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June. 2014. Vol. 2, No.2 ISSN 2311 -2476
International Journal of Research In Agriculture and Food Sciences
© 2013 - 2014 IJRAFS & K.A.J. All rights reserved
Danbature, Wilson Lamayi; Fai, Frederick Yirankinyuki; Usman, Abubakar and Patrick Ayim
Chemistry Department, Gombe State University, Tudun Wada Gombe, Nigeria.
Correspondence author,
Investigations were carried out on the nutritional composition and some mineral contents of Adansonia
digitata seeds for domestic consumption and industrial utilization. The fats and protein contents were
determined by extraction and micro Kjeldahl method respectively while Sodium, Potassium and Calcium
were determined using flame photometer. The results obtained showed that the seeds contained high
protein (20.13%), carbohydrate (39.90%), fat (24.72%), Ash (7.36%), crude fiber (7.89%) and moisture
content (5.37%). The concentration of some minerals in milligram per hundred gram (mg/100g) as present
in the ash of baobab seeds are Na (260), K (2500) and Ca (1.2). The results showed that baobab seeds
could serve as a supplementary source of carbohydrate and fiber.
Keywords nutritional composition baobab seed flame photometry mineral analysis
Nigeria is blessed with abundant domestic trees,
fruits, tubers, vegetables, and other plant foods
which are of great economic importance and are
excellent sources of essential nutrients required
by the body for growth and prevention of
diseases. Their values cannot be said to be lower
than processed or imported items which are said
to contain known amount of essential body
nutrients.(Akiniyi and Waziri 2011). Baobab or
Adansonia digitata L. belongs to the Malvaceae
family (Bremer et al., 2003). The Baobab tree is
one of the most intriguing trees growing on the
African continent and is often referred to as
monkey bread tree, Senegal Calash (fruit), bottle
tree or upside down tree which can have a life
span of up to 6,000 years.(Magaji, 2010). The
baobab tree is tolerant to high temperature and
drought, and is mostly found in the northern part
of Nigeria. Every part of the baobab tree is
reported to be useful (Owen (1970) cited in
Igboeli et al., 1997 and Gebauer et al., 2002).
The bark and roots are cut and used as traditional
medicine. (Sidibe & Williams, 2002; Shukla et
al.,2001). The fruit consists of large seeds
embedded in a sour acidic pulp and shell. The
pulp can be dissolved in water or milk and the
liquid is then used as a drink, a sauce for food, a
fermenting agent in local brewing or as a
substitute for cream of tartar in baking (Sidibe &
Williams, 2002;Obizoba, 1983). Fermented
seeds are used as flavouring for soup, and the
roasted seeds are used as a side dish, substituting
peanut. [Addy and Eteshola, 1984] The seeds are
also pressed for oil but the by-product, baobab
seed cake is typically underutilized (Osman
2004). The leaves are used to make soup
[Yazzie et al.,1994]. The plant also provides
forage for wildlife and domestic animals
(Nkafamiya et al 2007).The consumption of
baobab seeds in different forms has therefore
been going on for quite a long time with little or
no knowledge about the composition and
nutritional value of the seeds, hence the need to
investigate the mineral and nutritional content of
the seed. A number of studies on the proximate
values and mineral composition of baobab seeds
and other indigenous plants have been carried
out several times in different geographical
locations because plants nutrient and mineral
contents do vary with soil type, as well as with
climate type. The aim of this study is therefore to
carry out the proximate and some selected
mineral analysis of baobab seeds obtained from
the baobab plants, which are among the
conserved plants in Gombe State University,
Samples Collection and Preparation
The fruits were plucked from the trees in
different locations in Gombe State University
using long sticks. The fruits were cracked using
stones, and placed in water for 24hours to soften
the pulp. The soaked fruits were washed and the
June. 2014. Vol. 2, No.2 ISSN 2311 -2476
International Journal of Research In Agriculture and Food Sciences
© 2013 - 2014 IJRAFS & K.A.J. All rights reserved
seeds were separated from the pulp and rinsed
with clean water. The seeds were dried under the
sun for three days and were pulverized using a
grinding machine.
