazi camps.
Figure 1: The three approaches to narrate limit events (based on Dominick LaCAPRA's
[2004] typology) [7]
The intention of this article is to contribute to an approach to life-history research
using autofictional literary texts. Some studies highlight the position of literary
criticism in ethnographical experience and in sociological studies (CLIFFORD &
MARCUS, 1986). Autofictional texts are vindicated by literature but give a social
response to a specific event, which happened at a particular time and from an
individual point of view. In this case, Jorge SEMPRÚN speaks to us of the
collective of political deportees (Spanish and French) in the Nazi concentration
camp of Buchenwald through the eyes of a young deportee. [8]
Many survivors have written about the camps, but few of them have done so from
the position of the author of fiction, that is, from the position of a witness who
does not want to sign an autobiography but chooses autofiction, a fictional
narration of his own biographical experience. But before exploring this ambiguous
concept in more detail, let us recap what I have said so far. [9]
The origin of autofiction is related to autobiographical theory. In 1975, Philippe
LEJEUNE wrote "Le pacte autobiographique," an encyclopedic work about
autobiographical literature. LEJEUNE defines autobiography as a "retrospective
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prose narrative written by a real person concerning his own existence, where the
focus is his individual life, in particular the story of his personality" (p.14).
LEJEUNE (2005) subsequently revised his definition of autobiography although
this same text also establishes two sine qua non requirements for a text to be
considered an autobiography: the name of the author, the narrator, and the main
character must be the same and must be verifiable; and the author must sign the
work, either with his real name or with a pseudonym. Moreover, in the
autobiographical pact, the author constructs his work on the premise of being
honest about his own life. The reader must also perceive in the paratext certain
truthful elements related to the author's identity. [10]
Identity is essential to the definition of biographical text, whereas the truth is not.
Writing about one's own life admits the existence of a gulf between the lived life
and the written life. While we are living our lives we do not write about them;
when we do write about them, we remember and select what we will tell. This is
why, at the very moment when someone writes about their past, they are
reconstructing it by means of their memory; even if they mean to be entirely
honest, they will not always explain exactly how things happened. Autobiography
consists of writing a work about one's own existence, and it is the reader who
accepts the facts narrated as real. [11]
Philippe LEJEUNE created a table to define autobiography in relation to reading
pacts and the type of character (depending on the name they are given).
NAME OF THE CHARACTER
Different from the
author's name
= 0
(undetermined) = Author's name
P
A
C
T
Novelistic NOVEL NOVEL
= 0 (undetermined) NOVEL Undetermined AUTOBIOGRAPHY
Autobiographical AUTOBIOGRAPHY AUTOBIOGRAPHY
Table 1: Table to define autobiography in relation to reading pacts and the type of
character (Philippe LEJEUNE, 1975, p.28) [12]
In this table, autobiography occurs in three cases: 1. when, in the
autobiographical pact, the name of the author and the name of the character are
the same; 2. when, in this same pact, the name of the character does not appear
in the text; and 3. when there is no autobiographical pact, but the name of the
author and the name of the character are the same. So, LEJEUNE's table defines
autobiography, but also leaves two boxes empty because he cannot find examples
to illustrate this ambiguity: "Can the hero of a novel which claims to be such have
the same name as the author? There is nothing to prevent it happening [...] but in
practice, no example of such a thing springs to mind" (p.70). [13]
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The empty boxes in LEJEUNE's table caught Serge DOUBROVSKY's eye.
DOUBROVSKY used them to create his (auto)novel "Fils" (1977) and, at the
same time, he creates the new—and successful—concept of autofiction. [14]
The origin of this concept, as we have explained, is found in LEJEUNE's table.
He defines the empty box, the one that DOUBROVSKY will later call autofiction,
as a text in which the author, the narrator, and the main character have the same
identity. The title of the work is closer to the title of a novel than an
autobiographical title. According to PANTKOWSKA (1998, p.14), DOUBROVSKY
defines autofiction in these terms:
"Autofiction is the fiction that I as a writer have decided to present of myself,
incorporating, in the full sense of the term, the experience of the analysis, not only in
the subject matter but in the production of the text. (...) The identity of the author, the
narrator and the character are true, but inside a fictional illusion conjured up and
provoked by the act of writing. Autofiction, then, is a particular case not of traditional or
modernist autobiography, but of the inscription of the biographical inside the text." [15]
In autofiction the author is omnipresent: either under a real name, a pseudonym
or a homonym. The characters are real, though they appear in disguise. Finally,
autofictional texts are always dominated by the novelistic pact rather than the
autobiographical pact: that is, they are more like a novel than an autobiography.
