ArticlePDF Available

A Pilot Study of Self-Actualization Activity Measurement

  • Devry College of New York, USA
  • DeVry University

Abstract and Figures

According to Maslow, self-actualization is a vital, evolutionary process through which an individual aims to realize true potential after satisfying basic needs. Self-actualized individuals tend to be fulfilled with their lives and spend significant amounts of time with altruistic activities. Self-actualization measurement inventories have traditionally measured self-actualization values and beliefs. This article outlines the development of an inventory for measurement of self-actualization activity to determine whether self-actualizing values materialize into self-actualized actions. A pilot study was conducted and the results indicate that while an individual may claim to hold self-actualizing beliefs and feelings, internal principles do not necessarily manifest self-actualizing behavior in everyday life.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A Pilot Study of Self-Actualization Activity Measurement
Jeevan F. D’Souza, C. Kelly Adams and Brian Fuss
DeVry University, New York, United States
According to Maslow, self-actualization is a vital, evolutionary process through which
an individual aims to realize true potential after satisfying basic needs. Self-actualized
individuals tend to be fullled with their lives and spend signicant amounts of time
with altruistic activities. Self-actualization measurement inventories have traditionally
measured self-actualization values and beliefs. This article outlines the development
of an inventory for measurement of self-actualization activity to determine whether self-
actualizing values materialize into self-actualized actions. A pilot study was conducted
and the results indicate that while an individual may claim to hold self-actualizing beliefs
and feelings, internal principles do not necessarily manifest self-actualizing behavior
in everyday life.
Keywords: Self-actualization Measurement, Spirituality Index, Inventory
© Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology
2015, Vol. 41, No.3 (Special Issue), 28-33.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow, 1943)
is one of the preeminent motivational need
theories. Originally, Maslow classied human
needs into five categories: physiological,
safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-
actualization. Later modications sub-divided
self-actualization into four disparate categories:
cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization and self-
transcendence (Maslow, 1967; Maslow, 1969;
Maslow, 1970; Huitt, 2007). Physiological,
safety, love and belonging, and esteem needs
were denoted as deciency needs or “D-needs”.
Cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization and
self-transcendence needs were denoted as
being needs or “B-needs”. Self-actualized
individuals have lower order D-needs generally
satised, striving to satisfy higher order B-needs
(Maslow, 1969). Self-actualization manifests
characteristics like spontaneity, autonomy,
comfort with solitude, non-hostile sense of
humor, fellowship with humanity, and the ability
to have peak experiences (Maslow, 1967). Self-
actualized individuals tend to be spiritual, happy,
and fullled, and concentrate on altruistic tasks
that benet society (Maslow, 1969).
Well-known self-actualization inventories
include the personal orientation inventory (POI)
(Shostrom, 1964), the short-form measure of
self-actualization (Bonjean & Vance, 1968),
the need satisfaction questionnaire (NSQ)
(by Payne, 1970), the self-concept scale (by
Fitts, 1971), the consumer self-actualization
instrument (by Brooker, 1975), the personal
orientation dimensions (POD) (by Shostrom,
Knapp, & Knapp, 1976), the seeking of noetic
goals test (SONG) (by Crumbaugh, 1977),
the short index of self-actualization (SISA) (by
Jones & Crandall, 1986), the brief index of self-
actualization (by Sumerlin, & Bundrick, 1996),
the self-report measure of self-actualization (by
Lefrançois, Leclerc, Dubé, Hébert & Gaulin,
1997), and the measurement of actualization of
potential (MAP) (by Leclerc, Lefrancois, Dube,
Hebert & Gaulin, 1999). These inventories are
typically self-report questionnaires that record
self-actualization values by asking participants
to rate their beliefs based on statements like “I
fear failure”, “I feel I must do what others expect
me to do”, and “I am loved because I give love”
(Jones & Crandall, 1986).
