ArticlePDF Available

A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older from the Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Please find below the link to the article: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-654-x/89-654-x2015001-eng.pdf Correction notice: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-654-x/89-654-x2015001-eng.htm *************************************************************************** Vous trouverez ci-joint le lien vers l’article: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-654-x/89-654-x2015001-fra.pdf Correction avis: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-654-x/89-654-x2015001-fra.htm
Content may be subject to copyright.
Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012
Catalogue no. 89-654-X
ISBN 978-1-100-25046-5
by Rubab Arim
A profile of persons with disabilities
among Canadians aged 15 years or older,
2012
Release date: March 13, 2015
Standard table symbols
The following symbols are used in Statistics Canada
publications:
. not available for any reference period
.. not available for a specic reference period
... not applicable
0 true zero or a value rounded to zero
0
s
value rounded to 0 (zero) where there is a meaningful
distinction between true zero and the value that was rounded
p
preliminary
r
revised
x suppressed to meet the condentiality requirements
of the Statistics Act
E
use with caution
F too unreliable to be published
* signicantly different from reference category (p < 0.05)
How to obtain more information
For information about this product or the wide range of services and data available from Statistics Canada, visit our website,
www.statcan.gc.ca.
You can also contact us by
email at infostats@statcan.gc.ca
telephone, from Monday to Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., at the following toll-free numbers:
Statistical Information Service 1-800-263-1136
National telecommunications device for the hearing impaired 1-800-363-7629
Fax line 1-877-287-4369
Depository Services Program
Inquiries line 1-800-635-7943
Fax line 1-800-565-7757
Published by authority of the Minister responsible for Statistics Canada
© Minister of Industry, 2015
All rights reserved. Use of this publication is governed by the Statistics Canada Open Licence Agreement.
An HTML version is also available.
Cette publication est aussi disponible en français.
Note of appreciation
Canada owes the success of its statistical system to a
long-standing partnership between Statistics Canada, the
citizens of Canada, its businesses, governments and other
institutions. Accurate and timely statistical information could not
be produced without their continued co-operation and goodwill.
Standards of service to the public
Statistics Canada is committed to serving its clients in a prompt,
reliable and courteous manner. To this end, Statistics Canada has
developed standards of service that its employees observe. To
obtain a copy of these service standards, please contact Statistics
Canada toll-free at 1-800-263-1136. The service standards
are also published on www.statcan.gc.ca under “About us” >
“The agency” > “Providing services to Canadians.”
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 3
Highlights
According to the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability, 14% of the Canadian population aged 15 years or older
reported having a disability that limited them in their daily activities —an estimated 3.8 million people.
The prevalence of disability varied by province from 10% in Quebec to 19% in Nova Scotia. In the territories,
the prevalence was 14% in Yukon, 8% in the Northwest Territories, and 7% in Nunavut.
The prevalence of disability increased with advancing age. The average age of onset was the early 40s.
About 13% of persons with disabilities who were of working age (15 to 64 years) reported that their disability
existed at birth.
Women (15%) reported a higher prevalence of disability than did men (13%).
About a quarter of persons with disabilities were classied as having a very severe disability.
Disabilities related to pain (10%), exibility (8%), and mobility (7%) were the most prevalent. Most persons with
disabilities (76%) had more than one disability.
While 31% of Canadians aged 25 to 64 years without disabilities had a university degree at the bachelor’s level
or higher, the gure among those with disabilities was 16%. The percentage with a university degree decreased
as the severity of the disability increased. Just under half of 25- to 64-year-olds whose disabilities existed
before they completed school reported that the condition inuenced their choice of courses and career and
30% indicated that it took them longer to achieve their present level of education.
Close to half (47%) of 15- to 64-year-olds with disabilities reported that they were employed, compared with
74% of those without disabilities. More persons with disabilities (45%) were not in the labour force compared
to those without disabilities (21%). A quarter (27%) of persons with disabilities who were employed indicated
that their employer was not aware of their work limitation. Among the working-age population with disabilities,
24% required modied hours or days or reduced work hours.
In 2010, the self-reported median total income of persons aged 15 to 64 years with disabilities was just over
$20,000, compared with just over $30,000 for those without disabilities. For 37% of persons with disabilities
aged 15 to 64 years, non-employment income (pensions, lump-sum payments or investment income) was their
only source of income.
More than 80% of persons with disabilities reported using at least one aid or assistive device, and 27% needed
at least one aid that they did not have. A slightly higher percentage of women than men (83% versus 80%)
used at least one aid or assistive device. The prevalence of unmet needs for aids varied by age, peaking at
30% among 45- to 64-year-olds. Cost was the most commonly reported reason for unmet needs for aids or
assistive devices.
Three-quarters (76%) of persons with disabilities reported taking a prescription medication at least once a week.
Help with heavy household chores was the assistance most commonly received by persons with disabilities
(49%). Family members were the most commonly reported source of help.
Public transit was used by 20% of persons with disabilities; 8% reported using specialized transit. While the
majority reported no difculty using public or specialized transit, this depended on the severity of disability—
the prevalence of experiencing “a lot” of difculty increased from 3%
E
of those with mild disabilities to 29% of
those with very severe disabilities.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
4
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
Introduction
In March 2010, the Government of Canada ratied the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons
with Disabilities (CRPD). The CRPD provides a framework for governments to address the exclusion and lack of
access that persons with disabilities encounter. The CRPD requires the Government to act and monitor progress
in creating a more inclusive and accessible society. Under the Convention, the Government is responsible for
collecting data and reporting statistics on disability.
Canada has collected data on disability for more than 30 years via a number of surveys. Over the 1983- to-2006
period, three successive surveys collected data related to disability: the Canadian Health and Disability Survey,
the Health and Activity Limitation Survey, and the Participation and Activity Limitation Survey. As part of the
New Disability Data Strategy launched by Employment and Social Development Canada, the Canadian Survey
on Disability (CSD), Statistics Canada’s new source of data on disability, aims to provide frequent, accessible,
and timely information.
Based on data from the 2012 CSD, this report presents a prole of persons with disabilities aged 15 years or
older and includes socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, sex, education, employment and income,
and disability characteristics, such as severity of disability, the use of aids and assistive devices, barriers
to transportation, and help needed with everyday activities. This report is intended to be a resource for non-
government organizations supporting persons with disabilities, disability and social policy analysts, researchers,
governments, and the general public.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 5
This report presents a prole of persons with disabilities, based on data from the 2012 Canadian Survey
on Disability (CSD). The CSD provides estimates by type of disability, information on supports for persons
with disabilities, and on their employment, income and participation in society. The survey was funded by
Employment and Social Development Canada and conducted by Statistics Canada in the fall of 2012.
