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Ciempozuelos beaker geometric patterns: a glimpse into their meaning

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  • Era Arqueologia SA

Abstract and Figures

In this short paper the decoration of two beaker sherds integrated in the Ciempozuelos style is analysed. Collected at Perdigões ditched enclosure (Reguengos de Monsaraz, South Portugal), the sherds present the same decoration, assuming a naturalistic style in one case and a schematic style in the other. It is argued that the motif of the naturalistic representation shows a symbolism related to agriculture (or to some of its products) and that the decorative organization can be divided into specific motifs that appear isolated or reorganized in a schematic geometric style in other pots, possibly addressing the same general symbolism.
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Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património – 10 / 2015
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A
AA
A
PONTAMENTOS
PONTAMENTOSPONTAMENTOS
PONTAMENTOS
de Arqueologia e Património
de Arqueologia e Patrimóniode Arqueologia e Património
de Arqueologia e Património
MAR 2015
10
ISSN:
2183
-
0924
Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património – 10 / 2015
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Título: Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património
Propriedade: Era-Arqueologia S.A.
Editor: ERA Arqueologia / Núcleo de Investigação
Arqueológica – NIA
Local de Edição: Lisboa
Data de Edição: Março de 2015
Volume: 10
Capa: Falange decorada proveniente do Sepulcro 2 dos Perdigões
(Foto: António Valera)
Director: António Carlos Valera
ISSN: 2183-0924
Contactos e envio de originais:
antoniovalera@era-arqueologia.pt
Revista digital.
Ficheiro preparado para impressão frente e verso.
Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património – 10 / 2015
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ÍNDICE
EDITORIAL ................................................................................. 05
António Carlos Valera
“ÍDOLOS” FALANGE, CERVÍDEOS E EQUÍDEOS.
DADOS E PROBLEMAS A PARTIR DOS PERDIGÕES ............ 07
Beatriz Bastos
POTENTIAL OF LIPID ANALYSIS ON PREHISTORIC
PORTUGUESE POTTERY …………………………….................. 21
António Carlos Valera, Rui Ramos e Patrícia Castanheira
OS RECINTOS DE FOSSOS DE COELHEIRA 2
(SANTA VITÓRIA, BEJA) ............................................................ 33
António Carlos Valera
CIEMPOZUELOS BEAKER GEOMETRIC PATTERNS:
A GLIMPSE INTO THEIR MEANING .......................…….…....… 47
Patrícia Castanheira
MISERICÓRDIA II (BERINGEL, BEJA):
ALGUMAS NOTAS PARA O ESTUDO DO BRONZE FINAL
NAS TERRAS DE BARROS ....................................................... 53
José Carlos Quaresma, Alexandre Sarrazola, Inês M. da Silva
PRODUÇÃO DE VIDROS E IMPORTAÇÃO DE TERRA
SIGILATTA EM FINAIS DO SÉCULO V / PRIMEIRA METADE
DO SÉCULO VI: O CASO DA MARINHA BAIXA, AVEIRO ........ 63
Alexandre Sarrazola, Mónica Ponce,
Teresa Freitas, Marta Macedo
A RAMPA DOS ESCALERES À REAL CORDOARIA,
BELÉM / JUNQUEIRA (SÉCULO XVIII) ...................................... 77
Ana Olaio, Pedro Angeja, Álvaro Pereira,
Gonçalo Sá-Nogueira, André Texugo
ACTIVIDADE ARQUEOLÓGICA E DIVULGAÇÃO DO
PATRIMÓNIO EM SANTARÉM ...................................................83
Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património – 10 / 2015
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EDITORIAL
Chegamos, com a presente edição, ao número dez dos volumes
publicados da Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património. Dez
números em oito anos, com algum abrandamento e irregularidade
nos últimos tempos relativamente aos primeiros. Nestes dez
volumes publicaram-se 94 artigos, nos quais foram autores 80
colaboradores, que em vários casos aqui realizaram as suas
primeiras publicações.
O projecto inicial, conforme se declarava no editorial do número
um da revista, visava a “publicação de pequenos textos
informativos ou problematizantes cuja divulgação por outros meios
não se justifica por si só ou poderá ser demorada.” Pretendia-se
“contribuir para a rápida difusão, referenciável e citável, de
informações, ideias, pequenos estudos ou análises, cuja
disponibilização mais imediata seja importante para o desenrolar
da investigação e da actividade arqueológica colectiva”,
respondendo desta forma às crescentes dificuldades financeiras
que se colocavam às edições em papel e à proliferação da
actividade arqueológica no âmbito da Arqueologia de Salvamento.
