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Concept mapping with young children: From representation to metacognition

Thesis

Concept mapping with young children: From representation to metacognition

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This study explores the potential for the concept map to function as a symbolic tool mediating kindergarten children’s use of metacognitive control skills, specifically planning and monitoring, in a series of adult-guided and child-directed concept mapping activities over an eight-week intervention. A design-based, mixed model research study explores the ways that children’s understanding of the meaning and purposes of the tool develop through instructional interactions, while also investigating changes in children’s metacognitive behaviors during independent concept mapping activities of varying complexity. Videotaped observations of children in large-group, small-group, and one-on-one teacher-child interactions, supplemented with field notes and teacher interviews, analyzed qualitatively, reveal explicit teacher instruction in the symbolic and communicative nature of the concept map as well as modeling, demonstrating, and explaining metacognitive strategies. Videotaped observations of independent concept mapping activities, coded to calculate frequency of observed planning and monitoring behaviors, reveal significant increases in planning elapsed time as a function of map complexity. Field notes and child self-reports support observations of children’s metacognitive activity during concept mapping. Individual differences were observed in children’s ability to create accurate propositions and reflect on their own thinking and strategic behavior. The findings extend current knowledge on the benefits and limitations of using concept mapping with young children to facilitate the use and further development of self-regulatory processes.
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... t of my doctoral research was learning about educational experts implementing their own BDPs for preschool concept mapping using documentation publicly available (Gomez, 2005(Gomez, , 2006(Gomez, , 2007(Gomez, , 2009). The implementations involved replications, re-designs, or inspiration to programme a software application (A. Cassata-Widera, 2008;A. E. Cassata-Widera, 2009;Kicken, Ernes, Hoogenberg, & Gomez, 2016). Users incorporated BDPs into their activities in the manner of "design at use" as in metadesign (Fischer & Giaccardi, 2006;Fischer & Scharff, 2000) and "user-driven design" as in design participation (Lee, 2008). According to Ehn (2008) in the meta-design approach "…both professional designers a ...
... In the first situation, Cassata-Widera (2008;2009) incorporated the BDP in her doctoral research on child-developmental psychologist with focus on metacognitive skills and concept maps. In the second situation, Hoogenberg-Engbers (2013) designed a workshop to introduce primary school teachers to concept mapping with the BDP at a conference on gifted and talented education. ...
Conference Paper
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The bridging design prototype (BDP) approach is a human-centred design method for individual designers and small organisations. BDPs are fully functional rapid prototypes that user communities accept to incorporate in real activities; while designers use them for learning about the community, the context, and the practice. Experimentation should not require the presence of designers. By functional, it means that all features should operate. But; BDPs are not necessarily minimum viable products, as the digital or tangible materials with which they are built could have a limited lifespan. Informed by autonomous design, this reflection involved a meta-analysis of a project carried out in a Netherlands school. My BDP for preschool concept mapping was re-oriented to explore if it could be used as a didactic tool to enhance interactive language learning in the education of children with speech impairments. The analysis illustrated that BDPs enabled speech therapists, teachers, and counsellors to achieve goals of community design of itself. Three pilots, with escalating numbers in participation and duration, transformed this community’s practices. Explorations with BDP adaptations, and a new design (an app for the interactive whiteboard developed by a teacher) transformed speech therapists and teachers into designers. This approach might be useful in autonomous design projects seeking community design, decentring external designer participation, and enabling users to become designers.
... We begin this chapter with a widely held truism: Concept Maps are easy to make and use. Indeed, kindergarten-aged children have been shown to have not only the facility to make Concept Maps independently, but also to bene t from their impacts on learning and metacognitive control skills (Cassata-Widera, 2009). e basic steps for creating a Concept Map have been widely described (cf., Novak, 2010;Novak and Cañas, 2008): ...
... Concept mapping has been shown to be effective when used as an assessment tool (Fischler, et al., 2002; McGaghie, McCrimmon, Thompson, Ravitch, & Mitchell, 2000; Reiska, 2005; West, Pomeroy, Park, Gerstenberger, & Sandoval, 2000) at all levels of education. When used with pre-school or elementary school children, they also facilitate language learning and learning to read as well better ways to learn (Beirute, Brenes, Cortés, García, & Meza, 2006; Cassata-Widera, 2009; Mancinelli, 2006). Elementary (primary) education is probably the educational level where concept mapping is most popular and has received more attention in terms of its effectiveness, with less reports found on use at the secondary/high school level. ...
