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Citizenship, trust, and behavioural intentions to use public e-services: The case of Lebanon

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Abstract and Figures

Active citizenship and trustworthiness may affect behavioural intentions to use e-government services. Such uses of information and communication technologies may improve public administration, yet adoption of e-government systems by end users has remained far below expectations, despite continued efforts in many countries. The low adoption and use of e-government services by end users thus remain major barriers to successful e-government implementation that might be addressed by greater trust in government, the Internet, and technology, as well as increased citizenship beliefs and actions. Active citizenship implies empowered, engaged, participatory citizens. The results of this quantitative study, conducted in the unique setting of Lebanon, show that by developing trustworthiness and active citizenship, citizens will increase their behavioural intention to use of e-government services. Thus, intentions to use public e-services grow stronger when the government foster trustworthiness and empowers average, passive citizens.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International
Journal
of
Information
Management
35
(2015)
346–351
Contents
lists
available
at
ScienceDirect
International
Journal
of
Information
Management
journal
h
om
epa
ge
:
www.elsevier.com/l
ocate/ijinfomgt
Citizenship,
trust,
and
behavioural
intentions
to
use
public
e-services:
The
case
of
Lebanon
Rania
Fakhourya,,
Benoit
Aubertb
aICT
Project
Manager,
United
Nations
Development
Programme
Office
of
the
Minister
of
State
for
Administrative
Reform,
5th
Fl.,
Omar
Daouk,
Beirut,
Lebanon
bDirector
of
Development,
Leonard
de
Vinci
Pôle
Universitaire,
Business
Lab,
Courbevoie,
France
a
r
t
i
c
l
e
i
n
f
o
Article
history:
Received
13
January
2015
Received
in
revised
form
13
February
2015
Accepted
14
February
2015
Keywords:
E-government
Public
e-services
Trustworthiness
Active
citizenship
Lebanon
a
b
s
t
r
a
c
t
Active
citizenship
and
trustworthiness
may
affect
behavioural
intentions
to
use
e-government
services.
Such
uses
of
information
and
communication
technologies
may
improve
public
administration,
yet
adop-
tion
of
e-government
systems
by
end
users
has
remained
far
below
expectations,
despite
continued
efforts
in
many
countries.
The
low
adoption
and
use
of
e-government
services
by
end
users
thus
remain
major
barriers
to
successful
e-government
implementation
that
might
be
addressed
by
greater
trust
in
govern-
ment,
the
Internet,
and
technology,
as
well
as
increased
citizenship
beliefs
and
actions.
Active
citizenship
implies
empowered,
engaged,
participatory
citizens.
The
results
of
this
quantitative
study,
conducted
in
the
unique
setting
of
Lebanon,
show
that
by
developing
trustworthiness
and
active
citizenship,
citizens
will
increase
their
behavioural
intention
to
use
of
e-government
services.
Thus,
intentions
to
use
public
e-services
grow
stronger
when
the
government
foster
trustworthiness
and
empowers
average,
passive
citizens.
©
2015
Elsevier
Ltd.
All
rights
reserved.
1.
Introduction
The
number
of
initiatives
and
projects
on
e-government
has
multiplied
since
1993
around
the
world.
Nearly
three
trillion
US
dollars
have
been
invested
during
the
first
decade
of
20001;
$8
bil-
lion
spent
on
e-government
program
in
the
United
Stated
in
2011
(Snead
&
Wright,
2014).
Numerous
studies
and
research
projects
were
conducted.
To
illustrate
this,
in
2014,
the
e-government
ref-
erence
library
in
the
US
contains
6520
references
review
touching
on
the
issue
of
electronic
government
and
electronic
governance2.
Pioneer
countries
(United
States,
Canada,
Great
Britain
and
South
Korea)
have
already
introduced
and
revisited
several
strategies
and
programs
of
e-government.
Despite
these
efforts,
many
e-
government
projects
have
70%
failure
rate
(Panda
&
Sahu,
2013,
p.
1).
Such
observations
lead
researchers
to
acknowledge
that
E-
government
research
is
in
a
poor
state
(Heeks
&
Bailur,
2007,
p.
261)
Corresponding
author.
E-mail
addresses:
rania@rania.mobi
(R.
Fakhoury),
benoit.aubert@devinci.fr
(B.
Aubert).
1https://ict4dblog.wordpress.com/2011/09/29/e-government-benefits-and-
costs-why-e-gov-raises-not-lowers-your-taxes/.