A intenção inicial, porém, viria a ser progressivamente alterada
pela realidade. A tradicional tendência para publicar pouco, que
sempre caracterizou a Arqueologia portuguesa nos seus mais
variados âmbitos, tem mais a ver com uma postura que com
qualquer ausência de meios.
Como resultado, a revista acabou por enveredar pela publicação
de alguns textos de maior fôlego (que fogem a um Apontamento) a
par de outros que melhor respondiam às intenções originais e o
seu ritmo de publicação adaptou-se à produtividade daqueles que
se disponibilizaram a colaborar.
O resultado, contudo, tem sido positivo, e a julgar pelas citações
que, no país e no estrangeiro, os textos da Apontamentos têm
merecido, a iniciativa ganhou já o seu espaço no panorama
editorial da Arqueologia portuguesa.
Justifica-se, pois, o esforço e, como desde o início, a revista
continuará aberta a todos os que com ela queiram colaborar
António Carlos Valera
Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património – 10 / 2015
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1. Introduction
In Iberia, apart from relatively rare deer representations,
beaker decorative patterns are highly geometrical, schematic
and normalized. That fact makes it quite difficult to look at
those patterns and constitutive elements as symbols and
interpret them. The possibility that those motifs may be an
ideographic representation of some sort, carrying specific
messages related to specific realities, could be suggested
but difficult to demonstrate. So beaker decorative patterns
rarely cross the borders of stylistic classification based on
motif and techniques used to produce them.
António Carlos Valera
2
This short paper presents what might be a “window” into the
meaning of some decorative patterns of Iberian
Ciempozuelos style. That “window” is open by two beaker
sherds collected at Perdigões ditched enclosure complex:
one with a naturalistic and realistic incised decoration and the
other with exactly the same pattern, but in a more schematic
and geometric way.
2. The sherds context
The sherds in question come from the well known Perdigões
ditched enclosure, at Reguengos de Monsaraz, Évora
district, in the province of Alentejo, South Portugal.
In 1996 the site was deeply ploughed for a vineyard
plantation and its nature and dimension were then revealed:
ditch lines became visible and thousands of archaeological
materials came to the surface. In 1997 a first archaeological
CIEMPOZUELOS
BEAKER
GEOMETRIC PATTERNS:
A GLIMPSE INTO THEIR MEANING
1
Resumo:
Padrões geométricos do campaniforme Ciempozuelos: um olhar sobre o seu significado.
Neste curto apontamento analisa-se a decoração de dois fragmentos cerâmicos integrável no complexo decorativo de Ciempozuelos, a qual
possibilita avançar sobre eventuais significados de alguns motivos e organizações deste estilo. Os fragmentos, recolhidos no complexo de recintos
de fossos dos Perdigões (Reguengos de Monsaraz, Sul de Portugal), apresentam uma decoração idêntica, mas que num caso se apresenta num
estilo naturalista e no outro num estilo esquemático geométrico. Argumenta-se que os motivos presentes na representação naturalista revelam um
simbolismo relacionado com a agricultura (ou produtos agrícolas) e que a organização se decompõe em motivos que ocorrerem isoladamente ou
reorganizados noutros recipientes sob um estilo esquemático geométrico, podendo remeter para o mesmo simbolismo genérico.
Abstract:
In this short paper the decoration of two beaker sherds integrated in the Ciempozuelos style is analysed. Collected at Perdigões ditched enclosure
(Reguengos de Monsaraz, South Portugal), the sherds present the same decoration, assuming a naturalistic style in one case and a schematic
style in the other. It is argued that the motif of the naturalistic representation shows a symbolism related to agriculture (or to some of its products)
and that the decorative organization can be devided into specific motifs that appear isolated or reorganized in a schematic geometric style in other
pots, possibly addressing the same general symbolism.
________________________________________________
1
Paper presented at the meeting “Bell Beaker Pottery.
Symbols of an European Cultural Community 5000 years
ago”, Torres Vedras (2008), unpublished.
2
NIA-ERA Arqueologia; ICArEHB;
(antoniovalera@era-arqueologia.pt)
Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património – 10 / 2015
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intervention was done to diagnose the impact of that work
(Lago et al., 1998) and several beaker sherds were collected
at the surface and through archaeological excavation. Some
were recorded at the central area of the enclosures while
others came from the fillings of the outside ditch (Ditch 1),
that have recently been dated from the second half of the 3
rd
millennium BC (Márquez Romero et al., 2013; Valera et al.,
2014). Since 2009, new excavations were developed in the
central area of the enclosures providing more bell beaker
sherds and a dagger (Figure 5).
