Additional effect of occlusal splints on the improvement of psychological aspects in temporomandibular disorder subjects: A randomized controlled trial

ArticleinArchives of oral biology 60(5) · February 2015with 312 Reads
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Abstract
To measure the effect of occlusal splints as an additional treatment on psychological aspects in temporomandibular disorder patients. A randomized controlled trial was performed comprising 60 adults diagnosed with masticatory myofascial pain according the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). The participants were divided equally into 2 treatment groups, which received only counselling (Group 1) or occlusal splints in addition to counselling (Group 2). The assessments occurred at baseline and at 2 and 5 months after treatment. The outcomes were symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as pain catastrophizing. Two-way ANOVA, Friedman and Mann-Whitney tests were used to perform the statistical analysis, considering a significance level of 5%. In relation to the baseline assessment, 60% of the subjects had at least mild anxiety and 25% had at least mild depression, and the mean and standard deviation (SD) of pain catastrophizing was 2.41 (1.33) for Group 1 and 2.06 (1.04) for Group 2. Comparisons between baseline and the fifth-month evaluation showed an improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms only in Group 2 (p<0.05). Otherwise, there was a significant reduction in pain catastrophizing in both groups (p<0.05), with a mean (SD) of 1.14 (1.28) for Group 1 and 0.76 (0.82) for Group 2. Minimally invasive strategies could provide an improvement in the psychological aspects of temporomandibular disorder patients, and the use of an occlusal splint seems to hasten the manifestation of these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • Article
    Objective: To evaluate, in the short term, the effectiveness of conservative therapies in pain, quality of life, and sleep in TMD patients. Methods: Eighty-nine TMD patients diagnosed by RDC-TMD were distributed in occlusal splints (OS; n= 24), manual therapy (MT; n= 21), counseling (C; n= 19), and OS associated with C (OSC; n= 25) therapy groups. Data collection was performed at baseline and within one month by VAS (pain), PSQI (sleep quality -SQ), WHOQOL-BREF (Quality of life - QL) and OHIP-14 (quality of life related to oral health -QLOH). The Split Plot ANOVA test was used to observe the difference between groups and over time. Results: All therapies were effective over time, improving pain (p< .001), SQ (p=.001), QLOH (p< .001), and QL (p= .006), but not between them. Discussion: The therapies were effective in improving pain, SQ, and quality of life; however, no therapeutic group was superior to the other.
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  • Validaçã o da escala de pensamentos catastró ficos sobre dor
    • Sardá J Junior
    • Nicholas Mk Ia Pereira
    • Ca Pimenta
    • A Asghari
    • Cruz
    Sardá Junior J, Nicholas MK, Pereira IA, Pimenta CA, Asghari A, Cruz RM. Validaçã o da escala de pensamentos catastró ficos sobre dor. Acta Fisiatr 2008;15(1):31–6.
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    Unlabelled: This study examined the role of catastrophizing in mediating the relationship between pain intensity and depressed mood in older adults with persistent pain using reliable and valid measures for this population. A convenience sample of 669 patients 61 years and over attending a tertiary-level referral pain center completed questionnaires measuring pain intensity, depressed mood, and catastrophizing as part of a clinical assessment process. The catastrophizing subscale of the Pain-Related Self-Statements scale (PRSS-Catastrophizing) was examined for internal consistency and factor structure. Mediation was tested for each factor from the optimal model of the PRSS-Catastrophizing scale using regression analyses, which included measures of pain intensity and depressed mood. The PRSS-Catastrophizing scale was found to be a reliable measure of pain-related catastrophizing. A 2-factor solution (magnification, helplessness) was identified. Both factors partially and significantly mediated the relationship between pain intensity and depressed mood. This study highlights the importance of cognitive factors-in this case catastrophizing-in the persistent pain experience of older adults. It also demonstrates that pain-related catastrophizing can be reliably measured in this population. These findings have important clinical implications. They emphasize the importance of using interventions to reduce catastrophizing to modify the pain experience of older adults with persistent pain. Perspective: This study confirms the mediating role of catastrophizing in the relationship between pain intensity and depressed mood in older adults with persistent pain using psychometrically sound measures. These findings indicate that clinicians should address catastrophizing to improve treatment outcomes with this population.
