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Usability and Workload of Access Technology for People With Severe Motor Impairment: A Comparison of Brain-Computer Interfacing and Eye Tracking

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Background. Eye trackers are widely used among people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and their benefits to quality of life have been previously shown. On the contrary, Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are still quite a novel technology, which also serves as an access technology for people with severe motor impairment. Objective. To compare a visual P300-based BCI and an eye tracker in terms of information transfer rate (ITR), usability, and cognitive workload in users with motor impairments. Methods. Each participant performed 3 spelling tasks, over 4 total sessions, using an Internet browser, which was controlled by a spelling interface that was suitable for use with either the BCI or the eye tracker. At the end of each session, participants evaluated usability and cognitive workload of the system. Results. ITR and System Usability Scale (SUS) score were higher for the eye tracker (Wilcoxon signed-rank test: ITR T = 9, P = .016; SUS T = 12.50, P = .035). Cognitive workload was higher for the BCI (T = 4; P = .003). Conclusions. Although BCIs could be potentially useful for people with severe physical disabilities, we showed that the usability of BCIs based on the visual P300 remains inferior to eye tracking. We suggest that future research on visual BCIs should use eye tracking-based control as a comparison to evaluate performance or focus on nonvisual paradigms for persons who have lost gaze control. © The Author(s) 2015.
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Neurorehabilitation and
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DOI: 10.1177/1545968315575611
Original Research Articles
Because of degenerative neuromuscular diseases or neuro-
logical disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(ALS), persons with severe physical disabilities can gradu-
ally lose control of speech muscles and limbs and, conse-
quently, the ability to communicate with their voice or with
conventional assistive devices.
Self-expression is funda-
mental for quality of life,
and lack of communication can
result in restrictions of participation, as defined by the
International Classification of Functioning, Disability and
By using gaze, or pupil size, eye trackers enable users to
communicate or control devices.
These systems require
only a short training period
and result in a low workload.
In a comparison between an eye tracker and a single switch
scanning system,
participants with ALS reported less
fatigue and a faster access when using the eye tracker. The
main difficulty in using eye trackers as an access technol-
ogy (AT), is the so-called Midas touch problem.
This refers
to the fact that gaze direction is not always related to the
focus of the attention, causing users to select a command
against their will.
People with ALS were involved only in a small number
of studies regarding the assessment of eye trackers.
Calvo et al
found significant improvement in the quality of
life of people with ALS after being provided with an eye
XXX10.1177/1545968315575611Neurorehabilitation and Neural RepairPasqualotto et al
Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Eberhard Karls Universität, Tübingen, Germany
University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy
Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Venezia
Lido, Italy
Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
National Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Disabilities,
Tokorozawa, Japan
Corresponding Author:
Emanuele Pasqualotto, PhD, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue
Hippocrate 54, bte B1.54.09, 1200 Brussels, Belgium.
Usability and Workload of Access
Technology for People With Severe Motor
Impairment: A Comparison of Brain-
Computer Interfacing and Eye Tracking
Emanuele Pasqualotto, PhD
, Tamara Matuz, PhD
, Stefano Federici, PhD
Carolin A. Ruf, PhD
, Mathias Bartl
, Marta Olivetti Belardinelli, MA
Niels Birbaumer, PhD
, and Sebastian Halder, PhD
Background. Eye trackers are widely used among people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and their benefits to quality
of life have been previously shown. On the contrary, Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are still quite a novel technology,
which also serves as an access technology for people with severe motor impairment. Objective. To compare a visual P300-
based BCI and an eye tracker in terms of information transfer rate (ITR), usability, and cognitive workload in users with
motor impairments. Methods. Each participant performed 3 spelling tasks, over 4 total sessions, using an Internet browser,
which was controlled by a spelling interface that was suitable for use with either the BCI or the eye tracker. At the end of
each session, participants evaluated usability and cognitive workload of the system. Results. ITR and System Usability Scale
(SUS) score were higher for the eye tracker (Wilcoxon signed-rank test: ITR T = 9, P = .016; SUS T = 12.50, P = .035).
Cognitive workload was higher for the BCI (T = 4; P = .003). Conclusions. Although BCIs could be potentially useful for
people with severe physical disabilities, we showed that the usability of BCIs based on the visual P300 remains inferior to
eye tracking. We suggest that future research on visual BCIs should use eye tracking–based control as a comparison to
evaluate performance or focus on nonvisual paradigms for persons who have lost gaze control.
BCI, brain-computer interface, eye tracking, usability, cognitive workload, assistive technology, ALS
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2 Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
tracker. The participants in the study were able to communi-
cate independently and rated the communication as easier,
faster, and less effortful than before. Ball et al
the acceptance, training, and extended use patterns of an
eye tracker in a group of 15 people with ALS. The capacity
of the users for social interactions increased considerably.
Indeed, the system was not only used for face-to-face com-
munication, but also for many other functions, such as
group communication (43%), phone calls (71%), e-mail
(79%), and Internet access (86%).
Independent of motor inputs, a brain-computer interface
(BCI) provides a direct connection between the brain and
any device capable of receiving brain signals. Most BCI
systems use electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and
require users to intentionally control specific features of
their own brain activity, such as slow cortical potentials or
the sensorimotor rhythm.