The specific fragments that detain our interest were collected
in the central area of the enclosure during the survey of 1997
(Lago et al., 1998), in a sector now designated by Sector Q
(Figure 1). One, the naturalistic one, came from a layer
preserved immediately above the bedrock and partially
overlapping a negative feature; the other, the schematic one,
was recovered in the above plowed soil.
3. The sherds
In general, the majority of Perdigões beaker sherds present
incised patterns that can be ascribed to the Ciempozuelos
style, but some International patterns and a geometric
combed one are also present (Lago et al., 1998; see also
Figure 5). The analyzed sherds belong to the first group.
3.1. Sherd 1
Part of the rim, Sherd 1 presents the following decoration
described from bottom to top (Figure 2):
a) Two parallel incised lines;
b) Above those lines, there is a sequence of elements that
seem to represent plants. Each element is composed of
three pairs of diagonal impressions (carpels ?) forming a “V”.
Inside of each impression there is one dot that seems to
represent a “seed”. On the top, the representation ends with
three vertical impressions (each one with a “seed” inside).
c) Above that sequence there is another set of three parallel
incised lines.
d) Above that, a similar sequence of plants, but now the three
vertical impressions are at the bottom followed by de
sequence of three “V” pairs of diagonal ones. All have an
inside “seed” representation.
This pattern assumes an unusual naturalistic style, being
evident that the potter wanted to represent plants / crops.
3.2. Sherd 2
The second sherd, also part of the rim from another pot, has
exactly the same pattern, but illustrated in a more schematic
way, where the carpels (?) are represented by simple lines
and the inside “seeds” disappear (Figure 3).
Figure 1
Perdi
gões ditched enclosures: a
rea of provenance of
the analysed beaker shards.
0
100m
Figure
2
Naturalistic decorated shard (Shard 1) from
Perdigões and details of the carpels (?).
Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património – 10 / 2015
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Figure
3
The same
pattern: naturalistic representation on the left
(Sherd 1)
and a more schematic one on the right
(Sherd 2)
.
Figure
4
Decomposition of the specific pattern of Perdigões beaker in three elements and
their
recombination in other patterns typical
of Ciempozuelos beaker style.
Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património – 10 / 2015
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4. Discussion
The pattern of Sherd 1 clearly represents a sequence of
plants, probably in a plowed field suggested by the sets of
parallel lines. The inversion observed in the top sequence
(with the vertical carpels (?) at the bottom, just above the
lines) could be interpreted as a representation of the
germination process and the cyclical nature of agriculture. So
we could argue that this pattern represents crops in plowed
fields in different moments of the agricultural cycle. The
second sherd preserves the same pattern, only through a
more schematic method, and we can assume that it also
represents crops in ploughed fields.
When we look to this particular decorative motif and compare
it with others from Ciempozuelos style, several homologies
arise and a general process of schematic representation of a
specific message is suggested. I argue that a given
decorative pattern representing a given idea related to crops
developed into a procedure of iconographic decomposition
and recreation, supported by a mental process of part / whole
relationship.
This process operates through a decomposition of a given
representation pattern into several constitutive elements,
which gradually become autonomous and are reorganized
into new stylistic compositions or appear isolated, but
maintain the symbolic relation to the general and original
meaning expressed by the whole. At a mental level, this
means that a participation process is established: the part
participates of the qualities and meanings of the whole and,
therefore, a process of homology occurs and the whole is
represented or “embodied” by any of its elements. That
mental link provides the opportunity for a more schematic
representation and for recognition of the symbolized through
a smaller and particular part of the symbol or through
different combinations of several elements of that symbol.
That process can be seen in the so called “symbolic
decoration” of Chalcolithic Iberia. The iconographic image
has several elements that identify it and they may appear
together, isolated or in different combinations and in different
objects, but reminding us the complete iconography.
Based on Perdigões sherds, we can assume that a similar
process could have occurred with some Ciempozuelos
geometric patterns. The pattern of Perdigões sherds can be
decomposed in three main elements: the set of horizontal
lines; the V sequences of stripes; the short vertical strips
(Figure 4). Those elements are present and organized in a
great variety of combinations in a vast number of
Ciempozuelos beakers, and specific combinations seem to
have particular spatial distributions (Garrido Pena, 1996).