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    Unlabelled: Previous studies have associated depression and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). The temporality, however, remains to be clarified. Most patient studies have selected subjects from treatment facilities, whereas in epidemiological studies a clinical examination has not been performed. In this study the 5-year follow-up data of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were analyzed. To estimate the effect of symptoms of depression and those of anxiety on the risk of TMD pain, the Composite International Diagnostic-Screener (CID-S) and a clinical functional examination with palpation of the temporomandibular joint and the masticatory muscles were used. After exclusion of subjects having joint pain at baseline, a sample of 3,006 Caucasian participants with a mean age of 49 years resulted. Of those, 122 participants had signs of TMD joint pain upon palpation. Subjects with symptoms of depression had an increased risk of TMD joint pain upon palpation (rate ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.0; P < .001). Anxiety symptoms were associated with joint and with muscle pain. The diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of TMD pain should also consider symptoms of depression and those of anxiety, and appropriate therapies if necessary. Perspective: Depressive and anxiety symptoms should be considered as risk factors for TMD pain. Depressive symptoms are specific for joint pain whereas anxiety symptoms are specific for muscle pain, findings that deserve detailed examination. These findings may support decision-making in treating TMD.
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    The aim of this research was to compare the differences between patients with myofascial pain and disc displacement and asymptomatic individuals based on aspects of psychologic status and sleep quality. One hundred thirty patients (81 women, 49 men; mean ages: 30.0 and 31.0 years, respectively) with temporomandibular disorder were selected, and 64 control subjects (32 women, 32 men; mean ages: 27.2 and 27.5 years, respectively) were included in the investigation over a period of 1 year. Clinical diagnosis of 65 patients with myofascial pain and 65 patients with disc displacement with or without limitation and joint pain was determined according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. Psychologic status was assessed using Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference post hoc multiple comparison or Tamhane T2 tests were used for statistical analysis. There was a significant difference between patients with myofascial pain and disc displacement regarding somatization and paranoid ideation. No statistically significant difference was found between patients with disc displacements and controls in all dimensions of the SCL-90-R. Total score for the PSQI was statistically significantly different between patients with myofascial pain and controls; no significant differences were found between patients with disc displacement and those with myofascial pain or controls regarding the PSQI. To manage patients with myofascial pain, psychologic assessments including sleep quality should be considered.
  • Article
    ABSTRACT– A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxiety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of severity of the emotional disorder. It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital practice would facilitate the large task of detection and management of emotional disorder in patients under investigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments.
  • Article
    Summary  The aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that treatment with intra-oral appliances with different occlusal designs was beneficial in the management of pain of masticatory muscles compared with a control group. A total of 51 patients were analysed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) to obtain the diagnosis of masticatory myofascial pain (MMP). The sample was then randomly divided into three groups: group I (n = 21) wore a full coverage acrylic stabilisation occlusal splint; group II (n = 16) wore an anterior device nociceptive trigeminal inhibitory (NTI) system; and group III (n = 14) only received counselling for behavioural changes and self-care (the control group). The first two groups also received counselling. Follow-ups were performed after 2 and 6 weeks and 3 months. In these sessions, patients were evaluated by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the masticatory muscles. Possible adverse effects were also recorded, such as discomfort while using the appliance and occlusal changes. The results were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis, anova, Tukey's and Friedman tests, with a significance level of 5%. Group I showed improvement in the reported pain at the first follow-up (2 weeks), whereas for groups II and III, this progress was detected only after 6 weeks and 3 months, respectively. The PPT values did not change significantly. It was concluded that behavioural changes are effective in the management of pain in MMP patients. However, the simultaneous use of occlusal devices appears to produce an earlier improvement.
