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... Momentary failure was determined when, despite maximum effort, the participant was unable to complete a repetition through the full range of motion. 1RM was then predicted using the Brzycki equation [37]: load ÷ (1.0278 − [0.0278 × number of repetitions]). The Brzycki equation has shown excellent predictive accuracy of actual 1RM for leg press (0.96 ICC) and knee extension (0.99 ICC) [38]. ...
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Older adults and patients with chronic disease presenting with muscle weakness or musculoskeletal disorders may benefit from low-load resistance exercise (LLRE) with blood flow restriction (BFR). LLRE-BFR has been shown to increase muscle size, strength, and endurance comparable to traditional resistance exercise but without the use of heavy loads. However, potential negative effects from LLRE-BFR present as a barrier to participation and limit its wider use. This study examined the perceptual, affective, and cardiovascular responses to a bout of LLRE-BFR and compared the responses to LLRE and moderate-load resistance exercise (MLRE). Twenty older adults (64.3 ± 4.2 years) performed LLRE-BFR, LLRE and MLRE consisting of 4 sets of leg press and knee extension, in a randomised crossover design. LLRE-BFR was more demanding than LLRE and MLRE through increased pain (p ≤ 0.024, d = 0.8–1.4) and reduced affect (p ≤ 0.048, d = −0.5–−0.9). Despite this, LLRE-BFR was enjoyed and promoted a positive affective response (p ≤ 0.035, d = 0.5–0.9) following exercise comparable to MLRE. This study supports the use of LLRE-BFR for older adults and encourages future research to examine the safety, acceptability, and efficacy of LLRE-BFR in patients with chronic disease.
... After the familiarization session, 1-RM of squat determination was applied with indirect method and calculated using the formula [1-RM (kg) = Weight / [1.0278 -(0.0278 × Repetitions)] [5]. A standard Olympic bar (19.6 kg) was used during determination. ...
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The aim of this study was to determine the optimal foot distance in the isometric lunge exercise (IL) and to reveal its relationship with one repetition maximum (1-RM) squat. Twelve male athletes (Age: 22.50 ±1.98 years, Height:179.17 ± 2.21 cm, Body mass: 77.92 ± 4.75 kg) were participated in this study. Isometric lunge was applied to the participants in three different foot distance [leg length (LL), 70% of leg length (70% LL), 130% of leg length (130% LL)]. During these applications, ground reaction forces (vGRF) were measured by load cells from the front and back legs, and muscle activations were recorded by using the wireless EMG from the front leg. Vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) activities were recorded for these variations of lunge exercises. As a result of these measurements, the highest force data and the most effective muscle activation were determined in 70% LL. In terms of vGRF and EMG, there was significant differences between all variations of IL (p < 0.005). There were also found significant differences between the VL and VM in the same variation of IL at third variation (p < 0.005). These significant differences were also found for the BF and ST muscles at all IL (p < 0.005). In conclusion, applied at 70% of LL, the force production of the front leg and the activation levels of the VM and VL muscles were higher than the other two applications. For the higher BF and ST, a 130% LL variation of ILs may also be recommended.
... Between each activity, there was always a 2-minute rest time. Subjects were allowed to perform maximum 8 repetitions during bench press and were used equation of Brzycki [3] for the determine of 1RM. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of short-term equal-volume isotonic training with different workout frequency on upper body, lower body, and muscle girth in male volleyball players. Forty-five male volleyball players were randomly selected from Govt. Degree College Killam, affiliated with Kashmir University (UT) Jammu and Kashmir with mean ± SD: (19.45 ± 3.4 years, height of 177.18 ± 4.15 centimetres, 66.70 ± 5.30 kg and BMI 21.20 ± 3.25 were chosen). The subjects were segregated into three groups; total-body isotonic training, (12 exercises for two sessions per week) (Isotonic G-I=15), upper-body, and lower-body isotonic training (12 exercises for three sessions per week) (Isotonic G-II=15), and control group (CG=15) didn't take part in any special training. Assessments of body composition, height, weight, body mass index, and flexed arm girth, strength (one repetition maximum in bench press) and vertical jump were determined before and after 8 weeks of training. Flexed-arm girth, 1-RM bench press and vertical jump was improved significantly in all training groups (P < 0.05). All groups increased body weight and body composition (P ≤ 0.05), but isotonic G-I group showed a little improvement rather than other isotonic G-II. It is concluded that in healthy young men, whole and split weight training routine produce similar results over the first 2 months of training, with minimal differences among groups.
... Between each activity, there was always a 2-minute rest time. Subjects were allowed to perform maximum 8 repetitions during bench press and were used equation of Brzycki [3] for the determine of 1RM. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of short-term equal-volume isotonic training with different workout frequency on upper body, lower body, and muscle girth in male volleyball players. Forty-five male volleyball players were randomly selected from Govt. Degree College Killam, affiliated with Kashmir University (UT) Jammu and Kashmir with mean ± SD: (19.45 ± 3.4 years, height of 177.18 ± 4.15 centimetres, 66.70 ± 5.30 kg and BMI 21.20 ± 3.25 were chosen). The subjects were segregated into three groups; total-body isotonic training, (12 exercises for two sessions per week) (Isotonic G-I=15), upper-body, and lower-body isotonic training (12 exercises for three sessions per week) (Isotonic G-II=15), and control group (CG=15) didn't take part in any special training. Assessments of body composition, height, weight, body mass index, and flexed arm girth, strength (one repetition maximum in bench press) and vertical jump were determined before and after 8 weeks of training. Flexed-arm girth, 1-RM bench press and vertical jump was improved significantly in all training groups (P < 0.05). All groups increased body weight and body composition (P ≤ 0.05), but isotonic G-I group showed a little improvement rather than other isotonic G-II. It is concluded that in healthy young men, whole and split weight training routine produce similar results over the first 2 months of training, with minimal differences among groups.