For instance, in Perdigões and other peripheral sites (like
Monte do Tosco 1 – Valera, 2000) we can observe patterns
organized with sets of horizontal and parallel lines combined
with one or several rows of zigzag lines (that represent the
lateral fusion of the V sequences) and with groups of vertical
stripes. One of these elements – the rows of zigzag lines – is
also frequent inside the rims. The processes of simplification
and recombination of those elements in schematic patterns
can be interpreted as maintaining the general reference to
crop fields. So, at least some of the Ciempozuelos decorative
patterns may be seen as text, communicating messages
related to agriculture in general or to a specific agricultural
product (eventually also evoking special moments of
consumption of those products) and its social role.
The Ciempozuelos decorative patterns that use those
constitutive elements have a vast distribution through Iberia
and, naturally, the question of a concrete and unique
meaning is questionable. The relations between symbol and
symbolized are dynamic and schematization may easily lead
to meaning variation and help to overcome a concrete set of
references. Though, it is also possible that a general
meaning related to agriculture (or specific products,
connected or not with specific uses of the recipients) could
be read in those geometrical and schematic patterns in vast
regions of central Iberia through a shared decoding ability. At
least, the sherds from Perdigões allow us to suggest that
possibility, attempting to go behind the simple stylistic
approach and have a glimpse into the discourse inserted in
to those recipients.
Figure
5
Unpublished sherds and dagger from central area
(recent excavations). Incised: 2-5 and 7; Inprint comb: 6.
Apontamentos de Arqueologia e Património – 10 / 2015
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Bibliographic References
GARRIDO PENA, Rafael, (1996), “Redes de intercambio entre el
Sureste y el País Valenciano durante el Calcolítico. Reflexiones en
torno a un patrón decorativo campaniforme”, Complutum, 7, Madrid,
p.63-72.
LAGO, M.; DUARTE, C.; VALERA, A.; ALBERGARIA, J.; ALMEIDA,
F., CARVALHO, A. (1998), “Povoado dos Perdigões (Reguengos de
Mosaraz): dados preliminares dos trabalhos arqueológicos
realizados em 1997”, Revista portuguesa de Arqueologia, 1 (1),
p.45-152.
MÁRQUEZ ROMERO, J.E.; MATA VIVAR, E.; JIMÉNEZ JÁIMEZ,
V., SUÁREZ PADILLA, J. (2013), “Dataciones absolutas para el
fosso 1 de Perdigões (Reguengos de Monsaraz, Portugal).
Reflexiones sobre su cronologia y temporalidad”, SPAL, 22, p.17-
27.
VALERA, A.C. (2000), "O Monte do Tosco 1: uma análise preliminar
no contexto do povoamento calcolítico e do início da Idade do
Bronze na margem esquerda do Guadiana", ERA Arqueologia, 2,
Lisboa, ERA/Colibri, p. 32-51.
VALERA, A.C., SILVA, A.M., MÁRQUEZ ROMERO, J.E.M. (2014),
“The temporality of Perdigões enclosures: absolute chronology of
the structures and social practices”, SPAL, 23, p.11-26.
... The presence of decorated beaker pottery at Perdgões has been specifically addressed in two papers so far. Firstly, when the ditched enclosures were detected and initially surveyed in 1997 (Albergaria, 1998) and more recently, in the context of the analysis of a specific decorative pattern, when other findings from current excavations were also reported (Valera, 2015a). This third approach to beakers in Perdigões corresponds, however, to a first synthesis of the site's available data (until the end of 2016) regarding the Bell Beaker pottery, addressing contexts and chronology, questioning the social role of beakers at the enclosure and integrate it in the local and regional scales. ...
... At Perdigões, a specific pattern is represented in a very naturalistic way (existing another exemplar with the same pattern, but more schematic) that clearly represents a sequence of plants, probably in a ploughed field suggested by the sets of parallel lines ( Fig. 6: 2). As it was already argued (Valera, 2015a), when this pattern is compared with other Ciempozuelos patterns several homologies arise and a general process of schematic representation of a specific message is suggested: a decorative pattern representing an idea related to crops developing into a procedure of iconographic decomposition and recreation, supported by a mental process of part / whole relationship (Idem). Apart from this, there two fragments with horizontal bands of herringbone incisions. ...