The P300 Speller
has been
successfully used by people with severe motor impair-
The P300 is an event-related potential, recorded
using EEG, evoked by a rare, task-relevant stimulus,
a latency between 200 and 700 ms, and is often related to
attention. P300 BCIs do not require users to learn to modu-
late their brain response.
In a typical P300 paradigm, a participant is presented
with a 6 × 6 alphanumeric matrix, where each row and each
column flashes randomly in a fixed interval, and the user
selects the desired character by focusing the attention on the
corresponding cell. This combined mechanism of focused
attention and random flashing makes the single matrix cell
a rare task-relevant stimulus eliciting the P300 peak
response. The P300 Speller has been adapted to control
to control real and virtual environments,
browse the Internet,
and to paint.
In a recent telephone survey of people with ALS,
Huggins et al
investigated the users’ opinions and priori-
ties on BCI design. Their study reports that the desired BCI
accuracy for people with ALS is at least 90%, but accura-
cies reported in the literature are usually lower. Moreover,
the expected spelling speed would be 15 to 19 letters per
minute, whereas in the published studies, it is only about 5
letters per minute.
Through a recent literature review, we have shown that
although there is a large amount of studies on BCIs, most of
them focus on methodological approaches, neglecting
usability aspects.
Most of the BCI studies, in fact, do not
consider that users often discard assistive technology after
only a few attempts and that personal factors (eg, mood,
motivation, belief, and predispositions) should be taken into
account because they can serve as both barriers and facilita-
tors in sustaining efficient use.
Although the effectiveness of BCIs in terms of character
selection is assessed in most studies, the efficiency and the
satisfaction from the users’ perspective are not always
addressed; however, they are part of a recent area of
Kleih et al
and Nijboer et al
explored the
effects of motivational factors on BCI performance.
Pasqualotto and colleagues
compared 2 prototypes of
BCIs in terms of usability and cognitive workload. Riccio et
investigated the influence of workload on the perfor-
mance of 2 P300-based BCI applications in healthy partici-
pants. Among these studies, only the study by Zickler et al
examined usability and cognitive workload in people with
severe disabilities, even though on a very limited sample.
Anyway, none of these studies compared BCIs with any
other existing AT.
It is our aim to provide a full usability assessment of a
P300-based BCI for controlling an Internet browser. To
accomplish this aim, we compared users’ performance and
usability scores using a P300 BCI and an eye tracking sys-
tem. More specifically, in a group of people with severe dis-
ability, we assessed and compared (1) the accuracy of
correct selections during 3 Internet tasks and (2) usability
indicators, such as control and cognitive workload, and
users’ satisfaction with both communication systems.
This study addresses the issue of whether and under
which conditions a BCI (specifically, the P300-BCI-based
Internet browser) could be a method of choice for users
with severe physical disabilities who still have residual con-
trol over some specific muscle groups and who could,
therefore, use conventional ATs. Furthermore, the study will
provide insights regarding which direction future BCI
research should follow in order to provide a viable alterna-
tive to conventional ATs.
We performed a comparison between the user’s experience
of controlling a BCI and an eye tracker, in a within-subject
design. Through 4 sessions of AT use (2 for the BCI and 2
for the eye tracker), the participants carried out 3 character
selection tasks, which represent common tasks that AT
users may perform when browsing the Internet. In each ses-
sion, participants used one of the ATs and were asked to
complete 2 questionnaires. The study was approved by the
Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty of the University
of Tübingen and was performed in compliance with the
Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association
(Declaration of Helsinki).
Participants and Procedure
A total of 12 native German-speaking participants (4
women; mean age = 56.5 years; standard deviation =
±10.07) with severe motor impairment (11 affected by ALS,
and 1 affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy; see Table
1), all naive to the AT assessed, were involved in the study.
All participants had home care assistance. Measurements
were performed in the participants’ homes.
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Pasqualotto et al 3
After obtaining informed consent, we made 4 weekly
appointments, depending on the participants’ availability.
The order of presentation of the technology was balanced
between participants. On average, including calibration,
BCI sessions lasted 4 hours, and eye tracker sessions 2
hours. This difference was because of the longer time
needed to prepare the EEG cap and BCI calibration and the
fixed amount of time required by the BCI for the selection
of characters. Letters selection was, in fact, constrained by
the time required by the Speller to run one, or more, full
cycles of random flashing of columns and rows, in contrast
to the eye tracker where the user could select at his/her own
In the first BCI session and in the first eye tracker ses-
sion, we administered the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Functional Rating Scale–Revised (ALSFRS-R).
In each
session, participants were asked to complete 3 copy-spell-
ing tasks (as described below in the Task section) by using
an Internet browser, which was controlled by the BCI or by
the eye tracker. We used the information transfer rate (ITR)
to measure performance. At the end of each session, we
administered the System Usability Scale (SUS)
and the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration–Task Load
Index (NASA-TLX).
Brain-Computer Interface. We used an IBM Thinkpad laptop
to collect data, using the BCI2000 software.