Determination of Fat Content
About 200g of the samples were crushed into
fine particles in a mortar and pestle. 50g of the
samples were placed in the filter paper thimble
and was inserted in the soxhlet extractor. The
solvent was added and the fat was extracted at
60-700c into a pre-weighed round bottom flask
for 6hours. The flask and its content was
detached from the extractor and the solvent
distilled off at 800c for 2hour and was kept in a
fume cupboard until the next day when it was
weighed. The cake was also removed from the
extractor and allowed to dry for 24hours. The
dried cake was weighed and the percentage
composition of the crude fat was determined.
The procedure was repeated three times and the
average weights were used to deduce the weight
of fat.
% crude fat = (initial weight of the samplefinal
weight of the sample) x 100
Initial weight
of the sample
Determination of Moisture Content
This was done according to Udo and
Ogunwele’s (1986) method with modification
where by three sets of filter papers were weighed
and one (1g) of the samples was placed onto
each of the filter papers which were then placed
inside an oven and allowed to dry at 1050c until a
constant weight was reached.
Therefore % Moisture Content = (W1 - W2 ) x
100 1g
W1 = Weight of empty filter paper and fresh
W2 = Weight of empty filter paper and dried
Determination of Ash Content
This was done according to James (1995)
whereby 5g of the samples were placed into each
of the pre-weighed crucibles and ashed in a
furnace at 6000C for about 7hours when the ash
was completely white. The crucibles were then
removed from the furnace, allowed to cool in a
descicator and were reweighed
% Ash of the sample = (C2 C3 )x 100
C1 = weight of empty crucible
C2 = weight of crucible + sample
C3 = Weight of crucible + ash
Determination of Crude Fiber
Percentage crude fiber was determined using the
method described by Udo and Ogunwele (1986)
with modifications where by 3g of fat free
samples were weighed (cake from extraction).
Two 500ml digestion flasks were prepared one
containing 200ml of dilute (1.25g/100ml) H2SO4
and another containing 200ml dilute
(1.25g/100ml) NaOH. Each was connected to a
condenser, and was allowed to boil. 3g of
samples were transferred to the boiling H2SO4
solution and allowed to continue boiling for 30
minutes. The solution was filtered through linen
using Buchner set under light vacuum. It was
washed with hot water until it was acid free. The
residue was transferred to hot NaOH solution in
the second flask. The solution was then brought
to boil and left to continue boiling for 30
minutes. The flask was shaken intermittently to
subdue the frothing that occurs during boiling.
The digest was also filtered through Buchner
funnel where by a piece of muslin cloth was
placed on the Buchner funnel and over the lining
of the ashless filter paper and was snugly fitted.
10% of hot solution of K2SO4 was added to
facilitate the filtration and dilute H2SO4 was
added to reduce the time for filtration. The
residue was washed repeatedly with hot water to
make the residue free from NaOH and the filtrate
was tested with phenolphthalein indicator. The
residue was dried along with the filter paper at
1000C and was reweighed. The weight of the
filter paper was subtracted to obtain weight of
the residue (crude fiber and some minerals). The
residue was transferred along with the paper to
tared silica crucible and the content was ignited
at 450-5000C in a muffle for 30 minutes. The
crucible was cool in a descicator and weighed for
Crude fibre (dry basis) = (Residue Ash)g x
(100 F)
Protein Content Determination
The crude protein of the sample was determined
using modified Kjeldhal method described by
AOAC, (1990) whereby 2g of the samples were
transferred into a clean 250ml Kjeldah digestion
flask. 2g of the catalyst mixture was added and
25ml of concentrated H2SO4 was also added.