This is a crucial element to distinguish autofiction from novelistic autobiography,
and it must be evident.
Figure 2: The three types of literary pacts in relation with Dominick LaCAPRA's (2004)
typology to narrate limit events [16]
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Autofiction exists in a no man's land between "fiction" and "truth," a land between
novel and autobiography. ALBERCA shows that one of the most important
obstacles to accepting autofiction is that it challenges some of the most widely-
held ideas about literature:
"There is almost unanimous agreement that an important part of literary creation
sinks its roots in the biographical world, in the experience lived, imagined or dreamed
by the author, who normally tries to hide it, to camouflage it or recreate it in an artistic
way. Now, autofiction has logic of its own, with other mechanisms, and uses
autobiographical experience consciously, explicitly and sometimes deceptively"
(1996, p.11). [17]
Fiction feeds on authors' biographies, whereas autofiction creates a hodgepodge
of the author's past and his/her imagination. The author searches for confusion,
contradiction, insinuation: at the same time, he or she is, and is not, the main
character. But, despite the reader's curiosity, it is not important to delimit the
autobiographical truth. In the case of autofictional texts by Nazi camp survivors,
as we will see with Jorge SEMPRÚN, autobiographical truth does not question
the constitutive truth of the autofictional text. [18]
In classic autobiography the subject rummages through his or her past, and
writes the story of his or her life, ideas, and experiences, using his "inner look." In
autofiction, on the other hand, fictionalization is the only way to understand the
existential truth of the subject. The evidence of the erosion of memory has been
the object of the reflections of several Holocaust survivors and writers. Autofiction
can provide an answer to the complex question "how can one write a truthful text
about oneself?" It is a kind of text in which the writer decides to give an
explanation both to himself or herself and to others (since he or she decides to
publish it), adding a fictional elaboration. [19]
2. Jorge SEMPRÚN's Autofiction
Jorge SEMPRÚN, who died on June 7th 2011, in Paris, was a writer and
screenwriter, an anti-Francoist political activist and Minister of Culture of the
Spanish government (1988-1991), as well as an honest intellectual who lived
through totalitarian Nazism and spoke out against the abuses of Stalinism as a
member of the Communist Party. He was a significant intellectual in Spain and
France, his country of origin and his host country respectively. Jorge SEMPRÚN
exemplifies the ambiguous contract of autofiction. He uses a multiplicity of first
persons, and what he writes is between autobiography and novel. Most of his
writings are about his past, about Buchenwald and his fight against the FRANCO
regime. He considers his survival in Nazi camps as the basic constitutive element
of his identity: first and foremost, he is "a deportee to Buchenwald." For this
reason, we will analyze four of his books on the theme: "El largo viaje" ["Le grand
voyage"] (1994 [1963]), "Aquel domingo" ["Quel beau dimanche!"] (2004 [1980]),
"La escritura o la vida" ["L'écriture ou la vie"] (2001a [1994]), "Viviré con su
nombre, morirá con el mío" ["Le mort qu'il faut" (2001b [2001]) . But his identity
as a writer was also important. Like other testimony writers (for example, Primo
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LEVI and Ruth KLÜGER), literature gives SEMPRÚN company in the
concentration camp, especially in the most critical moments. When his beloved
friend Diego MORALES is dying, SEMPRÚN recites César VALLEJO's poem
"España, aparta de mí este cáliz" ("Spain, Take this Cup away from Me") (written
in 1937 and published in 1939) and when it is the turn of Maurice HALBWACHS,
SEMPRÚN recites verses from BAUDELAIRE. Poetry recited from memory gives
comfort to the dying and, in a way, to SEMPRÚN as well. He brings literature into
the camp and believes that its positive effects will also be healing in the future. In
"La escritura o la vida" (2001a [1994]) his most important work, he explains the
dichotomy he encountered after his liberation. In the early days of his freedom the
young SEMPRÚN believed that writing would be a good way to reintegrate
himself into life, but he soon realized that in fact it was dragging him towards death.