2http://faculty.washington.edu/jscholl/.
or
weak
(Snead
&
Wright,
2014,
p.
129).
E-government
is
a
relatively
new
concept
that
has
become
a
world
phenomenon
(,
p.
2)
and
the
field
of
research
is
still
nascent.
Scholars
recommend
several
steps
to
strengthen
e-government
research.
Some
recommenda-
tions
offer
to
tie
e-government
research
to
public
administration
and
political
environment
(Yildiz,
2007)
or
information
systems,
political
science,
and
other
social
science
theories
(Heeks
&
Bailur,
2007).
Other
recommendations
propose
to
use
robust
and
“broad
range”
research
method
(Heeks
&
Bailur,
2007,
p.
262)
includ-
ing
“primary
data,
triangulation
of
findings,
and
concepts
found
rarely
in
the
e-government
literature”
(,
p.
660)
to
develop
a
rich
e-government
research.
Low
adoption
rates
of
e-government
services
steer
many
experts
(Heeks
&
Bailur,
2007)
to
talk
about
the
failure
of
e-
government
programs
however,
there
is
disparity
in
e-government
usage.
Specifically,
in
developing
countries,
around
41%
of
citi-
zens
interact
with
public
authorities
through
the
internet
in
Turkey
while
2%
of
citizens
are
actually
using
e-services
in
Egypt
(United
Nations,
2014).
Citizens
are
using
informational
e-services
while
sophisticated
e-services
are
still
lagging
behind
(United
Nations,
2012;
Venkatesh,
Chan,
&
Thong,
2012).
Informational
stage
is
defined
as
“cataloguing,
providing
government
information
by
creating
government
agency
Web
sites
(Yildiz,
2007)
while
the
sophisticated
stage
often
involves
the
idea
of
transformation,
hor-
izontal
integration
and
participation
(Coursey
&
Norris,
2008).
In
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2015.02.002
0268-4012/©
2015
Elsevier
Ltd.
All
rights
reserved.
R.
Fakhoury,
B.
Aubert
/
International
Journal
of
Information
Management
35
(2015)
346–351
347
this
study,
the
Lebanese
government
e-services
are
still
at
infor-
mational
stage.
Low
adoption
and
use
of
e-government
services
by
end
users
for
government
to
services
(G2C)
e-services
are
still
major
barriers
to
successful
e-government
implementation
(Ahmad,
Markkula,
&
Oivo,
2012;
Heeks
&
Santos,
2009;
Heeks,
2002;
Hung,
Chang,
&
Yu,
2006;
Venkatesh,
Chan,
2012).
Among
the
critical
actions,
increasing
trust
has
been
found
an
asset
for
e-government
adoption.
Trust
has
become
a
key
area
in
e-government
literature
since
it
is
a
factor
for
the
adoption
of
e-
government.
Citizens
are
reluctant
to
use
e-government
services
mainly
for
security,
privacy
and
transparency
issues
(Ebrahim
&
Irani,
2005;
Hussein,
Mohamed,
Ahlan,
Mahmud,
&
Aditiawarman,
2010;
Jaeger,
2003).
These
first
observations
are
the
starting
points
of
this
study
which
will
investigate
how
active
citizenship
and
trustworthiness
have
an
impact
on
increasing
citizens’
adoption
of
e-government
services.
So
far,
there
is
no
study
that
links
citizenship
and
behavioural
intention
to
use
e-government
services.
2.
Background
This
study
investigates
the
impact
of
trustworthiness
and
active
citizenship
on
people’s
behavioural
intentions
to
use
public
e-
government
services
in
Lebanon.
To
investigate
this
question,
we
need
a
brief
historical
review
of
e-government
in
Lebanon,
as
well
as
definitions
of
active
citizenship
and
trustworthiness
and
their
links
to
e-government.
2.1.
E-government
in
Lebanon
According
to
Grant
and
Chau
(2006,
p.
80),
e-government
is:
a
broad-based
transformation
initiative,
enabled
by
leveraging
the
capabilities
of
information
and
communication
technology;
(1)
to
develop
and
deliver
high
quality,
seamless,
and
integrated
public
services;
(2)
to
enable
effective
constituent
relationship
management
and
(3)
to
support
the
economic
and
social
devel-
opment
goals
of
citizens,
businesses,
and
civil
society
at
a
local
state,
national
and
international
levels
(Worrall,
2012,
p.
iii).