The mixture was digested for about 5hours when
the pale-blue colour appeared. The content of the
June. 2014. Vol. 2, No.2 ISSN 2311 -2476
International Journal of Research In Agriculture and Food Sciences
© 2013 - 2014 IJRAFS & K.A.J. All rights reserved
digestion flask was transferred to 100cm3
volumetric flask and adjusted to the mark. A
blank was also prepared the same way. 20cm3 of
2% boric acid was transferred into a conical flask
and 4 drops of a mixed indicator were added. A
50cm3 burette was filled with 0.01M HCI. The
distillation assembly was turned on but the steam
trap was left opened. The condenser tip was
immersed into the boric acid. 10ml of blank
digest was introduced from the sample
introduction cork and the funnel was rinsed with
3ml of distilled water and then 25ml of 30%
NaOH was introduced. The cork was closed after
rinsing with 2ml of distilled water and the steam
trap was also closed. When the colour of the
boric acid was changed, the condenser tip was
washed with distilled water and the boric acid
mixture in the flask was titrated with standard
0.01M HCI until the colour disappeared. The
procedure was repeated two times with the blank
and two times with the sample digests and the
averages of the titers were calculated.
Nitrogen(% wet basis =(sampleblank)titre × N
of HCl x 14 x 100 x 100%
Aliquot x Wt.
of Sample x 1000
Nitrogen(% dry basis)=(sampleblank)titre×N of
HClx14x100x100x 100(%)
Aliquot x Wt. of
Sample x 1000 x dry matter
Protein (% dry basis) = Nitrogen (%, dry basis) x
Determination of Carbohydrate Content
The Carbohydrate content of the seed was
determined by difference.
%Carbohydrate=100-(%Crude fiber+%Crude
Fat+%Crude Protein+%Ash
Mineral Analysis
Preparation of Sample Solution
0.5g of the ashed sample was weighed and
placed inside 100cm3 volumetric flask. 1ml of
concentrated HNO3 was added to the sample and
the solution was made up to 100ml mark with
distilled water.1ml of the above solution was
placed inside 100cm3 volumetric flask and made
to the mark with distilled water and was used as
the stuck sample solution for minerals analysis.
Elemental Determination
Three elements; sodium, potassium and calcium
were determined using a flame photometer
model, PFP7/REV/10-08. The preparation of
standard solutions for elemental analysis was
done using the method of Association of
Officials Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1999).
Results and Discussion
The study was carried out in order to determine
the nutritional value and some mineral content of
baobab seed. The proximate composition was
determined in percentage and the results
presented on table1. The results for minerals
analysis is presented on table2 as milligram of
element per gram of dry sample.
Table 1: Nutritional Composition of Baobab
Moisture contents
Ash contents
Fat contents
Crude fiber
Crude protein
462.60 Calories/
Table 2: Mineral Composition of the baobab
Concentration (mg
The results of the proximate analysis show that
the seed contains 20.13, 7.36 and 7.89% of
protein, ash and fiber respectively. These values
are similar to that of P. africana and P. filicoidea
which are most commonly used for preparation
of Hausawa Daddawa cake. (Eka and Isbell,
1984; Barminas et al, 1998). The Crude Fat,
24.72% is within the range obtained by Osman
(2004) and Ajayi et al (2006) which are 12.25
and 33.00% respectively for the same plant. The
crude fiber obtained is lower than that obtained
by Lockett et al (2000) and higher than the result
obtained by Nkafamiya et al (2007) which are
49.72% and 6.71% respectively. The protein
content was found to be 20.13% which is much
lower than 36.60% as determined by Ajayi et al
(2006) and Murray et al (2001) respectively. The
Carbohydrate content of the seed was found to
be 39.90% which falls within the range obtained
by Murray et al (2001) and Proll et al (1998)
which are 11.2% and 56.75% respectively. This
June. 2014. Vol. 2, No.2 ISSN 2311 -2476
International Journal of Research In Agriculture and Food Sciences
© 2013 - 2014 IJRAFS & K.A.J. All rights reserved
shows that the carbohydrate in the baobab seed
do not vary much with variation in geographical
location. The total moisture content of the seed
however was determined to be 5.37% which can
be compared with 5.02% and 4.80% as obtained
by Ajayi et al (2006) and Murray et al (2001)
respectively. The ash content 7.36% can be
compared with the results obtained by Ajayi et al
(2006) which are 7.50% and 7.61% respectively.
