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This paper presents an on-going progress of a study on landscape elements in the context of culture. The study has sought to discover people's perception, experience and responses towards their surroundings based on elements that relate to their culture and norms. Eventually, new developments do not seem to recognize and respect the importance of cultural aspects resulting disoriented buildings. Reviewed of the literature of sense of the place was conducted to rediscover the fundamental notions of place, perception and experience. Therefore, the background review to structure the work concluded places that add value contribute to establish the urban setting and place context. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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P r o c e d i a - S o c i a l a n d B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s 1 0 5 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 5 0 6 5 1 2
1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies (cE-Bs), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying,
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.054
ScienceDirect
AicE-Bs2013London
Asia Pacific International Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies
University of Westminster, London, UK, 4-6 September 2013
"From Research to Practice"
A Sense of Place within the Landscape in Cultural Settings
Nik Mastura Nik Mohammad
*
, Masran Saruwono, Shahrul Yani Said, Wan Ahmad
Halawah Wan Hariri
Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor. D.E. Malaysia
Abstract
This paper presents an on-going progress of a study on landscape elements in the context of culture. The study has sought to
ure and
norms. Eventually, new developments do not seem to recognize and respect the importance of cultural aspects resulting disoriented
buildings. Reviewed of the literature of sense of the place was conducted to rediscover the fundamental notions of place, perception
and experience. Therefore, the background review to structure the work concluded places that add value contribute to establish the
urban setting and place context.
© 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under the responsibility of the Centre for Environment-Behaviour
Studies (cE-Bs), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Keywords: Place; character; experience; cu lture
1. Introduction
A sense of place within the landscape in cultural settings gives a comprehensive account of many definitions has
been known explain of place. review of a few articles and books identified three dimensions
of visual, psychology and spiritual aspects of sense of place. Among accounts of critical scholar discussions found the
term is defined as space states between people and the environment setting. Interpretations of reviewed studies
engaged to better understand on how to
surroundings based on elements that relate to their culture and norms. These components will form the skeletal
framework of the study in establishing individual understanding of sense of place. A value and uniqueness character as
part of the important issue in environment behaviour study.
Therefore, sense of place plays an important aspect in cultural context by integrating user and place. Other review
focused on the effects of how people feel and appreciate place and other related contributions. The definitions and
theory used by various authors are reviewed, who are affiliated with the field of behaviour studies, such as landscape
architects and urban designers expanding on a few of the ideas presented from the last conferences. The remainder of
the paper is organized as follows: Section 1.1 literature on the sense of place in three dimensions and study reviewed
results are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1; Figure 2 concludes the paper. Instead of thinking about the importance
of place identity, we suggest the researcher should understand the place as overlaid sets, subsets, infinite possibilities
of interactions. In many ways, the reason why this writing reflects the current overview being offered by practices
such as anthropologist, landscape architects, and architects and other urbanists.
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +6019 2826229; fax: +603 55211501.
E-mail address: nikmasturanikmohammad@yahoo.com.sg.
Avai lab le on li ne at www.sciencedirect.com
© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies (cE-Bs), Faculty of Architecture,
Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
507
Nik Mastura Nik Mohammad et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 506 – 512
1.1. What is place
Having reviewed the principal characteristics of place by Tuan et. al. (2011) and Relph (1987) accepted by many
professionals in the field, it is now possible to propose a definition of place that will be used throughout this study. It
will be what a practicing would call a standard definition of place. In this definition, knowing the place is a
recognizing how people use different places to fulfill the practical needs of living is one of the building blocks on
which a distinctive sense of place can be enhanced in the urban landscape. In this regard, reviewed literatures
explained that place affected by several factors as follows: by defining it has unique locations, attachment to the
cultural settings. Experiencing on how inhabited the place are reviewed by Thwaites, Tuan and Cullen. The studies of
places inhabited by ordinary people, explanations of why and how they inhabit them, have become a focus of an
increasing number of scholarly works. Classical works on the place and identity in cultural settings has come from
anthropology and historians, to include Lynch, Schulz and Cullen. The classical understanding of the cultural setting is
being enriched and challenged by Landscape Architects, as in the work of Thwaites and Simkins and Carmona and
. The meaning and understanding of sense of place concluded by Lewis Mumford, J.B.
