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Abstract and Figures

Whilst the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery following exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the present review is to examine the current evidence of sleep and the potential role it may play in post-exercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and following competition. Although limited published data is available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and duration following night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension and sleep hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof of concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on the post-exercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses within team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity at which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review will examine the factors that compromise sleep during a season and following competition, and discuss strategies which may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.
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Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Note. This article will be published in a forthcoming issue of the
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. The
article appears here in its accepted, peer-reviewed form, as it was
provided by the submitting author. It has not been copyedited,
proofread, or formatted by the publisher.
Section: Brief Review
Article Title: Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing
Professional Team-sport Athletes
Authors: Hugh H.K. Fullagar1, Rob Duffield2, Sabrina Skorski1, Aaron J Coutts2, Ross
Julian1 and Tim Meyer1
Affiliations: 1Institute of Sport and Preventive Medicine, Saarland University, Germany.
2Sport & Exercise Discipline Group, UTS: Health, University of Technology, Australia.
Journal: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Acceptance Date: February 18, 2015
©2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0565
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Title: Sleep and recovery in team sport: current sleep-related issues
facing professional team-sport athletes
Submission Type: Brief Review
Authors: Hugh H.K. Fullagar1,
Rob Duffield2,
Sabrina Skorski1,
Aaron J Coutts2,
Ross Julian1
and Tim Meyer1
Institutions: 1 Institute of Sport and Preventive Medicine, Saarland
University, Germany
2 Sport & Exercise Discipline Group, UTS: Health, University
of Technology, Australia
Corresponding author 1 Hugh Fullagar
Institute of Sport and Preventive Medicine, Saarland
University, GEB. B82
66123 Saarbrucken, Germany
Email:
hughfullagar@uni-saarland.de
Phone: 0681-302 70400
Fax: 0681-302 4296
Running head: Sleep and recovery in team sport
Abstract word count: 241
Text only word count: 4497
References: 49
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 1
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
ABSTRACT
Whilst the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of
disturbed sleep on recovery following exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction
between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well
understood. Accordingly, the aim of the present review is to examine the current evidence of
sleep and the potential role it may play in post-exercise recovery, with a tailored focus on
professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk
of poor sleep during and following competition. Although limited published data is available,
these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and
duration following night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies
examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed,
further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these
concerns. Naps, sleep extension and sleep hygiene practices appear advantageous to
performance; however, future proof of concept studies are now required to determine the
efficacy of these interventions on the post-exercise recovery. Moreover, more research is
required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses within team-
sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity at which these teams encounter
challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review will examine the
factors that compromise sleep during a season and following competition, and discuss
strategies which may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.
KEYWORDS: Regeneration, exercise, stress, soccer, circadian rhythms,
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
1. Introduction
High performance team-sport athletes endure numerous physiological, psychological
and neuromuscular stressors during training and competition.1 It is logical that these athletes
balance these stressors with appropriate recovery to maximise performance and adaptation,
whilst also minimising the injury risk.2 A crucial part of this stress-recovery balance is the
management of an athlete’s sleep, especially during intense training and competition.3
However, whilst the interest afforded to the relationship between sleep and athletic
performance is well documented,4 the evidence underpinning the role of sleep in recovery is
less understood. This is surprising from both a scientific and applied perspective given
athletes often rate sleep as their most important recovery strategy.5
There are three key factors which determine the recuperative outcome of sleep; the
duration (total sleep time), quality and phase (circadian timing) of sleep.6 A healthy night of
sleep has been suggested to be 7-9 h.7 In addition to duration, sleep quality is also critical for
optimal health and restorative functioning.7 Although a clear definition is not readily
available, sleep quality can best be outlined as the personal satisfaction of the sleep
experience.7 Further, the timing of sleep will also influence the effectiveness of the sleep
bout. The timing of an individual’s preferred bedtime in turn affects their circadian rhythms
(i.e. body temperature, hormone regulation), which can impact both sleep duration and
quality.6 From an athletic perspective, disturbances to one or all of these collective aspects of
sleep are suggested to affect the post-exercise recovery process.6 For instance, it has been
shown that a reduction in the quantity and quality of sleep hinders the capacity of rugby-
league footballers to recover for the demands of ensuing training and competitive bouts.8
Thus, it may be paramount for team-sport athletes to be aware of situations where disturbed
sleep duration, quality or phase may affect ensuing recovery.
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
A reduction in sleep duration and/or quality in individual athletes prior to,9-11 and
during competition12 has been recently documented. Whilst there is less information available
on team-sport athletes, Lastella et al13 reported a mean sleep duration of 7.0 h per night in 58
elite Australian team-sport athletes during a typical training phase, ~ one hour less than the
recommended 8 h per night. Further to these findings, sleep disruption or deprivation can
occur for team-sport athletes, particularly during short- or long-haul travel,14-16 congested
competition schedules,1 and training or playing at night,17 presenting the potential for
compromised recovery.3,8 Indeed, sleep loss in team-sport athletes is often affected by these
situational factors,18 with many professional teams currently facing the challenge of coping
with these specific, but recurring stressors. For example, Major League Baseballers play
every two days combined with repeated travel across the United States, which provide
conditions that are not conducive to optimal sleep.19 Similarly, the majority of European
soccer tournaments are commonly played at night, resulting in late night finishes and players
subjectively reporting sleep loss.20 These observations of altered sleep in team-sport athletes
are also supported by objective evidence of post-competitive sleep disturbance in elite rugby
union players17 and professional Australian soccer players,16 and a recent report that 52.3% of
elite (individual and team sport) athletes experience sleep disturbances following late
matches or training sessions.18 Collectively, these data suggest that although ‘normal’ sleep
patterns may be sufficient, under specific, recurring circumstances there are cases for reduced
sleep durations and quality in team-sport athletes.