All sessions
were recorded using an electrode cap (Easycap GmbH, Ger-
many) with 16 Ag/AgCl ring electrodes (F3, Fz, F4, T7, C3,
Cz, C4, T8, CP3, CP4, P3, Pz, P4, PO7, PO8, Oz) and
impedance held under 5 kΩ. The electrodes were connected
to a g.USBamp amplifier (g.tec OG, Austria) with a sam-
pling frequency of 256 Hz (bandpass: 0.1-30 Hz; notch:
48-52 Hz). Reference and ground were, respectively, on the
right and left mastoid. The intensifying of rows/columns of
the P300 Speller (see Figure 1) lasted for 62.5 ms, with an
interstimulus interval of 125 ms. The number of intensifica-
tion sequences varied per participant, according to their
calibration, performed at each of the 2 sessions. The cali-
bration consisted in the spelling of the same 2 words for
everyone (Apfelkuchen and Goldfisch in German—respec-
tively, apple pie and goldfish), consisting of 20 letters in
total. We set the number of intensification sequences to the
minimum number needed to reach 70% accuracy offline.
Table 1. Summary of Demographic and Clinical Status of the Participants.
Sex Age Diagnosis
Year of
Diagnosis ALSFRS-R
Degree of
Impairment Communication
(PEG) Ventilation
01 F 53 Spinal 2008 23 Moderate Verbal No No
02 M 55 Spinal 2003 43 Minor Verbal No No
03 F 50 Bulbar 2003 17 Moderate Keyboard text-
No Noninvasive
04 M 55 Spinal 1992 0 LIS Eye blink Yes Invasive
05 M 66 Spinal 1999 2 LIS Eye blink Yes No
06 M 71 Spinal 2005 11 Major Verbal No Noninvasive
07 M 55 Spinal 2006 23 Moderate Verbal No No
08 F 48 Spinal 2007 10 LIS Verbal Yes Noninvasive
09 M 70 Spinal 2008 18 Moderate Verbal No Noninvasive
10 F 54 Spinal 2003 0 LIS Chin joystick Yes Invasive
11 M 36 Duchenne 1976 7 LIS Verbal No Noninvasive
12 M 65 Bulbar 2009 32 Minor Verbal No No
Abbreviations: ALSFRS-R, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale–Revised; LIS, locked-in syndrome; PEG, percutaneous endoscopic
Degree of impairment categories were drawn according to Kübler and Birbaumer (2008).
Figure 1. The P300 matrix contains the complete alphabet
and part of the asterisk commands needed to select a double
code. Every row and column flashes randomly in a fixed interval.
By focusing the attention on a cell, the user can perform the
selection. In this frame, the third row is intensified.
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4 Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
The lowest number of sequences reached was 5 and the
highest 8.
Eye Tracker. We used a SeeTech Pro (HumanElektronik
GmbH, Germany) set with a 7 × 7 grid. The SeeTech Pro is
a binocular infrared system with a 32-sample/s camera. The
grid locks the gaze in a cell to obviate the lack of precision.
For character selection, we used a static matrix of letters
modeled on the graphical appearance of the P300 Speller.
Participants could select characters by gazing at the intended
target and closing their eyes for 1.5 s. The visual appearance
of the eye tracker interface was identical to the one used for
the BCI, except for the input modality. The calibration
phase, performed at both sessions, consisted in fixating 9
positions on the screen located in the corners, the center,
and the extremities on the horizontal and vertical middle
lines. The screen, for both the eye tracker and the BCI, was
located at around 50 cm from the participant.
The P300 Browser. For Internet navigation, we used a newer
version (see Figure 1) of the P300 Speller-based browser
described by Mugler et al.
When loading a page, the
browser automatically assigns an alphabetical code to rep-
resent the hyperlinks (eg, the character “A” or a combina-
tion of 2 characters such as “AB”). By means of the Speller,
the user can select the codes corresponding to a particular
hyperlink and thus explore the web pages.
The copy-spelling task is widely used in the BCI field.
The general idea behind this task is to provide the user with
a set of words or sentences to write with the communication
interface. In each session with the BCI or the eye tracker,
participants were asked to select a sequence of predefined
characters in the matrix, representing common Internet
tasks. Each participant performed the same task, with the
same instructions and words to spell. However, the codes
assigned by the browser to the links in the instructions were
not always the same. Participants were allowed to correct
errors, resulting in trials that could differ in length. The first
task consisted in checking the weather forecast by using a
search engine. The participants spelled the name of a
German magazine in the search bar of a search engine Web
site. After selecting the first result of the search, participants
were asked to select the weather section. Then, they had
time to observe the image of the forecast by selecting pause.
Finally, after unpausing they were asked to select the legend
at the bottom of the page, after scrolling the page. A mini-
mum of 15 character selections was required to accomplish
the task. The second task was a search in an online encyclo-
pedia. Starting from the encyclopedia’s main page, partici-
pants performed a search for the term brain (in German,
Gehirn). After checking the resulting page, participants
were asked to select the section about the human brain and
to scroll the page to the bottom. This task required a mini-
mum of 11 selections. The third task involved playing 2
songs on a Web site. Starting from the main page of a music
Web site, the participants performed a search for the term
Jazz. The result was a list of playable songs 30 s in length.
After selecting and then listening to the sixth song on the
list, they were asked to select the “Country” section and
then to listen to the first song. This task needed a minimum
of 14 total selections.