These inventories have been validated or
critiqued by (Robert & Robert, 1967; Damm,
1969; McClain, 1970; Knapp, 1971; Knapp
& Comrey, 1973; Tosi, & Lindamood, 1975;
Crandall & Jones, 1991; Ebersole & Humphreys,
1991; Flett, Blankstein & Hewitt, 1991; Richard &
Jex, 1991; Lefrançois, Leclerc, Dubé, Herbert &
Gaulin, 1998; Cilliers, Koortzen & De Beer, 2004).
The critics question the consistency, complexity,
validity and reliability of previous value-based
Self-Actualization Activity Measurement 29
self-actualization inventories. However, there
has been no attempt to determine if self-
actualized beliefs materialize into self-actualized
behaviors. This article outlines the development
of an inventory called Self-Actualization Activity
Inventory (SAAI) that measures self-actualized
actions and determines if it correlates to self-
actualizing values and beliefs.
Materials and Procedure
When taking the SAAI, the participants were
presented with literature, which denes and
explains D-needs and B-needs as shown in
Tables 1 and 2. The SAAI has 16 questions that
are derived directly from the higher four B-needs
outlined in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The four
B-needs are cognitive needs, aesthetic needs,
self-actualization needs and self-transcendence
needs. The questions in the inventory directly
ask the subject how much time they spend in a
week on activities to satisfy each of these four
needs with four varying levels of intent (100%,
75%, 50% and 25%). Measuring the intent
behind an activity is crucial when evaluating
any self-actualization activity in order to get a
true measure of self-actualization since some
self-actualized activity could be performed due
to work or other obligations. In some cases, an
activity could be performed with the full intent of
satisfying only one need. In other cases, B-Need
Activity Hours (BNAH) is calculated on the basis
of percentage of B-need intent inherent in the
individual’s activity.
For example, if an individual attends a
classical music concert with the full intent of
Table 1. Explanation and Examples of B-needs
B-Need Explanation Activity Examples
Cognitive Need for knowledge about the
universe, truth, morality, meaning, etc.
Reading a non-fiction book, watching a
documentary lm, conducting research, etc.
Need to appreciate beauty, art, form,
symmetry, universal phenomenon,
creativity, etc.
Appreciating a waterfall, enjoying a piece of
music, admiring a work of art, honing inner
talents, etc.
Self-actualization Need to seek one’s true passion,
potential and purpose in life.
Self-reflection, self-exploration, self-
Need to further a cause beyond the
self and to experience a communion
beyond the boundaries of the self
through peak experiences.
Involvement in political activism, joining a
charitable organization, volunteering in a
soup kitchen, deep meditation, giving up
desires, performing austerities, etc.
Table 2. Explanation and Examples of D-needs
D-Need Explanation Activity Examples
Physiological Need for basic survival Consuming food, wearing clothes, living in a house,
sleeping, taking a shower, etc.
Safety Need to secure employment,
safety, good health, etc.
Going to work, investing in savings, residing in a safe
environment, etc.
Need to have friends, colleagues,
family, romantic relationships,
Spending time with family, going to a party or social
event, having sexual intercourse, etc.
Esteem Need to feel appreciated,
validated, respected, etc.
Getting a promotion, acquiring wealth, seeking power
in society, seeking appreciation from another person,
wearing ashy clothing, etc.
30 Jeevan F. D’Souza, C. Kelly Adams & Brian Fuss
fullling only aesthetic B-needs, with no coupled
intent of D-need satisfaction, that activity would
count towards BNAH with 100% intent. On the
other hand, if an individual attends a concert
as part of a romantic date the aesthetic B-need
intent could be at 50% and the romantic D-need
intent could be 50%. In cases where there might
not be a clear estimate of the B-need vs. D-need
intent, individual judgment and honesty must
be exercised. All questions on the inventory are
framed to query the individual on the number
of hours a week spent on a B-need with four
varying levels of intent as shown in Table 3. The
inventory calculates the total number of BNAH
spent per week by an individual, coupling activity
and intent. Individual self-actualization activity
level is then determined using the BNAH score
based on the formula shown below.