The survey population comprised all Canadians aged 15 years or older as of May 10, 2011, who were living
in private dwellings. Because the institutionalized population was excluded, the data, particularly for older
age groups, should be interpreted accordingly.
The CSD used the World Health Organization’s (WHO) International Classication of Functioning, Disability
and Health framework. This framework denes disability as the relationship between body function and
structure, daily activities and social participation, while recognizing the role of environmental factors
(WHO, 2001). In keeping with this denition, the CSD targeted respondents who not only have difculty or
impairment due to a long-term condition or health problem, but also experience a limitation in their daily
activities. The CSD denition includes not only people who reported being “sometimes,” “often” or “always”
limited in their daily activities due to a long-term condition or health problem, but also those who reported
being “rarely” limited if they were also unable to do certain tasks or could do them only with a lot of difculty.
The CSD incorporates important changes from the Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) in
methodology and in the way that disability is dened. As a result, comparisons cannot be made between
PALS and CSD data. Details on these changes are available in the Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012:
Concepts and Methods Guide. Appendix A contains a summary of changes in the denition of disability and
overall methodology.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
6
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
1. Prevalence of disability
One in seven Canadians aged 15 years or older reported a disability
In 2012,
1
almost 14% of the Canadian population aged 15 years or older—3.8 million individuals—reported having
a disability that limited their daily activities.
The prevalence of disability varied across the provinces and territories (Table 1). Among the provinces, the
prevalence ranged from 10% in Quebec to 19% in Nova Scotia. In general, provinces in the east had a slightly
higher prevalence of disability than did those in the west. Among the territories, the prevalence of disability was
14% in Yukon, 8% in the Northwest Territories, and 7% in Nunavut.
Table 1
Number and percentage with and without disabilities, aged 15 years or older, Canada, provinces and territories, 2012
Canada, provinces and territories
Population
Persons with
disabilities
Persons without
disabilities
Prevalence
of disability
number percent
Canada 27,516,200 3,775,910 23,740,290 13.7
Newfoundland and Labrador 420,970 59,300 361,670 14.1
Prince Edward Island 117,440 18,840 98,600 16.0
Nova Scotia 765,100 143,760 621,340 18.8
New Brunswick 606,820 99,450 507,380 16.4
Quebec 6,436,930 616,740 5,820,190 9.6
Ontario 10,727,900 1,651,620 9,076,280 15.4
Manitoba 929,650 145,270 784,380 15.6
Saskatchewan 779,150 116,640 662,520 15.0
Alberta 2,945,140 369,190 2,575,950 12.5
British Columbia 3,703,010 546,760 3,156,250 14.8
Yukon 28,360 4,070 24,290 14.4
Northwest Territories 33,370 2,740 30,630 8.2
Nunavut 22,350 1,540 20,810 6.9
Note: The sum of the values for each category may differ from the total due to rounding.
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
Differences in the prevalence of disability across the provinces and territories may, in part, reect varying age
compositions. For example, the populations in Alberta and the three territories are relatively young. Consequently,
the provincial and territorial prevalence rates were age-standardized
2
to the Canadian population. In Prince
Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, and Yukon
the prevalence of disability remained above the national gure, and the prevalence in Quebec, the Northwest
Territories, and Nunavut remained below the national gure (Chart 1). However, as a result of age-standardization,
the prevalence of disability dropped to the national level in Newfoundland and Labrador, and rose to the national
level in Alberta. Despite age-standardization, prevalence remained lowest in Quebec (9%) and highest in
Nova Scotia (18%).
1. Owing to the sampling design of the CSD, some data about persons with disabilities were initially collected through the National Household Survey (NHS)
with a reference date of May 10, 2011; other data on the CSD questionnaire were collected later in the fall of 2012. In this sense, the CSD is a “follow-up”
survey—persons with disabilities reported an activity limitation on the NHS in May, 2011, and a disability on the CSD in the fall of 2012. Thus, CSD data about
persons with disabilities pertain to 2012 information about a population defined in 2011.
2. For populations with different age compositions (persons with disabilities tend to be older than persons without disabilities), age-standardization allows more
meaningful comparisons by adjusting for differences in the age distributions. In the CSD, the age distribution of persons with disabilities is adjusted to match
to the age composition of the Canadian population, using the following age groups: 15 to 24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, 65 to 74 years, and 75 years
or older.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 7
Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
Chart 1
Age-standardized and non-age-standardized prevalence of disability, aged 15 years or older, Canada, provinces and
territories, 2012
Age-standardized
percent
Non-age-standardized
13.7
13.6
15.6
17.9
15.5
9.3
15.5
15.6
14.7
13.9
14.5
16.3
11.7
11.7
13.7
14.1
16.0
18.8
16.4
9.6
15.4
15.6
15.0
12.5
14.8
14.4
8.2
6.9
0 5 10 15 2
0
Canada
Newfoundland and
Labrador
Prince Edward Island
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
Quebec
Ontario
Manitoba
Saskatchewan
Alberta
British Columbia
Yukon Territory
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Prevalence rises with age
The prevalence of disability rose from 4% among 15- to 24-year-olds to 43% for persons aged 75 years or older
(Table 2). One in 10 people of working age (15 to 64 years) reported having a disability; among the senior population
(65 years or older), the gure was 33%.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
8
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
Table 2
Prevalence of disability, by age group, aged 15 years or older, Canada, 2012
Age group
Population
Persons with
disabilities
Persons without
disabilities
Prevalence
of disability
number percent
Total-aged 15 or older 27,516,200 3,775,910 23,740,290 13.7
15 to 64 years 23,187,350 2,338,240 20,849,110 10.1
15 to 24 years 4,462,850 195,720 4,267,130 4.4
25 to 44 years 9,159,860 598,680 8,561,180 6.5
45 to 64 years 9,564,640 1,543,840 8,020,800 16.1
65 years or older 4,328,850 1,437,670 2,891,180 33.2
65 to 74 years 2,486,790 653,900 1,832,880 26.3
75 years or older 1,842,070 783,770 1,058,300 42.5
Note: The sum of the values for each category may differ from the total due to rounding.