At present, the importance of sleep as a recovery method in team-sport athletes (i.e.
return to baseline of psycho-physiological and performance parameters following exercise
and disrupted sleep) is unclear. In particular, there is little analysis of the role sleep plays in
the post-exercise recovery process during various situations where sleep is compromised.
Whilst the literature examining the interaction between sleep and recovery in athletes is
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
increasing (Figure 1), there have been no critical reviews of these factors in the context of
training and competition demands of team-sport athletes. Accordingly, the aim of the current
study was to examine the evidence of the potential role sleep may play in post-exercise
recovery, with a specific focus on professional team-sport athletes. As such, an analysis of
situations which may continually compromise sleep throughout a season and/or one-off post-
competition sleep disturbance is provided. Strategies to alleviate such issues facing team-
sport athletes are also addressed. For this review, it is important to discern the difference
between recovery and performance. From an athletic perspective, performance in absolute
terms refers to the context and magnitude to which the athlete completes certain tasks within
their sporting domain.21 These can include but are not limited to competition performance
(e.g. goals scored by a footballer), predictors of performance (e.g. sprinting speed) and
surrogate measures of performance (e.g. counter movement jump score). The effects of sleep
loss on performance trials involve baseline performance measures followed by a sleep loss
intervention/sleep control condition and then final performance measures the next
morning/days. Comparatively, recovery refers to the degree at which parameters return to
baseline following a distinct exercise bout and disrupted sleep (e.g. return of creatine kinase
to baseline values following a rugby match or the return of YoYo test performance to
baseline values following a training session).6,8 Thus, the main discernible difference between
performance and recovery is that recovery experiments follow a distinct time-course analysis
from a prior stressor (i.e. match play). This makes them suitable for the assessment of the
health, wellbeing and readiness to perform of team-sport athletes.
2. Sleep and recovery for team-sport athletes
A typical night of sleep is comprised of approximately 90-min cycles divided into
periods of rapid-eye-movement (REM), and non-REM (NREM) sleep. Whilst REM sleep has
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
a role in periodic brain activation, localized recuperative processes and emotional regulation,
the role for NREM sleep is proposed to assist with energy conservation and nervous system
recuperation.22 Taken collectively, there is considerable evidence supporting the recuperative
nature of sleep in restoring molecular homeostasis, cellular maintenance and synaptic
plasticity.6,22,23 From an athletic perspective, this implicates that disturbances to either the
timing of sleep phases, or the quality and duration of sleep within these phases, can result in
the hindrance of psychological and physical recovery following an exercise bout.6 This would
seem especially pertinent for field-based team sports that are typically exposed to prolonged
bouts of intermittent-sprint activity during both high-intensity training and competition.
Logically, exposure to such activity will increase the need for recovery and subsequently
increase the overall requirement for sleep.13
From this perspective, it seems rational to first investigate the sleep-wake behaviour
of team-sport athletes during and following training, and competition periods. Mah et al24
reported mean average sleep durations of 6.7±1.0 h in collegiate basketballers during a
competitive season. Similarly, Lastella et al13 found a sample of 58 elite Australian team-
sport athletes slept for a mean duration of 7.0±1.2 h during a regular training phase. With
regard to sleep following competition, Eagles et al17 found a significant reduction in sleep
duration on game nights compared to non-game nights.17 Juliff et al18 reported that more than
half of a sample of 283 elite individual and team-sport elite athletes (of which 210 were from
team sports) endured sleep disturbances following a late training session or match.18 In
support of this, sleep duration and quality were significantly reduced on the night of away
matches compared to the night prior in elite Australian soccer players.16 Whilst caution needs
to be taken in comparing these studies (i.e. due to differences in sleep-assessment
methodologies), it seems reasonable to assume sleep in team-sport athletes is dependent on
many factors. These could include the type of sport, training demands, age, time of season
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
and team culture.13 Overall, high performance team-sport athletes are considered susceptible
to sleep loss during training periods and following match play (especially at night). Whilst
such insight is important, further descriptive research of sleep with high performance team-
sport athletes is required to confirm this, most importantly for the nights following
competition.
Recent studies have also shown that sleep restriction following team-sport
competition affects the time course of recovery for both performance and
psychophysiological measures. For instance, Skein and colleagues8 investigated the effect of
sleep deprivation (0 h sleep) compared with normal sleep (~8 h) on the physiological and
perceptual recovery of eleven rugby-league footballers following competitive matches in a
randomised cross-over design. Overall, sleep deprivation negatively affected recovery with
significant impairments observed in mean and peak countermovement jump height and
cognitive reaction time. Although sleep deprivation was excessive, this study highlights the
increased physiological load during wakefulness following sleep loss in team sports, and in
turn, suppression of cognitive function and lower body power. Similarly, Fowler et al16
reported significant reductions in sleep duration and quality, along with an impaired stress-
recovery balance, on the night of a match compared to the night prior for away matches.
Whilst additional literature is lacking in team-sport athletes, there is further evidence of this
relationship in individual athletes. For instance, significant reductions in sleep quantity and
efficiency were associated with increased fatigue and impaired exercise capacity in a group
of ten functionally-overreached elite synchronized swimmers.25 Furthermore, McMurray and
Brown26 investigated the cardiovascular and metabolic responses of five participants during
submaximal exercise following 24 h of sleep deprivation. They reported increased minute
ventilation and oxygen uptake during the recovery period, suggesting negative effects of
sleep loss on physiological recovery.26 Nonetheless, the evidence as to how sleep interacts
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
with multi-factorial recovery responses within high performance team-sport environments is
currently lacking. In particular, there is little longitudinal objective sleep data available in the
scientific literature. This is surprising given this would appear the first step in understanding
the relationship between sleep and recovery.