Jackson, Roger Trancik and Amos Rapoport remain important figures in practice and education nationally emerges as
a wide-ranging scholar of the processes describing the place identity within the landscape in the cultural setting.
place is a space which is invested understandings of behavioral appropriateness; social meaning and
cultural expectation. A place setting is a repetitive visit that affords safety, harmony and spiritual. Place are fusions of
human and cultural landscape elements which centres on the immediate experience of the world. Experience of place
can range in all scales as whole entities, syntheses of natural and man-made objects, activities and functions, and
meanings given by intentions. Insideness is individual spirit that relates and reflects in physical forms, and express in
rituals and repeated activities which maintain peculiar properties of a place. Thus, a personal experience is the essence
of a Sense of place.
1.2. The meaning of sense of place
Literatures on book review and articles of the most significant contribution to the field study of sense of place
within the landscape cultural settings. Generally, study carried out the experienced in a number of different
dimensions. Scholarly literatures are generally sourced within subscribed model and theory that contribute the
understanding of sense of place. The description of these dimensions as found in the literature has been varied, but the
following these dimensions have appeared, namely, the visual, psychology and spiritual. The following definitions
give the meaning of each of these three dimensions.
1.2.1. Sense of place in relation to psychology dimension
According to Thwaites and Simkins come out a chronology that distinguished the dimensions of visual, psychology
and spiritual directly tell a place is a way of seeing and perceiving. Table 1 shows those points of three dimensions
that achieve a unique sense of place. The place significant was describing both of the environments and discussed on
by Tuan et. al. In this situation, theory of experts has significant
activities, (academia and practice) and contribution of
place attachment. Mohammad and Saruwono argue on how to achieve a unique sense of place, cultural landscape
elements should be designed as part of a whole. The components of cultural landscape elements play a significant role
in defining the sense of place. The CLE components are people, landform, water bodies, climate, economy, social,
political which influence on the identity of place. This view is supported by Thwaites and Steele who writes the
experience that people perceive in the sense of place. In summary, these definitions clearly indicate the terms referred
The theories of place with more experience than the
place
relationship covered with cultural issues significant to human psychology and behavior activity.
1.2.2. Sense of place in relation to spiritual dimension
Several studies investigating sense of place in relation to the spiritual dimension have been carried out as a part of
characteristic research study during the last researches on how to make the retain identity of the place that represent
three diverse geographical, cultural and spiritual settings, but they perform similar functions that provide a unique
sense of identity and place meaning. Sense of place is rich in theory and have own rich characteristic which makes
easy for people to recognize city uniqueness due to a strong sense of place.
bring people back in reminiscent of younger days. The definition "sense of place" includes where the meaning and
508 Nik Mastura Nik Mohammad et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 506 – 512
physical elements similar to people experiential place representing beliefs and about their memories. Clearly, this
shows that by experiencing with these great cities from different diverse cultural geography settings explore on what
makes these places meaningful. In Table 1, it shows that other studies have considered the relationship to places and
experience Such experiences reflect Tuan's theories
relating to the human characters, how they form attachments to home and surroundings, their feelings about space and
place that affected by the sense of time. As Cullen, argues on what to achieve as a unique sense of place, individual
landscape elements designed as part of a place. In this regard, taking a cue from the qualities of pre modern towns and
the purpose of designing places not only facilitating of daily activities but providing symbolic and affective qualities is
more important to bring people to the place. Some of environmental psychologist also argue the experience of place is
one the most important factors in the sense of place. The ideas of spirit within the place or character of place make up
the sense of place, and how feelings like stimulated, excited, joyous are an example of this experience. A place is just
not an object, but through the area and experience of meaningful activities. he experience
is felt through all the sense such as sight, hearing, taste and touch by Tuan has been scarcely discussed from the
theoretical point of view.
1.2.3. Sense of place in relation to visual dimension
Table 1 show the visual dimension such as buildings has become very popular topic to bring up the character of the
place. In re by experiencing the visual attributes of localities. As
Malaysians, we have been overcome with western national myths about their history. Those images in films and
articles and books reviewed shape our perceptions and expectations about places and tells us how to relate to their
places. Preliminary work on visual was undertaken by Thwaites how important the building heights in the design of
the city and with the certain image of the city affected. However, a number of studies have found that the idea of three
dimensions has overarching from those three notable authors, such as Carmona and their fellow researchers, Cullen
and Thwaites and Simkins. To outcome, the methodology was used in the S.O.P in relation to visual is most
appropriate to the place.