BNAH=1.00*C1+0.75*C2+0.50*C3+ 0.25*C4
+ 1.00*A1 + 0.75*A2 + 0.50*A3 + 0.25*A4
+ 1.00*S1 + 0.75*S2 + 0.50*S3 + 0.25*S4
+ 1.00*T1 + 0.75*T2 + 0.50*T3 + 0.25*T4
C1 represents the hours spent on cognitive
needs with 100% intent. C2 represents hours
spent on cognitive needs with 75% and so on.
A, S and T stand for aesthetic, self-actualization
and self-transcendence needs respectively.
Self-actualization activity levels can then be
determined from the BNAH score. A score of
0-50 indicates low self-actualization activity.
A score of 50-70 indicates moderate self-
actualization activity. A score of 70-90 indicates
high self-actualization activity. A score of 90-105
indicates very high self-actualization activity.
These levels are formulated assuming that
most individuals have approximately 105 activity
hours in a week after satisfying their basic
physiological needs including sleeping, nutrition,
exercise and grooming.
One widely accepted scale for measuring
self-actualization is the short 15-item SISA
index (Jones & Crandall, 1986). The SISA was
developed from the longer personal orientation
inventory (POI) index (Shostrom, 1964) and
designed to provide a shorter, simpler scale
correlated highly to the POI. SISA was chosen
for this research because it is both highly
correlated with POI and has been repeatedly
validated (Richard & Jex, 1991; Flett, Blankstein
& Hewitt, 1991; Ebersole & Humphreys, 1991).
The 15-items included in the SISA are listed in
Table 4. The SISA scale includes 15 statements
that relate to an individual’s beliefs, attitudes,
Table 3. Self-Actualization Activity Inventory (SAAI)
Question Hours
How many hours per week do you spend on cognitive needs with 100% intent? C1
How many hours per week do you spend on cognitive needs with 75% intent? C2
How many hours per week do you spend on cognitive needs with 50% intent? C3
How many hours per week do you spend on cognitive needs with 25% intent? C4
How many hours per week do you spend on aesthetic needs with 100% intent? A1
How many hours per week do you spend on aesthetic needs with 75% intent? A2
How many hours per week do you spend on aesthetic needs with 50% intent? A3
How many hours per week do you spend on aesthetic needs with 25% intent? A4
How many hours per week do you spend on self-actualization needs with 100% intent? S1
How many hours per week do you spend on self-actualization needs with 75% intent? S2
How many hours per week do you spend on self-actualization needs with 50% intent? S3
How many hours per week do you spend on self-actualization needs with 25% intent? S4
How many hours per week do you spend on self-transcendence needs with 100% intent? T1
How many hours per week do you spend on self-transcendence needs with 75% intent? T2
How many hours per week do you spend on self-transcendence needs with 50% intent? T3
How many hours per week do you spend on self-transcendence needs with 25% intent? T4
Self-Actualization Activity Measurement 31
feelings, and emotions. Agreement with items 1,
3, 4, 7, 10, 12 and 15 is considered to manifest
self- actualization. Similarly, disagreement with
the remaining items (2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13 and
14) is considered to manifest self-actualization.
A self-actualizing response from the four
options equates to four points, decreasing to
one point for the non-self-actualizing response.
For example, four points would be scored if the
subject marked “agree” for item 1 and one point
would be scored if “disagree” was marked. The
maximum possible score for the SISA inventory
is 60. An individual scoring higher than 50 on
the SISA is said to manifest self-actualization.
Sixty ve students of DeVry College of New
York were randomly selected for this pilot study.
The participant pool consisted of both males
and females from diverse ethnic and cultural
backgrounds. The participants’ age ranged
from 18 to 50 years. Demographic information
was not cataloged in the study and it was
conducted anonymously. Both the inventories
were administered twice with a 14-day interval
for the sake of reliability testing. Of the 65
participants, 22 participated in a single take and
43 participated in both takes.