Finally, since a variety of other recovery strategies are utilised in sport, some studies
have also examined the interaction between sleep and these protocols. For instance, Robey et
al27 reported that cold water immersion post-training does not affect subsequent sleep
duration, onset or efficiency. However, the mechanisms between the interaction of sleep and
other recovery protocols are difficult to determine, due to an abundance of confounding
factors (e.g. protocol type, timing, facilities). Further research and practical investigation
within professional environments which address whether it is more advantageous to use a
recovery protocol which enhances sleep and/or whether a combination of these protocols
enhances the recovery process is warranted. This is especially pertinent given the wide
prevalence of these methods in team sports.
3. Sleep-related issues facing team-sport athletes
As summarised in Figure 2, the following section outlines particular situations where
sleep is at risk of compromise in team sport athletes. Whilst acknowledging the previous
work done in this area but also recognising the absence of published data over prolonged
periods, this gives particular relevance to situations during a season and/or one-off post-
competition sleep disturbance.
3.1Team-sport matches played at night
As often determined by television scheduling, numerous team-sports schedule the
completion of matches at night. Indeed, the pure timing of matches (i.e. some matches in the
Spanish La Liga commence at 22:00) will force players into later bedtimes.1 Furthermore,
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
since physical activity promotes arousal, it has long been assumed exercising during the
evening hours produces a greater number of sleep disturbances than exercising during
daylight.20 Team-sport athletes also have extensive post-game commitments such as press
conferences, recovery practises and social functions, which could lead to later bedtimes and
disrupt sleep duration and quality.1 As alluded to previously, Juliff et al18 found 52.3% of a
sample of 283 elite individual (n=73) and team-sport (n=210) athletes reported sleep
disturbances following a night training session/match. Moreover, 59.1% of team-sport
athletes reported that that did not use a strategy to overcome these sleep disturbances.18
Furthermore, a recent review on regenerative interventions used in professional soccer
explains that many medical doctors report players lose sleep following night matches, which
include findings on elite Bundesliga soccer players subjectively reporting reduced sleep
duration and quality.20 Notwithstanding these findings, the anecdotal evidence of athletes
reporting sleep disturbances following night competition outweighs that documented in the
literature; thus, further research in elite athletic populations is required to confirm this.
Recent data shows that performing maximal aerobic exercise in the evening results in
elevated sleep onset latency, awakenings, and REM sleep latency - suggesting poorer overall
sleep quality in judo competitors.28 Whilst several physiological variables are elevated prior
to sleep onset following late-night vigorous exercise (suggesting possible effects on cardiac
autonomic control and metabolic function29), delayed sleep onset can also be caused by
mental stimulation or cognitive fatigue.23 Moreover, given pain is a significant predictor of a
poor night’s sleep,30 it is likely prolonged late-night, high-intensity exercise (equivalent to
match situations) will incur sleep disturbances throughout the night as a result of pain and
soreness. This is of particular relevance for heavy contact sports such as American football,
ice hockey, and rugby union. It should be noted that there is opposing evidence on the effect
of competing at night on sleep. For instance, Roach et al31 reported no effect of two night
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
(19:00-21:00) matches on sleep in elite junior soccer players. Similarly, Robey et al32 found
no effect of early evening high-intensity training on the subsequent sleep quality or duration
in elite youth soccer players.
In light of this, it should be recognised that the mechanisms behind the effect of
exercise (and timing) on sleep are complex due to the main confounding variable (amongst
others) of the stress induced by the exercise itself. From an applied perspective, future
research must first focus on providing objective evidence (e.g. acute and chronic
measurements of actigraphy) on whether disturbances following match play at night occur.
Researchers might also focus on the effects of disrupted sleep following match play in team-
sport athletes and attempt to delineate the mechanisms responsible. At present, practitioners
should also be aware of the intra-individual variability in sleep requirement and chronotype
(those who arise early in the morning vs. those who prefer later bedtimes). Accommodating
these differences within a team environment is difficult as it may require more individualised
approaches. Indeed, this would be even more pertinent for team scheduling training the day
after a game. For instance, training in the absence of sufficient sleep following late night
matches may potentiate the negative outcomes. This may create recovery concerns given
players will sleep differently after these matches, whilst also possibly placing those whom are
training at an unnecessary injury risk.
3.2 Sleep and travel fatigue
Cumulative sleep loss occurs as a consequence of travel during busy periods, which
tends to lead to accumulative fatigue over a season.33 Travel fatigue is dependent on the
distance and frequency of travel, and the length of the season. It should be noted that travel-
induced fatigue is separate to jet-lag fatigue, with the main difference being jet-lag comprises
an effect of time-zone change.33 The influences of jet-lag arising from long-haul
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
international travel in elite athletes have been discussed previously33,34 and thus will not be
further addressed here. Sleep disturbances during or following travel can result in reductions
in mood, acute fatigue and difficulty in initiating sleep at the arrival destination.33 For team-
sports, the method, mode, distance and timing of travel varies greatly and is largely
dependent on scheduling, team budget and the coach’s preference.35 Many teams, particularly
in America and Australia, endure one-way short haul domestic or international travel up to 6
h prior to or following competition.19,36,37 In addition to sleep disturbances, travelling can
result in detrimental health, impaired mood, dehydration and loss of motivation all of which
can affect recovery.33 Of further concern, it has been shown that baseball teams whose
circadian rhythms are more synchronised to optimal performance times are more likely to be
successful, indicating either a negative effect of travel and/or desynchronised body-clock
functioning.19 However, it should be noted that these data do not actually outline any physical
or perceptual response to the travel, limiting its implication in athlete recovery.