Through
the
process
of
transformation,
“government
can
rapidly
and
efficiently
adapt
to
changing
citizen
needs
and
emerging
polit-
ical
and
market
priorities”
(OASIS
TGF
Committee,
2014,
p.
6)
and
engage
end
users.
In
Lebanon,
15%
of
citizens
express
some
intention
to
accept
public
e-services
(Harfouche
&
Robbin,
2012,
p.
22).
The
Lebanese
economy
depends
largely
on
services
and
tourism
(mainly
from
Arab
countries
and
Lebanese
expatriates),
as
well
as
the
banking
sector.
Lebanon
undertook
a
series
of
initiatives
between
1998
and
2012
to
develop
a
vision,
policy,
and
strategy
for
e-government
through
administrative
reforms.
For
example,
in
2002
and
2003,
the
Office
of
the
Minister
of
State
for
Administrative
Reform
(OMSAR),
developed
respectively
an
e-government
vision
and
a
National
e-
Strategy
(Economic
and
Social
Commission
for
Eastern
Asia,
2009).
In
2008,
the
e-government
strategy
underwent
revision,
in
an
effort
to
realize
greater
economic
and
social
benefits,
as
well
as
quality-
of-life
improvements
for
Lebanese
citizens.
Then
in
2013,
a
new
portal
(www.e-gov.gov.lb)
became
available
and
introduced
the
e-government
initiative.
A
key
objective
of
any
e-government
initiative
is
the
poten-
tial
for
decreased
corruption.
In
2014,
Lebanon
ranked
136
of
175
countries
on
the
Corruption
Perceptions
Index3.
The
country
is
3http://www.transparency.org/country/#LBN.
Table
1
ACCI
dimensions
and
definitions.
Dimension
Definition
Protest
and
social
change
Unconventional
forms
of
participation,
or
action-orientated
participation,
including
protests,
demonstrations,
boycotts,
and
political
strikes
that
are
a
necessary
influence
in
modern
democracies.
Participation
or
volunteering
in
activities
organized
by
civil
society
groups
that
work
towards
government
accountability
and
positive
social
change
Community
life Participation
in
activities
that
support
a
community:
religious,
business,
cultural,
social,
sport,
and
parent–teacher
organizations
Representative
democracy
Participation
in
politics
limited
to
voting,
political
party-related
activities,
or
contacting
elected
representatives
and
governmental
officials
Democratic
values
Combination
of
indicators
of
participation
in
democracy,
human
rights,
and
non-discrimination
Source:
Hoskins
and
Mascherini
(2008).
marked
by
the
presence
of
wasta,
defined
as
“force
in
interpersonal
networks,
every
significant
decision,
and
connections
that
pervade
all
aspects
of
business
and
social
life”
(Alawadhi
&
Morris,
2009,
p.
589).
According
to
(Harfouche
&
Robbin,
2012),
Lebanese
people
rely
on
wasta
and
the
resulting
connections
to
facilitate
trust-based
transactions.
Many
citizens
also
bribe
government
employees
and
intermediaries
to
complete
transactions
with
agencies
or
min-
istries.
E-government
transactions
promise
a
means
to
limit
both
wasta
(Alawadhi
&
Morris,
2009)
and
bribery.
2.2.
Citizenship
Marshall
(1950)
defines
citizenship
by
emphasizing
the
impor-
tance
of
three
elements:
civil,
political,
and
social.
According
to
him,
“the
civil
element,
comprising
the
rights
required
for
individual
freedom;
the
political
element,
‘the
right
to
participate
in
the
exer-
cise
of
political
power’
through
membership
of
a
political
body,
or
through
electing
them;the
third
element,
the
social,
comprised
‘the
whole
range
from
the
right
to
a
modicum
of
economic
welfare
and
security
to
the
right
to
share
to
the
full
in
the
social
heritage
and
to
live
the
life
of
a
civilised
being
according
to
the
standards
prevailing
in
the
society”’
(,
p.
11).
Definitions
of
citizenship
have
also
evolved
beyond
these
three
elements
to
“focus
on
citizens’
participation
in
political
processes”
(Hoskins
&
Mascherini,
2008,
p.
461).
In
a
study
linking
ICT
in
gen-
eral
to
citizenship
and
e-government
concepts,
(,
p.
217)
defines
citizenship
according
to
the
components
of
rights,
duties,
and
par-
ticipation.
For
each
component,
she
cites
a
role
for
citizens.
For
example,
the
participation
component
correlates
with
the
idea
of
citizen
participation.