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
Average age of onset in early 40s
The average age at which persons with disabilities started to have difculty associated with their main condition
was 43. Men reported an earlier age of onset than did women: 41.5 years versus 44.5 years. About half of seniors
(65 years or older) with disabilities reported that they began having difculties or activity limitations before age 65.
Around 13% of those of working age (15 to 64 years) reported that their disability existed at birth.
Women report higher prevalence
Women (15%) were generally more likely than men (13%) to report disabilities. The exception was the 15 to
24 years age group, among whom the prevalence did not differ signicantly between men and women (Chart 2).
For both sexes, the prevalence of disability increased with age.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 9
Chart 2
Prevalence of disability, by age group and sex, aged 15 years or older, Canada, 2012
Men
percent
Age group
Women
* significantly different from men (p < 0.05)
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
4.5
6.0
15.2
25.0
39.8
12.5
4.3
7.1*
17.1*
27.5*
44.5*
14.9*
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
Total
65 to 74
years
75 years
or older
15 to 24
years
25 to 44
years
45 to 64
years
Over 1 in 4 “very severe” disability
A global severity score was developed for the CSD (see SASD, 2014a for details). The score was calculated by
taking into account the number of disability types, the level of difculty, and the frequency of the activity limitation.
To make the severity score easier to use, four severity classes were established: mild, moderate, severe, and
very severe. Of the 3.8 million Canadians aged 15 years or older who reported a disability, 32% were classied
as having a mild disability; 20%, a moderate disability; 23%, a severe disability; and 26%, a very severe disability
(Table 3). The prevalence of severity did not differ signicantly between men and women.
Table 3
Severity of disability, by sex, aged 15 years or older with disabilities, Canada, 2012
Global severity class
Both sexes Men Women
number percent number percent number percent
Total 3,775,910 100.0 1,699,020 100.0 2,076,890 100.0
Mild 1,195,590 31.7 564,410 33.2 631,180 30.4
Moderate 747,980 19.8 339,160 20.0 408,810 19.7
Severe 849,540 22.5 365,840 21.5 483,700 23.3
Very severe 982,810 26.0 429,610 25.3 553,200 26.6
Note: The sum of the values for each category may differ from the total due to rounding.
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
10
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
2. Types of Disabilities
3
Disabilities related to pain, flexibility, and mobility most common
Disabilities related to pain, exibility, and mobility were the most common. About 12% of Canadians aged 15 years
or older (just over 3 million) reported having at least one of these disabilities, and many people reported more than
one of them. For example, 66% of those who reported mobility disabilities also reported the other two, and 35%
of Canadians with disabilities reported having all three.
Mental health-related
4
, dexterity, and hearing disabilities were the next most commonly reported, followed
by seeing, learning, and memory disabilities. Fewer than 1% of Canadians aged 15 years or older reported a
developmental disability (Chart 3).
Chart 3
Prevalence of disabilities, by type, aged 15 years or older, Canada, 2012
percent
Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
9.7
7.6
7.2
3.9
3.5
3.2
2.7
2.3
2.3
0.6
0.3
0 2 4 6 8 10
12
Pain-related
Flexibility
Mobility
Mental
health-related
Dexterity
Hearing
Seeing
Learning
Memory
Developmental
Unknown
3. The Disability Screening Questions (DSQ) assessed the presence of 10 distinct types of disabilities: seeing, hearing, mobility (for example, difficulty walking
on flat surface for 15 minutes), flexibility (for example, difficulty bending down and picking up an object), dexterity (for example, difficulty in using hands
or fingers), pain-related (for example, recurring episodes of pain), learning (for example, attention problems), developmental (for example, autism), mental
health-related (for example, anxiety disorder), and memory (for example, ongoing periods of confusion). An “unknown” type was created for respondents
who reported only an “other” type of limitation.
4. Comparisons of the prevalence of mental health-related disabilities between the CSD and other surveys such as the Canadian Community Health Survey are
not recommended because of differences in the definitions.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 11
Most have multiple disabilities
As noted for disabilities related to pain, exibility, and mobility, disabilities often co-occur. In fact, three out of four
adults with disabilities reported more than one type of disability. For example, 65% of individuals who reported
pain-related disabilities also reported exibility disabilities, and 61% reported mobility disabilities (Table 4).
Disabilities related to pain co-occurred most frequently, and developmental disabilities co-occurred least frequently.
Table 4
Co-occurring disabilities, by type, aged 15 years or older with disabilities, Canada, 2012
Type of disability
Pain-
related Flexibility Mobility
Mental
health
-related Dexterity Hearing Seeing Learning Memory
Develop-
mental
percent
Pain-related ... 64.9 61.3 30.2 30.7 22.1 21.1 17.3 18.9 2.9
Flexibility 83.7 ... 72.4 31.8 37.7 24.6 24.3 19.5 21.6 3.8
Mobility 82.9 76.0 ... 29.7 36.1 24.8 24.6 18.8 21.5 3.4
Mental health-related 75.3 61.6 54.9 ... 34.9 24.6 27.8 38.6 35.9 8.7
Dexterity 86.1 82.1 75.2 39.5 ... 28.7 31.3 25.9 29.7 5.5
Hearing 67.3 58.5 56.2 30.1 31.3 ... 30.2 21.0 26.8 4.5
E
Seeing 74.1 66.7 64.0 39.0 39.3 34.9 ... 28.0 30.5 6.2
E
Learning 74.1 65.2 59.4 66.2 39.7 29.5 34.0 ... 53.6 16.7
Memory 80.2 71.3 67.5 61.6 44.8 37.2 36.9 52.9 ... 9.9
Developmental 49.2 48.3 41.8 57.1 32.2 24.5
E
28.9
E
64.2 39.0 ...
... not applicable
E
use with caution
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
Prevalence of most types increases with age
The prevalence of most types of disabilities increased with age, particularly sensory (seeing and hearing) and
physical (pain-related, exibility, dexterity, and mobility) disabilities. For example, disabilities related to mobility
affected fewer than 1% of Canadians aged 15 to 24 years, but 27% of those aged 75 years or older (Chart 4).