  • Article
    To investigate the relationship of headache frequency with patient-reported physical functioning and emotional functioning in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) subjects with concurrent temple headache. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Validation Project identified, as a subset of 614 TMD cases and 91 controls (n = 705), 309 subjects with concurrent TMD pain diagnoses (RDC/TMD) and temple headache. The temple headaches were subdivided into infrequent, frequent, and chronic headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-II). Study variables included self-report measures of physical functioning (Jaw Function Limitation Scale [JFLS], Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS], Short Form-12 [SF-12]) and emotional functioning (depression and anxiety as measured by the Symptom Checklist-90R/SCL-90R). Differences among the three headache subgroups were characterized by increasing headache frequency. The relationship between ordered headache frequency and physical as well as emotional functioning was analyzed using linear regression and trend tests for proportions. Physical functioning, as assessed with the JFLS (P < .001), SF-12 (P < .001), and GCPS (P < .001), was significantly associated with increased headache frequency. Emotional functioning, reflected in depression and anxiety, was also associated with increased frequency of headache (both P < .001). Headache frequency was substantially correlated with reduced physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with TMD and concurrent temple headaches. A secondary finding was that headache was precipitated by jaw activities more often in subjects with more frequent temple headaches.
  • Article
    The aims were (1) to study possible secular trends in the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms in adults and (2) to analyse possible associations between TMD symptoms and background factors. The investigation has a repeated cross-sectional design. Three independent, randomly selected samples of ∼100 individuals in the age groups of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 years, a total of 1704 subjects, participated in the Jönköping studies in 1983, 1993 and 2003. All the subjects were evaluated using a questionnaire and a structured interview relating to the presence of TMD symptoms. Associations between symptoms and the Anamnestic Dysfunction Index (Ai) as dependent variables and each of the independent variables, age group, gender, reported bruxism, trauma (1983), self-perceived health impairment and the year of investigation were analysed in binary logistic regression models. The prevalence of the separate symptoms, apart from for TMJ clicking, did not vary to any statistically significant degree between the different examination years. However, the prevalence of recurrent headache in 20-year-old subjects rose remarkably in 2003 and an increase in the Ai I and Ai II for the whole population was observed during the 20-year period. Reported bruxism, which increased during the study period, and self-perceived health impairment were associated with most of the TMD symptoms and the Ai. An increase in the prevalence of TMD symptoms expressed as Anamnestic Dysfunction Index I and II has been noted over a 20-year period.
  • Article
    Background: Psychosocial factors have a role in the onset of chronic orofacial pain. However, current management involves invasive therapies like occlusal adjustments and splints which lack an evidence base. Objectives: To determine the efficacy of non-pharmacologic psychosocial interventions for chronic orofacial pain. Search methods: The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 25 October 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 25 October 2010), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 25 October 2010) and PsycINFO via OVID (1950 to 25 October 2010). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials which included non-pharmacological psychosocial interventions for adults with chronic orofacial pain compared with any other form of treatment (e.g. usual care like intraoral splints, pharmacological treatment and/or physiotherapy). Data collection and analysis: Data were independently extracted in duplicate. Trial authors were contacted for details of randomisation and loss to follow-up, and also to provide means and standard deviations for outcome measures where these were not available. Risk of bias was assessed and disagreements between review authors were discussed and another review author involved where necessary. Main results: Seventeen trials were eligible for inclusion into the review. Psychosocial interventions improved long-term pain intensity (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.50 to -0.18) and depression (SMD -0.35, 95% CI -0.54 to -0.16). However, the risk of bias was high for almost all studies. A subgroup analysis revealed that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) either alone or in combination with biofeedback improved long-term pain intensity, activity interference and depression. However the studies pooled had high risk of bias and were few in number. The pooled trials were all related to temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Authors' conclusions: There is weak evidence to support the use of psychosocial interventions for chronic orofacial pain. Although significant effects were observed for outcome measures where pooling was possible, the studies were few in number and had high risk of bias. However, given the non-invasive nature of such interventions they should be used in preference to other invasive and irreversible treatments which also have limited or no efficacy. Further high quality trials are needed to explore the effects of psychosocial interventions on chronic orofacial pain.