For the single take the mean and standard
deviation scores for SAAI were: M=43.73,
SD=27.27. For the double take the mean and
standard deviation scores in the rst take were:
M=29.98, SD=18.26; and in the second take the
scores were: M=32.65, SD=22.21. Cronbach’s
α reliabilities for SAAI were as follows: cognitive
0.76, aesthetic 0.64, self-actualization 0.73,
self-transcendence 0.64, total 0.77. Pearson’s
correlation scores between the two SAAI takes
were: r (42)=0.65, p<0.01.
Table 4. The Short Index of Self Actualization Inventory
Item Agree Somewhat
Disagree Disagree
1) I do not feel ashamed of any of my emotions
2) I feel I must do what others expect me to do
3) I believe that people are essentially good and
can be trusted
4) I feel free to be angry at those I love
5) It is always necessary that others approve of
what I do
6) I don’t accept my own weaknesses
7) I can like people without having to approve of them
8) I fear failure
9) I avoid attempts to analyze and simplify complex
10) It is better to be yourself than to be popular
11) I have no mission in life to which I feel especially
12) I can express my feelings even when they may
result in undesirable consequences
13) I do not feel responsible to help anybody
14) I am bothered by fears of being inadequate
15) I am loved because I give love
32 Jeevan F. D’Souza, C. Kelly Adams & Brian Fuss
For the single take the mean and standard
deviation scores for SISA were: M=41.23,
SD=5.48. For the double take the mean and
standard deviation scores in the rst take were:
M=42.44, SD=4.22 and in the second take the
scores were: M=41.74, SD=3.85. Pearson’s
correlation scores between the two SISA takes
were: r(42)=0.599, p<0.01.
Pearson’s correlation scores between
the two inventories for the single take were:
r(21)=0.242, p=0.29and for the double take
were: r(42)= -0.280, p<0.1; r(42)=0.005, p=0.97.
This article provides an inventory for
measuring self-actualization activity and
correlates it with self-actualizing beliefs.
The proposed inventory has content validity
since the questions are directly related to the
B-needs from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
The results of the pilot study conducted suggest
that the proposed inventory is also consistent
and reliable. However, the SAAI inventory
correlates poorly with the belief-based SISA
inventory indicating that while individuals avow
self-actualizing values and beliefs, their beliefs
may not transfer into actions. Future work
can be carried out on further validation of the
proposed inventory, correlating the inventory
to other subjective well-being inventories, and
investigating the reason for the poor correlation
between self-actualizing values and behavior.
Bonjean, C. M., & Vance, G. G. (1968). A short-form
measure of self-actualization. The Journal of
Applied Behavioral Science, 4(3), 299-312.
Brooker, G. (1975). An instrument to measure
consumer self-actualization. Advances in
consumer research, 2, 563-575.
Cilliers, F., Koortzen, P., & De Beer, M. (2004).
Conrmatory factor analysis on the personal
orientation inventory (POI). South African Journal
of Labour Relations, 28(2), 33-58.
Crandall, R., & Jones, A. (1991). Issues in self-
actualization measurement. Journal of Social
Behavior & Personality, 6(5), 339-344.
Crumbaugh, J. C. (1977). The seeking of Noetic
Goals Test (SONG): A complementary scale to
the Purpose in Life Test (PIL). Journal of Clinical
Psychology, 33(3), 900-907.
Damm, V. J. (1969). Overall measures of self-
actualization derived from the Personal Orientation
Inventory. Educational and Psychological
Measurement. 29(4), 977-981.
Ebersole, P., & Humphreys, P. (1991). The short
index of self-actualization and purpose in life.
Psychological reports, 69(2), 550.
Fitts, W. H. (1971). The self-concept and self-
actualization. Studies on the Self Concept, 3, 108.
Flett, G. L., Blankstein, K. R., & Hewitt, P. L. (1991).
Factor structure of the Short Index of Self-
Actualization. Journal of Social Behavior &
Personality. 6(5), 321-329.
Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Educational Psychology Interactive, 1-5.
Jones, A., & Crandall, R. (1986). Validation of a short
index of self-actualization. Personality and Social
Psychology Bulletin, 12(1), 63-73.
Knapp, R. R. (1971). The Measurement of Self-
actualization and Its Theoretical Implications:
A Report of Research Based on the Personal
Orientation Inventory (POI). Educational and
Industrial Testing Service.
Knapp, R. R., & Comrey, A. L. (1973). Further
construct validation of a measure of self-
actualization. Educational and Psychological
Measurement, 33(2), 419-425.
Leclerc, G., Lefrancois, R., Dube, M., Hébert, R.,
& Gaulin, P. (1999). Criterion validity of a new
measure of self-actualization. Psychological
Reports, 85(3f), 1167-1176.
Lefrançois, R., Leclerc, G., Dubé, M., Herbert, R., &
Gaulin, P. (1998). Reliability of a new measure of
self-actualization. Psychological Reports, 82(3),
Lefrançois, R., Leclerc, G., Dubé, M., Hébert, R., &
Gaulin, P. (1997). The development and validation
of a self-report measure of self-actualization.
Social Behavior and Personality: an international
journal, 25(4), 353-365.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation.
Psychological review, 50(4), 370.
Maslow, A. H. (1967). Self-Actualization and beyond.
Challenges of humanistic psychology, 279.
Maslow, A. H. (1969). The farther reaches of human
nature. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. 1(1)
Maslow, A. H., Frager, R., & Fadiman, J. (1970).
Motivation and personality (Vol. 2). New York:
Harper & Row.
Self-Actualization Activity Measurement 33
McClain, E. W. (1970). Further validation of the
Personal Orientation Inventory: Assessment of
self-actualization of school counselors. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical psychology, 35(1p1), 21.
Payne, R. (1970). Factor analysis of a Maslow-type
need satisfaction questionnaire. Personnel
Psychology, 23(2), 251-268.
Richard, R. L., & Jex, S. M. (1991). Further evidence
for the validity of the Short Index of Self-
Actualization. Journal of Social Behavior &
Personality. 6(5), 331-338
Robert, E. K., & Robert, E. M. (1967). Stability
and internal consistency of a measure of self-
actualization. Psychological Reports, 21(2),
Shostrom, E. L. (1964). An inventory for the
measurement of self-actualization. Educational
and Psychological Measurement 24(2), 207-218.
Shostrom, E. L., Knapp, R. R., & Knapp, L. (1976).
Validation of the Personal Orientation Dimensions:
An inventory for the dimensions of actualizing.
Educational and Psychological Measurement,
36(2), 491-494.
Sumerlin, J. R., & Bundrick, C. M. (1996). Brief index of
self-actualization: A measure of Maslow’s Model.
Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11,
Tosi, D. J., & Lindamood, C. A. (1975). The
measurement of self-actualization: A critical
review of the Personal Orientation Inventory.
Journal of personality assessment, 39(3), 215-
Jeevan F. DSouza, Ph.D., Professor, School of Engineering and Information Sciences,
DeVry College of New York, 180 Madison Ave, Suite 900 New York, NY 10016.
C. Kelly Adams, Professor, NY, DeVry University, New York, United States.
Brian Fuss, Visiting Professor, NY, DeVry University, New York, United States.
... In this connection, D'Souza and colleagues believed that self-actualized people tend to be spiritual and happy, help others and attend the general interest of society. These individuals maintain relative peace in deprivation, failure, or disaster (16). D'Souza and colleagues argued that moving on the path of self-actualization is an innate tendency, but it is not automatic and accompanied by the experience of hardship and suffering. ...
... For instance, a child struggles with hardship and pain from the very first steps. He falls and gets hurt but continues to fight because he wants to flourish (16). ...