Empirical data describing the effect of short-haul air travel on sleep, performance and
the ensuing recovery in these situations is largely unknown. For instance, the sleep quantity
and quality of players following away competition performance remains unclear, with short-
haul air travel (1-3 h) affecting perceived sleep quality,36 whereas some soccer players report
earlier mean bed times after short-haul air travel (~5 h) and an away match.16 Competition
performance, along with reduced physical demands, appears to be greater at home compared
to away (in American football37, baseball19, rugby league14 and soccer16) suggesting either a
negative effect of travel or a circadian advantage.34 However, extrapolating these effects to
determinations of match performance is difficult due to other external factors and the inter-
match variability in opposition and match intensity. Whilst there have been few empirical
studies, the available data suggests that short-haul travel has minimal effect on physiological
and perceptual recovery (e.g. no significant effect on YoYo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
performance), with more regular or longer periods of travel (e.g. 24-h international transfers)
more likely to result in negative responses.15 Whilst short-haul air travel appears to have
negligible effects on post-match physiological recovery, the effect on perceptual markers of
fatigue and sleep patterns following competition performance is equivocal. If these
parameters decline, they can negatively influence training intensity or volume during ensuing
sessions due to decreased motivation.38 Given the myriad of conflicting demands whilst
experiencing travel and sleep loss (e.g. treatment, timing of training, recovery practices), it
can be difficult for coaches to manage the most appropriate schedule for their team the day
after a match. Indeed more research is required to clarify the acute and chronic effects of
cumulative travel (e.g. over a season) on sleep and psychological and physiological recovery
parameters of professional team-sport athletes.
3.3 Sleep and congested competition schedules
Excessive exercise loads can disturb the stress-recovery balance and result in
performance decrements and injury occurrence.2 For example, during periods of heavy match
congestion in soccer, there is an increased injury risk for players when they play two matches
per week rather than one.39 In this regard, some major European football teams may compete
in up to four competitions at once which likely impacts on players sleep behaviour.
Congested schedules are also present throughout American sports such as baseball, hockey
and basketball. During these periods of high physical workloads, there is a potential for a
reduction in sleep duration and quality. For example, it has been shown that as the effects of
increased baseball match exposure accumulate towards the end of the season strike zone
judgement is impaired, which suggests a fatigue-induced decline in performance; with sleep
believed to be one of the main symptoms responsible.40
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Sleep has also been suggested to be sensitive to exercise overload - with high training
volumes associated with greater sleep disruptions.41 Although no published data is yet
apparent in team-sport cases, Netzer et al42 found significant increases in the REM sleep
onset latency and decreases in REM sleep of well trained cyclists following training and a
competitive 120-150 km race, compared to no training or competition. Following this, it is
logical that when team-sport athletes compete in a greater number of matches within a short
period, exercise-induced muscle damage will accumulate (dependant also on exercise
intensity), characterised by decreased neuromuscular function, increased perceptual fatigue
and increases in perceived soreness which can disrupt sleep.1 Moreover, if there are several
events in short succession, the continual anticipation of competition can also negate sleep.18
However, at present, there is little research that describes or quantifies the effect of these
changes on the subsequent recovery, particularly in team-sports undertaking congested fixture
scheduling. Future investigations into the time course of recovery following sleep loss would
be particularly pertinent to team sports such as baseball and cricket, since these athletes can
play on consecutive days and could be at a high risk of cognitive impairments (e.g. slowed
reaction time).
3.4 Sleep and disturbances to training adaptation
Since sleep loss impedes muscle protein accumulation, the ability of skeletal muscle
to adapt and repair can be hindered which likely limits training adaptations.3,6,43 This may
be concerning during the pre-season for team-sport athletes given sleep disturbances are
present during higher training volumes.41 Since sleep loss can also affect vigour, mood and
perceptual awareness,38 early training sessions could cause reductions in motivation and
consequently reduce optimal training performance and subsequent adaptations.44
Furthermore, if the stress-recovery balance of team-sport athletes is disrupted by either an
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
increase in training load/stress or inadequate recovery, it may lead to an overreached, or even
overtrained state.2 Interestingly, disturbed sleep is believed to be one of many symptoms of
either overreaching or the overtraining syndrome.2 In a recent study by Hausswirth et al45, it
was found that objective measures of sleep duration, efficiency and immobile time were all
negatively altered in a group of functionally overreached tri-athletes. There was also a higher
prevalence of upper respiratory tract infections within this group, implying an association
between the two; however whether impaired sleep and illness occurrence are consequences,
or simply symptoms or coincidental associations, of overreaching remains unknown.45 In
light of this, practitioners are encouraged to monitor the sleeping patterns of their athletes in
high periods of stress either through subjective sleep diaries and/or wristwatch actigraphy.5
Since sleep loss can hinder the learning of new skills, affect emotional regulation and
disrupt cognitive function,6 it is likely that sleep is also important for optimising cognitive
training adaptations in team-sport athletes. For instance, sleep is critical for memory
retention, neural plasticity, and has been shown to improve visual discrimination and motor
adaptation.23 Therefore, it is likely that disturbing sleep during intense training or skill
acquisition periods (e.g. pre-season) will encumber adaption in skill-based tasks with high
neurocognitive reliance.4 However, objective evidence to support this suggestion is not
currently present. Therefore, future research (with well controlled randomised-control trials)
into the effects of sleep disruption on acute or chronic cognitive-based training adaptations in
athletic populations is required.