  • Article
    Although most cases of temporomandibular muscle and joint disorders (TMJD) are mild and self-limiting, about 10% of TMJD patients develop severe disorders associated with chronic pain and disability. It has been suggested that depression and catastrophizing contributes to TMJD chronicity. This article assesses the effects of catastrophizing and depression on clinically significant TMJD pain (Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS] II-IV). Four hundred eighty participants, recruited from the Minneapolis/St. Paul area through media advertisements and local dentists, received examinations and completed the GCPS at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. In a multivariable analysis including gender, age, and worst pain intensity, baseline catastrophizing (β 3.79, P<0.0001) and pain intensity at baseline (β 0.39, P<0.0001) were positively associated with characteristic of pain intensity at the 18th month. Disability at the 18-month follow-up was positively related to catastrophizing (β 0.38, P<0.0001) and depression (β 0.17, P=0.02). In addition, in the multivariable analysis adjusted by the same covariates previously described, the onset of clinically significant pain (GCPS II-IV) at the 18-month follow-up was associated with catastrophizing (odds ratio [OR] 1.72, P=0.02). Progression of clinically significant pain was related to catastrophizing (OR 2.16, P<0.0001) and widespread pain at baseline (OR 1.78, P=0.048). Results indicate that catastrophizing and depression contribute to the progression of chronic TMJD pain and disability, and therefore should be considered as important factors when evaluating and developing treatment plans for patients with TMJD.
  • Article
    Sleep disturbance is a common problem among chronic pain patients. Cross-sectional data from clinical populations and experimental studies have shown an association between sleep disturbance and pain. However, there has been little prospective research into the relationship between daily variability between sleep and pain among chronic pain patients. Twenty-two women with chronic pain (back pain, facial pain, fibromyalgia) completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph for a 2-week period. Self-report measures of pain, mood, and sleep were also completed at baseline. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine intraindividual variability in sleep and pain ratings among these women. The impact of mood and baseline pain ratings was also examined as potential moderators. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses supported a bidirectional relationship between sleep and pain, such that a night of poor sleep was followed by increased pain ratings the following day and a day of increased pain was followed by a night of poor sleep. Depression scores further influenced these relationships. Prospective examination supported a bidirectional relationship between sleep and pain among a group of women with chronic pain. Depressive symptoms had a moderating impact on these relationships. These findings suggest that addressing sleep is important in the treatment of individuals with chronic pain.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    It is the aim of this paper to give a few examples of dogmas related to prosthodontics and oral implants and to discuss the controversial role of occlusion in the aetiology of temporomandibular disorders. New knowledge is developing at a rapidly increasing rate in dentistry, as in other areas of society. Our lecturers at university taught us many useful things. But, as time goes by, what is still relevant? Some methods are so well established that they deserve to be called dogmas. It is implied that a dogma is not supported by strong evidence, even though it has existed and been practised for a long time. In the era of evidence-based dentistry it is appropriate to scrutinize such issues. A review of the current literature indicates that conflicting opinions exist concerning a number of common procedures in clinical dentistry, mainly due to a scarcity of good studies with unambiguous results. There is therefore a need for more high-quality clinical research in attempting to reach the goal of evidence-based clinical practice. The dental community should take an active part in this process.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed the efficacy of intraoral orthopedic appliances to reduce pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders affecting muscle and joint (TMJD) compared to subjects receiving placebo control, no treatment, or other treatments. A search strategy of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane CENTRAL Register, and manual search identified all English language publications of RCTs for intraoral appliance treatment of TMJD pain during the years of January 1966 to March 2006. Two additional studies from 2006 were added during the review process. Selection criteria included RCTs assessing the efficacy of hard and soft stabilization appliances, anterior positioning appliances, anterior bite appliances, and other appliance types for TMJD pain. Pain relief outcome measures were used in the meta-analyses, and the QUORUM criteria for data abstraction were used. A quality analysis of the methods of each RCT was conducted using the CONSORT criteria. The review findings were expressed both as a qualitative review and, where possible, as a mathematical synthesis using meta-analysis of results. A total of 47 publications citing 44 RCTs with 2,218 subjects were included. Ten RCTs were included in two meta-analyses. In the first meta-analysis of seven studies with 385 patients, a hard stabilization appliance was found to improve TMJD pain compared to non-occluding appliance. The overall odds ratio (OR) of 2.46 was statistically significant (P = .001), with a 95% confidence interval of 1.56 to 3.67. In the second meta-analysis of three studies including 216 patients, a hard stabilization appliance was found to improve TMJD pain compared to no-treatment controls. The overall OR of 2.15 was positive but not statistically significant, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.80 to 5.75. The quality (0 to 1) of the studies was moderate, with a mean of 55% of quality criteria being met, suggesting some susceptibility to systematic bias may have existed. Hard stabilization appliances, when adjusted properly, have good evidence of modest efficacy in the treatment of TMJD pain compared to non-occluding appliances and no treatment. Other types of appliances, including soft stabilization appliances, anterior positioning appliances, and anterior bite appliances, have some RCT evidence of efficacy in reducing TMJD pain. However, the potential for adverse events with these appliances is higher and suggests the need for close monitoring in their use.