Although much less pronounced, the prevalence of vision disabilities also increased with age—from fewer than 1%
of 15- to 24-year-olds to 10% of people aged 75 years or older.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
12
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
Chart 4
Prevalence of sensory and physical disabilities, by type and age group, aged 15 years or older, Canada, 2012
Age group
percent
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
15 to 24
years
25 to 44
years
45 to 64
years
65 to 74
years
75 years
or older
0
5
1
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
Hearing Seeing Mobility Flexibility Dexterity Pain-related
Rising prevalence at older ages was not observed for all types of disabilities, notably, those related to mental
health (Chart 5). Although the prevalence of learning disabilities was highest among seniors aged 75 years or older,
the prevalence of developmental disabilities declined with age. Mental health-related disabilities peaked at 5%
at ages 45 to 64 years, and declined to 4% at ages 65 to 74 years. This statistically signicant decrease may be
due to the exclusion of the institutionalized population from the survey sample, and thus, should be interpreted
with caution.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 13
Chart 5
Prevalence of cognitive and mental health-related disabilities, by type and age group, aged 15 years or older, Canada, 2012
Age group
percent
Note: For the developmental type of disability, data for the age group 45 to 64 years should be used with caution. For the developmental type of disability, data for the age groups 65 to 74 years
and 75 years or older were too unreliable to publish.
Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
15 to 24
years
25 to 44
years
45 to 64
years
65 to 74
years
75 years
or older
0
5
1
0
Developmental Mental health-related Learning Memory
Women more likely to experience pain-related, flexibility, and mobility
disabilities
In 2012, 13% of women and 10% of men aged 15 or older reported disabilities related to pain, exibility or mobility.
Compared with men, women had a higher prevalence of all types of disabilities, except hearing and developmental
disabilities. The prevalence of learning disabilities was similar among men and women (Chart 6).
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
14
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
Chart 6
Prevalence of disabilities, by type and sex, aged 15 years or older, Canada, 2012
Men
percent
Women
* significantly different from men (p < 0.05)
Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
8.2
6.6
6.2
3.0
3.4
2.4
2.2
2.0
3.4
0.7
0.3
11.2*
8.5*
8.2*
4.0*
3.0*
3.1*
2.3
2.5*
4.3*
0.5*
0.3
0 2 4 6 8 10 1
2
Pain-related
Flexibility
Mobility
Dexterity
Hearing
Seeing
Learning
Memory
Mental
health-related
Developmental
Unknown
3. Education
In general, persons with disabilities are less likely than those without disabilities to graduate from high school
or from university at the bachelor’s level or higher (Government of Canada, 2009). However, this may reect the
difference in the age composition of the two groups. The age prole of persons with disabilities is older, and older
people are less likely than younger adults to be university graduates. To account for the different age compositions
of the two populations, the highest level of educational attainment by disability status was age-standardized.
5
Less likely to be university graduates
Almost 80% of 25- to 64-year-olds with disabilities had at least a high school diploma; this compared with
90% of those without disabilities. Among persons with disabilities, 19% had less than a high school diploma,
compared with 9% of those without disabilities (Chart 7). The difference between the percentages of persons with
and without disabilities who had postsecondary education below the bachelor’s degree level—41% and 39%,
respectively—was not statistically signicant. By contrast, the difference between the percentages that had a high
school diploma was small but statistically signicant—25% and 22%, and the difference between the percentages
that had at least a university certicate, diploma or degree at bachelor’s level was large: 16% of persons with
disabilities versus 31% of persons without disabilities.
5. For education, the 25 to 44 years and 45 to 64 years age groups were used for age standardization. The 15 to 24 years age group was not included because
68% of this population were attending school.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 15
Thus, even when the differences in age composition of the two populations were taken into account, persons with
disabilities were less likely than persons without disabilities to be high school or university graduates.
Chart 7
Age-standardized highest level of educational attainment, by disability status, aged 25 to 64 years, Canada, 2011
With disabilities
percent
Level of educational attainment
Without disabilities
* significantly different from persons without disabilities (p < 0.05)
Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
18.7*
25.0*
40.5
15.7*
8.7
21.6
38.8
31.0
Less than high school
diploma or equivalent
High school diploma
or equivalent
Postsecondary certificate
or diploma below
bachelor's level
University certificate,
diploma or degree at
bachelor's level or higher
Attainment varies with age
Among 25- to 44-year-olds with disabilities, 83% had completed at least a high school diploma (including 27%
whose highest level of educational attainment was high school graduation) (Chart 8). At ages 45 to 64 years, 78%
had obtained at least a high school diploma (including 29% whose highest level was high school graduation).
The difference between the percentages of 25- to 44-year-olds and 45- to 64-year-olds with disabilities who had
postsecondary education below the bachelor’s level was not statistically signicant. Regardless of age group,
relatively few persons with disabilities were university graduates, although the percentage was signicantly higher
at ages 25 to 44 years.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
16
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
Chart 8
Highest level of educational attainment, by age group, aged 25 to 64 years with disabilities, Canada, 2012
25 to 44 years
percent
Level of educational attainment
45 to 64 years
* significantly different from the younger age group (p < 0.05)
Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
17.1
26.6
38.7
17.5
22.4*
28.7
34.6
14.3*
0
5
1
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
Less than high school
diploma or equivalent
High school diploma
or equivalent
Postsecondary certificate
or diploma below
bachelor's level
University certificate,
diploma or degree at
bachelor's level or higher
No difference in attainment between men and women aged 25 to 64
At ages 25 to 64 years, men and women with disabilities were equally likely to report having less than high
school graduation, a high school diploma, a postsecondary certicate below the bachelor’s level, and university
graduation. For example, 23% of men and 20% of women with disabilities had not graduated from high school.
The corresponding gures for postsecondary certicates were 35% for men and 37% for women, and for university
graduation, 15% and 16%.
Percentage of university graduates declines as severity of disability
increases
The global severity class of disability was associated with educational attainment (Chart 9). For example, persons
with severe disabilities were more likely than those with mild disabilities to have less than a high school diploma:
22% versus 16%. On the other hand, while 12% of persons with severe disabilities were university graduates,
the gure was 21% among those with mild disabilities.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 17
Moderate
Level of educational attainment
Very severe
SevereMild
Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
0
5
0
5
0
5
0
5
0
5
Less than high school
diploma or equivalent
High school diploma
or equivalent
Postsecondary certificate
or diploma below
bachelor's level
University certificate,
diploma or degree at
bachelor's level or higher
15.7
26.3
36.6
21.4
21.9*
24.8
35.8
17.5
21.6*
28.1
38.0
12.3*
25.7*
32.7*
32.7
8.9*
Among persons with disabilities aged 25 to 64 years, 8% had attended school in the past ve years. Most of
them—85%—reported having their condition while attending school. Fewer than a quarter (23%) of persons with
disabilities aged 25 to 64 years who had their condition while attending school had needed assistive devices,
support services, modication to curriculum or additional time for testing; 7%
E
reported that they required adapted/
modied building features to attend school.