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A synthesis of the available data regarding the presence of decorated Bell Beaker pottery in the ditched enclosures of Perdigões (Reguengos de Monsaraz, Évora) is presented. The minimum number of recipients, their stylistic classification as well as the description of the main decorative patterns, will be provided. Beaker chronology and the spatial and contextual distribution of beaker materials in Perdigões will be discussed, underlining the absence of beaker pottery in contemporaneous funerary contexts. Perdigões will be integrated in the beaker regional context, again underlining the rarity of beaker decorated pottery in funerary contexts, contrasting with the «Horizonte de Ferradeira» and with what happens in other European regions. It is also stressed the stylistic plurality in large ditched enclosures contrasting with a mono thematic tendency of the smaller sites. In conclusion, it will be assumed that the bell beaker pottery is an addition to a social path already established, integrated into regional terms and with specific social roles, producing different spatial and contextual distributions, stressing that the phenomena cannot be understood as having the same specific roles in the social arena. KEYWORDS: Bell Beaker, Perdigões, Ditched Enclosure, South Portugal, Late Chalcolithic.
... The Bell Beaker ceramics are still strongly influenced by the historic-culturalism way of looking to and reading the objects. Our study, that reflects not only our investigation context but also the ideas of the authors read, can be enrolled in a modern way of looking at Humankind, that is more aware of Human consciousness, with its ease and mobility, the way it structures and believes the space, knowing and accepting a mutual relationship of influences, through which we attempt to test the possibility of meanings and expressions of ceramic forms, contacts and decorations (Valera, 2015). In our view, the Beaker dynamics show us that European contact networks are defined and expressed in the set studied, where two of the detected shapes seem to have an affinity with the southern regions of France and the British Isles (Kohring, 2011). ...
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Este trabajo ofrece los resultados de un estudio que ha permitido aislar un patrón decorativo regional en cerámicas campaniformes del País Valenciano y del Sureste de la Península Ibérica. Ello permite reflexionar acerca de las redes de intercambios establecidas entre ambas regiones durante el Calcolítico y su contexto social, en una etapa en la que se asiste en ambas regiones a la gestación de profundos cambios sociales y económicos, esenciales para explicar el origen de las sociedades jerarquizadas de la Edad del Bronce ("Cultura" de El Argar y Bronce valenciano)= This paper presents the results of a study in which it has been possible to find a regional decorative pattern in Bell Beaker pottery from the Levant and the Southeast of the Iberian Peninsula. Some reflections are made on the social networks established between both regions during the Chalcolithic and its context in a period of intense social and economic changes, essential to understand the origins of ranked societies in the Bronze Age of both areas ("Argar Culture" and "Valencian Bronze Age").
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Towards the end of 1996 a major archaeological discovery was made in the Alentejo area. Perdigões, an impressive group of monuments, includes a settlement, a necropolis and a cromelech. In spite of the clarity of the outlines of the settlement, which is obvious from the darker areas of soil indicating the various ditches and walls or palissades, this site, which covers more than 16 ha, is much more complex than originally suggested by the aerial photographs. The archaeological investigation was carried out following agricultural work on lands belonging to FINAGRA, S.A., work which disturbed the archaeological context. Era-Arqueologia, Ltd. was responsible for carrying out the preliminary investigation and it is hoped that this will be the beginning of a wider program of investigation which will enhance the true importance of this major group of monuments. The first phase involved systematic field survey and the recording of surface data. The aim of the second phase was the excavation of the archaeological context in five specific areas, and the third led to a final report which is broadly summarised in this article. Preliminary data indicate a settlement which existed between the second half of the 4th and the 3rd millenium BC. This paper includes a description and interpretation of the main archaeological contexts identified and an analysis of different aspects of material culture and human remains from a tholos type tomb. We also offer a preliminary analysis of the role played by this site in the processes of transformation which occurred throughout this time period in the Reguengos de Monsaraz area and in the Iberian Peninsula in general. RESUMO Em finais de 1996, deu-se uma das grandes descobertas arqueológicas dos últimos anos da arqueologia peninsular. O conjunto monumental dos Perdigões inclui um povoado, uma necrópole e um recinto megalítico. Apesar da nitidez dos contornos do Povoado, que nos é dado pelas