  • Intraindividual variability in daily sleep and pain ratings among chronic pain patients: bidirectional association and the role of negative mood
    • O 'brien
    • Em Waxenberg
    • Lb Atchison
    • Jw Gremillion
    • Ha Staud
    • Rm Mccrae
    O'Brien EM, Waxenberg LB, Atchison JW, Gremillion HA, Staud RM, McCrae CS, et al. Intraindividual variability in daily sleep and pain ratings among chronic pain patients: bidirectional association and the role of negative mood. Clin J Pain 2011;27(5):425–33.
  • Article
    Pain and symptoms of depression and anxiety have been observed to co-exist in the community-dwelling elderly. While depression and pain have been suggested to be predictive of one another temporally, the longitudinal associations between anxiety and pain remain undefined. The aim of this study was to investigate the reciprocal longitudinal associations of self-reported pain interference and affective symptoms, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, in community-dwelling older adults and report the potentially modifying effect of co-morbid anxiety or depression on these relationships. The study population were adults aged over 50-years, recruited previously to the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis project (NorStOP), who had returned a health survey at both baseline and 3-year follow-up (n=4234). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the pain-affect associations, with associations expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Probable depression (odds ratio=2.42; 95% CI 1.24, 4.69) and anxiety (2.30; 1.67, 3.17) at baseline predicted new-onset pain interference at 3-year follow-up. Conversely, pain interference at baseline was a risk factor for developing possible or probable depression (2.47; 1.96, 3.11) and anxiety (2.02; 1.60, 2.55) at 3-year follow-up. Adjusting for age, gender and co-morbid anxiety or depression slightly reduced the strength of the relationships, though most remained statistically significant. In conclusion, we have found evidence for both pain-depression and pain-anxiety relationships longitudinally, and in a reciprocal manner. Such findings have important implications for the future management of primary care patients presenting with symptoms of pain, anxiety or depression.
  • Article
    Due to the cross-sectional nature of previous studies, whether mechanical factors predict the onset of Chronic oro-facial pain remains unclear. Aims of the current study were to test the hypotheses that self-reported mechanical factors would predict onset of Chronic oro-facial pain and that any observed relationship would be independent of the confounding effects of psychosocial factors and reporting of other unexplained symptoms. About 1735 subjects who had completed a baseline questionnaire were assessed at 2year follow-up for the presence of Chronic oro-facial pain, psychosocial factors (anxiety and depression, illness behaviour, life stressors and reporting of somatic symptoms), mechanical dysfunction (facial trauma, grinding, phantom bite and missing teeth) and reporting of other unexplained symptoms (chronic widespread pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue). About 1329 subjects returned completed questionnaires (adjusted response rate 87%). About 56 (5%) reported new episodes of Chronic oro-facial pain at follow-up. Univariate analyses showed that age, gender, reporting of other unexplained symptoms, psychosocial factors and two self-report mechanical factors predicted the onset of Chronic oro-facial pain. However multivariate analysis showed that mechanical factors did not independently predict onset. The strongest predictors were health anxiety (Relative Risk (RR) 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-6.2), chronic widespread pain (RR 4.0 95% C.I. 2.2-7.4) and age (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). The findings from this prospective study support the hypothesis that psychosocial factors are markers for onset of Chronic oro-facial pain. The efficacy of early psychological management of Chronic oro-facial pain to address these factors should be a priority for future investigations.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    To derive reliable and valid revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms for clinical TMD diagnoses. Methods: The multisite RDC/TMD Validation Project's dataset (614 TMD community and clinic cases, and 91 controls) was used to derive revised algorithms for Axis I TMD diagnoses. Validity of diagnostic algorithms was assessed relative to reference standards, the latter based on consensus diagnoses rendered by two TMD experts using criterion examination data, including temporomandibular joint imaging. Cutoff points for target validity were sensitivity > or = 0.70 and specificity > or = 0.95. Reliability of revised algorithms was assessed in 27 study participants. Revised algorithm sensitivity and specificity exceeded the target levels for myofascial pain (0.82, 0.99, respectively) and myofascial pain with limited opening (0.93, 0.97). Combining diagnoses for any myofascial pain showed sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 1.00. For joint pain, target sensitivity and specificity were observed (0.92, 0.96) when arthralgia and osteoarthritis were combined as "any joint pain." Disc displacement without reduction with limited opening demonstrated target sensitivity and specificity (0.80, 0.97). For the other disc displacement diagnoses, osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis, sensitivity was below target (0.35 to 0.53), and specificity ranged from 0.80 to meeting target. Kappa for revised algorithm diagnostic reliability was > or =0.63. Revised RDC/TMD Axis I TMD diagnostic algorithms are recommended for myofascial pain and joint pain as reliable and valid. However, revised clinical criteria alone, without recourse to imaging, are inadequate for valid diagnosis of two of the three disc displacements as well as osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis.