Choice of courses and careers influenced by condition
Just under half (45%) of 25- to 64-year-olds with disabilities whose condition existed prior to school completion
reported that the condition inuenced their choice of courses and careers. A third (34%) reported that they took
fewer courses/subjects; 30% reported that it took them longer to achieve their present level of education; 30%
discontinued their studies; and 23% reported that their education was interrupted for long periods. About 40%
indicated that people avoided or excluded them at school, and 27% experienced bullying.
4. Employment
Persons with disabilities often face more challenges in the labour force than do persons without disabilities
(SASD, 2008). However, this could reect a difference in the age composition of the two groups, as the population
with disabilities is older, and older adults are less likely than younger adults to be employed. To account for the
different age compositions of the two populations, the labour force data by disability status were age-standardized.
6
6. For employment, 15 to 24 years, 25 to 44 years, and 45 to 64 years were used for age standardization.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
18
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
Half of working-age adults with disabilities employed
Close to half (47%) of 15- to 64-year-olds with disabilities reported that they were employed; the gure for their
contemporaries without disabilities was 74% (Chart 10). Compared with persons without disabilities, those with
disabilities were signicantly more likely to be unemployed (8% versus 6%) or not in the labour force (45% versus 21%).
Chart 10
Age-standardized labour force status, by disability status, aged 15 to 64 years, Canada, 2011
With disabilities
percent
Labour force status
Without disabilities
* significantly different from persons without disabilities (p < 0.05)
Note:
Not in labour force includes those who were retired.
Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
47.1*
7.9*
45.1*
73.8
5.6
20.6
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
Employed Unemployed Not in labour force
A third (32%) of 15- to 24-year-olds with disabilities reported that they were employed; at ages 25 to 44 years,
the percentage was 55%, and at ages 45 to 64 years, 46% (Table 5). Persons with disabilities aged 15 to 24 years
and 25 to 44 years were equally likely to report being unemployed (11% and 10%), but those aged 45 to 64 years
were signicantly less likely to report being unemployed (4%). The percentages not in the labour force differed
signicantly by age group—35% at ages 25 to 44 years,
7
compared with 50% at ages 45 to 64 years.
7. Of persons aged 25 to 44 years with disabilities who were not in the labour force, 6.3% were attending school.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 19
Table 5
Labour force status, by age group, aged 15 to 64 years with disabilities, Canada, 2011
Labour force status
Age group
15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years
percent
Employed 32.2 55.4 46.0
Unemployed 11.2 10.0
E
4.3
Not in labour force 56.5 34.6 49.7
E
use with caution
Note: 15 to 24 age group includes those in school.
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
The labour force status of men and women with disabilities did not differ signicantly. The percentages who
reported that they were employed were 50% among men and 45% among women. Men and women were equally
likely to report being unemployed (6% for both sexes) or that they were not in the labour force (44% and 49%).
Two-thirds with mild disabilities employed
The labour force status of 15- to 64-year-olds with disabilities differed signicantly by global severity class;
specically, the percentage employed decreased as the global severity class increased (Table 6). For instance,
while 65% of those with moderate disabilities stated that they were employed, this was the case for 41% of those
with severe disabilities and 26% of those with very severe disabilities. The percentages unemployed did not differ
signicantly by global severity, but the percentage not in the labour force generally rose as the global severity
class increased. For instance, 29% of persons with mild disabilities reported that they were not in the labour force;
the comparable gure for those with very severe disabilities was 68%.
Table 6
Labour force status, by global severity class, aged 15 to 64 years with disabilities, Canada, 2011
Global severity class
Employed Unemployed
Not in
labour force
percent
Mild 65.0 6.5 28.5
Moderate 52.9 5.7 41.4
Severe 41.2 6.5
E
52.3
Very severe 25.9 6.4
E
67.7
E
use with caution
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
Employers not aware of limitation of 1 in 4 workers with disabilities
A quarter (27%) of workers with disabilities indicated that their employer was not aware of their limitation.
Among those with current or recent
8
labour force experience, 43% considered themselves to be disadvantaged in
employment because of their condition, and 44% felt that their current employer would be likely to consider them
disadvantaged in employment because of their condition.
A quarter require modified schedule or reduced hours
Among persons with disabilities who were employed or unemployed in the fall of 2012, 43% reported needing a
work accommodation to be able to work: 24% needed a modied schedule or reduced work hours; 17% required
a special chair or back support; and 15% required a job redesign (modied or different duties).
8. Labour force experience within previous five years.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
20
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
5. Income
This section presents information on self-reported total income
9
during the calendar year 2010 from the 2011
National Household Survey (NHS).
Median total income of persons with disabilities $10,000 less than median
for those without disabilities
In 2010, the self-reported median total income of 15- to 64-year-olds with disabilities was $20,420, compared with
$31,160 for those without disabilities. For seniors (65 years or older), the corresponding amounts were $21,450
and $24,920. The less pronounced difference at age 65 years or older is likely due to income support programs
aimed at seniors, as well as many seniors having developed a disability recently, which had less impact on their
pension contributions and savings.
The self-reported median total income of 15- to 24-year-olds with disabilities was $4,740, which was 69% of
that reported by their contemporaries without disabilities ($6,870). At ages 25 to 64 years, the gap widened.
Persons with disabilities aged 25 to 44 years reported $21,480—57% of the amount reported by those without
disabilities ($37,560); at ages 45 to 64 years, the median for persons with disabilities was $22,890—56% of the
median for those without disabilities ($40,910). Among seniors, amounts were lower, but the gap was narrower.
The median total income of persons aged 65 to 74 years with disabilities was $22,290, which was 87% of what
65- to 74-year-olds without disabilities reported ($26,170). The difference almost disappeared at age 75 years or
older: $21,070 versus $22,920.
Regardless of age, men with disabilities reported signicantly higher median total incomes than did women
with disabilities.
Among 15- to 64-year-olds with disabilities, self-reported median total income decreased sharply at higher levels
of global severity (Chart 11). The median for persons with mild disabilities was $29,950; the median were $21,620
for those with moderate disabilities, $16,810 for those with severe disabilities, and $14,390 for those with very
severe disabilities.