In
turn,
citizens’
roles
can
range
from
con-
sumers
of
public
services
to
passive
agents
to
active
agents
to
determinants
of
rules.
An
active
agent
and
active
citizenship
stem
from
education
fields
but
also
have
been
applied
to
European
contexts,
such
that
the
definition
of
active
citizenship
is:
“Participation
in
civil
society,
community
and/or
political
life,
characterized
by
mutual
respect
and
non-violence
and
in
accordance
with
human
rights
and
democracy”
(Hoskins
&
Mascherini,
2008,
p.
462).
Accordingly,
par-
ticipation
encompasses
active
citizenship
(Hoskins
&
Mascherini,
2008).
In
Europe,
an
active
citizenship
composite
indicator
(ACCI),
which
aims
to
measure
active
citizenship
on
the
basis
of
four
oper-
ational
dimensions
(protest
and
social
change,
community
life,
representative
democracy,
and
democratic
values)
and
offers
a
use-
ful
tool
for
monitoring
the
level
of
citizenship
(see
Table
1).
348
R.
Fakhoury,
B.
Aubert
/
International
Journal
of
Information
Management
35
(2015)
346–351
However,
the
ACCI
is
limited
by
poor
data
availability.
According
to
Hoskins
and
Mascherini
(2008,
p.
470),
“the
availability
of
data
in
the
field
of
Active
Citizenship
is
a
serious
problem
due
to
the
fact
that
not
all
dimensions
are
sufficiently
covered
and
multi-annual
data
are
generally
not
available”.
They
indicate
that
the
European
Social
Survey
(EES)
is
the
only
available
source
of
data;
it
ran
a
specific
citizenship
module
in
2002,
surveying
members
of
each
country’s
population
who
were
at
least
15
years
of
age.
The
ESS
con-
tinues
to
represent
the
most
reliable
source,
despite
its
relatively
outdated
status
and
focus
on
structural
and
formal
participation
(Holford,
2008).
Its
data
perform
better
than
those
from
the
Euro
Barometer
or
World
Values
Study
(De
Weerd,
Gemmeke,
Josine,
&
van
Rij,
2005).
According
to
Holford
(2008),
the
ESS
thus
is
the
best
option
for
measuring
active
citizenship,
whereas
the
ACCI
appears
biased
towards
Western
cultures.
Active
citizenship
has
not
been
measured
previously
in
Lebanon.
2.3.
Trustworthiness
Lack
of
trust
is
a
barrier
to
the
adoption
of
electronic
services.
Trustworthiness
in
an
electronic
context
is
a
“perception
of
confi-
dence
in
the
electronic
marketer’s
reliability
and
integrity”
(Carter
&
Bélanger,
2005,
p.
9);
for
this
study,
we
define
the
trustworthiness
of
e-government
as
the
sum
of
both
trust
in
the
government
and
trust
in
the
Internet.
Trust
in
government
specifically
is
“based
on
the
individual’s
prior
experience
when
dealing
with
government”
(Hussein,
Mohamed,
Ahlan,
Mahmud,
&
Aditiawarman,
2007,
p.
167);
trust
in
the
Internet
is
associated
with
individual
perceptions
of
the
institutional
environment,
including
whether
the
associ-
ated
structure,
regulation,
and
legislation
make
an
environment
feel
safe
(Carter
&
Belanger,
2008;
Hussein
et
al.,
2007,
2010;
Ibrahim
&
Mohammed,
2008).
Most
e-government
studies
indicate
that
one
or
both
of
these
trust
dimensions
strongly
influence
e-
government
adoption.
For
example,
Bannister
and
Connolly
(2011,
p.
141)
show
that
technology
alone
cannot
induce
“public
trust
in
ICT,”
which
instead
requires
another
form
of
trust,
namely,
“trust
in
public
processes
and
in
public
servants
and
their
political
masters”.
Trust
is
critical
for
several
reasons,
and
it
stems
from
several
antecedents.
By
definition,
security
is
a
central
determinant
of
trust;
privacy
also
is
a
strong
antecedent
(Lean,
Zailani,
Ramayah,
&
Fernando,
2009).
Every
government
is
responsible
to
protect
the
security
and
privacy
of
its
citizens;
doing
so
also
should
improve
their
trust
in
e-government
services
(Jaeger,
2003).
However,
secu-
rity
and
privacy
issues
remain
barriers
to
the
use
of
e-government,
according
to
several
U.S.
surveys
conducted
between
2000
and
2004
(Coursey
&
Norris,
2008).