"I have nothing but my death, my experience of death, to enable me to tell the story of
my life, to express it, and to continue living it. I must fabricate life with so much death.
And the best way to achieve this is through writing. That is what I am doing. I can only
live by accepting this death through writing, but writing literally forbids me to live"
(p.180). [20]
Memories of the camps brought anguish, emptiness, and death rather than life.
SEMPRÚN explains how, in draft after draft, he tried to describe his experience in
the death camp, but he always started to talk from outside the camp, because
inside (the camp), writing had been blocked. The tremendous difficulty that writing
entailed even brought him to attempt suicide:
"In fact I had fallen off a train.
It was a miserable local train, in fact: there was nothing significant or heroic about it.
But had I actually fallen off that ordinary train, packed with people, or had I
deliberately thrown myself off? There were divergent opinions about this; not even I
really knew for sure. A young woman, after the accident, said that I had thrown myself
out of the open door" (p.226). [21]
Other testimony writers did commit suicide: among them Primo LEVI, Paul
CELAN, Tadeusz BOROWSKI, Jean AMÉRY, and Bruno BETTELHEIM.
SEMPRÚN fell into silence. Only by leaving his memories to rest could he recover
his will to live; in fact, he was silent for so many years that some of his closest
friends knew nothing about his past. One day he started to talk and to write about
his experience:
"Then, without having taken a decision, so to say—if there was a decision on my part,
it was to remain silent—I began to speak. Perhaps because no one asked anything of
me, because no one asked me any questions, because I was answerable to no one.
[...] Perhaps because the people who return must speak in place of the ones who do
not [...] Sometimes, we probably have to speak in the name of those who did not
survive. To speak in their name, in their silence, to restore to them the ability to
speak" (SEMPRÚN, 2001a [1994], p.154). [22]
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During those years of silence, SEMPRÚN talked to other survivors of the camps.
He saw that they were unable to communicate their experiences properly (for
instance, Fernand BARIZON or Manuel AZAUSTRE, who hid SEMPRÚN in an
apartment in Madrid, when he was working underground for the Communist
party). BARIZON and AZAUSTRE described their experiences as an
accumulation of horrors, like a "Shakespearean delirium"; SEMPRÚN realized
that someone can live through a personal limit-experience, but may not be
capable of reconstructing it in order to give it sense, to transform it into something
communicable.
"Has anyone really lived through something that is impossible to describe, the truth of
which, even if it is minimal, cannot be meaningfully reconstructed in order to make it
communicable? Is living not transforming a personal experience into consciousness?
But can one assume any experience without more or less mastering its language?
That is, history, stories, recollections, testimony: life? Text, the same texture, the
fabric of life?" (2004 [1980], p.71) [23]
But even while in Buchenwald, SEMPRÚN realized the necessity of fiction, of
recreation through literary artifice, as the only way to transmit the essence of
experience:
"—I imagine there will be an abundance of testimonies ... Their value will be the value
of the acuteness, the perspicacity of the witness ... and then there will be
documents... Later, historians will collect them, compile them and analyze them, and
will write learned works... Everything will be said, everything will appear there ... And it
will all be true ... But the real truth will be missing, the truth that no historical
reconstruction, however accurate and all-embracing, can achieve...
The others look at him, nodding, apparently relieved to see one of us able to
formulate the problems so clearly.
—Another kind of understanding, the essential truth of experience, is not
transmissible ... Or rather, it is only transmissible through literary writing.
He turns towards me, smiling.
—Through the artifice of the work of art, of course!" (SEMPRÚN, 2001a [1994],
p.140) [24]
Like Jorge SEMPRÚN, Imre KERTÉSZ considers that literature and imagination
played an essential role—an ethical role—in understanding the horrors of
totalitarianism in the twentieth century. KERTÉSZ's point of view is clear and he
expresses it with a grave contradiction: "only with the help of an aesthetic
imagination are we able to create a real imagination of the Holocaust" (2001,
p.66). But what we imagine is not only the Holocaust, it is also "the ethical
consequence of the Holocaust reflected in the universal conscience" (p.66). [25]
It is at this point that SEMPRÚN talks about the most enduring memory for him.
He asks: "What do you do with the memory of the smell of burned flesh? It is
precisely for such circumstances that literature exists" (ESPADA, 2000, p.12).