This is an indication that the mineral content of
baobab seeds may be the same when grown in
different soil and different climate. The results
of the mineral analysis show that the baobab
seeds contain 260, 2500 and 1.2 mg/100g of
Sodium, Potassium and Calcium respectively.
This shows that the seed contain high Potassium
and therefore the seed can be used to supplement
the intake of Potassium in the body. Potassium
prevents hyperacidity in the stomach. It is also
necessary for the contraction of the muscles and
to keep the heart beat normal. Potassium also
helps hormone secretion and aids in the kidneys
detoxification of blood. The concentration of
Calcium (1.2mg/ 100g) in the sample is very low
compared to that obtained by Osman (2004) but
the result is within the range obtained by
Obizoba and Amaechi (1993).
In conclusion, the Proximate and Mineral
Composition of the seeds of Adansonia digitata,
indicates that it could be served as an alternative
source of human food and could find immediate
utility in mixed animal feed. The seed contain
high percentage of protein and could be used as
protein supplement when mixed with low protein
foods such as cereals grains for both animals and
human. The seeds could also serve as a good
source of carbohydrate for human and all classes
of livestock since it is found to contain a high
percentage of carbohydrate. The energy content
of this seed is high and it could be used to
supplement the daily energy intake for human,
livestock and birds.
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A, Okolo A, Glwu RH (1994) The
amino acid and mineral content of
baobab (Adansoina digitata L.) Leaves.
J Food Comp Anal 7: 189193.
... However, according to Mission Clean and Lean (2015), the fruit contains about 0.04 mg/100g of thiamine. These variations may be due to the geographical locations, climatic factors, effect of temperature and time (Danbature et al., 2014). ...
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The study was carried out to determine the amount of vitamin A (retinol), B 1 (thiamine), B 2 (riboflavin) and B 6 (pyridoxine) in Palmyra fruit. The fruits were purchased from Gombe market. One (1) g in 100ml of each of the fruit extract was freshly prepared and used for the analysis. UV/Visible spectrophotometer (model 5400/5405) was used to quantify these vitamins. The results obtained for vitamins A, B 1, B 2 and B 6 were 8.89±0.03 µg/100g, 0.0 mg/100g, 0.03±0.006 mg/100g and 3.50±0.20 mg/100g at λ max 335,747,445 and 465nm respectively. It could be concluded that the consumption of palmyra fruits should be encouraged as it is rich in vitamins.
... The variation in the two results could be due to differences in geographic locations, climatic factors, effect of temperature and time(Danbature et al., 2014).The RDA for vitamin B (Riboflavin) in adult is 1.2 mg(Food and Nutrition Board, 2015). The 2 vitamin B of Palmyra fruit obtained in this research is 0.03 mg/100g which is higher than that 2 obtained byMission and Clean (2015) which is 0.02 mg/100g of palm sugar. ...
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almyra (Borassus spp) is a genius of six species of fan-palm fruits native to P tropical region of Africa and Asia. Palmyra fruit is eaten and the water extract of the fruit is taken as juice and used in making pap. Samples of the fruits were collected randomly from the Palmyra tree in Kaltungo L.G.A of Gombe State. UV-Spectrophotometer was used to quantify vitamins A, B B B 1, 2, 4 andB while Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (210VGP) was used to 6 determine the concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. The results revealed that Palmyra fruits contains 0.00mg/l of vitamin B , and is richer in 2 vitamin B (1.2 ± 0.003 mg/l). The mineral composition showed that the fruit 6 contains a high concentration of Na (480 ± 0.002 mg/kg) and K (340 ± 0.002mg/kg) and a low composition of Ca and Zn (28 ± 0.002 and 25.8 ± 0.003 mg/kgrespectively). There was no Cd present in the fruit. Of the heavy metals, Fe has the highest concentration of 8.571 ± 0.250 mg/100g). From the results obtained, it could be concluded that the consumption of Palmyra fruit should be encouraged since it contains vitamins and minerals required for proper functioning of the body.