Hussein
et
al.
(2010,
p.
7)
summarize
that
“privacy,
security,
and
fraud
on
the
internet
are
still
surround-
ing
people’s
concern
to
adopt
e-government
technologies”.
In
the
United
Kingdom,
the
theft
of
confidential
tax
data
led
(Kolsaker
&
Lee-Kelley,
2008,
p.
735)
to
cite
“a
crisis
of
trust
in
government”
(Michael,
Vandebeek,
&
Gemino,
2005,
p.
731).
In
turn
recommend
that
government
“should
focus
on
building
a
trustworthy
relation-
ship
with
the
electorate
outside
the
confines
of
the
Internet
rather
than
building
a
positive
Web
experience”.
Finally,
transparency
is
another
important
inducement
for
the
use
of
e-services
(Bannister
&
Connolly,
2011;
Reddick,
2011)
related
closely
to
trust
in
gov-
ernment.
Akhter,
Kumar,
Kumar,
and
Dwivedi
(2011,
p.
27)
add
the
critical
point
that
“if
e-Government
fails
to
develop
perception
of
trust
among
citizens,
it
will
not
attain
its
full
potential.”
To
conclude,
the
literature
review
reveals
that
so
far,
no
model
has
been
elaborated
to
measure
the
impact
of
active
citizenship
and
trustworthiness
on
behavioural
intention
to
use
e-government.
Also,
the
Lebanese
case
has
been
understudied.
Thus,
we
propose
to
elaborate
and
test
such
a
model.
3.
Research
context,
model,
and
methodology
3.1.
Research
context
This
study
was
conducted
in
Lebanon,
with
consumers
who
have
access
to
the
Internet
through
their
computers
or
mobile
devices.
We
tested
our
research
model
on
two
web-
sites
(www.dawlati.gov.lb
and
eservices.finance.gov.lb)
and
their
mobile
apps.
The
former
site
is
launched
in
September
2013,
by
OMSAR,
with
the
goal
of
contributing
to
the
quality
and
efficiency
of
government
by
providing
citizens
with
easy
access
to
informa-
tion
and
services
and
helping
them
realize
transparent,
democratic
government
interaction
processes,
which
also
would
reduce
paper-
work
and
citizens’
need
to
visit
government
offices
in
person.
This
portal
also
provides
access
to
other
government
agency
websites
and
services,
granting
them
additional
visibility.
Currently,
it
pro-
vides
information,
e-forms
(i.e.,
PDF
forms
that
can
be
completed
electronically
and
then
printed
or
else
printed
and
completed
by
hand),
and
e-services
(e.g.,
transaction
tracking)
through
both
its
website
and
mobile
apps,
which
are
available
for
Apple,
Android,
and
Blackberry
devices.
The
latter
website
instead
is
the
portal
that
allows
taxpayers
to
submit
declarations,
review
their
profiles,
check
for
due
amounts,
and
receive
notifications.
Both
organiza-
tions
and
individuals
can
perform
their
annual
tax
declarations
throughout
the
Internet.
E-taxation
was
the
first
e-service
launched
in
2013
by
the
Ministry
of
Finance,
so
that
taxpayers
could
file
and
process
their
tax
transactions;
it
also
has
introduced
a
tax
inquiry
e-service
to
enable
them
to
check
the
amount
of
tax
due
on
built
property.
Citizens
can
also
pay
this
tax
through
the
website.
3.2.
Research
model
The
research
model
examines
the
relationship
of
two
inde-
pendent
variables,
active
citizenship
and
trustworthiness,
with
a
dependent
variable,
behavioural
intentions
to
use
e-government
services.
Citizens
may
participate
in
the
transformation
process,
including
the
design
and
use
of
personalized,
inexpensive,
high-
quality,
secure
e-services
that
should
be
able
to
adapt
to
their
expectations
and
needs.
In
this
sense,
active
citizenship
should
influence
people’s
behavioural
intentions
to
use
e-government
services
(Fakhoury,
2014).
We
predict
that
citizens
perceive
the
benefits
of
using
e-services
differently,
according
to
their
ACCI
level.
Specifically:
H1
(:).
Active
citizenship
has
a
positive
effect
on
behavioural
inten-
tions
to
use
e-government
services.
Trustworthiness,
defined
as
trust
in
the
Internet
and
trust
in
gov-
ernment
(Carter
&
Bélanger,
2005),
should
enhance
e-government
adoption.