Performance. We used bits per minute (or ITR) to compare
the performance of the BCI and the eye tracker. Bit rate is a
standard measure for communication systems and repre-
sents the amount of information communicated per unit
time, depending on both speed and accuracy.
Based on
Pierce’s formula,
the bit rate is defined as follows:
=+ −−
loglog log
22 2
Here, N represents the number of possible selections in the
matrix and P the accuracy of character selection of the user.
Usability. We used the SUS to assess the usability of the sys-
tems. The SUS is a 10-item scale, with a global subjective
assessment of usability. It consists of 10 sentences with a
5-point Likert scale that ranges from 1 (strongly disagree)
to 5 (strongly agree). The SUS scale provides a score, rang-
ing from 0 to 100, that can be used to compare the usability.
Although, as also stated by the original author of the ques-
tionnaire, usability does not exist in an absolute sense, a
score of 70 has been suggested as the acceptable
Cognitive Workload. The NASA-TLX is a multiscale tool to
evaluate the subjective cognitive workload considering its
possible different sources.
The NASA-TLX consists of 6
scales (mental demands, physical demands, temporal
demands, performance, effort, and frustration level), rated
in 2 stages. In the first stage, the user assigns a value to each
scale. In the second stage, the user is provided with the 15
pairs obtained by combining the 6 scales, with the goal to
choose the scale more relevant to workload from each pair.
This procedure is used to assess the weight of each scale.
The ratings and weights are combined to obtain the final
score, ranging from 0 to 100, with 100 representing the
highest workload experienced by the participant.
Functional Status. To investigate the relationship between
the functional status and the performance and to monitor
potential changes in participants’ functionality, we assessed
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Pasqualotto et al 5
the functionality using the ALSFRS-R.
This scale implies
rating 12 items referring to different functions, such as
speech, swallowing, handwriting, and walking, on a 5-point
scale. The obtained score may range from 0 (most severe
impairment) to 48 (no impairment).
We performed the comparison between the BCI and the eye
tracker using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test, on the averaged
data of the 2 sessions. We used bits per minute and the
scores of SUS and NASA-TLX, as independent variables.
For each technology, we correlated the scores of the ques-
tionnaires and the demographic data with performance data
to investigate how person-related factors affect perfor-
mance. We used stepwise linear discriminant analysis to
classify the EEG signal.
Calibration was performed with
the P300 Classifier tool provided with BCI2000.
All participants were able to use both interfaces to accom-
plish the tasks (see Table 2). The mean ITR with the BCI
was 8.67 bits/min and with the eye tracker, 12.87 bits/min.
Thus, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the eye
tracker (median = 12.72) had a significantly higher ITR
than the BCI (median = 9.04; T = 9; P = .016, with an effect
size r = −0.68). The outcome of the SUS and the NASA-
TLX yielded similar results. The mean SUS score for the
BCI was 71.15, which according to Bangor et al
is right
above the acceptability threshold (in the third quartile),
whereas the score for the eye tracker was 78.54, which is
just beneath the lower boundary of the fourth quartile. The
direct comparison showed that the difference was signifi-
cant (eye tracker median = 80; BCI median = 71.25; T =
12.50; P = .035; r = −0.60). When using the NASA-TLX,
the absolute values are usually not considered a viable way
of describing the workload, and a comparison (eg, pre/post
measures, 2 different devices) is normally preferred. The
results of the NASA-TLX showed that the cognitive work-
load is higher for the BCI (median = 49.75) than for the eye
tracker (median = 33.53; T = 4; P = .003; r = −0.79).
The Spearman ρ analysis showed correlations between
performance, usability, and workload data with functional
status and disease duration. Age was not significant in our
comparison. The correlations revealed that the lower the
functional status of the participants, the lower their com-
munication rate, both using the BCI (r
= 0.640; P = .001)
and the eye tracker (r
= 0.430; P = .046; see Table 3).
Finally, results show that the longer the disease duration,
the lower the usability of a BCI (r
= −0.547; P = .008) and
the higher the cognitive workload of the BCI (r
= 0.544;
P = .009). We did not find this relation when considering
the eye tracker.
We performed an exploratory study with the aim of compar-
ing 2 access technologies designed for people with severe
motor impairment. Our comparison between these inter-
faces has shown that the eye tracker is a faster and more
accurate technology that allows users to communicate with
a higher ITR than the BCI. The performance measures used
in this study showed the advantages of using the eye tracker
as a communication device. This advantage in performance
matches the findings on the usability and cognitive work-
load of the 2 interfaces. Participants rated the eye tracker as
a more satisfying device and considered the BCI as a tech-
nology requiring more effort and that was more time-con-
suming than the eye tracker. Differences in usability may be
partially a result of the longer time required for the use of
the BCI, and it is known that time can affect the perceived
fatigue, as also pointed out in more recent findings.