manchas de terras mais escuras relacionadas com as suas diversas linhas de fossos, muralhas ou paliçadas, este sítio é muito mais complexo do que inicialmente é sugerido pela imagem aérea do conjunto, que ocupa mais de 16 ha. O programa arqueológico implementado foi desenvolvido na sequência de trabalhos agrícolas, realizados numa propriedade da FINAGRA, S.A, que revolveram e afectaram os contextos arqueológicos. Após a realização de concurso, a Era-Arqueologia, Lda. concretizou as diferentes fases previstas, no que se espera ser o arranque de um vasto programa de investigação e de valorização deste importante conjunto monumental. A primeira fase implicava a realização de prospecções sistemáticas e o levantamento de dados de superfície; a segunda destinou-se à escavação de contextos arqueológicos em cinco áreas específicas; a terceira produziu um relatório final de que o presente trabalho é um resumo alargado. Os dados preliminares apontam para um povoado que cronologicamente se terá desenvolvido a partir da segunda metade do IV e durante III milénio. O trabalho agora apresentado, inclui a descrição e interpretação dos principais contextos arqueológicos identificados, a análise de diversos aspectos da cultura material e de restos humanos provenientes de um monumento funerário tipo tholos e ainda algumas leituras prévias de enquadramento deste sítio nos processos de transformação ocorridos durante o IV e III milénios a.C. na região de Reguengos de Monsaraz e na Península Ibérica em geral. ABSTRACT Towards the end of 1996 a major archaeological discovery was made in the Alentejo area. Perdigões, an impressive group of monuments, includes a settlement, a necropolis and a cromelech. In spite of the clarity of the outlines of the settlement, which is obvious from the darker areas of soil indicating the various ditches and walls or palissades, this site, which covers more than 16 ha, is much more complex than originally suggested by the aerial photographs. The archaeological investigation was carried out following agricultural work on lands belonging to FINAGRA, S.A., work which disturbed the archaeological context. Era-Arqueologia, Ltd. was responsible for carrying out the preliminary investigation and it is hoped that this will be the beginning of a wider program of investigation which will enhance the true importance of this major group of monuments. The first phase involved systematic field survey and the recording of surface data. The aim of the second phase was the excavation of the archaeological context in five specific areas, and the third led to a final report which is broadly summarised in this article. Preliminary data indicate a settlement which existed between the second half of the 4th and the 3rd millenium BC. This paper includes a description and interpretation of the main archaeological contexts identified and an analysis of different aspects of material culture and human remains from a tholos type tomb. We also offer a preliminary analysis of the role played by this site in the processes of transformation which occurred throughout this time period in the Reguengos de Monsaraz area and in the Iberian Peninsula in general. Em finais de 1996, deu-se uma das grandes descobertas arqueológicas dos últimos anos da arqueologia peninsular. O conjunto monumental dos Perdigões inclui um povoado, uma necrópole e um recinto megalítico. Apesar da nitidez dos contornos do Povoado, que nos é dado pelas manchas de terras mais escuras relacionadas com as suas diversas linhas de fossos, muralhas ou paliçadas, este sítio é muito mais complexo do que inicialmente é sugerido pela imagem aérea do conjunto, que ocupa mais de 16 ha. O programa arqueológico implementado foi desenvolvido na sequência de trabalhos agrícolas, realizados numa propriedade da FINAGRA, S.A, que revolveram e afectaram os contextos arqueológicos. Após a realização de concurso, a Era-Arqueologia, Lda. concretizou as diferentes fases previstas, no que se espera ser o arranque de um vasto programa de investigação e de valorização deste importante conjunto monumental. A primeira fase implicava a realização de prospecções sistemáticas e o levantamento de dados de superfície; a segunda destinou-se à escavação de contextos arqueológicos em cinco áreas específicas; a terceira produziu um relatório final de que o presente trabalho é um resumo alargado. Os dados preliminares apontam para um povoado que cronologicamente se terá desenvolvido a partir da segunda metade do IV e durante III milénio. O trabalho agora apresentado, inclui a descrição e interpretação dos principais contextos arqueológicos identificados, a análise de diversos aspectos da cultura material e de restos humanos provenientes de um monumento funerário tipo tholos e ainda algumas leituras prévias de enquadramento deste sítio nos processos de transformação ocorridos durante o IV e III milénios a.C. na região de Reguengos de Monsaraz e na Península Ibérica em geral.
O Monte do Tosco 1: uma análise preliminar no contexto do povoamento calcolítico e do início da Idade do Bronze na margem esquerda do Guadiana
  • A C Valera
VALERA, A.C. (2000), "O Monte do Tosco 1: uma análise preliminar no contexto do povoamento calcolítico e do início da Idade do Bronze na margem esquerda do Guadiana", ERA Arqueologia, 2, Lisboa, ERA/Colibri, p. 32-51.