Full-text available
Background: Hospital stress is one of the most important factors in nurses' mental health. So, this study aimed to investigate the effects of self-actualization and life orientation on hospital stress. Methods: This research was a correlational study. We analyzed the data via multiple regression and SPSS version 22. Participants included 178 female nurses from Borujerd city, Lorestan Province, Iran, selected by simple random selection method. They completed hospital stress, self-actualization, and life orientation scales. Results: Results showed that self-actualization (β=-0.29, P=0.001) and optimistic orientation (β=-0.28, P=0.001) were significant negative predictors of hospital stress, but pessimistic orientation was not a predictor. Also, the results showed that 29% of variable hospital stress was explained by the proposed model. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, increased self-actualization and optimism reduced hospital stress in female nurses.
... Desde las clásicas teorías motivacionales jerárquicas (e.g., Maslow, 1972), la realización personal es el grado más elevado de aspiraciones. El desarrollo del potencial a través de una actividad permite alcanzar la autorealización y, a su vez, es por medio de la satisfacción de esta necesidad que se encuentra un sentido válido a la vida (Naranjo-Pereira, 2009) y que los sujetos se sienten autónomos, felices y plenos (D'Souza et al., 2015). Es decir que la actividad que se desarrolla con profundo involucramiento, absorción y disfrute, puede contribuir a la realización personal. ...
Full-text available
Enjoyment through activities has an important impact on the positive development of young people. The general objective of this work is to know the characteristics of enjoyment in young students and its relationship with the sense of personal fulfillment. Method. 839 high school and university students participated (63.9% female) between the ages of 13 and 30 (M = 18.40; SD = 4.82) from Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area (AMBA)/Argentina. Instruments: Scale of Enjoyment in Activity (EDA), Scale of Personal Fulfillment (ESAR) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Data analysis: An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out, the reliability of the factors was studied, t tests and ANOVAs for the differences between groups, Pearson's correlation and simple linear regression were performed. Results: The EFA yielded two factors that explain 66.6% of the variance. Enjoyment can be known through two subscales: positive affect and involvement. The activities they enjoy the most are physical-sports, artistic and social. Men show more involvement than women and secondary students show more involvement than young people at the university level. Enjoyment predicts a sense of personal fulfillment. Future studies will make it possible to know the ability of enjoyment to predict health and well-being parameters in the young population. El disfrute a través de las actividades tiene un importante impacto en el desarrollo positivo de los jóvenes. El objetivo general de este trabajo es conocer las características del disfrute en jóvenes estudiantes y su relación con el sentido de realización personal. Método. Participaron 839 estudiantes secundarios y universitarios (63.9% femenino) de 13 a 30 años (M=18.40; DE=4.82) del Área Metropolitana Bonaerense (AMBA)/Argentina. Instrumentos: Escala de Disfrute en la Actividad (EDA), Escala de Realización Personal (ESAR) y un cuestionario sociodemográfico. Análisis de datos: Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE), se estudió la fiabilidad de los factores, se realizaron pruebas t y ANOVAs para las diferencias entre grupos, correlación de Pearson y regresión lineal simple. Resultados: El AFE arrojó dos factores que explican el 66.6% de la varianza. El disfrute puede conocerse a través de dos subescalas: afecto positivo e involucramiento. Las actividades que más disfrutan son las físico-deportivas, artísticas y sociales. Los varones presentan más involucramiento que las mujeres y los estudiantes secundarios presentan más involucramiento que los/as jóvenes de nivel universitario. El disfrute predice el sentido de realización personal. Estudios futuros permitirán conocer la capacidad del disfrute para predecir parámetros de salud y bienestar en población joven.
... MacDonald & Friedman, 2002;Paloutzian & Ellison, 1982), but also focus on limited constructs. Further taxonomies detail other elements of the fully functioning individual, for example the interpretation of memories (Bauer et al., 2005); behavioural aspects (D'Souza et al., 2015); peak experiences (Mathes, 1982); flow experience (Cohen, 2008); selfless actualisation (Green & Burke, 2007); and living well in the context of self-determination theory (Ryan et al., 2008). ...