... Ten of the 18 observed amino acids in A. digitata L. seeds are categorized as essential; threonine, tyrosine, methionine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, histadine, lysine and tryptophan and have been identified at relatively high amounts (Glew etThe-denotes that value is not available. Source: A, (Igboeli et al., 1997) dehulled seeds; B, (Osman, 2004) whole seeds; C, (Ezeagu, 2005) whole seeds; D, (Madzimure et al., 2011) seed cake; E, (Oyeleke et al., 2012) seed meal; F, (Danbature et al., 2014) whole seeds; G, (Oladunjoye et al., 2014) pulp and Seed meal; H, (Anene et al., 2012) whole seeds. al., 1997). ...
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Alternative cheap sources of protein in poultry diets are desired hinged on feed safety, production cost and nutritional quality. The preceding review looks at how baobab seeds have featured as an alternative protein source in poultry diets. This is on the backdrop that the cost of compound feeds continue to be on the rise due to the high expense of conventional protein sources used in manufacturing animal feed. Soya bean has been the predominantly used and most expensive conventional protein source used in the manufacturing of compound feeds. It is suffice to suggest that there is an urgent need to accord adequate consideration to alternative cheap protein sources, and baobab seeds are one such alternatives. Previous studies have shown that baobab seeds have excellent nutritive value, despite containing inconsiderable levels of anti-nutritional factors. Baobab seeds contain some anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate (2%), oxalate (10%), tannins and saponins (3-7%) which reduces digestive efficiency and utilization of dietary nutrients in poultry. However, these anti-nutritional factor levels are generally assumed to be low enough not to cause any adverse effects in avian species. The seeds have a protein value that ranges from 20-36 % CP and an energy level of 4.19-16.75 kJ/kg, which is comparable to sunflower meal (24.4-36.7 CP and 19.1-20.2 kJ/kg) and soybean hulls (10.5-19.2 CP and 17.5-18.7 kJ/kg). It is apparent from previous studies that inclusion of baobab seeds at 5-10% level in poultry diets improves performance of broilers in terms of growth rate. Inclusion of the baobab seeds as partial replacers of soybean meal can be cost effective by inevitability reducing the escalating costs of poultry feed.
The current study aims to review the prospects for baobab domestication and cultivation, nutrient variability, food applications, industrial value and future potentials of the African baobab. The variations in nutrient content of baobab as seen in several studies could have arisen from differences in provenance the sample was obtained, age of the parent plant, as well as differences in soil and climate. Regardless, baobab is a rich source of nutrients, bioactives and functional polysaccharides, representing a huge market potential for food industries. It has garnered widespread interest as a functional ingredient for preventive health care and disease management. Due to approvals given by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Commission (EC), baobab fruit pulp has gained widespread popularity as a novel food ingredient. In addition, baobab fruit pulp offered as a dietary supplement has been used in its naturally dehydrated form or processed into pills. There are huge information gaps on processing and safety of baobab seed oil, use of baobab seeds and leaf powder - a rich source of mucilage, in food systems. An industrially significant product from baobab are the functional polysaccharides which are a rapidly advancing application. Baobab plant parts, fruit pulp, kernels, whole seeds, funicles, leaves, empty fruit shells and roots all inclusive, are of significant value for their key role in nutrition and health, food security and economic welfare of the rural communities in regions where the trees are originally found. Both traditional and novel applications of the various parts of the baobab tree have been explored in this paper. These include use in edible products like gruels, jams, yoghurt, wines, juice etc. Application of extrusion processing as an economical means of value addition to baobab commodities has been reviewed, especially relating to the classification of baobab as a neglected and underutilized species (NUS).