Chapter
This chapter reveals how concept mapping has provided insight into learner thinking and progress since 1972. Despite its broad appeal, however, concept mapping has not yet reached ubiquity as a technique for assessment-primarily due to several challenges of implementation and limitations on further innovation of the original approach. In its 50th anniversary, a critical question remains: How can the process of concept mapping as a data collection technique enable the assessment of cognitive structures so that teaching may proceed accordingly, at scales that create genuine benefit? This chapter aims to answer this question by highlighting four challenges and presenting innovations designed to overcome them that have resulted in compelling findings and the development of a software tool to enable large-scale assessment based on concept mapping.
Article
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The present paper, which is the first of two twin opinion papers, offers a theoretical approach of literacy and critical literacy in relation to language, thought, and reasoning. Literacy acquisition and practice proceed through two stages, which partially overlap in terms of processing abilities: the first is achieved when the learner becomes a skilled reader and writer, characterized by automatic word processing; the second, when reading comprehension and written production become expert instruments in the communication of progressively more abstract and sophisticated, but always linguistically-mediated, knowledge and ideas. The destiny of literacy, depending on educational and social factors, is thus to be to fused with language, thought and reasoning. Oral language becomes literate language; and our cognitive activity becomes—as indicated in the title—“seeing thought”, which paves the way, we will argue, for reasoning skills. Making of literacy an epistemic and social tool of our own collective history requires a critical stance that raises itself and ourselves to a stage called critical literacy. In this paper we focus on some of the favorable and unfavorable factors influencing this achievement. The main challenge is to bring literate cognition up to the capacity of choosing between accept and verify, between belief and disbelief, by weighting evidence and reasoning, by arguing and debunking errors and falsities. Accordingly, our objective is essentially to narrate how literacy gives birth to critical literacy and explain why, at the end of this process, critical literacy becomes hard to distinguish from thinking and reasoning.
Conference Paper
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U posljednje vrijeme vrlo često se susrećemo sa stručnim i znanstvenim radovima koji istražuju mogućnost primjene konceptualnih mapa u ocjenjivanju znanja, posebno matematičkog. S obzirom da se kod nas ovakav pristup ocjenjivanju ne koristi, smatramo da bi trebalo potaknuti nastavnkie i inovirati proces nastave matematike s ovim postupcima. U radu se opisuju konceptualne mape i njihova primjena u ocjenjivanju matematičkog znanja.
Conference Paper
For more than 30 years, research and applied work has been reported on the huge potential of games for learning. This paper presents Bridging Design Prototypes (BDPs) as an approach that could address the remaining challenge of the successful uptake of games in formal learning environments. BDPs are functional prototypes that bring teachers and learners into a development process early: teachers adapt, re-design, and incorporate them into real activities with students without the presence of the R&D team. Designers employ them for learning about the user community, and their context of practice, and to further inform product development. Two examples illustrate how BDPs enabling novel educational practices have put teachers in control of experimentations, in a leading design role, and dissemination. It is argued that this approach could transfer well into the development of serious games in formal education.
Chapter
The paper reports on case studies in which an Authoring Concept Mapping Kit was incorporated as a didactic tool in the teaching of children with severe speech-language difficulties. The Kit was introduced to replace methods such as topic webs, or complement others such as conversation exchange. Three pilots were carried out between 2012 and 2015, with escalating numbers in participation and duration. The paper focuses on the teachers, their training, implementation, and their motivations for incorporating concept mapping in interactive learning language. The outcomes report on how the teachers’ practice has been transformed and improved. The children’s perspective on the topic comes through in the teachers’ opinions. Concept mapping turned out to enhance meaning negotiation, active inquiry and collaboration during teaching interactive learning language. Teachers reported that it had great impact on children’s language development, vocabulary and spontaneous speech, while it had minimal impact on the way activities were performed in everyday classes.
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