In addition, the three dimensions described above are obviously essential in make up the general framework
establishing the behavioural studies aspects of place in the cultural context of the sense of place study. The i dea of
three dimensions such as visual, physical and spiritual necessary visually need to test the mechanism and attributes of
these concepts of sense of place for a city landscape. In parallel, Tuan highlighted the significant localities makes an
arising from human psychology and behavior activity.
Table 1. Concepts of place.
Landscape elements in cultural
context
Buildings
Landscape (as an icon
)
Cultural attractions
Climate
Value
Accessibility
Social interaction
Notion of Place
Space
Image ability
Identity
Sense of place
Visual
P
h
y
s
c
a
l
Spiritual
Authors:
1.Matthew Carmona, Tim Heath,
Taner Oc, Steve Tiesdell (2006)
2. Kevin Lynch (1988)
3.Kevin Thwaites, Ian Simkins
(2007)
4.Christian Norberg-Schulz (1985)
5.Gordon Cullen (1971)
6.Yi-Fu Tuan (Seventh printing,
2011)
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Nik Mastura Nik Mohammad et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 506 – 512
2. Methods
This particular research on the selected authors for a place theory has recently been presented in Figure 1 is the
However, several practical
questions arise when dealing with place. In this level, place discussions are important starting researches since the
place provide rich meanings for study. In cultural context study, Tuan influenced culture learning to know the
neighborhood that requires the landmark significantly identified. It is important to identify the sense of place strongly
influenced by the existence of significant overwhelming the image of the city is rather unique for each city of different
characters and culture. In parallel of the author reviews, the work of Lynch found a good relationship between people
and place. It is the key to predict that sense of place is defined as the physical (location of place), people experience
and the locality setting. Cullen argued that to achieve a unique sense of place, part of townscape should be part of the
design and details seen to have a life of their own setting. They satisfy their needs through emotional response in
landscape and urban settings through experiential approach. Indirectly, for Cullen and Schulz using terms such as
n analytical and
design tool such as a form of buildings, natural soft elements; trees, water elements and so on and possess the area.
Afterwards, the theoretical framework had been the basis from which Thwaites et al. explored and reviewed, and
theory and framework used to structure of works and detailed findings of the study. In a recent book by Lynch
explored the aspect of the physical setting appropriateness entire the city cohesively. Each discipline tends to have its
own favored methods. By contrast, the perceptual theory holds that perception is indirect experiential landscape, but
several approaches might be useful models. The points to issues of study are multisensory which explore the
collective literature and precedent reviews are catering for future reference that will ensure the endurance and
continuation of culture and place. It concluded places that add value contribute to establish the urban setting and place
context. However, to the best thoughtful of only few publications can be found and available in the
literatures that discuss the issue of sense of place. It is crucial to addressed as in Table 2. To answer this, we present an
original approach which conventional in all situations, little attention has been paid to place and space behavior. (See
also Table 1)
Table 2.
Experiential
Place/Space
Cultural
Place/Space
Behaviour Place/Space
Socio economic
space
Authors:
1.Matthew Carmona, Tim Heath, Taner Oc,
Steve Tiesdell (2006)
Places
Places
Landmark, District, Path
Sites
2.Kevin Lynch (1988)
Places
Places
Landmark, District, Path
District
3.Kevin Thwaites, Ian Simkins (2007)
Places
Places
Landmark, District, Path
District
4.Christian Norberg-Schulz (1985)
Places
Places
Environments
Sites
5.Gordon Cullen (1971)
Spaces
Spaces
Spatial layouts
Landmark
6.Yi-Fu Tuan (Seventh printing, 2011)
Spaces
Spaces
Environments
Sites
The findings in Table 1 are retrieved from three (3) ongoing academic oral presentation and one (1) academic
publication milestone of study on the sense of place. Based on the approach presented in Table 1 and Table 2, the
theory philosophy is reviewed, theory and framework used to structure of works and detailed of the findings. It
concluded places that add value contribute to establish the urban setting and place context. The study deals with the
existence sense of place are related to cultural variables, such as religious and ethnic background. Shamai is right that
seven levels were categorized from the three major-belonging to a place. The three dimensions overarching forms the
important attributes of sense of place identified in Table 1 can be understood to cross-cut the four different kind of
notion of place (refer Table 2).