Only literature and its imagination can come close to the focus of the horror. But
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fiction consists not only in inventing, but in selecting, "in cutting, framing, and
choosing from among the magma" (MUNTÉ, 2004, p.130). SEMPRÚN
distinguishes between truth and fiction. This means that his books about Nazi
camps are absolutely truthful, even though he uses fiction to accommodate reality
to narration. In reference to his book "El largo viaje" (1994 [1963]) he states that
everything is true, even what he had invented. Therefore, his concept of the truth
resides in the absolute authenticity of the story, even though it did not happen
exactly as it is told. He says, above all, that there is a moral limit in inventio: he
has never fictionalized anything to exaggerate real events. And this is an
essential point, because negationists have gone to great lengths to find
contradictions in the works of testimony writers or any indication of fabrications
that would enable them to discredit the entire text. [26]
A literary limit also exists, required by narrativity. In "El largo viaje" he relates an
experience that was universal among the survivors of the Holocaust: the long trip
in the infamous cattle truck in which he was deported to Buchenwald. The
invented figure of the boy from Semur in "El largo viaje" permits the reader to
identify with him and also helps the reader to understand the reality. In the book
"Viviré con su nombre, morirá con el mío" (2001b), SEMPRÚN explains a real
event from his past in Buchenwald, but not in the way it actually occurred;
because of the demands of the narrative, he condenses the action into three days
(a weekend) although in fact the process took longer. The group of clandestine
communists in the camp found out that the Nazis were looking for SEMPRÚN.
Just in case, they decided that he had to go into the infirmary in order, if
necessary, to exchange his identity with one of the dying and thus save his own
life. There he found François, an acquaintance with a parallel life who perished by
his side. [27]
In "El largo viaje" (1994 [1963]) he invented the boy from Semur: the main voice,
the one which says the most and with whom he relives his deportation to
Buchenwald. SEMPRÚN says in "El largo viaje": "I write this story, and I do what I
want. I could not talk about the boy from Semur. He made that trip with me; in the
end he died; it is a story that does not interest anyone. But I have decided to talk
about it" (p.26). However, in "Viviré con su nombre, morirá con el mío" he states
that the boy from Semur was an invention and that it was François, his alter ego
in that novel, who suggested it:
"'If I survive', he had said to me in the latrine hut, 'if I get out of this alive, I swear that
I'm going to write about all this.' 'For a while now', he added, 'it's been an idea, a
project for writing which seems to give me strength. But if one day I write, in my
account I won't be alone, I'll invent a travelling companion. Someone to talk to after
so many weeks of silence and solitude.' [...] Fifteen years later, in Madrid, in a safe
house, I followed his advice, and started to describe the long journey. I invented the
boy from Semur to keep me company in the train wagon. In the fiction we made that
journey together, to erase my solitude in real life" (SEMPRÚN, 2001b, p.179). [28]
This connection between writer and characters, invented figures or alter egos of
the author creates a mosaic of identities that makes it difficult to tell who is who. It
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arouses readers' curiosity, but this is not really important. They are all him: he
gives a voice to all those who died. On the same page, SEMPRÚN helps to clarify
this multiplicity of first persons:
" 'If I get out of here and write, you'll be in my story,' he said. 'Will you agree to that?'
'But you don't know anything about me!' I answered. 'What use will I be to you in your
story?' He said that he knew enough to make me into a fictional character. 'Because
you'll become a fictional character, my friend, even if I don't invent anything. [...] Why
write books if you don't invent truth? Or something that seems like the truth?' "
(p.179) [29]
Everything that SEMPRÚN says about François is invention and truth at the same
time. For SEMPRÚN, fiction has the function of inventing the truth, of presenting
it in a comprehensible way, and of making sure that his texts do not become a
magma of death and pain. Re-creation and reconstruction allow a dialogue with
the reader's conscience. For Jorge SEMPRÚN, literary fiction entails ethical and
aesthetic truth at the same time: aesthetic because literature allows him to
transcend his own experience to talk about the ineffable, and ethical because the
author was a direct witness of the Holocaust who establishes a testimonial pact
and does justice to the collective memory of all those murdered in the Nazi
camps. [30]
SEMPRÚN has a dual persona: he is a survivor and a writer, who believes that
literary artifice is necessary for recreation. "Exact" historical truth is not the main
purpose of his writing, although all his texts are underpinned by the truth of his life
in Buchenwald. All his books have the experiential evidence of which LACAPRA
speaks. The power of his books is the power of his signature: he was there, he
saw it, he survived; and now he is describing it to us. But not as in a book of
memoirs or an autobiography. Literature for SEMPRÚN inspires truth: who but
the witness can write of the "stench of the crematorium"? Who but the testimony
writer can begin his account of life in Buchenwald with the disconcerting narration
of a peaceful Sunday in the camp? [31]
Autofiction became a viable option for some of the most important writer-survivors
of the Holocaust, such as SEMPRÚN himself, the Nobel prize-winner Imre
KERTÉSZ, and Tadeusz BOROWSKI, for whom literary artifice became the best
way of explaining the horror of their experience. In fact, Jorge SEMPRÚN soon
realized the necessity of recounting when he encountered Fernand BARIZON or
Manuel AZAUSTRE and observed the difficulty they had to recount significantly.