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The seeds of baobab used in preparation of local condiments was analysed to establish the proximate composition and the physico-chemical characteristics of the oil and effect of storage on the oil. Results obtained showed that the saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV), percentage free fatty acid (%FFA) and refractive index of the oil are 196 ± 0.05 mg/KOH, 87 ± 0.02 g/100 g, 4.5 ± 0.06 mEq/kg, 0.33 ± 0.03 mgKOH/g, 0.45 ± 0.08 and 1.459 ± 0.13, respectively. Proximate analysis showed that protein (21.75 ± 0.12 g/100 g), ash (5.01 ± 0.07 g/100 g) and fiber (6.71 ± 0.003 g/100 g) were comparable to Prosopsis africana seeds (20.54 ± 0.18, 6.67 ± 0.08 and 5.51 g/100g), which is used for the same purpose. The crude lipid content (12.72 ± 0.01 g/100 g) was almost equal to that of P. africana seeds (12.74 g/100 g). The major mineral elements present in the seeds included phosphorus, calcium and potassium (6.00 ± 0.02, 58.90 ± 2.34 and 280.00 ± 1.34 mg/100 g, respectively), thereby suggesting that the baobab seeds could contribute partially to the overall daily intake of these elements. The vitamins (A and C) found present in baobab seeds are higher than that of P. africana seeds. The antinutritional factors including oxalate, phytate, saponin and tannin (10.31 ± 1.00, 2.00 ± 0.31, 7.16 ± 0.01, 2.84 ± 0.30%, respectively) are also comparable to that of P. Africana. The storage property of the oil from baobab seeds studied over a period of four weeks under conditions of light (ambient), darkness (ambient), and refrigeration showed that the iodine value of the oil decreased in all cases but much more so on exposure to light. In contrast, the peroxide value of the oil showed very little change under conditions of darkness and refrigeration over the same period, thus indicating that the oil can withstand storage.
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A revised and updated classification for the families of the flowering plants is provided. Newly adopted orders include Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Gunnerales, Crossosomatales and Celastrales. Pertinent literature published since the first APG classification is included, such that many additional families are now placed in the phylogenetic scheme. Among these are Hydnoraceae (Piperales), Nartheciaceae (Dioscoreales), Corsiaceae (Liliales), Triuridaceae (Pandanales), Hanguanaceae (Commelinales), Bromeliacae, Mayacaceae and Rapateaceae (all Poales), Barbeuiaceae and Gisekiaceae (both Caryophyllales), Geissolomataceae, Strasburgeriaceae and Vitaceae (unplaced to order, but included in the rosids), Zygophyllaceae (unplaced to order, but included in eurosids 1), Bonnetiaceae, Ctenolophonaceae, Elatinaceae, Ixonanthaceae, Lophopyxidaceae, Podostemaceae (Malpighiales), Paracryphiaceae (unplaced in euasterid II), Sladeniaceae, Pentaphylacaceae (Ericales) and Cardiopteridaceae, (Aquifoliales). Several major families are recircumscribed. Salicaceae are expanded to include a large part of Flacourtiaceae, including the type genus of that family; another portion of former Flacourtiaceae is assigned to an expanded circumscription of Achariaceae. Euphorbiaceae are restricted to the uniovulate subfamilies; Phyllanthoideae are recognized as Phyllanthaceae and Oldfieldioideae as Picrodendraceae. Scrophulariaceae are recircumscribed to include Buddlejaceae, and Myoporaceae and exclude several former members; these are assigned to Calceolariaceae, Orobanchaceae and Plantaginaceae. We expand the use of bracketing families that could be included optionally in broader circumscriptions with other related families; these include Agapanthaceae, and Amaryllidaceae in Alliaceae s.l., Agavaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Ruscaceae (among many other Asparagales) in Asparagaceae s.l., Dichapetalaceae in Chrysobalanaceae, Turneraceae in Passifloraceae, Erythroxylaceae in Rhizophoraceae, and Diervillaceae, Dipsacaceae, Linnaeaceae, Morinaceae and Valerianaceae in Caprifoliaceae s.l. (C) 2003 The Linnean Society of London.