510 Nik Mastura Nik Mohammad et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 506 – 512
Fig. 1
.
M
u
lti
-
disciplinary hits of searche
s
The searches transgressed
m
ultiple domains, across disciplines. Signifying the plurality of issues involved in sense
o
f place, issues within that realm. All the researchers by scholarly they derived to the same goal and objectives which
i
s sense of place.
A
co
ll
ec
ti
o
n
o
f
subse
t
s
i
n
Figure
1
a
bove
which goes to make a picture of relationships are
established among the subsets once the subsets are chosen, and the collection has a definite structure of the authors. T
o
u
nderstand this structure by labeling these elements 1, 2, 3, 4,
5
,
6
from the authors reviewed. The following questions
will be addressed what are the possible relationships among th
is
s
et. The structure illustrated in both diagram satisfies
t
h
e
axi
o
m
s
in
ce
th
e
c
hara
c
t
e
ri
s
ti
cs
i
s
de
fin
ed.
However, in this paper the write
r
ar
e
n
o
t
so
m
uc
h
co
n
ce
rn
ed
w
ith th
e
fact that a structure diagram happens to be, but the contain overlapping units do occur. These overarching hav
e
fo
rm
s
o
f th
e
s
i
g
nificant to the value such as prosperity, freedom and life as stated by Shamai (1991)
.
H
owe
v
er
,
i
t
w
a
s
u
n
de
r
s
t
ood
that t
he
c
r
oss
-
c
ut means that the significance arising from human experience and
behavioral activity as mentioned b
y
Th
w
ait
es
l
ocalities by Tuan (2011)
.
Several publications have appeared in recent
years documenting of love landscap
e
t
h
e
n
otion of place, researcher started examines the experiential place.
I
n author perspectives, the role as a researcher mu
s
t understand the best ways in which the community gathers the
s
take holders in particular need to analyses
t
h
e
authenticity of the plac
e
,
sense of place, and character. This study aims
t
o seek these arguments of sense of place in relation to how people perceive the place today yet, it challenges the ways
i
n notions of place
.
This study proposes a new approach to landscape architectural as part and human responses to
3
.The factors contributing to the sense of place
The plac
e
i
s ver
y
s
ubjectiv
e
for
people perceive
t
h
e
n
at
u
ral
e
n
v
ir
o
nm
e
nt
s
a
bou
t th
is
s
ense of place. The emotional
aspect of experiencing the place mean
s
t
h
e
dimension of physiological and physical interaction. The combinations of
physical and social attributes creates the environment between people and environment from negative or positive fro
m
t
h
e
place and
t
ell to the environment.
S
teel
e
desc
ri
bed
that people tend to experience with certain setting from the
s
trong character of
t
h
e
place. Th
e
u
nderstanding
of
a
g
ood urban desig
n
and preservation
t
o
suit various purposes such
a
s
t
he pattern of the place, the sto
r
ies of place tell us the
c
hara
c
t
e
r
o
f
t
h
e
place
.
Lynch described the method of
environmental psychology included cognitive mapping as one of the components i
n
a
r
esearch study.
A
s a result
,
there
are varied sense of place between people and their
e
xperie
n
c
es and their background; also the place characteristics of
t
h
e
physical setting influence the sense of place. Th
w
ait
es
e
t
a
l
.
s
tat
ed
t
h
e
s
cale
,
centered
,
direction and transition area
are most significant aspects of place character
.
Th
e
r
e
f
o
r
e
r
ev
i
ewed
literature revealed that the physical features of
place creating the meaning and character that contribute to make sense of place
.
W
ith understanding meanings and
c
oncepts, symbols and identity of place cognitive and effectiveness of place bonds with place.
S
ted
ma
n
argued that
t
h
e
s
ense of place
de
finiti
o
n i
s
v
ery difficult to defin
e
.
Figure
2
is
t
h
e idea of five elements such as landmarks
,
districts
,
buildings, sites and monument
s
as necessary image visually needed to test the mechanism and attributes of these
e
l
e
m
e
nt
s
for a city landscap
e
.
Th
e
r
ese
ar
c
h
e
r a
c
k
n
owledges through the understanding of the value is significant to the
511
Nik Mastura Nik Mohammad et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 506 – 512
issues of sense of place and image ability. The processes of selection from the resources and understanding of the
targeting the identity revealed a value with respond to the space.