4. Sleep strategies for team-sport athletes
4.1. Napping
In an attempt to recover from sleep debt, a commonly utilised sleep strategy amongst
team-sport athletes is the restorative nap. Naps have been shown to improve alertness,
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
sleepiness, short-term memory and accuracy during reaction time tests.46 Furthermore,
Waterhouse et al46 found improvements in mean sprint performance following a 30 min post-
lunch nap after 4-5 h of sleep restriction. On the basis of this, it has been proposed athletes
take a post-lunch nap to ameliorate the performance deficits caused by ultradian biological
rhythms that occur within the circadian cycle.38,46 As such, it appears napping behaviours
have many benefits and should be undertaken where necessary in team-sport environments.
An example would be for soccer players to have a nap after lunch if they are playing a match
at night. However, it is critical that if naps are implemented within a team-sport environment
they balance the need to enhance performance whilst not disturbing subsequent sleep
patterns, as this could hinder the recovery process following training or competition. Indeed,
whilst napping appears advantageous for performance (e.g. napping prior to competition),
more research is required to evaluate its possible effectiveness in recovery.
4.2 Sleep extension
Extending sleep during normal sleep times is another strategy to alleviate the
decrements in physiological and cognitive performance caused by sleep loss. Mah et al24
found faster sprint and reaction times and improved shooting accuracy, energy and mood
following approximately three weeks of sleep extension (mean + 110 min) in eleven
basketball players, indicating its use as a viable option for enhancing team-sport performance.
Moreover, extending sleep improves psychological wellbeing thus optimising athletes’
mental preparedness for competition.24 However, obtaining extra sleep can be difficult,
because increased sleep onset latency and mood effects can be nullified due to earlier
bedtimes. Thus, if an athlete is not sleep deprived it is possible that extending sleep will reap
no benefit. The timing of this sleep intervention could also influence the effects of sleep
extension depending on the sleep chronotype of the athlete. Additionally, more research
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
assessing whether sleep extension during periods of high-training load is a useful tool to
ensure appropriate recovery is required. Such research would be pertinent in assisting players
achieve higher sustained intensities in subsequent exercise bouts (i.e. during pre-season).
4.3 Sleep hygiene protocols
Identifying and modifying the factors that contributes to improve sleep quality
(improving sleep hygiene) in team-sport athletes can also assist in ameliorating the
detrimental effect of sleep loss and potentially enhance recovery. Sleep hygiene strategies
have been shown to improve sleep quality and onset latency in university students and
reduced sleep irregularity in adolescents, although the effect of numerous components of
sleep hygiene in normal sleepers is mixed.47 From an athletic perspective, little is known
about the interaction between these sleep hygiene strategies and the recovery of exercise and
psychological parameters. Preliminary evidence indicates adhering to some of the previous
sleep hygiene recommendations improves sleep quantity, resulting in a reduction in perceived
soreness and fatigue in elite tennis players.48 Furthermore, regulating sleep-wake times helps
synchronise the circadian timing system, improving sleep quality and quantity.49 As pre-
competition worry and anxiety are evident in athletes,10,18 it may be of benefit to utilise self-
confidence tools (i.e. meditation) to manage anxiety and stress, as these correlate with
improved sleep.49 Identifying each individuals best sleep habits (e.g. bed comfort) are also
pertinent, as unfamiliar environments may reduce sleep quality.49 Such recommendations are
similar to those designed for team-sport athletes who endure constant travel.33 It is well
known sleep onset is prolonged by noise, light and extreme temperatures, with athletes
reporting noise and light as the two most important factors to their sleep quality.10 Since the
use of technology just prior to sleeping promotes afferent signals from the retina to the pineal
gland, inhibiting the secretion of melatonin and delaying sleep onset, the avoidance of
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
bedtime technology (and thus reducing arousal and physiological excitement) has been
recommended to improve sleep onset.49 As part of a healthy sleep protocol, several
nutritional recommendations have also been proposed to assist with sleep onset. For instance,
a recent review by Halson5 proposed diets high in carbohydrates and protein may result in
shorter sleep latencies and improved sleep quality, respectively.5 Whilst there is a clear need
for nutrition during the post-exercise recovery period, the interaction between foods
consumed post-exercise and the ensuing sleep and recovery timeline is unclear. Indeed, the
effects of nutrition are intricately complex and beyond the scope of this review (see Halson5
for further detail).
5. Future research
Currently, there is insufficient evidence to conclusively describe the role of sleep for
post-exercise recovery and resultant performance outcomes. As such, the first step in
understanding this contribution is for the utilisation of long-term observational field studies
through the use of subjective sleep diaries and/or actimetry in various situations. This will
help to identify areas where sleep may be an issue in team-sport athletes. Once this specific
context is known, it is important to understand the interaction sleep has with variables within
the high performance athletic environment during situations where sleep is an issue. This
requires both randomised-cross over trials which investigate the measurement of sleep and
the post-exercise recovery timeline (both physiological and psychological), and also case
studies in high performance team-sport athletes. Future work within this field could also
focus on understanding the mechanisms involved and providing appropriate interventions to
improve sleep and the ensuing recovery process.