This study seeks clarity on the definition of the ‘fully functioning’ individual to enable clients to define their own therapeutic aims in humanistic therapy. The definition and use of therapeutic aims or goals is not common in humanistic therapy. However, the potential for utilising goal setting is discussed in the context of Rogers’ ideas on self‐directed learning, which could be applied to humanistic therapy. A simple description of Rogers’ notion of a fully functioning person would give the client a start point from which to define their own hopes for emotional growth, which could then engage goal‐directed behaviour. As a result, humanistic therapy may be more efficient as clients focus their processing towards specified outcomes. Further, a clear sense of personal direction and self‐efficacy may enable clients to manage their own therapeutic development on a self‐therapy basis. Initially, a literature review was undertaken to collate existing descriptions of a fully functioning person or ideal humanistic outcomes. These were condensed into a list of items, which were then distributed to 35 therapists for ratification through a Delphi study. Group consensus was reached, and the resulting list was then simplified so that it could be easily understood by a sample of the general public. The final outcome was a list of 71 items describing a fully functioning individual in simple terms.
Full-text available
This study aims to describe the process of achieving self-actualization of the main character (Tania) in the novel of daun yang jatuh tidak pernah membenci angin Tere Liye works. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with a literary psychology approach. The research data is in the form of the self-actualization process of the main character (Tania) based on Abraham Maslow's humanistic psychological theory and the data source is a novel daun yang jatuh tidak pernah membenci angin by Tere Liye. The data collection technique used in this research is content analysis (document). The validity of the data used theoretical triangulation. The results showed that the main character (Tania) succeeded in achieving self-actualization. The process of achieving self-actualization is carried out by meeting other needs, such as physiology, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization.
Purpose To examine health‐promoting lifestyles mediates the relationship between depressive symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in people with schizophrenia. Design and Methods A cross‐sectional exploratory study design was conducted. Two‐hundred and seventy‐three participants were administered demographic data, health‐promoting lifestyle profile, Beck Depression Inventory II, and World Health Organization Quality of Life‐BREF. The Hayes PROCESS macro was employed to analyze data. Findings The results showed self‐actualization fully mediated the environmental domain of QOL, physical health, psychological health, and social relationships domains were partial mediation. Practice Implications This study recommends that professionals reinforce persons’ self‐actualization when the QOL is affected by depressive symptoms in people with schizophrenia.
Full-text available
Effective learners are cognizant of their own basic needs and abilities so as to maximize their capabilities, dispositions, as well as potentialities up to become self-actualized individuals. To delve into the process of university students' self-actualization, we strived to amalgamate this construct with two motivational-associated factors, i.e., mastery goal and intrinsic motivation. To do so, a three-phase mixed-methods study was designed. In the first phase, the reliability and validity of the ‘Measurement of Actualization of Potential (MAP)’ (measuring five sub-scales, namely, openness to self, openness to others, openness to life, adaptability, and autonomy) were determined in the present study via a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In the second phase, our proposed model containing the three constructs was examined using a structural equation modeling (SEM). Eventually, to procure a deeper perception of self-fulfillment valence in actual behaviors, feelings, and assertions of the participants, a semi-structured interview was conducted on seven randomly selected participants from a general sample population of 253 Iranian university students in its first and second phases. The results demonstrated that the proposed model had a good fit with the empirical data. The contribution of mastery goal and intrinsic motivation was demonstrated in the model. It was also found that among the sub-scales of self-fulfillment, ‘openness to self’ had the highest association with intrinsic motivation followed by ‘openness to life.’ Mastery goal had the highest correlation with ‘openness to life’ followed by ‘autonomy.’ The analysis of interview protocol revealed that self-rating percentages of the delineated lists were all in congruence with the number of selected activities and traits the respondents preferred.