Resources
Buildings
Districts
Landmarks
Monuments
Sites
SELECTION
Understanding
VALUES
TARGETING
Forms
Attractions
Identity of place
Fig. 2. Processes of selecti on and targeting in a sense of th e notion of place
As may be seen, above in Figure 3, the process of selection and targeting of the sense of place relies on
understanding of values. This approach is due to the values, and the overall measurement results are summarized in
Figure 3. There is a good match between selection of resources and targeting the forms of attractions and identity of
place. A novel view of the degree of familiarity with a place plays an important role in a sense of place and place
meaning in some of the studied reviewed. Familiarity includes recognizing by entering it or being there. The most
likely explanation of how human perception results such as similar to some of the place in our memory as to a visual
impact and drama. These conclusions, which Kevin discusses in experiential the place, add weight to the argument
that peoples response or knowledgeable about the place; because their expertise about the environment and place by
looking at in differently.
4. Culture
Culture material is a branch of anthropology that focuses within the landscape as reflections and tools of cultures.
Elements of the cultural landscape are increasingly part of the field. Geographers have contributed to the culture
elements, as well (see Lewis 1961). As researchers are more becoming more reflective and studying systematically the
indicators in our environment. Culture; Tuan described literatures have emphasized the used of culture on people
relationship with places. The truth of p has no single sense of place, instead of
responses to the environment. standing of place is through a psychology
observation of human bond between people and place. Zeisel described an identity itself is one of the most difficult
concepts to define because it refers to the relationship of the self to the environment. My own view is that what Zeisel
insists is a ple fight for the identity
places. In 1981, Lynch, in his perceptive article, sees identity as being the simplest form of sense, of which the narrow
meaning of the term is a sense of place. It is tempting to credit many of the succeeding changes to Relph remind us
that place reflected by the notion of identity as being an expression of adaptation, assimilation, accommodation and
socialization of knowledge of each other. However, the new methods shall be viewed within the context of the identity
of place and is always the very basic of our experience of the place as opposed to any other. To say, this is to point to
wider implications for the image of place is its identity and to understand something of the social structure and culture
structure of image ability is an essential prerequisite in understanding identity. The most important part of identity
cannot simply relate to the distinctiveness of the physical environment and the ability for it to be recognized or
recalled vividly by the observer. They may also sometimes point to shared geographical setting is the other aspect of
location that has a strong influence to the identity of place. It is necessary to adopt adding values to place an essential
part in understanding the identity and character of the place. My own limited research has to detect the emergence of
culture studies per see their. A close watch on this area will necessary in the future study.
5. Discussion
There were limits of study to what one was able to do and the extent to which one could modify the natural
orientation of people response to their surroundings has been given thought. Therefore, Cultural landscape has
512 Nik Mastura Nik Mohammad et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 ) 506 – 512
The context of culture investigated, there is a need for continued research and application of high
combination of visual, physical and spiritual within the place appropriate at their place making and contribute to the
sense of place. It has been known that significant places of Old Great Cities of the world have their own sense of place
and meaning. The most interesting discovery of each place is the unique character that triggers the feeling of
ation of old
places. Museumisation does not thoroughly mean maintaining the sense of place and history. The strong combination
of visual, physical and spiritual dimensions of the place contribute tremendously in creating the Sense of Place.
However, places have different levels of sense of place that contribute to social activities based on the relationships of
place meaning. Most study on places and their meaning is the important issue in the built environment. Regards to the
new development and issue of change in the contemporary context, placenessness described as what contribute to the
place.
physical and behavioral activity that comprise our emotional relationships to places. Clearly, further study will be
needed on how involves the degree of familiarity with place and expertise in
their own knowledge about the place is still necessary before obtaining a definite answer to what is a sense of place.
The next stage of our study will be experimental confirmation of our theory.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge the valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers, which have
improved the quality of this paper. I am grateful for comments made by the chairperson and participants at the
conference and also to my supervisors.
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... Not only is residents' sense of place of tourism site decisive to their attitude toward tourism, but it is also important for the protection and management of cultural destination. For a Cultural World Heritage Site like Daming Palace, the intangible asset is the culture but the tangible elements, such as the buildings and structures, are manifestations of the culture (Mohammad et al. 2013). However, the traditional approach to cultural preservation tends to focus on tangible elements (Jiven and Larkham 2003;Loulanski 2006). ...
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