That
is,
a
lack
of
trust
represents
a
strong
barrier
to
the
use
of
the
Internet,
due
to
security,
privacy,
and
transparency
con-
cerns
by
users.
In
a
study
of
the
inhibitors
and
enablers
of
public
e-services
in
Lebanon,
Harfouche
and
Robbin
(2012)
demonstrate
that
lack
of
trust
in
the
levels
of
security
and
privacy
were
the
most
significant
determinants
of
acceptance
intentions.
In
addition,
cit-
izens
sometimes
bribe
government
employees
to
complete
their
necessary
transactions,
because
otherwise
they
do
not
trust
that
the
transaction
will
be
completed
efficiently
and
on
time.
We
predict:
H2
(:).
Trustworthiness
has
a
positive
effect
on
behavioural
inten-
tions
to
use
e-government
services.
Fig.
1
depicts
our
research
model,
in
which
active
citizenship
and
trustworthiness
together
determine
behavioural
intentions
to
use
e-government
services
in
Lebanon.
R.
Fakhoury,
B.
Aubert
/
International
Journal
of
Information
Management
35
(2015)
346–351
349
Fig.
1.
Research
model.
Fig.
2.
Results
for
the
research
model.
3.3.
Research
methodology
3.3.1.
Measures
and
scales
The
scales
were
adapted
from
prior
research
on
e-government
and
technology
adoption.
We
used
the
behavioural
intentions
scale
from
the
Unified
Theory
of
Acceptance
and
Use
of
Technology
v2
(UTAUT
v2)
construct
(Ahmad
et
al.,
2012;
Al-Shafi
&
Weerakkody,
2009;
Al-Sobhi,
Weerakkody,
&
El-Haddadeh,
2011;
Carter,
Shaupp,
Hobbs,
&
Campbell,
2011;
Schaupp
&
Mcbride,
2011;
Venkatesh,
Chan,
2012).
The
scale
for
trustworthiness
came
from
(Bélanger,
Hiller,
&
Smith,
2002).
All
items
used
seven-point
Likert
scales,
with
anchors
at
1
for
“strongly
disagree”
and
7
for
“strongly
agree”.
For
the
ACCI,
we
followed
Hoskins
and
Mascherini
(2008)
procedure,
who
used
ten
steps
to
build
a
composite
indicator,
as
recommended
by
the
Handbook
on
Constructing
Composite
Indicators,
published
by
the
Organization
for
Economic
Co-operation
and
Development
(OECD)
(OECD,
2008).
This
methodology
is
statistically
reliable
and
valid
for
monitoring
citizenship
levels
in
Europe,
and
“the
statistical
structure
of
the
data
largely
corresponds
to
the
theo-
retical
structure
proposed
in
the
theoretical
framework”
(Hoskins
&
Mascherini,
2008,
p.
474).
3.3.2.
Questionnaire
design
We
designed
a
questionnaire
to
collect
data
that
could
address
our
research
question,
as
we
detail
in
Table
2.
The
questionnaire
items
came
from
several
previously
validated
instruments
pub-
lished
in
studies
of
Trustworthiness
and
e-government
(Carter
&
Belanger,
2008;
Harfouche
&
Robbin,
2012)
with
the
wording
modified
to
fit
our
e-government
services
context.
We
measured
citizenship
according
to
the
ACCI.
3.3.3.
Survey
fieldwork
The
web
survey
started
on
7
January
2014
and
lasted
until
15
April
2014.
The
quantitative
study
was
conducted
among
Lebanese
citizens.
We
sought
to
diversify
the
distribution
of
the
survey
by
using
social
media
(Face
to
Face,
Facebook,
LinkedIn
and
Twitter),
e-
mails,
and
in-person
distribution
channels,
which
should
increase
the
sample
size
and
enhance
the
representativeness
of
the
data
for
the
Lebanese
population.
The
experimental
fieldwork
is
conducted
in
Lebanon
on
a
sample
of
192
citizens.
Only
148
citizens
completed
the
survey
using
these
different
channels.
The
researcher
notices
the
high
dropout
rate
(23%
did
not
complete
the
survey).
4.
Results
We
tested
our
research
model
using
linear
regression
with
SPSS
and
thereby
uncovered
the
relationships
among
trustworthiness,
active
citizenship,
and
behavioural
intentions
to
use
e-government
services,
as
we
show
in
Fig.
2.
Specifically,
our
proposed
model
explains
a
substantial
percentage
of
the
variance
in
the
relation-
ship
between
active
citizenship,
trustworthiness
and
behavioural
intentions
to
use
e-government
services
in
Lebanon.