Full-text available
The aim of this research was to establish the factor structure of self-actualisation as a positive psychology construct, as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), in order to establish whether there is a fit between the measurement and the theory. The POI was administered to 974 part-time students. Strong inter-correlations were found. Con-firmatory factor analysis identified a three-factor structure consisting of (1) time competence, inner directedness, existentialism, feeling reactivity, self-acceptance and the interpersonal scales of acceptance of anger and capacity for intimate contact, (2) spontaneity and self-regard and (3) self-actualising value, nature of man and synergy. The results confirmed the twelve POI scales as separate entities but did not confirm the theory on self-actualisation in terms of the seven factors as it is conceptualised and operationalised in the POI. It was suggested that the POI should be interpreted with care in South Africa's multicultural scenario.
A40-item Brief Index of Self-Actualization was developed from Sumerlin's 65-item Personal Attitude Survey. The new instrument was developed wholly from Maslow's composite writings to measure his self-actualization model. The Personal Attitude Survey is composed of items written to capture 11 features that Abraham Maslow used to describe a self-actualized person (e.g., autonomy, comfort with solitude, and courage). Principal components analysis reduced the 11 features to seven factors: Core Self-Actualization, Jonah Complex, Curiosity, Comfort with Solitude, Openness to Experience, Democratic Character, and Life Meaning and Purpose. The Brief Index had high positive correlations with Jones and Crandall's Short Index of Self-Actualization. Alpha was .87 and two-week test-retest reliability was .89. Known-groups methodology was used to determine construct validity with scores on the factors Core Self-Actualization and Democratic Character higher in a group of college men compared to a subsample of unsheltered homeless men with some college. Hence, Maslow's speculation that unsatisfied deficiency needs hinder movement toward self-actualization was supported.
Jones and Crandall's recently developed Short Index of Self-actualization was statistically significantly correlated .49 ( n = 46) with a measure of purpose in life, thereby providing further construct validation for the former measure.
This research reports the development of a 15-item index of self-actualization that will be useful in research contexts. The index is based primarily on modified items from the most widely accepted measure of self-actualization, the Personal Orientation Inventory. The index had a significant correlation with this inventory (r = .67, p < .001). It also correlated as expected with measures of self-esteem, rational behavior and beliefs, neuroticism, and extraversion. The index discriminated between groups of people nominated as self-actualizing and as non-self-actualizing. There were no problems with response sets, and the index was resistant to "faking good." Weaknesses of the scale are discussed as well as means to overcome these weaknesses.
The Personal Orientation Dimensions (POD) (Shostrom, 1975) has been developed as a refinement and extension of the measurement of concepts of actualizing. Samples nominated as actualizing or as non-actualizing were administered the POD to establish the validity of the instrument for differentiating between such clinically recognized populations. That all scales significantly differentiated these samples thus demonstrated the validity of the POD for discriminating between samples clinically observed to be actualizing or non-actualizing.
The importance of the concept self-actualization is discussed in the context of explaining and predicting behavior in complex organizations. Assessing self-actualization by use of the semistructured research interview is discussed; and a short-form, structured instrument is set forth, not as a substitute, but as an alternative technique that may better meet the needs of investigators and practitioners, particularly where time, expense, and (relative lack of) interviewing and analytic skills are important factors. The short form is validated (a) by comparing the data yielded by it with the data yielded by the semistructured form and (b) by showing that the scores yielded by the structured technique are associated with the same phenomena as the scores yielded by the semistructured technique.
A self-report measure of actualization of potential (MAP) was developed as an alternative to the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) for assessing successful and functioning individuals. Study 1 describes the item selection carried out by means of a literature review, an international panel of 28 experts and two focus groups. In Study 2 construct validity was established with a sample of 414 subjects. A principal component analysis with oblique rotation reduced the initial item pool to 27, yielding a 5-factor solution. A second-order factor analysis revealed two major components, “self-reference” and “openness to experience”. Study 3 achieved a full scale Cronbach's alpha of .90. Overall the new instrument provides both better theoretical and empirical evidence than the POI, and stronger psychometric properties.