  • Article
    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patient subgroups and in controls with or without chronic facial pain (CFP). Our sample consisted of 61 men and 161 women. All TMD patients had suffered from pain for at least 6 months and were divided into two subgroups-an exclusively myofascial pain group and an exclusively joint pain group. Subjects without signs or symptoms of TMD but with and without CFP served as controls. All subjects were examined by calibrated examiners in accordance with the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. The German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used for assessment of anxiety and depression. Analysis of covariance was used to determine the effects of sex, age, and subgroup on anxiety and depression scores. Additional t-tests were performed and the subgroups were then compared with those from a general population sample. Females from the exclusively myofascial pain group were significantly more depressed than those from the general population or from the exclusively joint pain group. Male controls with CFP were significantly more depressed than female CFP controls. For anxiety, no significant effect of sex or subgroup was found. Depression may play an important role in women with chronic myofascial pain whereas anxiety does not seem to be relevant for either females or males. Further anxiety screening of patients with temporomandibular pain could not be justified.
  • Article
    ( This reprinted article originally appeared in Science, 1977, Vol 196[4286], 129–236. The following abstract of the original article appeared in PA, Vol 59:1423. ) Although it seems that acceptance of the medical model by psychiatry would finally end confusion about its goals, methods, and outcomes, the present article argues that current crises in both psychiatry and medicine as a whole stem from their adherence to a model of disease that is no longer adequate for the work and responsibilities of either field. It is noted that psychiatrists have responded to their crisis by endorsing 2 apparently contradictory positions, one that would exclude psychiatry from the field of medicine and one that would strictly adhere to the medical model and limit the work of psychiatry to behavioral disorders of an organic nature. Characteristics of the dominant biomedical model of disease are identified, and historical origins and limitations of this reductionistic view are examined. A biopsychosocial model is proposed that would encompass all factors related to both illness and patienthood. Implications for teaching and health care delivery are considered.
  • Article
    The construction of the Pain-Related Self Statements Scale (PRSS) and the Pain-Related Control Scale (PRCS) is described. The PRSS assesses situation-specific aspects of patients' cognitive coping with pain, while the PRCS measures general attitudes towards pain. The reliability and validity of these scales were determined in a sample of 120 chronic pain patients suffering from various rheumatic disorders, 213 patients who suffered from chronic back pain, 44 patients with temporomandibular pain and dysfunction and 38 healthy controls. The analysis of the PRSS yielded two scales termed 'Catastrophizing' and 'Coping'; the PRSC consists of the subscales 'Helplessness' and 'Resourcefulness'. All four subscales were demonstrated to be valid and sensitive to change, and they are closely related to pain intensity and interference from pain experiences.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to compute the odds ratios for 11 common occlusal features for asymptomatic controls (n = 147) vs. five temporomandibular disorder groups: Disc Displacement with Reduction (n = 81), Disc Displacement without Reduction (n = 48), Osteoarthrosis with Disc Displacement History (n = 75), Primary Osteoarthrosis (n = 85), and Myalgia Only (n = 124). Features that did not contribute included: retruded contact position (RCP) to intercuspal position (ICP) occlusal slides < or = 2 mm, slide asymmetry, unilateral RCP contacts, deep overbite, minimal overjet, dental midline discrepancies, < or = 4 missing teeth, and maxillo-mandibular first molar relationship or cross-arch asymmetry. Groupings of a minimum of two to at most five occlusal variables contributed to the TMD patient groups. Significant increases in risk occurred selectively with anterior open bite (p < 0.01), unilateral maxillary lingual crossbite (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01), overjets > 6-7 mm (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01), > or > 5-6 missing posterior teeth (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01), and RCP-ICP slides > 2 mm (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). While the contribution of occlusion to the disease groups was not zero, most of the variation in each disease population was not explained by occlusal parameters. Thus, occlusion cannot be considered the unique or dominant factor in defining TMD populations. Certain features such as anterior open bite in osteoarthrosis patients were considered to be a consequence of rather than etiological factors for the disorder.
