Article

Burned to be wild: Herbert Stoddard and the Roots of Ecological Conservation in the Southern Longleaf Pine Forest

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Abstract

This essay examines the work of wildlife biologist Herbert Stoddard, who came to the longleaf pine-grassland forests of south Georgia in 1924 to study the bobwhite quail, and stayed to develop a method of land management that stressed ecological habitat over the dominant production-oriented model. Stoddard's major early accomplishments were threefold: He helped to create the new profession of wildlife management, he fought for the reintroduction of fire in the longleaf-grassland system, and he was among the first to advocate for ecological diversity in cultural landscapes. His work offers new insight on how conservation played out regionally, suggesting that we rethink the local elements of national conservation policy.

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... In 1939, Aldo Leopold traveled to the southeast US as a consultant for the Soil Conservation Service to visit Herbert Stoddard, his friend and colleague who was studying declining bobwhite quail populations in the Red Hills region of South Georgia and north Florida. Stoddard was among the first to advocate for the importance of fire in longleaf pine managementdirectly challenging forestry dogma at the time that fire should be suppressed at all costs (Way, 2006). Upon returning from that trip Leopold wrote "the common assumption is that Stoddard sacrifices forestry and erosion control to game. ...
... Large fire years used to calculate rotation were derived from fire years first filtered for fires occurring on ≥25% of samples by site, then filtered for fires that were synchronous across multiple sites within an ecological landscape. (Way, 2006). In the GLR, understanding forest disturbance processes has so far largely been an afterthought and, when tied to silviculture, primarily through the lens of succession and simple seral stages (Franklin and Johnson, 2012;Meunier et al., 2019a). ...
... These sites have previously been described by Mitchell et al. (1999). Longleaf pine ecosystems have evolved with very high fire frequency (every 1-3 years; Christensen 1981), when fire is suppressed for as little as 4 years the ecosystem loses biodiversity and its structure and function are altered (Way 2006). For this reason our study does not include a ''control site'' where fire is excluded. ...
Article
Frequency and intensity of fire determines the structure and regulates the function of savanna ecosystems worldwide, yet our understanding of prescribed fire impacts on carbon in these systems is rudimentary. We combined eddy covariance (EC) techniques and fuel consumption plots to examine the short-term response of longleaf pine forest carbon dynamics to one prescribed fire at the ends of an edaphic gradient (mesic and xeric sites). We also introduce novel (to the EC research community) statistical time-series approaches to quantify the drivers of carbon dynamics in these systems. We determined that our mesic site was a moderate sink of carbon (−157.7 ± 25.1 g C m−2 year−1), while the xeric site was carbon neutral (5.9 ± 32.8 g C m−2 year−1) during the study. The fire released 408 and 153 g C m−2 year−1 for the mesic and xeric sites, respectively. When loss associated with fire was combined with net ecosystem exchange rates, both sites became moderate carbon sources for the year. Analyses of assimilation and respiration parameters (e.g., maximum photosynthesis, quantum efficiency, and daytime ecosystem respiration) showed a positive trend over time pre-fire and a negative trend over time post-fire for maximum ecosystem CO2 uptake rates, and the opposite relationship for daytime ecosystem respiration rates. Within 30 days following fire, ecosystem physiological activity was statistically similar to pre-fire and appeared to be driven by the pine canopy. Our results suggest that prescribed fire (low intensity, high frequency) maintains the existing structure and function (in this case, carbon flux rates) because longleaf pine ecosystems have evolved with fire. This study, 1 year in length, provides a foundational understanding of the complex interaction between fire and carbon dynamics for longleaf pine ecosystems. Moreover, it provides a case study for applying time series analysis methods to EC data where there are complex relationships between ecosystem physiological activity and environmental drivers. However, to elicit a broader understanding of the complex interaction occurring between fire and carbon dynamics long- term studies are needed.
... These sites have previously been described by Mitchell et al. (1999). Longleaf pine ecosystems have evolved with very high fire frequency (every 1-3 years; Christensen 1981), when fire is suppressed for as little as 4 years the ecosystem loses biodiversity and its structure and function are altered (Way 2006). For this reason our study does not include a ''control site'' where fire is excluded. ...