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
6. Practical recommendations for team-sport athletes
The following recommendations (Table 1) are based on the literature within this
review. However, the authors recognise that there is a lack of research examining the
interactions between sleep and recovery in athletes. Nonetheless, there seems little risk but
much (potential) benefit in following these recommendations. It is perhaps most important to
tailor interventions toward individual athletes.
7. Conclusion
While sleep is commonly reported to be critical for recovery from intense exercise
and/or competition by athletes, coaches and scientists, the current understanding of the effect
of sleep on the recovery profile, especially in athletic populations, remains unclear. There is
evidence to suggest elite athletes lose sleep prior to and during competition periods. Further,
although limited published data is available, team-sport athletes appear to be susceptible to
reductions in sleep quality and duration during and following competition (especially at
night), during periods of congested fixture scheduling and longer forms of travel. Given the
regularity at which numerous professional teams might encounter these situations throughout
a season, they may encumber the players sleep and recovery. The efficacy of interventions to
improve sleep, such as sleep hygiene protocols and sleep extension appear advantageous - but
require further investigation in situations relevant to professional team sports. These
interventions may be suited to specific situations when the risk of compromised sleep is
higher (i.e. playing at home or away, at night and/or inclusive of travel). This is especially
pertinent with regards to the recovery of exercise parameters. Indeed, since research in this
area is lacking, further research into the role of sleep and recovery in team sports is
warranted.
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Acknowledgments:
No funding was provided which contributed to the development of this manuscript. The
authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. Hugh Fullagar is supported by a
“Science and Health in Soccer” scholarship funded by the DAAD (German Academic
Exchange Service).
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
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International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
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Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Figure 1: The increase in the number of sleep, athlete and recovery publications over the past
eight years. The solid fill lines illustrate the amount of literature which appears following a
Pub Med database search using the terms “sleep”, “recovery” and “athlete” in all fields for
each calendar year.
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Figure 2: A schematic representation of the commonly encountered situations in team sports
which may compromise sleep patterns and potentially recovery. Theoretical effects of these
situations are also described; however it should be noted more research is required to confirm
the majority of these effects.
Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-related Issues Facing Professional Team-sport Athletes
by Fullagar H HK et al.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
© 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Table 1: Practical sleep recommendations for players, coaches and practitioners.
Issue
Identify if sleep problems exist during normal
scenarios within your athletic population.
Late-night matches and congested schedules
Short-haul domestic or international travel
It is important for teams to be aware of the
possible altered physiological load in next-day
training sessions following sleep loss.
Daytime sleepiness
... Sleep deprivation may affect glycogen resynthesis, exercise-induced muscle damage, injury risk and mental fatigue (Nedelec et al., 2015a). Sleep deprivation can also result in reduced toleration of exercise loads (Herring et al., 2019), an increase in illness risk or a decrease in physiological adaptations (Fullagar et al., 2015a). It should, however, be noted that mechanisms by which insufficient sleep affects recovery and subsequent performance are not well understood (Fullagar et al., 2015a(Fullagar et al., , 2015b. ...
... Sleep deprivation can also result in reduced toleration of exercise loads (Herring et al., 2019), an increase in illness risk or a decrease in physiological adaptations (Fullagar et al., 2015a). It should, however, be noted that mechanisms by which insufficient sleep affects recovery and subsequent performance are not well understood (Fullagar et al., 2015a(Fullagar et al., , 2015b. Since sleep can be considered a "natural recovery strategy" (Venter and Grobbelaar, 2017) and interventions during/directly after the exercise are hardly possible, emphasis is placed on knowledge transfer (Table 4). ...
... However, sleep disturbances are common in both elite and amateur athletes (Erlacher et al., 2011;Kolling et al., 2019), and athletes lack strategies to improve their sleep (Erlacher et al., 2011). A congested schedule (e.g., playing 3 games in 7 days), playing games after 8 PM with an associated exposure to lights, travelling (Fullagar et al., 2015a; Journal of Human Kinetics -volume 82/2022 http://www.johk.pl al., 2015a) and certain habits such as alcohol consumption after games or training may influence sleep quality and quantity (Barnes, 2014;Feige et al., 2006). ...
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Strategies to improve recovery are widely used among soccer players at both amateur and professional levels. Sometimes, however, recovery strategies are ineffective, improperly timed or even harmful to players. This highlights the need to educate practitioners and athletes about the scientific evidence of recovery strategies as well as to provide practical approaches to address this issue. Therefore, recent surveys among soccer athletes and practitioners were reviewed to identify the recovery modalities currently in use. Each strategy was then outlined with its rationale, its physiological mechanisms and the scientific evidence followed by practical approaches to implement the modality. For each intervention, practical and particularly low-effort strategies are provided to ensure that practitioners at all levels are able to implement them. We identified numerous interventions regularly used in soccer, i.e., sleep, rehydration, nutrition, psychological recovery, active recovery, foam-rolling/massage, stretching, cold-water immersion, and compression garments. Nutrition and rehydration were classified with the best evidence, while cold-water immersion, compression garments, foam-rolling/massage and sleep were rated with moderate evidence to enhance recovery. The remaining strategies (active recovery, psychological recovery, stretching) should be applied on an individual basis due to weak evidence observed. Finally, a guide is provided, helping practitioners to decide which intervention to implement. Here, practitioners should rely on the evidence, but also on their own experience and preference of the players.
... These factors include, amongst others, accessibility, transport and communication challenges, and pain caused by health conditions hindering training schedules (Rodrigues et al., 2017). On average, an individual's night sleep is divided into 90-minute cycles split by periods of nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) states and rapid-eye-movement (REM) (Fullagar et al., 2015). NREM sleep assists with energy conservation and nervous system recuperation (Fullagar et al., 2015). ...