In this way, his testimony, his autofictional books, speak of an "I" who wants to
give voice to a "we." It is the transmission of a collective: the political deportees at
the Nazi camp of Buchenwald. His texts have a great expressive capacity to tell
us the anguish and the terrible decisions that the deportees found themselves
doomed to make, the contradictions of the concentration camp system, the
clandestine organizations and, thus, they hold undoubted interest for life-history
research. [32]
© 2011 FQS http://www.qualitative-research.net/
FQS 12(3), Art. 14, Rosa-Auria Munté: The Convergence of Historical Facts and Literary Fiction:
Jorge SEMPRÚN's Autofiction on the Holocaust
References
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© 2011 FQS http://www.qualitative-research.net/
FQS 12(3), Art. 14, Rosa-Auria Munté: The Convergence of Historical Facts and Literary Fiction:
Jorge SEMPRÚN's Autofiction on the Holocaust
Author
Rosa-Àuria MUNTÉ RAMOS obtained a bachelor's
degree in Humanities from Pompeu Fabra
University, Barcelona. After obtaining a research
scholarship, she also started working as a lecturer
at the Blanquerna School of Communication of
Ramon Llull University (Barcelona), where she
finished her master's thesis on Holocaust
narration. She is currently working on her PhD
about literary fiction of the Holocaust. She is a
member of the research group "Violence and
Media" of the School of Communication of the
University Ramon Llull. She has been member of
a research group for the Spanish Ministry of
Education about "Childhood, Violence and
Television. TV Uses and Children's Perception of
Violence in TV" She also has participated in the
research "Couple Stereotypes Representation in
TV Serial Fiction" for the Catalan Women's
Institute (ICD) and Audiovisual Council of
Catalonia (CAC). She has participated in the
development of pedagogic materials for primary
and secondary pupils about the mass media and
how to use the media, in a public project for
Barcelona City Council, and for a project for ONCE
(the National Spanish Association for the Blind).
She also has participated in an applied research
project about video games and multimedia
material financed by Abacus and Ethos Cathedra.
Her interests include Holocaust narratives,
violence in mass media and children's reception,
and writing teaching materials.
Contact:
Rosa-Àuria Munté Ramos
Facultad de Comunicación Blanquerna
c/ Valldonzella 23
08001 Barcelona
Spain
Tel: +34 93 253 31 08
E-mail: rosaauriamr@blanquerna.url.edu
Citation
Munté, Rosa-Auria (2011). The Convergence of Historical Facts and Literary Fiction: Jorge
SEMPRÚN's Autofiction on the Holocaust [32 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung /
Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 12(3), Art. 14,
http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1103144.
© 2011 FQS http://www.qualitative-research.net/
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Traducción de: Quel beau dimanche! Jorge Semprún (1923) es un escritor y político español, que luchó desde el exilio en Francia por la restauración de la democracia española. Como miembro de la resistencia durante la ocupación alemana de Francia, estuvo en un campo concentración. Autor de: Federico Sánchez se despide de ustedes; La escritura o la vida; Adiós, luz de veranos; Netchaiev ha muerto; Aquel domingo; entr otros. Ha obtenido el Premio Formentor (1964), el Premio Fémina (1995), el Premio de la Paz de los libreros alemanes (1994) y el Premio Jerusalén (1996).