Because this time is intrinsic to the way this technology
works, future work on BCIs should address the issue of the
effort required by the end-users. Refined technology, such
as dry and wireless EEG,
and shifts to a classical condi-
tioning paradigm
could enhance not only the perfor-
mance, but also help in reducing the perceived effort of
BCIs. It is interesting to note that with the BCI, disease
duration plays a role with usability and workload, whereas
age does not. This finding, not confirmed with the eye
Table 2. Summary of the BCI and ET Interface Mean
Scores and Standard Deviations for the SUS, the NASA-TLX
Questionnaire for the Cognitive Workload, and the Bits Per
Bits Per Minute SUS NASA-TLX
BCI 8.67 (3.43) 71.15 (11.31) 47.64 (14.87)
ET 12.87 (4.41) 78.54 (13.25) 32.72 (8.83)
Abbreviations: BCI, brain-computer interface; ET, eye tracking; SUS,
System Usability Scale; NASA-TLX, National Aeronautics and Space
Administration–Task Load Index.
Table 3. Summary of the Spearman ρ Correlations.
BCI Eye Tracker
Bits Per
Minute SUS
Bits Per
Minute SUS
ALSFRS-R 0.640** 0.280 −0.202 0.430* 0.241 −0.207
−0.332 −0.547* 0.544** −0.118 −0.328 0.291
Age 0.239 0.153 0.140 −0.217 −0.269 0.002
Abbreviations: BCI, brain-computer interface; SUS, System Usability Scale; NASA-
TLX, National Aeronautics and Space Administration–Task Load Index; ALSFRS-R,
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale–Revised.
*P < .05; **P < .01.
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6 Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
tracker, may be also explained by the longer time required
by BCIs. The relation between the functional status and per-
formance is a surprising finding. This result, found both
with the BCI and the eye tracker, seems to be contrary to
that of other studies,
although differences in the per-
formance measures and in the statistical tests should be
taken into account. Consequently, we cautiously abstain
from drawing strong conclusions based on this specific
Because the concept of usability is context related, our
findings should also be confirmed using the same method-
ology in contexts other than Internet use. Using different
control paradigms or classification methods may optimize
the BCI implementation we used, but we decided to evalu-
ate a well-established version of the paradigm for better
compatibility. Moreover, the eye tracker may profit from an
interface tailored specifically for eye tracking, whereas in
our study, it was used to control an interface made for BCIs.
It could also be interesting to investigate the usability of
invasive BCIs. As Hochberg et al
showed, people with
severe motor impairment can use intracortical neuronal
ensemble activity to achieve control, although rudimental,
of neuromotor prostheses. Despite the potential benefits of
a better signal, either because of restrictions on candidacy
or because of personal preferences, even when informed
about the advantages, a large number of patients do not
undergo the procedure.
Nevertheless, it is worth to mention
that the use of the P300 Speller in our implementation is
similar to the one used in previous noninvasive studies.
Although our study is based on a limited number of par-
ticipants in a specific context, we showed in a direct com-
parison that the use of the visual P300 might not be the first
choice as a communication channel for people with severe
physical disabilities. As suggested by our findings, when
users can rely on eye movements, they tend to consider the
eye tracker as a superior technology. As the literature sug-
gests, people with ALS can lose control of their eye move-
Moreover, Brunner et al
have recently shown that
in healthy individuals, the use of the visual P300 BCI may
be dependent on gaze direction. To overcome this issue,
new gaze-independent paradigms have been devel-
However, other studies on neuro-ophthalmic
abnormalities in people with ALS report retinal damage
and loss of visual acuity
associated with the course of the
disease. Considering the implications of our finding together
with the literature, we may conclude that when gaze control
is retained, people with ALS will choose to use the eye
tracker instead of the BCI, but when gaze and acuity are
lost, neither the eye tracker nor the visual BCI will work.
A possible solution to overcome this issue could be the
so-called hybrid BCI, which combines different brain fea-
tures with different data acquisition techniques, or even dif-
ferent non-BCI systems (such as electro-oculography or
electromyography). Hybrid BCIs can be used sequentially
or simultaneously, and in several studies, it has been proved
that they improve accuracy by focusing on the advantages
offered by the combined communication devices. For
example, if the user of an eye tracker has difficulties per-
forming eye blinks for selections and using dwell time gen-
erates too many errors, a BCI can be used to control
selections (brain switch).
Exploring different P300 BCI modalities, such as tac-
and auditory devices,
may be another viable
solution to overcome the issues of the visual P300. Only 1
study on the auditory P300 included clinically relevant end
Moreover, whereas in a single case study on a per-
son in locked-in syndrome (LIS) the authors reported prom-
ising results in the tactile modality,
in another case study
about the transition from LIS to complete LIS (CLIS), the
authors found no vibrotactile brain-evoked response.
Because of the inconclusive results, further research is
needed to determine the value of the tactile-haptic modality
for BCIs. Even though a delayed response in the auditory
areas has been reported in the literature,
we suggest that in
addition, the auditory modality should be further explored.
The present study highlighted that in certain conditions,
people with severe physical disabilities may prefer eye
trackers to visual BCIs, for their performance, usability, and
required cognitive effort. We suggest that future research in
BCIs should take into account these preferences and explore
modalities other than visual.
We would like to thank all the participants involved in this study.