... On average, an individual's night sleep is divided into 90-minute cycles split by periods of nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) states and rapid-eye-movement (REM) (Fullagar et al., 2015). NREM sleep assists with energy conservation and nervous system recuperation (Fullagar et al., 2015). NREM sleep is subdivided into 3 phases. ...
... REM (the dreaming phases) is defined by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, as "the stage of sleep with the highest brain activity, characterized by enhanced brain metabolism and vivid hallucinatory imagery or dreaming" (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2001, p.349). Sleep has a direct impact on individual physiological and psychological ability and development regarding daily tasks and athletic performance (Fullagar et al., 2015). When asleep, 95% of the daily production of growth hormones are released during the NREM sleeping stage, meaning that this is the most critical time for the body to actively repair and restore itself (O'Donnell et al., 2018). ...
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Full-text available
This study aimed to understand the sleeping habits of Israeli Paralympic Athletes as a pre-intervention stage to implement sleep hygiene programs. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was used to assess sleep quality. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to determine sleepiness throughout the day. Chronotype was detected using the Horne and Östberg Questionnaire. Para-athletes who were expected to represent Israel at the Tokyo 2020 games were approached via email. The surveys were collected online between April and August, 2018. Para-athletes (n = 52, male = 32, female = 20, mean age = 31.2y, SD = 11.9, from 13 different sport disciplines) completed the online surveys. One-way ANOVA test was used to compare sleep efficiency between the sleepy and non-sleepy groups. MANOVA test was performed to evaluate differences between sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction and latency between the good and poor sleep quality groups. Non-parametric tests were conducted to analyze the association between the results of the three questionnaires and each sample characteristics. Under a third (31%, n=16) of the athletes slept between 6.5 to 7 hours per night, and a further 29% (n=15) slept less than 6 hours. From the MANOVA analysis, athletes with poor sleep quality had statistically significantly lower sleep efficiency (p = .028, F(1,50) = 5.11, medium effect size: = .093), greater daytime dysfunction (p < .001, F(1,50) = 14.19, large effect size: = .221), and greater sleep latency (p < .001, F(1,50) = 15.08, large effect size: = .232), than athletes with good sleep quality. Of the athletes, 33% reported having 'moderate to excessive daytime sleepiness', 46% did not train at times that match their chronotype. The results of this study may aid in planning effective intervention methods to improve athletes' sleep quality.
... However, sleep remains as the gold standard recovery strategy. 1 Thereby, in order to ensure favourable adaptations and minimize risks of overtraining and injury, adolescent athletes must manage both academic and athletic pressures while fulfilling their sleep needs. Despite the absence of a consensus regarding sleep requirements in young athletes, it is recommended to sleep 8 to 10 h per night for adolescents with a sleep efficiency greater than 85% 2 . ...
... This could be explained by the increased sleep pressure and recovery needs after the competition. 1 Furthermore, night-to-night differences in bedtime and TST following Tuesday and Thursday among junior rugby players could be explained by late training as advanced by previous studies. 17,18 Junior rugby players had higher IIV in several sleep outcomes compared to their non-athlete peers. ...
Article
Despite the importance of sleep monitoring in the context of sport, few studies to date examined night-to-night sleep variability among adolescent athletes. This study compared night-to-night sleep variation between junior rugby players and age-matched non-athlete adolescents across seven consecutive nights of the in-season competitive phase. This investigation is based on data from a single centre, observational prospective study including 30 adolescents (15 junior rugby players and 15 non-athlete age-matched controls). Sleep was continuously monitored using ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. While the non-athlete controls catch-up on their sleep debt during the weekend by delaying their wake-up time, junior rugby players opt for an earlier bedtime to cope with sport-related travel (Fri: −00:57 h:min; p < 0.001; Sat: −01:58 h:min; p < 0.001) or early school (Mon: −00:55 h:min; p < 0.001). Night-to-night sleep examination identified greater sleep disturbances in junior rugby players the nights before and after the competition SE (Fri: −11%; p < 0.001; Sat: −9 min; p < 0.01). Junior rugby players showed higher IIV in sleep duration (CVTST: + 5.8%; P < 0.001), efficiency (CVSE: + 3.8%; p < 0.001) and staging (CVN2: + 5.4%; p < 0.001; CVN3: + 4.5; p < 0.01 IIV; REM: + 16.4%; p < 0.01). Higher IIV in the young athletes’ sleep outcomes could make them even more vulnerable to health and wellness concerns (i.e. overtraining, injury). The study results show the urgent need for an appropriate consideration of sleep regularity in young athletes.