In
support
of
H1
and
H2,
we
found
a
significant
overall
test
effect
(R2=
.268,
p
=
.000).
Trustworthiness
was
the
strongest
pre-
dictor
(ˇ
=
.422,
t-value
=
6.470,
p
=
.005),
and
active
citizenship
also
exerted
a
positive
influence
(ˇ
=
.421,
t-value
=
2.731,
p
=
.007)
on
behavioural
intention
to
use
e-government
services
in
Lebanon.
5.
Discussion
and
conclusions
This
study
provides
evidence
that
trustworthiness
and
active
citizenship
have
positive
impacts
on
behavioural
intentions
to
use
Table
2
Questionnaire
items.
Trustworthiness
(trust
in
the
Internet)
I
trust
the
security
of
the
public
e-services
in
Lebanon
Harfouche
and
Robbin
(2012)
I
feel
assured
that
legal
and
technological
structures
adequately
protect
me
from
problems
on
the
Internet
Carter
and
Belanger
(2008)
In
general,
the
Internet
is
now
a
robust
and
safe
environment
in
which
to
transact
public
e-services
with
our
government
Carter
and
Belanger
(2008)
Trustworthiness
(trust
in
the
government)
I
find
that
the
government
supports
public
e-services
usage
Harfouche
and
Robbin
(2012)
I
trust
that
the
government
will
respect
my
privacy
when
I
use
public
e-services
in
Lebanon
Harfouche
and
Robbin
(2012)
In
my
opinion,
our
government
is
trustworthy
Carter
and
Belanger
(2008)
Behavioural
intentions I
intend
to
continue
using
public
e-services
in
the
future
Venkatesh,
Thong,
and
Xu
(2012)
I
will
try
to
use
public
e-services
in
my
daily
life
Venkatesh,
Thong,
and
Xu
(2012)
I
plan
to
continue
to
use
public
e-services
frequently
Venkatesh,
Thong,
and
Xu
(2012)
350
R.
Fakhoury,
B.
Aubert
/
International
Journal
of
Information
Management
35
(2015)
346–351
e-government
services
in
Lebanon.
The
challenge
in
e-government
is
not
a
technological
one
(Safeena
&
Kammani,
2013).
This
study
validates
the
impact
of
active
citizenship
and
trustworthiness
on
behavioural
intentions
to
use
e-government
services.
Government
needs
to
be
fully
aware
that
incorporating
and
implementing
Infor-
mation
and
Communication
Technology
(ICTs)
in
e-government
will
not
automatically
lead
to
promoting
greater
usage
for
e-
services
without
a
fundamental
understanding
of
the
wants
and
needs
of
citizens.
Active
citizenship
and
Trustworthiness
are
among
the
factors
that
government
should
emphasize
on
it
to
improve
the
e-services
usage.
ACCI
is
an
influencing
factor
for
behaviour
intention
to
use
e-
services.
The
statistics
shows
that
the
Lebanese
citizens
have
low
ACCI
(0.059519).
In
the
case
of
EU,
the
Nordic
countries
(Sweden,
Norway
and
Denmark)
have
a
high
level
of
active
citizenship
with
the
exception
of
Finland
with
respective
scores
of
1.017,
0.731
and
0.6.
European
Commission
(2006)
study
show
that
a
coun-
try
with
a
high
level
of
citizenship
usually
has
a
high
level
of
GDP
per
capita,
a
more
equal
distribution
of
income,
a
more
hetero-
geneous
religious
climate
and
offers
a
longstanding
democratic
tradition.
Poorer
countries
have
low
participation
in
active
citizen-
ship
phenomena.
The
results
of
this
study
in
Lebanon
indicate
a
trend
for
passive
citizenship.
According
to
Michel
(2005,
p.
215),
a
passive
agent
is
“being
subject
to
a
number
of
restraints”
and
responds
to
his
duties
while
an
active
citizen
is
an
actor
who
par-
ticipates
in
civil
society,
community
and/or
political
life
(Hoskins
&
Mascherini,
2008).
A
passive
citizen
will
not
add
value
to
this
equa-
tion
because
he/she
will
feel
not
concerned
with
the
e-government
process
since
the
Lebanese
government
did
not
emphasize
on
the
participation
facet
and
include
him/her
in
the
political/civil
and
community
life.