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The effect of different processing techniques on the antinutritional factors inherent in the seeds of baobab (Adansonia digitata) was investigated. The processing methods, which included dehulling, cold-water, hot-water, hot-alkali and acid treatments, revealed that the concentration of tannic acid was reduced significantly by all the processing techniques except for dehulling. The activity of the amylase inhibitors in the seeds was also reduced significantly by dehulling, cold-water and hot-alkali treatments while the hot-water and hot-acid treatments increased the activity of the amylase inhibitors.
Theory. Introduction. Assessment of Analytical Methods and Data. Principals of Techniques Used in Food Analysis. Theory of Analytical Methods for Specific Food Constituents. Experimental Procedures--Estimation of Major Food Constituents. General Food Studies. Additional Reading Material. Index
Africa has abundant wild plants and cultivated native species with great agronomic and commercial potential as food crops. However, many of these species, particularly the fruits and nuts, have not been promoted or researched and therefore remain under-utilized. Moreover, many of these species face the danger of loss due to increasing human impact on ecosystems. Sudan, as in many other African countries, is endowed with a range of edapho-climatic conditions that favor the establishment of many plant species, most of which are adapted to specific ecological zones. Among these plants is the baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) which is a fruit-producing tree belonging to the family Bombacaceae. The baobab has an exceedingly wide range of uses ranging from food and beverages to medicinal uses. Despite its potential, which is well recognized, very little is known about the tree phenology, floral biology, husbandry or genetic diversity. In this article, we have aimed to bring out detailed information on various aspects of its botany, ecology, origin, propagation, main uses, genetic improvement and especially its importance for nutrition and poverty alleviation in the Sudan.
Sundrying, roasting and fermentation were the traditional processing techniques selected to use to improve the chemical composition of the baobab pulp and seed. The fruits were purchased from a retailer in Maiduguri. The pulp was scraped and kneaded in cold water to form an emulsion. The emulsion was passed through a fine sieve and frozen until used. The seeds were thoroughly cleaned, boiled, dehulled and divided into five portions. The first two portions were sun‐dried and roasted. The remaining three portions were fermented for 2, 4 and 6 days at 28°C. After this, they were dried to 96% dry matter, ground into fine powder and stored frozen as the pulp. Standard techniques were adopted for the analysis of the samples. Fermentation of the seeds for 6d offers much advantages over roasting as judged by crude protein, moisture and minerals. A 6‐day fermentation appears to be the promising method for producing nutritious food from baobab seed.
The seeds of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) and the tubers of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) were analysed chemically for their proximate composition and amino acids. The tubers contained 47.9% digestible carbohydrates, 32.8% oil and 3.8% crude protein. The baobab seeds contained 24.1% digestible carbohydrate, 29.7% oil and 28.4% crude protein. A mixture of the vegetables was prepared from three parts of the tigernuts and one part of baobab seeds, by weight, such that a 10% crude protein meal was obtained. The chemical score of the mixed vegetable was 51%, based on limiting amino acids, i.e. those which contain sulphur. The level of antinutritive substances, such as tannin and tryptic inhibitors, in the raw vegetables were reduced by soaking or boiling.
We report compositional data for several foods that comprise the annual diet among Hadza foragers near Lake Eyasi in northern Tanzania. Samples collected during daily gathering trips over three fieldwork seasons were prepared according to Hadza methods. All three types of honey show moisture and starch levels similar to United States' honeys but higher levels of protein, fat, and ash. Several samples had significant fat levels probably due to the inclusion of bee larvae. The macronutrient composition of six fruits is comparable to those of agricultural fruits, although they were somewhat higher in crude protein, carbohydrate, and energy and somewhat lower in fat. Baobab seed flour and fruit pulp are low in energy compared with most previously published results, partially because our study measured fiber directly, unlike the methods used in any other studies. Baobab seed is high in protein and fat as reported in other studies. Our field observations, in combination with our analytical data, suggest that baobab seed is an important source of energy and protein for these foragers.