We are very grateful to Humanelektronik GmbH for providing us
with one of their eye trackers and to Sven Körber (SirValUse
Consulting GmbH) for the German version of the System Usability
Scale. This study was carried out with the precious support of
Lasse Wiesinger, Anna-Antonia Pape, and Slavica Von Hartlieb
during the measurements. We are also grateful to the anonymous
reviewers for their suggestions as well as those of Dr Giulia
Liberati, which helped in improving the quality of the article.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect
to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support
for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This
study was partially funded by the Inter-University Centre for
Research on Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial
Systems (ECONA), the Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative
Neuroscience (CIN) pool project 2009-10, the Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), and the European ICT Program
at Univ Catholique Louvain Bib on March 16, 2015nnr.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Pasqualotto et al 7
Project FP7-288566. SH received funding as international research
fellow from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)
and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
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... There have been studies that explicitly compare eye-trackers and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). When comparing eye-trackers to P300 BCI, Pasqualotto et al. [40], found that eye-trackers had a significantly higher information transfer rate and System Usability Scale ranking, as well as a significantly lower cognitive workload [40]. As a result, eye-trackers are more appropriate when there is no ocular involvement, which can be solved by BCI. ...
... There have been studies that explicitly compare eye-trackers and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). When comparing eye-trackers to P300 BCI, Pasqualotto et al. [40], found that eye-trackers had a significantly higher information transfer rate and System Usability Scale ranking, as well as a significantly lower cognitive workload [40]. As a result, eye-trackers are more appropriate when there is no ocular involvement, which can be solved by BCI. ...
Full-text available
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as ALS, is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in the loss of muscle control. For individuals with ALS, where mobility is limited to the movement of the eyes, the use of eye-tracking-based applications can be applied to achieve some basic tasks with certain digital interfaces. This paper presents a review of existing eye-tracking software and hardware through which eye-tracking their application is sketched as an assistive technology to cope with ALS. Eye-tracking also provides a suitable alternative as control of game elements. Furthermore, artificial intelligence has been utilized to improve eye-tracking technology with significant improvement in calibration and accuracy. Gaps in literature are highlighted in the study to offer a direction for future research.
... However, the current communication speeds and accuracies achievable with BCIs are relatively low when compared to other communication platforms [179,180]. Indeed, most current BCIs achieve communication rates (speeds and accuracies) of around 27 bits per minute [153,181], while eye trackers can achieve communication rates of around 41 bits per minute [182] and human speech is typically between words per minute [183,184] making BCIs for communication only really useful when other interfaces are not feasible [185]. ...
Objective Semantic concepts are coherent entities within our minds. They underpin our thought processes and are a part of the basis for our understanding of the world. Modern neuroscience research is increasingly exploring how individual semantic concepts are encoded within our brains and a number of studies are beginning to reveal key patterns of neural activity that underpin specific concepts. Building upon this basic understanding of the process of semantic neural encoding, neural engineers are beginning to explore tools and methods for semantic decoding: identifying which semantic concepts an individual is focused on at a given moment in time from recordings of their neural activity. In this paper we review the current literature on semantic neural decoding. Approach We conducted this review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Specifically, we assess the eligibility of published peer-reviewed reports via a search of PubMed and Google Scholar. We identify a total of 74 studies in which semantic neural decoding is used to attempt to identify individual semantic concepts from neural activity. Results Our review reveals how modern neuroscientific tools have been developed to allow decoding of individual concepts from a range of neuroimaging modalities. We discuss specific neuroimaging methods, experimental designs, and machine learning pipelines that are employed to aid the decoding of semantic concepts. We quantify the efficacy of semantic decoders by measuring information transfer rates. We also discuss current challenges presented by this research area and present some possible solutions. Finally, we discuss some possible emerging and speculative future directions for this research area. Significance Semantic decoding is a rapidly growing area of research. However, despite its increasingly widespread popularity and use in neuroscientific research this is the first literature review focusing on this topic across neuroimaging modalities and with a focus on quantifying the efficacy of semantic decoders.
... eye tracking is applied in marketing to detect where the consumer's gaze points are focused on products of interest [32]. However, the most important application of eye tracking is to provide communication and interaction for patients with various forms of degenerative neuromuscolar or neurological diseases [33]. Indeed, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others [20]. ...
Full-text available
Eye tracking is a sensing technology that allows a computer to monitor eye movements and determine where a subject is looking. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a robotic architecture that enables to control a robot arm through eye tracking and to draw using the motion of the eyes only. The usability of the system is assessed by a drawing experiment where 10 naïve subjects learned to operate the robot manipulator with eyes. Results suggest that the gaze-based human-robot interface may be considered an intuitive and efficient technology to perform a drawing task, and could be beneficial beyond amputees and patients with various forms of movement impairments.
... Since ALS patients may completely lose the ability to articulate words and phrases (dysarthria occurs in 80-95% of ALS patients), and have impaired limb mobility (so they may be deprived to use gesture communication), they could gain enormous benefit from the HT-AAC technologies to continue communication, despite the physical impairment that otherwise would prevent it. In particular, the development of HT-AAC, such as brain-computer interface (BCI) and eye tracking (ET), could be a useful tool to bypass the important motor difficulties present in ALS patients [39]. ...