  • Article
    More than 200 published studies from most medical settings worldwide have reported experiences with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) which was specifically developed by Zigmond and Snaith for use with physically ill patients. Although introduced in 1983, there is still no comprehensive documentation of its psychometric properties. The present review summarizes available data on reliability and validity and gives an overview of clinical studies conducted with this instrument and their most important findings. The HADS gives clinically meaningful results as a psychological screening tool, in clinical group comparisons and in correlational studies with several aspects of disease and quality of life. It is sensitive to changes both during the course of diseases and in response to psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological intervention. Finally, HADS scores predict psychosocial and possibly also physical outcome.
  • Article
    The salivary cortisol response to psychological stress and its relationship to psychological variables was examined in 36 female temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) sufferers and 39 female control participants. Saliva samples were taken at baseline, after completion of a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test, and after rest. Participants also completed a battery of measures, including Visual Analog Scales for measuring pain intensity and disability and a number of established psychological scales. The TMD group showed a significantly higher cortisol response to experimental stress than the control group. Closer examination of the data revealed that the TMD group was heterogeneous and composed of a group that hypersecreted cortisol in response to stress (Hi-SC TMD group) and another group whose cortisol response was not significantly different from the control group (Lo-SC TMD group). The Lo-SC TMD group showed significant negative relationships between cortisol response and self-reported symptoms of both anxiety and depression, plus significantly more use of the Praying or Hoping coping strategy on the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. A dual relationship between TMD symptoms and the stress response is proposed. First, a biological predisposition to TMD is suggested by the stress response in the Hi-SC TMD group. Second, both psychological and biological variables appear to be important factors in those TMD patients who respond to stress with low cortisol secretion.
  • Article
    To summarize, although there are multiple potential target nuclei for modulating pain transmission and several candidate efferent pathways that exert modulatory control, the most completely described pain modulating circuit includes the amygdala, PAG, DLPT and RVM in the brainstem. Through descending projections, this circuit controls both spinal and trigeminal dorsal horn pain transmission neurons and mediates both opioid and stimulation produced analgesia. Several different neurotransmitters are involved in the modulatory actions of this circuit, which exerts bi-directional control of pain through On cells that facilitate and Off cells that inhibit dorsal horn nociceptive neurons. There is evidence that this circuit contributes to analgesia in humans and may be activated by acute stress or the expectation of relief. Conversely, through the facilitating effect of On cells, this circuit is theoretically capable of generating or enhancing perceived pain intensity. Such an effect could provide a physiological mechanism for the pain enhancing actions of mood, attention and expectation.
  • Article
    To examine the influence of psychosocial functioning and dental factors in adolescents with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) versus healthy subjects. The TMD sample comprised 63 patients (21 boys and 42 girls, 33% and 67%, respectively, with a mean age of 14.9 years; range 12 to 18 years) and was compared with 64 healthy control subjects (17 boys and 47 girls, 27% and 73%, respectively, with a mean age of 14.8 years). Subjects in the TMD group had to report pain once a week or more and to have a TMD pain diagnosis according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. Participants were clinically examined and filled out a questionnaire in which self-reported psychosocial functioning was assessed on standardized measures, including the Youth Self-Report (YSR), somatic complaints, and stress. No significant differences were found in dental factors among adolescents in the TMD group compared with those in the control group. Multiple pains in the body and fatigue were significantly more common in the TMD group compared with the control group. Adolescents with TMD also reported significantly higher levels of stress, somatic complaints, and aggressive behavior than their counterparts in the control group. In particular, young adolescents with TMD reported high levels of psychosocial problems. In adolescents with TMD, psychosocial factors such as increased levels of stress, somatic complaints, and emotional problems seem to play a more prominent role than dental factors.