9. This includes: wages and salaries (total); net farm self-employment income; net income from unincorporated non-farm business and/or professional practice;
child benefits; Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement; benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan; Employment Insurance benefits;
other income from government sources; dividends and interest on bonds, deposits, savings certificates and other investment income; retirement pensions,
superannuation and annuities, including those from Registered Retirement Savings Plans and Registered Retired Income Funds; other money income.
Net capital gains and losses are not included.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 21
31,160
20,420*
29,950
21,620*
16,810*
14,390*
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
Without
disabilities
With
disabilities
Mild
disabilities
Moderate
disabilities
Severe
disabilities
Very severe
disabilities
thousands
Persons with or without disabilities
Chart 11
Median total income, by disability status and global severity class, aged 15 to 64 years, Canada, 2010
* significantly different than persons without disabilities (p<0.05)
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
This pattern was less marked among seniors (65 years or older). The median total income of seniors with mild
disabilities was $23,000; the medians were $21,770 among those with moderate disabilities, and $22,010 and
$19,440 among those with severe and very severe disabilities, respectively.
A third rely on non-employment income
At ages 15 to 64 years, 31% of persons with disabilities reported receiving only employment income, and a
slightly higher percentage, 37%, received only non-employment income, such as pensions, lump-sum payments,
or investment income. About 20% of persons with disabilities received both employment and non-employment
income, and 12% reported no income in 2011.
Among seniors (65 years or older) with disabilities, 80% reported receiving only non-employment income.
The percentage reporting both employment and non-employment income was 8%, and the percentage reporting
no income in 2011 was 11%.
A ner breakdown of income sources of persons with disabilities, by age group, is shown in Table 7. At ages 15
to 64 years, less than half (45%) reported income from wages and salaries, 41% reported receiving CPP disability
benets, and 15% provincial/territorial/municipal social assistance. At ages 65 years or older, 6% reported income
from wages and salaries, 84% reported CPP disability benets, and 2% reported receiving provincial/territorial/
municipal social assistance.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
22
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
Table 7
Sources of personal income, by age group, aged 15 years or older with disabilities, Canada, 2011
Sources of personal income
Age group
15 to 64 years 65 years or older
percent
Wages/salaries 45.1 5.7
Self-employment 12.6 5.3
Workers' compensation 7.9 3.2
Canada Pension Plan (CPP) disability benefit 16.5 ...
Quebec Pension Plan (QPP) disability benefit 2.5 ...
Benefits from CPP excluding disability 40.7 84.0
Benefits from QPP excluding disability 8.2 16.6
Long term disability (private plan) 10.3 2.9
Motor vehicle accident insurance/disability 1.8 0.5
Veterans Affairs disability pension benefit 0.9 4.4
Provincial/Territorial /Municipal social assistance 14.6 2.3
Employment Insurance/QC parental insurance 8.1 0.5
. . . not applicable
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
6. Aids, Assistive Devices and Medications
More than 80% use at least one aid or assistive device
Specialized aids and devices often can assist persons with disabilities to perform their routine activities and
increase their social participation. More than 80% of persons with disabilities reported using at least one aid or
assistive device; 27% indicated that they needed at least one aid that they did not have.
Women (83%) were slightly more likely than men (80%) to report using at least one aid or assistive device, and
a higher percentage of women (29%) than men (26%) indicated that they needed at least one aid that they did
not have.
The use of aids or assistive devices increased with age. About 60% of 15- to 24-year-olds with disabilities reported
using at least one aid or assistive device; at ages 65 to 74 years, the percentage was 85%, and at age 75 years
or older, 90%.
The prevalence of unmet needs for aids peaked at around 30% among 45- to 64-year-olds and 65- to 74-year-olds
with disabilities. At younger and older ages, the gure was about 25%.
Use of aids or assistive devices increases with severity of disability
The use of at least one aid or assistive device generally increased with the severity of the disability. Two-thirds of
persons with mild disabilities, 80% of those with moderate disabilities, 89% of those with severe disabilities, and
95% of those with very severe disabilities reported using at least one aid or assistive device.
The prevalence of unmet needs for aids also increased with the severity of the disability. While 15% of persons with
mild disabilities reported needing an aid that they did not have, the gure was 44% among those with very severe
disabilities. Regardless of the type of aid required, cost was the most commonly cited reason for unmet needs.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 23
Three-quarters reported taking prescription medication at least once
a week
Three-quarters (76%) of persons with disabilities reported taking a prescription medication at least once a week.
About 10% of persons with disabilities reported that they were unable to purchase prescription medications in the
past 12 months because of the cost, and 10% indicated that, because of the cost, they took their medication less
often than prescribed.
7. Help Received and Needed
Help with heavy household chores most common
Help with heavy household chores, getting to appointments or running errands, and doing everyday housework
were the most commonly reported types of assistance received by persons with disabilities (Table 8). Overall, 49%
of persons with disabilities reported having received help with heavy household chores, but the percentage varied
with the severity of the disability, rising from 34% among those with mild disabilities to 67% among those with
very severe disabilities.
Table 8
Most common help received, by global severity class, aged 15 years or older with disabilities, Canada, 2012
Help received
Global severity class
Total Mild Moderate Severe
Very
severe
percent
Heavy household chores 49.1 33.9 40.6 57.7 66.7
Getting to appointments/running errands 36.7 17.0 26.3 44.4 61.9
Everyday housework 35.2 17.1 26.5 42.6 57.6
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
Unmet needs rise with severity of disability
A substantial percentage of persons with disabilities reported unmet needs for help (Table 9). Overall, 10% of
persons with disabilities needed help with heavy household chores but did not receive it, and another 20% did not
receive enough help. The corresponding percentages for getting to appointments/running errands were 5% and
14%, and for everyday housework, 10% and 12%.