Full-text available
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease, is characterized by the degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons, which leads to muscle weakness and subsequently paralysis. It begins subtly with focal weakness but spreads relentlessly to involve most muscles, thus proving to be effectively incurable. Typically, death due to respiratory paralysis occurs in 3–5 years. To date, it has been shown that the management of ALS patients is best achieved with a multidisciplinary approach, and with the help of emerging technologies ranging from multidisciplinary teleconsults (for monitoring the dysphagia, respiratory function, and nutritional status) to brain-computer interfaces and eye tracking for alternative augmentative communication, until robotics, it may increase effectiveness. The COVID-19 pandemic created a spasmodic need to accelerate the development and implementation of such technologies in clinical practice, to improve the daily lives of both ALS patients and caregivers. However, despite the remarkable strides that have been made in the field, there are still issues to be addressed. This review will be discussed on the eureka moment of emerging technologies for ALS, used as a blueprint not only for neurodegenerative diseases, examining the current technologies already in place or being evaluated, highlighting the pros and cons for future clinical applications.
... Furthermore, an individual using eye gaze may wish to transition to P300-based BCI-AAC access based on their level of impairment and preference. When considering preference, BCI-AAC use incurs a cognitive load (e.g., Pasqualotto et al., 2015); however, some individuals may find the demands for BCI-AAC access different to existing AAC methods . For instance, a case study report revealed that, whereas the individual with ALS found the auditory-based BCI-AAC tiring due to attentional demands, it was easier than eye gaze access as it reduced demands for precise eye movements (Käthner et al., 2015). ...
Purpose The purpose of this article is to consider how, alongside engineering advancements, noninvasive brain–computer interface (BCI) for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC; BCI-AAC) developments can leverage implementation science to increase the clinical impact of this technology. We offer the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) as a structure to help guide future BCI-AAC research. Specifically, we discuss CFIR primary domains that include intervention characteristics, the outer and inner settings, the individuals involved in the intervention, and the process of implementation, alongside pertinent subdomains including adaptability, cost, patient needs and recourses, implementation climate, other personal attributes, and the process of engaging. The authors support their view with current citations from both the AAC and BCI-AAC fields. Conclusions The article aimed to provide thoughtful considerations for how future research may leverage the CFIR to support meaningful BCI-AAC translation for those with severe physical impairments. We believe that, although significant barriers to BCI-AAC development still exist, incorporating implementation research may be timely for the field of BCI-AAC and help account for diversity in end users, navigate implementation obstacles, and support a smooth and efficient translation of BCI-AAC technology. Moreover, the sooner clinicians, individuals who use AAC, their support networks, and engineers collectively improve BCI-AAC outcomes and the efficiency of translation, the sooner BCI-AAC may become an everyday tool in the AAC arsenal.
The ideal brain-computer interface (BCI) adapts to the user's state to enable optimal BCI performance. Two methods of BCI adaptation are commonly applied: User-centered design (UCD) responds to individual user needs and requirements. Passive BCIs can adapt via online analysis of electrophysiological signals. Despite similar goals, these methods are rarely discussed in combination. Hence, we organized a workshop for the 8th International BCI Meeting 2021 to discuss the combined application of both methods. Here we expand upon the workshop by discussing UCD in more detail regarding its utility for end-users as well as non-end-user-based early-stage BCI development. Furthermore, we explore electrophysiology-based online user state adaptation concerning consciousness and pain detection. The integration of the numerous BCI user state adaptation methods into a unified process remains challenging. Yet, further systematic accumulation of specific knowledge about assessment and integration of internal user states bears great potential for BCI optimization. ARTICLE HISTORY
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The purpose of this study was to describe a group of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis training and using the Eye-gaze Response Interface Computer Aid (ERICA) with Type & Talk or LifeMate 1.1 communication software. Fifteen people with ALS participated in the study, and all but one successfully used the ERICA as his or her primary communication device. The sole participant who discontinued use experienced the onset of impaired eyelid control during training. Results indicate that the ERICA was used to support a number of different communication functions, such as face-to-face interaction (100%), group communication (43%), phone calls (71%), e-mail (79%), and Internet access (86%). In an effort to optimize eye-gaze tracking to support communication, a number of environmental, positioning, and calibration adjustments are reported.
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Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can serve as muscle independent communication aids. Persons, who are unable to control their eye muscles (e.g., in the completely locked-in state) or have severe visual impairments for other reasons, need BCI systems that do not rely on the visual modality. For this reason, BCIs that employ auditory stimuli were suggested. In this study, a multiclass BCI spelling system was implemented that uses animal voices with directional cues to code rows and columns of a letter matrix. To reveal possible training effects with the system, 11 healthy participants performed spelling tasks on 2 consecutive days. In a second step, the system was tested by a participant with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in two sessions. In the first session, healthy participants spelled with an average accuracy of 76% (3.29 bits/min) that increased to 90% (4.23 bits/min) on the second day. Spelling accuracy by the participant with ALS was 20% in the first and 47% in the second session. The results indicate a strong training effect for both the healthy participants and the participant with ALS. While healthy participants reached high accuracies in the first session and second session, accuracies for the participant with ALS were not sufficient for satisfactory communication in both sessions. More training sessions might be needed to improve spelling accuracies. The study demonstrated the feasibility of the auditory BCI with healthy users and stresses the importance of training with auditory multiclass BCIs, especially for potential end-users of BCI with disease.