Article
Frequency and intensity of fire determines the structure and regulates the function of savanna ecosystems worldwide, yet our understanding of prescribed fire impacts on carbon in these systems is rudimentary. We combined eddy covariance (EC) techniques and fuel consumption plots to examine the short-term response of longleaf pine forest carbon dynamics to one prescribed fire at the ends of an edaphic gradient (mesic and xeric sites). We also introduce novel (to the EC research community) statistical time-series approaches to quantify the drivers of carbon dynamics in these systems. We determined that our mesic site was a moderate sink of carbon (-157.7 ± 25.1 g C m-2 y-1), while the xeric site was carbon neutral (5.9 ± 32.8 g C m-2 y-1) during the study. The fire released 408 and 153 g C m-2 y-1 for the mesic and xeric sites, respectively. When loss associated with fire was combined with net ecosystem exchange (NEE) rates, both sites became moderate carbon sources for the year. Analyses of assimilation and respiration parameters (e.g., maximum photosynthesis, quantum efficiency, and daytime ecosystem respiration) showed a positive trend over time pre-fire and a negative trend over time post-fire for maximum ecosystem CO2 uptake rates, and the opposite relationship for daytime ecosystem respiration rates. Within 30 days following fire, ecosystem physiological activity was statistically similar to pre-fire and appeared to be driven by the pine canopy. Our results suggest that prescribed fire (low intensity, high frequency) maintains the existing structure and function (in this case, carbon flux rates) because longleaf pine ecosystems have evolved with fire. This study, one year in length, provides a foundational understanding of the complex interaction between fire and carbon dynamics for longleaf pine ecosystems. Moreover, it provides a case study for applying time series analysis methods to EC data where there are complex relationships between ecosystem physiological activity and environmental drivers. However, to elicit a broader understanding of the complex interaction occurring between fire and carbon dynamics long- term studies are needed.
... Longleaf pine ecosystems have evolved with frequent fire (every 1-3 years; Christensen, 1981); when fire is suppressed for as little as 4 years, the ecosystem loses biodiversity and its structure and function are altered (Way, 2006). Both sites are on a 2-year burn cycle and are burned in odd years during the winter when many understory plants are dormant. ...
Article
Hurricanes affect the structure and function of forests by removing leaf area, reducing biomass, and causing plant mortality. Quantifying the effects of hurricanes on the phenological processes of forests can help to develop a better understanding of the responses of these systems to natural disasters. On October 10, 2018 Hurricane Michael made landfall in the northern Gulf of Mexico causing extensive damage to forests within its path. Using a phenology model, we evaluated the short-term response and recovery of phenological processes of two subtropical forests that were affected by the storm. Our results suggest that the hurricane accelerated senescence in autumn following the storm, leading to a shorter growing season. The response was dependent on the structure of the forest prior to the storm and the degree of damage; the forest with a taller canopy had greater damage, and the recovery period was prolonged compared to the forest with a shorter canopy. In the summer of the first year following the hurricane, ecosystem physiological function began to return to pre-hurricane levels which corresponded to a recovery in growing season length. The functional diversity in the understory may have aided recovery of post-hurricane spring phenology. While summer phenology was synchronized with the rate of vegetation coverage and mainly driven by increase in canopy leaf area, these forests have not completely recovered during the study. As extreme weather events and disasters induced by global climate change may become more frequent, our research can provide a reference for post-disaster forest management practices which can be adapted to local conditions and contribute to restoration efforts.
... The influence of fire on turkeys has been of interest since the 1930s. Herbert Stoddard wrote frequently on using fire to manage northern bobwhite (Way, 2008), and Stoddard's career spanned a period when the U.S. Forest Service was promoting and practicing complete fire suppression (Way, 2006). Stoddard viewed the use of prescribed fire as essential to maintain productive habitats for game by promoting early successional plant communities conducive for foraging, nesting, and brooding (Stoddard, 1935(Stoddard, , 1963. ...