The prevalence of receiving help increased with disability severity, but so did the prevalence of needing but not
receiving help. Half (49%) of persons with severe disabilities either needed help or did not receive enough help with
heavy household chores; the percentage for getting to appointments/running errands was 36%, and for everyday
housework, 42%.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
24
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
Table 9
Unmet needs for selected types of help, by global severity class, aged 15 years or older with disabilities, Canada, 2012
Help received
Global severity class
Total Mild Moderate Severe
Very
severe
percent
Heavy household chores
Does not need help 41.0 57.6 50.7 33.1 20.0
Receives enough help 29.2 25.0 25.7 35.6 31.4
Needs help but does not receive it 9.9 8.5 8.8 9.2 13.1
Does not receive enough help 19.9 9.0 14.8 22.1 35.5
"Getting to appointments/ running errands"
Does not need help 58.8 80.1 69.4 51.8 30.8
Receives enough help 23.1 12.6 19.2 27.0 35.4
Needs help but does not receive it 4.6 3.0
E
4.2
E
3.9 7.3
Does not receive enough help 13.5 4.3 7.2 17.3 26.5
Everyday housework
Does not need help 55.2 77.3 66.3 47.6 26.2
Receives enough help 22.9 14.4 19.2 29.1 30.6
Needs help but does not receive it 9.7 5.6 7.4 9.9 16.3
Does not receive enough help 12.2 2.6 7.1
E
13.4 26.9
E
use with caution
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
Family most common source of help
About 80% of persons with disabilities who did not live alone reported receiving help with everyday activities
from family in the same household, and 37% reported receiving help from family not living with them. A quarter
(24%) indicated that they received help from a friend or neighbour, and 17% reported receiving help from a paid
organization or individual.
Among persons with disabilities who lived alone, 56% reported receiving help with everyday activities from family,
and 35% received help from a friend or neighbour. A third (35%) reported receiving help from a paid organization
or individual, and 22% reported receiving unpaid help from an organization or individual.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 25
8. Public and Specialized Transit
One-fifth regularly use public transit
Among persons with disabilities, 20% reported regular use of public transit, such as a bus or subway, and 8%
regularly used a specialized transit service, such as a special bus or van of a subsidized accessible taxi service.
Majority
10
have no difficulty using public or specialized transit
Three-quarters (74%) of persons with disabilities
10
reported no difculty using public transit and/or specialized
transit services; 13% had some difculty, and 13% experienced “a lot” of difculty. Common difculties included
getting on/off vehicle (48%), overcrowding (30%), and getting to or locating bus stops (29%).
Although the majority of persons with disabilities
10
reported no difculty using public or specialized transit, the
prevalence of difculty increased with the severity of the disability (Table 10). For example, 3%
E
of persons with
mild disabilities reported “a lot” of difculty using public or specialized transit, but this was the case for 29% of
those with very severe disabilities.
Table 10
Difficulty using public or specialized transit, by global severity class, aged 15 years or older with disabilities, Canada, 2012
Level of difficulty
Global severity class
Total Mild Moderate Severe
Very
severe
percent
No difficulty 74.0 90.3 83.3 67.9 51.7
Some difficulty 13.4 6.7 12.3 17.1 19.4
A lot of difficulty 12.6 3.0
E
4.4 14.9 28.9
E
use with caution
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012.
Conclusion
This report provides a wide array of information from the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability. An estimated 14%
of the Canadian population aged 15 years or older reported having a disability, which is consistent with the United
Nation’s estimate of 15% of the world’s population living with some form of disability (United Nations Enable, n.d.).
11
Efforts are being made to improve the well-being of persons with disabilities and increase their opportunities to
participate in economic and social life. Nonetheless, the ndings of this report highlight potential challenges to the
inclusion and participation of persons with disabilities.
10. Excludes persons with disabilities who reported not using public or specialized transit services regularly or that public or specialized transit services were not
available in their city or local community.
11. The two estimates are not directly comparable because of differences in information bases.
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
26
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
More Information:
More information about the Canadian Survey on Disability is available at: www.statcan.gc.ca/csd
For a comparative analysis of the employment of persons with and without disabilities, see Turcotte (2014).
For analyses of caregiving by family and friends, see Sinha (2013) and Turcotte (2013).
For a detailed analysis of mental health-related disabilities, see Bizier, Marshall, & Fawcett (2014).
For a detailed analysis of learning disabilities, see Bizier, Till, & Nicholls (2014).
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001 27
References
Bizier, C., Marshall, C., & Fawcett, G. (2014). Mental health-related disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years and
older, 2012. Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-654-X-No.2014002.
Bizier, C., Till, M., & Nicholls, G. (2014). Learning disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years and older, 2012.
Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-654-X-No.2014003.
Government of Canada. (2009). Advancing the inclusion of people with disabilities: 2009 Federal disability
report. Ottawa, Canada: Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. Retrieved from publications.gc.ca/
collections/collection_2009/rhdcc-hrsdc/HS61-1-2009E.pdf
Sinha, M. (2013). Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey. Portrait of Caregivers, 2012.
Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-652-X-No.001.
Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division (2008). Participation and Activity Limitation Survey 2006: Labour force
experience of people with disabilities in Canada. Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-628-X-No. 007.
Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division (2013). Disability in Canada: Initial findings from the Canadian Survey
on Disability. Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-654-X-No.002.
Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division (2014a). Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012: Concepts and methods guide.
Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-654-X-No.2014001.
Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division (2014b). Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012: Data dictionary for analytical
file for persons with disabilities. Unpublished document. Statistics Canada.
Statistics Canada (2013). The 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD) and the 2006 Participation and Activity
Limitation Survey (PALS). Retrieved from www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/3251_D6_T9_V1-eng.htm
Turcotte, M. (2013). Insights on Canadian Society. Family caregiving: What are the consequences? Statistics
Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X.
Turcotte, M. (2014). Insights on Canadian Society. Persons with disabilities and employment. Statistics Canada
catalogue no. 75-006-X.
United Nations Enable (n.d.). Factsheet on persons with disabilities. Retrieved from www.un.org/disabilities/default.
asp?id=18
World Health Organization (2001). The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF).
Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from www.who.int/classications/icf/en
A profile of persons with disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years or older, 2012
28
Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 89-654-X2015001
APPENDIX
1. Definition of disability
Change from 2006 definition of disability
The denition of disability in the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD) differs from that in the 2006 Participation
and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS; SASD, 2013). The CSD uses a set of disability screening questions
12
(DSQ) that
incorporate a more complete social model of disability. For example, respondents who indicate that they have some
type of impairment and some difculty with certain tasks, but that they are not limited in their daily activities, are not
considered to have a disability in the CSD, although they would have been considered to have a disability in PALS,
except for mental health-related, pain-related, and memory disabilities. Therefore, comparisons of the prevalence of
disability between these two sources are not recommended (SASD, 2014b). More information about the differences
in concepts between the 2006 PALS and 2012 CSD is available in CSD, 2012: Concepts and Methods Guide
(SASD, 2014a).