... For this purpose, the validated prediction formula of Brzycki (1RM = number of repetitions/(1.0278 − (weight[kg] × 0.0278)) was used in this study [25]. The calculated 1RM was collected metrically in kilograms (kg). ...
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Data concerning the outcomes of standardized strength-training programs in people with acute spinal cord injury (SCI) are scarce. The present study evaluated the feasibility and effects of a clinic-internal strength-training concept in people with paraplegia during the course of primary rehabilitation. For this purpose, participants followed a 10–12 week standardized supervised strength-training program (30 training sessions) during primary rehabilitation. At the beginning, 5–6 weeks and 10–12 weeks later, maximal strength based on indirect one-repetition maximum (1RM) measurements for two specific exercises (triceps press; horizontal rowing pull) was determined. Twelve out of 17 participants successfully completed the study. Maximal weights for 1RM significantly increased over the 10–12 week training program for the triceps press (+30%; p = 0.018) and the horizontal rowing pull (+41%; p = 0.008). Training compliance was 95%. Reasons for study exclusion were urgent surgery (n = 2), cardio-respiratory complications (n = 1), shoulder pain (n = 1) and a training compliance of less than 50% (n = 1). In conclusion, a supervised and standardized strength-training program during primary rehabilitation of people with paraplegia is feasible and leads to significant increases in maximal strength. Although study participants showed a high training compliance, factors such as medical complications may impede the proper implementation of a strength-training concept into daily clinical practice.
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Background Research into the kettlebell swing has increased in the last decade. There has been a paucity of literature assessing an individual’s ability to perform the kettlebell swing exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the one and five repetition maximum (1RM and 5RM) kettlebell swing. Materials & Methods Twenty four recreational resistance-trained participants performed an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and two familiarization sessions followed by three test sessions for each RM load approximately one week apart, using a custom-built plate-loaded kettlebell. On each test occasion, subjects completed a series of warm-up sets followed by 3–4 progressively heavier kettlebell swings to a standardized height until 1RM or 5RM was reached. Test-retest reliability was calculated using the intra-class correlation (ICC) and typical error was represented as the coefficient of variation (CV%) with 90% confidence limits (90% CL). The smallest worthwhile change (SWC%) representing the smallest change of practical importance, was calculated as 0.2 × between-subject standard deviation. The relationship of kettlebell swing performance and maximum strength was determined by Pearson correlation with ±90% CL between the absolute peak force recorded during IMTP and 1RM or 5RM. Results Results demonstrated a high test-retest reliability for both the 1RM (ICC = 0.97, 90% CL [0.95–0.99]; CV = 2.7%, 90% CL [2.2–3.7%]) and 5RM (ICC = 0.98, 90% CL [0.96–0.99]; CV = 2.4%, 90% CL [1.9–3.3%]), respectively. The CV% was lower than the SWC for both the 1RM (SWC = 2.8%, 90% CL [1.9–3.5]) and 5RM (SWC = 2.9%, 90% CL [1.9–3.6]) kettlebell swing. The correlation between IMTP absolute peak force and the 1RM (r = 0.69, 90% CL 0.43–0.83) was large and very large for the 5RM (r = 0.75, 90% CL [0.55–0.87]). Conclusions These results demonstrate the stability of 1RM and 5RM kettlebell swing performance after two familiarization sessions. Practitioners can be confident that changes in kettlebell swing 1RM and 5RM performance of >3.6 kg represent a practically important difference, which is the upper limit of the 90% CL.
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This study objective to compare the acute effects between one resistance training bout with high versus moderate intensities on inflammatory markers in women with severe obesity. Experimental crossover study, performed with adult women with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m²; age ≥ 18 years old). Each participant performed a high and moderate intensity resistance training (HIRT and MIRT, respectively) with an interval of 7 days between bouts. Four exercises were performed in the both protocols, with total training volume equalized. MIRT consisted of 3 sets of 8 repetitions each, with an intensity of 75% of 1RM, while HIRT consisted of 2 sets of 6 repetitions, followed by a 20-second rest, with a new performance of 2 to 3 repetitions, with one more rest of 20s and finishing with 2 to 3 more repetitions, at an intensity of 85% of 1RM. Blood samples were collected before, 15 minutes after and 24 hours after both training protocols. The inflammatory markers analyzed were IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Nine participants have completed the intervention (n=9; 35.2 ± 10.93 years old; BMI = 48.3 ± 5.06 kg/m²). The Mann-Whitney U test showed that there was no significant difference between the HIRT and MIRT in the concentration of markers. Friedman's test did not report significant differences between intragroup measures for the HIRT as well as MIRT. This research suggests that a single session of high or moderate intensity resistance training does not change the inflammatory status of women with severe obesity.
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We interpret the currently available scientific evidence to indicate that strength training should be as specific as possible. The coach or athlete, in designing a strength training programme, should attempt to have the training exercises similate the sport movement as closely as possible, in relation to movement pattern, velocity of movement, muscular contraction type, and contraction force. In the case of sport movements that are performed at high velocity, supplementary training at low velocity may be necessary to induce maximal adaptation within the muscles. Supplementary training with maximal or near maximal eccentric contractions may be beneficial in training for many sports because the large forces generated during this kind of training will stimulate maximal adaptation within the muscles. However, consideration should be given to the greater risk of injury that is associated with eccentric training. Failure to be specific in strength training may result in more than a poor return on the training investment; it may even be counter-productive. For example, the development of increased mass in irrelevant muscle groups may be detrimental in sports which demand a high strength to body mass ratio.