... Optimal athletic performance is critical to success in elite sport (Tucker and Collins, 2012). High performance programs are carefully planned considering training loads, injury reduction and sleep due to the overwhelming evidence of their influence on performance (Fullagar et al., 2015;Fox et al., 2018;Hoffman et al., 2020). Travel is also a key consideration as, when coupled with a condensed competition schedule allowing insufficient time for recovery and adjustment, frequent air travel can lead to fatigue and circadian disruption due to a mismatching of internal biological rhythms with a new time zone (i.e., jet lag), both of which are detrimental to athletic recovery and performance (Singh et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Elite athletes are often required to travel across time zones for national and international competitions, causing frequent jet lag. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direction of travel-related jet lag is associated with performance in the National Basketball Association (NBA), and if so, to explore potential mechanisms. Methods: Ten seasons comprising of 11,481 games of NBA data from the 2011/2012 to the 2020/2021 regular season were analyzed using multi-level mixed models with one fixed factor (three levels; jet lag direction: eastward vs westward vs no jet lag) and three random factors (team, opponent, game time). Predicted circadian resynchronization rate was accounted for, and home and away games were analysed separately. Mediation analyses were performed to examine potential mechanisms. Results: Among home teams, eastward (but not westward) jet lag was associated with reduced winning (Δ (i.e., change) = −6.03%, p = 0.051, marginal), points differential (Δ = −1.29 points, p = 0.015), rebound differential (Δ = −1.29 rebounds, p < 0.0001), and effective field goal percentage differential (Δ = −1.2%, p < 0.01). As the magnitude of eastward jet lag increased, home team points differential decreased (2 h Δ = −4.53 points, p < 0 . 05; 1 h Δ = −0.72 points, p = 0.07). No significant associations were found between jet lag and away team performance. Conclusion: Eastward jet lag was associated with impaired performance for home (but not away) teams. Sleep and circadian disruption associated with advancing phase following eastward travel may have significant adverse consequences on performance in the NBA, particularly when recovery time is limited. Sports organisations could consider chronobiology-informed scheduling and interventions to maximise recovery and performance of their athletes.
... Sleep has been identified as an essential component to optimize health and athletic performance [3]. It is an important factor for stress-recovery balance among team athletes [4]. Athletes sleep is influenced by sports-specific factors, such as competition [5,6], travel [7], training [8] and non-sports factors, such as stress, anxiety and late-night blue light, etc. [8] Sleep inadequacies, such as poor sleep quality [9], insufficient sleep [10], daytime sleepiness [9,11], sleep disturbance [9], longer sleep latency [12], and greater sleep fragmentation [13], are prevalent among athletic population. ...
... Sleep has been identified as an essential component to optimize health and athletic performance [3]. It is an important factor for stress-recovery balance among team athletes [4]. Athletes sleep is influenced by sports-specific factors, such as competition [5,6], travel [7], training [8] and non-sports factors, such as stress, anxiety and late-night blue light, etc. [8] Sleep inadequacies, such as poor sleep quality [9], insufficient sleep [10], daytime sleepiness [9,11], sleep disturbance [9], longer sleep latency [12], and greater sleep fragmentation [13], are prevalent among athletic population. ...
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Full-text available
Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the sleep quality and its association with mental toughness, stress, depression, anxiety, and sports anxiety of Indian male Kho Kho players. Methods Participants were 52 male Indian Kho Kho players (aged 23.1 ± 3.70 years) of the pre-competition phase. Self-reported sleep quality of participants was assessed using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and Physical Activity and Sport Anxiety Scale (PASAS) and Mental Toughness Questionnaire-Short Form (SMTQ) questionnaires were used as tools to assess the mental health status of the athletes. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA were computed to test the study hypothesis. Results Sleep problems (PSQI Score > 5) were prevalent among 38.5% of athletes. Poor sleep quality (PSQI Score 6–10; 21.2%) and very poor sleep quality (PSQI Score > 11; 17.3%) were observed among the athletes. Sleep quality index scores were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction, and medication. Symptoms related to depression (15.3%), anxiety (36.5%), stress (9.6%), and sports anxiety (7.7%) were also found among athletes. Stress levels were found to be significantly increased (p < 0.05) in athletes with poor sleep quality. However, anxiety, depression and sports anxiety and mental toughness did not show a significant association with sleep quality. Conclusion Poor sleep quality can be associated with increased stress levels, but not with depression, anxiety and sports anxiety and mental toughness among Indian male Kho Kho players.
... Future studies should extend the period and consider different (Ahead of Print) conditions or time schedules. In addition, the covariance of important factors such as fitness status, fatigue, or well-being (e.g., sleep quality) is also worth analyzing in future studies, especially considering that some of these measures are moderators of physical and mental readiness (Fullagar et al., 2015;Schinke et al., 2018). ...
Article
This study analyzed the effects of with (WC) or without conducting a warm up on youth soccer players immediately before performing physical and cognitive tests. Fourteen youth soccer player (age 11.64 ± 0.50) participated in a counterbalanced cross-sectional study in which three conditions were tested: (a) basal lineal condition; (b) WC (immediately before the physical and cognitive tests); and (c) without WC (passive resting for 15 min between the warm-up and physical and cognitive tests). A 30-m sprint test, countermovement jump, and psychomotor vigilance task were also applied. The WC revealed significant improvements in countermovement jump (p < .05), 30-m sprint test performance (p < .05), and reaction time in psychomotor vigilance task (p < .05) in comparison to basal lineal condition and without WC. A 15-min rest after a warm-up has a meaningfully decremental effect on the physical and cognitive readiness of youth soccer players, in comparison with when they warm-up immediately before the demands are imposed.
... The importance of sleep as a recovery strategy is well-known and recognized by coaches and athletes [1]. Considering previous findings, sleep duration and sleep quality play a determinant role in the optimization of sports performance [2], recovery process [3], and maintenance of the quality of life and health in athletes [4]. Thus, ensuring proper patterns of sleep can positively impact performance, while sleep disturbance can ultimately be harmful not only for performance but also for the health of players [5]. ...
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... Good sleep quality plays a vital role in physical and mental health and well-being outcomes [1,26]. Reduction in sleep quality and quantity may contribute to the accumulation of fatigue, drowsiness, and changes in the autonomic nervous system function as well as elevation of inflammatory markers and immune system dysfunction [27,28] General population experiences impaired sleep, including insufficient sleep duration, long sleep-onset latency, frequent and long nocturnal awakenings, and other sleep disturbances. Mg seems to play an essential role in the regulation of sleep. ...
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