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One of the principal application areas for brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), typically used by people with severe speech and physical disabilities (SSPI). Existing word- and phrase-based AAC solutions that employ BCIs that utilize electroencephalography (EEG) are sometimes supplemented by icons. Icon-based BCI systems that use binary signaling methods, such as P300 detection, combine hierarchical layouts with some form of scanning. The rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) IconMessenger combines P300 signal detection with the icon-based semantic message construction system of iconCHAT. Language models are incorporated in the inference engine and some modifications that facilitate the use of RSVP were performed such as icon semantic role order selection and the tight fusion of language evidence and EEG evidence. The results of a study conducted with 10 healthy participants suggest that the system has potential as an AAC system in real-time typing applications. Ability to construct messages with reduced physical movement demands due to RSVP and increased message construction speed and accuracy due to the incorporation of an icon-based language model in the inference process are the significant findings of this study.
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In order to enable communication through a brain-computer interface (BCI), it is necessary to discriminate between distinct brain responses. As a first step, we probed the possibility to discriminate between affirmative (“yes”) and negative (“no”) responses using a semantic classical conditioning paradigm, within an fMRI setting. Subjects were presented with congruent and incongruent word-pairs as conditioned stimuli (CS), respectively eliciting affirmative and negative responses. Incongruent word-pairs were associated to an unpleasant unconditioned stimulus (scream, US1) and congruent word-pairs were associated to a pleasant unconditioned stimulus (baby-laughter, US2), in order to elicit emotional conditioned responses (CR). The aim was to discriminate between affirmative and negative responses, enabled by their association with the positive and negative affective stimuli. In the late acquisition phase, when the US were not present anymore, there was a strong significant differential activation for incongruent and congruent word-pairs in a cluster comprising the left insula and the inferior frontal triangularis. This association was not found in the habituation phase. These results suggest that the difference in affirmative and negative brain responses was established as an effect of conditioning, allowing to further investigate the possibility of using this paradigm for a binary choice BCI.
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by neuro-ophthalmological abnormalities beyond disturbed oculomotor control such as decreased visual acuity and disturbed visual evoked potentials. Here we report retinal alterations in a cohort of 24 patients with clinically definite (n = 20) or probable (n = 4) ALS as compared to matched controls. High-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography with retinal segmentation revealed a subtle reduction in the macular thickness and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as well as a marked thinning of the inner nuclear layer (INL). Our data indicate an unprecedented retinal damage pattern and suggest neurodegeneration beyond the motor system in this disease.
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Increasing number of research activities and different types of studies in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems show potential in this young research area. Research teams have studied features of different data acquisition techniques, brain activity patterns, feature extraction techniques, methods of classifications, and many other aspects of a BCI system. However, conventional BCIs have not become totally applicable, due to the lack of high accuracy, reliability, low information transfer rate, and user acceptability. A new approach to create a more reliable BCI that takes advantage of each system is to combine two or more BCI systems with different brain activity patterns or different input signal sources. This type of BCI, called hybrid BCI, may reduce disadvantages of each conventional BCI system. In addition, hybrid BCIs may create more applications and possibly increase the accuracy and the information transfer rate. However, the type of BCIs and their combinations should be considered carefully. In this paper, after introducing several types of BCIs and their combinations, we review and discuss hybrid BCIs, different possibilities to combine them, and their advantages and disadvantages.
The study aimed at revealing electrophysiological indicators of mental workload and fatigue during prolonged usage of a P300 brain-computer interface (BCI). Mental workload was experimentally manipulated with dichotic listening tasks. Medium and high workload conditions alternated. Behavioral measures confirmed that the manipulation of mental workload was successful. Reduced P300 amplitude was found for the high workload condition. Along with lower performance and an increase in the subjective level of fatigue, an increase of power in the alpha band was found for the last as compared to the first run of both conditions. The study confirms that a combination of signals derived from the time and frequency domain of the electroencephalogram is promising for the online detection of workload and fatigue. It also demonstrates that satisfactory accuracies can be achieved by healthy participants with the P300 speller, despite constant distraction and when pursuing the task for a long time.
For many years the reestablishment of communication for people with severe motor paralysis has been in the focus of brain-computer interface (BCI) research. Recently applications for entertainment have also been developed. Brain Painting allows the user creative expression through painting pictures. The second, revised prototype of the BCI Brain Painting application was evaluated in its target function - free painting - and compared to the P300 spelling application by four end users with severe disabilities. According to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), usability was evaluated in terms of effectiveness (accuracy), efficiency (information transfer rate (ITR)), utility metric, subjective workload (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA TLX)) and user satisfaction (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology (QUEST) 2.0 and Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA), Device Form). The results revealed high performance levels (M≥80% accuracy) in the free painting and the copy painting conditions, ITRs (4.47-6.65bits/min) comparable to other P300 applications and only low to moderate workload levels (5-49 of 100), thereby proving that the complex task of free painting did neither impair performance nor impose insurmountable workload. Users were satisfied with the BCI Brain Painting application. Main obstacles for use in daily life were the system operability and the EEG cap, particularly the need of extensive support for adjustment. The P300 Brain Painting application can be operated with high effectiveness and efficiency. End users with severe motor paralysis would like to use the application in daily life. User-friendliness, specifically ease of use, is a mandatory necessity when bringing BCI to end users. Early and active involvement of users and iterative user-centered evaluation enable developers to work toward this goal.