However,
active
citizen
has
a
great
potential
to
“participate
in
the
transformation
process,
the
design
and
use
of
personalized,
cheap,
high
quality,
secure
e-services
that
will
adapt
to
their
expectations
and
needs”
(Fakhoury
&
Aubert,
2013,
p.
38).
Thus,
governments
should
find
the
characteristics
of
the
active
cit-
izen
and
the
learning
curve
to
become
one.
Trustworthiness
is
an
important
factor
to
increase
behavioural
intention
to
use
e-government.
The
statistics
shows
that
the
Lebanese
citizens
have
low
trustworthiness.
The
researcher
indi-
cates
that
the
average
Trustworthiness
(3.94
on
the
scale
of
1
to
7)
is
low.
This
results
correlate
with
the
last
UNDP
report
in
2009
where
more
than
62.7%
of
the
total
population
do
not
trust
the
Council
of
Minister
(Harfouche
&
Robbin,
2012).
A
research
conducted
in
Lebanon
on
public
e-services
acceptance
shows
that
the
lack
of
trust
related
to
privacy
and
to
public
e-services
security
is
significant
(Harfouche
&
Robbin,
2012).
The
lack
of
trust
is
also
a
result
of
the
complicated
Lebanese
political,
economic
and
social
system
chaos
as
well
as
the
consequences
of
the
Syrian
and
regional
crisis
during
2013.
The
researcher
concludes
that
trustworthiness
is
an
impor-
tant
factor
in
the
e-government
context.
Although
citizens
do
not
trust
the
government
or
the
internet,
they
have
a
potential
demand
for
e-services
and
high
intention
to
use
e-service.
In
Lebanon,
the
government
should
develop
strategies
to
increase
citizens’
percep-
tions
of
their
trustworthiness
and
cater
for
the
high
demand
for
e-services.
This
study
strengthens
e-government
research
by
linking
it
to
active
citizenship
a
non-technical
mainstream
as
recom-
mended
by
researchers
(Heeks
&
Bailur,
2007).
We
thus
show
that
non-technical,
individual
characteristics,
including
citizens’
active
citizenship
and
trustworthiness,
are
critical
elements
of
their
choice
to
use
e-government
services.
This
study
also
pro-
poses
and
empirically
validates
a
research
model
that
details
the
relationship
between
active
citizenship
and
e-government
in
a
developing
country
(Lebanon),
thus
extending
previous
stud-
ies
that
have
mainly
focused
on
developed
and
western
nations
(Fakhoury,
2014).
It
also
provides
guidance
for
the
Lebanese
government
about
processes
to
improve
its
e-government
strategy
and
implementa-
tion
and
thereby
speed
up
the
diffusion
of
its
e-services
among
citizens.
First,
e-government
will
have
a
better
chance
of
success
with
an
aware
and
active
citizenry.
The
ultimate
benefit
for
both
government
is
thus
to
develop
citizenship
and
its
different
aspects
that
will
motivate,
empower
and
engage
citizens
to
participate,
access
and
use
the
e-government
services.
The
most
obvious
solu-
tion
is
to
investigate
the
political,
social
and
cultural
(not
only
technological)
impediments
from
the
citizen
perspective
to
fos-
ter
successful
and
efficient
e-government.
Second,
trustworthiness
can
increase
behavioural
intentions
to
use
e-government
services.
In
Lebanon,
the
government
should
take
responsibility
for
develop-
ing
strategies
to
increase
citizens’
perceptions
of
trustworthiness
and
thereby
cater
to
their
high
demand
for
e-services.
A
primary
limitation
of
this
study
is
that
we
tested
and
validated
the
proposed
model
in
a
developing
country,
marked
by
an
unstable
political,
social,
and
economic
situation.
The
bloody
war
in
Syria
has
threatened
Lebanon’s
security
and
stability;
Lebanese
citizens
thus
struggle
to
survive
in
an
already
unstable
and
dangerous
situation.
This
wider
situation
likely
explains
the
relatively
low
interest
in
completing
the
survey
(23%
drop
rate).
In
addition,
the
need
for
further
research
along
similar
lines
is
apparent.
Such
extensions
could
overcome
the
location
limita-
tion;
we
also
consider
it
appropriate
to
test
this
model
in
different
countries,
especially
developing
countries,
where
e-government
failure
is
most
relevant.
It
could
also
consist
of
finding
other
innovative
mechanisms
and/or
conditions
that
will
explain
the
relationship
between
active
citizenship
and
behavioural
intention
to
use
e-government
services.
References
Ahmad,
M.
O.,
Markkula,
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