Changes from 2006 methodology
The CSD implemented some methodological changes from the earlier surveys. In 2011, questions that had
previously been asked in the Census long-form, which was mandatory, became part of the National Household
Survey (NHS), which was voluntary. The time-lag between the NHS and CSD follow-up (16 to 20 months) was
longer than the time-lag between the Census and PALS (6 to 9 months). This required a different method for
calibration of CSD weights, to account for the possibility that participants had been institutionalized or had died
during the elapsed time, which was not done in the 2006 PALS (Statistics Canada, 2013). When the prevalence
of disability is calculated or the characteristics of persons with disabilities are compared with those of persons
without disabilities, the reference date is May 10, 2011. However, if only data on persons with disabilities are of
interest, with no comparisons to those without disabilities, the reference period is the fall of 2012 (September 24 to
January 13). The CSD, 2012: Concepts and Methods Guide (SASD, 2014a) contains more information about these
methodological changes. Another change is that the content of the CSD was updated and streamlined to reect
advances in technology and to ne-tune wording. Owing to these methodological changes, comparisons should
not be made between PALS and CSD data.
12. The CSD, 2012: Concepts and Methods Guide (SASD, 2014b) contains a detailed description of the DSQ.
... When describing her endless efforts to support her daughter, Shauna's mother described strong-willed objections: "I find her very argumentative [and] she bullies me a lot. She always says I don't listen to her…" With reports of poor educational and occupational outcomes for autistic young adults (Alcorn MacKay, 2010;Bizier, Fawcett, Gilbert & Marshall, 2015;Stoddart et al., 2013), Shauna's mother's persistence in supporting her daughter is not surprising. She described her daughter's protests as brutal: "I mean she's got this lovely personality as far as care and concern, but she has absolutely no idea how brutal her words are or how she comes across." ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Child and Youth Care Practitioners (CYCPs) serve autistic young people in schools, hospitals, communities, residential facilities, and family homes. Yet, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding the lived experiences of autistic young people receiving these services. CYC literature does not reflect current autism advocacy or disability rights movements, which oppose behavioural interventions and person-first language. What is more, government policies focus heavily on early interventions in behavioural therapy, leaving gaps in services for autistic young adults. This negates their rights to full participation and accessibility in society. The current study adopts a disability interpretive lens within a transformative, narrative design to engage two young autistic adults in educating CYC practitioners on best practices using their lived experiences. This knowledge may help to support this population in attaining their human rights. Finally, the study challenges CYCPs to reflect on policies and practices that either emancipate or oppress autistic young people.
... As shown in Table 26.2, in Canada (Arim, 2015;Statistics Canada, 2016a and the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016;Erickson, Lee and von Schrader, 2017), people with disabilities have markedly lower earnings than individuals in the general population. When compared to people with disabilities generally, persons with visual impairments have even lower levels of income than others. ...
Chapter
Gainful employment is the key to financial independence and remains the primary objective for many adults who pursue vision rehabilitation services (Ponchillia and Ponchillia, 1996). It enables adults with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or who have low vision) to live independently, make their own choices, pursue meaningful interests and contribute to society in meaningful ways (Jo, Chen and Kosciulek, 2010). Despite advancements in civil rights and the introduction of anti-discrimination legislation and vocational rehabilitation programmes throughout the latter part of the twentieth century, the employment rates for people with visual impairments in developed countries continues to hover between 25% and 40%, with 70% of adults with visual impairments either unemployed or underemployed, working in positions that do not reflect their qualifications.
... 25 In 2012, the PALS was replaced by the Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD), 26 which was developed as part of the New Disability Data Strategy launched by Employment and Social Development Canada and provides the most recent data related to disability. 17 The CSD incorporates a more complete social model of disability, although it did not include children and youth younger than 15 years of age. The definition of disability in the CSD differs from the previous disability surveys. ...
Article
Full-text available
http://www.policyschool.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Neurodevelopmental-Arim-Findlay-Kohen.pdf
Article
Online technologies are viewed as a potential equalizer of opportunities for marginalized groups because they may help reduce inequality and oppression through their educational, social and professional capabilities. While many forms of political participation are increasingly mediatized by online technologies, very few studies have examined the extent to which citizens with disabilities use them to engage in democracy. This article addresses this challenge by examining how internet access for people with disabilities compares to others, whether people with disabilities are equally or more likely to use the internet to participate in politics, and the digital skills of users with disabilities. It draws on a phone survey conducted among a representative sample of the Canadian population. We find that Canadians with disabilities are less likely to access online technologies and that disabled users with low digital skills face additional barriers. However, disabled users whose knowledge allows them to make the most of the Internet are as likely – or even more likely – as non-disabled users to participate online in politics.
Mental health-related disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years and older, 2012. Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-654-X-No
  • C Bizier
  • C Marshall
  • G Fawcett
Bizier, C., Marshall, C., & Fawcett, G. (2014). Mental health-related disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years and older, 2012. Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-654-X-No.2014002.
Learning disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years and older, 2012. Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-654-X-No
  • C Bizier
  • M Till
  • G Nicholls
Bizier, C., Till, M., & Nicholls, G. (2014). Learning disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years and older, 2012. Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-654-X-No.2014003.
Advancing the inclusion of people with disabilities: 2009 Federal disability report
  • Canada Government
Government of Canada. (2009). Advancing the inclusion of people with disabilities: 2009 Federal disability report. Ottawa, Canada: Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. Retrieved from publications.gc.ca/ collections/collection_2009/rhdcc-hrsdc/HS61-1-2009E.pdf
Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey. Portrait of Caregivers
  • M Sinha
Sinha, M. (2013). Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey. Portrait of Caregivers, 2012. Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-652-X-No.001.
Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012: Data dictionary for analytical file for persons with disabilities. Unpublished document
Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division (2014b). Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012: Data dictionary for analytical file for persons with disabilities. Unpublished document. Statistics Canada.
The 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD) and the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS). Retrieved from www23
Statistics Canada (2013). The 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD) and the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS). Retrieved from www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/3251_D6_T9_V1-eng.htm
Insights on Canadian Society. Family caregiving: What are the consequences? Statistics Canada catalogue no
  • M Turcotte
Turcotte, M. (2013). Insights on Canadian Society. Family caregiving: What are the consequences? Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X.
Insights on Canadian Society. Persons with disabilities and employment
  • M Turcotte
Turcotte, M. (2014). Insights on Canadian Society. Persons with disabilities and employment. Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X.
Mental health-related disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years and older
  • C Bizier
  • C Marshall
  • G Fawcett
Bizier, C., Marshall, C., & Fawcett, G. (2014). Mental health-related disabilities among Canadians aged 15 years and older, 2012. Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-654-X-No.2014002.