  • Article
    To review the literature of the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A review of the 747 identified papers that used HADS was performed to address the following questions: (I) How are the factor structure, discriminant validity and the internal consistency of HADS? (II) How does HADS perform as a case finder for anxiety disorders and depression? (III) How does HADS agree with other self-rating instruments used to rate anxiety and depression? Most factor analyses demonstrated a two-factor solution in good accordance with the HADS subscales for Anxiety (HADS-A) and Depression (HADS-D), respectively. The correlations between the two subscales varied from.40 to.74 (mean.56). Cronbach's alpha for HADS-A varied from.68 to.93 (mean.83) and for HADS-D from.67 to.90 (mean.82). In most studies an optimal balance between sensitivity and specificity was achieved when caseness was defined by a score of 8 or above on both HADS-A and HADS-D. The sensitivity and specificity for both HADS-A and HADS-D of approximately 0.80 were very similar to the sensitivity and specificity achieved by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Correlations between HADS and other commonly used questionnaires were in the range.49 to.83. HADS was found to perform well in assessing the symptom severity and caseness of anxiety disorders and depression in both somatic, psychiatric and primary care patients and in the general population.
  • Article
    To explore the relationships between sleep quality, perceived pain, and psychologic distress among patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A total of 137 consecutive patients who sought care at the University of Kentucky Orofacial Pain Center for the management of TMD participated in this study and completed a battery of standardized, self-report questionnaires at their first clinic visit. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) were used to measure patients' sleep quality and multiple dimensions of pain and suffering, respectively. The Revised Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90R) was used to evaluate psychologic symptoms. A median cutoff (PSQI total score: 10) divided the patients into 2 groups, i.e., 67 poor sleepers and 70 good sleepers. There were no statistically significant differences in gender and age distributions between the 2 groups. Poor sleepers reported significantly higher scores than good sleepers on each of the 14 scales of the SCL-90R (P < .003) and on 7 of the 13 scales of the MPI (P < .05). Stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that poorer sleep quality was predicted by higher pain severity (P < .001), greater psychologic distress (P < .05), and less perceived life control (P < .05). This study supports the frequent comorbidity of reported sleep disturbance, perceived pain severity, and psychologic distress in patients with TMD.
  • Article
    The International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-II) was the result of 4 years' work by a large number of headache experts from different parts of the world. This article summarizes the main new features of ICHD-II, compared with the original International Headache Society classification: better definition of migraine with aura, inclusion of chronic migraine, inclusion of a number of new primary headaches (SUNCT, hypnic headache, benign thunderclap headache, new daily-persistent headache, hemicrania continua), better definition of the secondary headaches, introduction of medication-overuse headache and of headache attributed to psychiatric disorder. An appendix defines a number of entities for research purposes. The new classification has already been translated into many of the world's major languages and many more are in the pipeline. It is enormously important that headache experts support and encourage the use of the new classification in order to develop a common knowledge base, and that they research ways of further improving it.
  • Article
    Several clinical studies suggest that psychologic factors may play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) signs and symptoms. The goal of this study was to verify the prevalence of anxiety and depression in adolescents, and their relationship with signs and symptoms of TMD. The sample comprised 217 nonpatient adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age. The subjective symptoms and clinical signs of TMD were evaluated, respectively, using a self-report questionnaire and the Craniomandibular Index (CMI, which has 2 subscales), the Dysfunction Index, and the Palpation Index. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a 14-item self-administered rating scale that was developed specifically to identify anxiety and depression in nonpsychiatric medical outpatients, assessed levels of anxiety and depression. In the total sample, anxiety and depression were present in 16.58% and 26.71% of subjects, respectively, including all levels of HADS. The results showed that there were positive correlations between CMI and Palpation Index and anxiety (HADSa) (P < .01) but not with depression (HADSd). An association between the number of TMD subjective symptoms and HADSa/HADSd was found (P < .01). Anxiety and depression, although of mild intensity, are common in adolescents. In this study both HADSa and HADSd were associated with an increasing number of TMD subjective symptoms. However, only anxiety was correlated with clinical signs of TMD (CMI), primarily muscle tenderness (Palpation Index).
  • Article
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