Article
The pine-grassland ecosystems once prevalent in the Southeastern United States were dependent on frequent fire events to maintain plant communities and avoid succession to hardwood and shrub-dominant communities. The use of prescribed fire has replaced naturally occurring fires produced from lightning strikes to maintain remaining pine-grassland systems, and to expand and promote restoration into reclaimed areas. Currently, prescribed fire is a widely accepted management tool promoted by both state and federal wildlife and land-management agencies, and is assumed to be beneficial for both game and non-game species. However, a comprehensive set of guidelines related to use of prescribed fire for promotion of wildlife is lacking for most species, including species whose dependence on fire is presumed to be critical. We reviewed available literature on prescribed fire and its influence on wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Southeastern distribution of its range. We reviewed extant literature relative to historical use of prescribed fire for upland gamebird management, and focused on documented effects of fire on life-history characteristics of wild turkeys, including habitat selection, demography, and movement. The literature supported preferential use of areas burned in the previous 3 years, with avoidance of areas lacking a recent fire history. Fire return intervals between 2 and 3 years were generally supported in the literature as optimal to reduce woody shrub encroachment and maintain an herbaceous understory. However, areas infrequently burned, such as mature hardwood forests, provide important habitat during fall and winter, and provide important roosting sites. Contrary to misperceptions among the public, growing-season fire appears to pose little direct risk to wild turkey nests and poults, but research on this topic is limited and only recently initiated. We lack a collective knowledge of the most appropriate spatial scale and extent of prescribed fires for wild turkeys, and a single set of values for these metrics that can be applied throughout the Southeastern U.S. is likely to be unrealistic given variations in local plant communities and landscape composition. Non-target species should be carefully considered before implementing prescribed fire regimes targeted specifically towards wild turkeys, as such fire regimes may not be optimal for other species.
... As a consequence, forest managers are increasingly recognizing the value of disturbance-based land management techniques such as prescribed burning (Long 2009). Although prescribed burning efforts in the Southeastern US pioneered this growing trend in land management (Stoddard 1935;Way 2006), unauthorized fire remains remarkably understudied as a distinct disturbance regime (Prestemon and Butry 2010). This paper reexamines unauthorized fire-setting in the Southeastern US state of Georgia from a historical ecology perspective that aims to contribute to historically informed, disturbance-based land management (Braje and Rick 2013;Swetnam et al. 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
Forest managers are increasingly recognizing the value of disturbance-based land management techniques such as prescribed burning. Unauthorized, “arson” fires are common in the southeastern United States where a legacy of agrarian cultural heritage persists amidst an increasingly forest-dominated landscape. This paper reexamines unauthorized fire-setting in the state of Georgia, USA from a historical ecology perspective that aims to contribute to historically informed, disturbance-based land management. A space–time permutation analysis is employed to discriminate systematic, management-oriented unauthorized fires from more arbitrary or socially deviant fire-setting behaviors. This paper argues that statistically significant space–time clusters of unauthorized fire occurrence represent informal management regimes linked to the legacy of traditional land management practices. Recent scholarship has pointed out that traditional management has actively promoted sustainable resource use and, in some cases, enhanced biodiversity often through the use of fire. Despite broad-scale displacement of traditional management during the 20th century, informal management practices may locally circumvent more formal and regionally dominant management regimes. Space–time permutation analysis identified 29 statistically significant fire regimes for the state of Georgia. The identified regimes are classified by region and land cover type and their implications for historically informed disturbance-based resource management are discussed.
... Longleaf pine ecosystems have one of the highest rates of fire frequency in the USA [31] and the world [32], and high biodiversity contributes to their unique structure and function [33]. Longleaf ecosystems cannot exist without fire and when fire is suppressed for as little as 4 years the ecosystem loses biodiversity, structure and function [34]. For this reason our study does not include a ''control site'' where fire is excluded. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fire regulates the structure and function of savanna ecosystems, yet we lack understanding of how cyclic fire affects savanna carbon dynamics. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how predicted changes in climate may impact the interaction between fire and carbon cycling in these ecosystems. This study utilizes a novel combination of prescribed fire, eddy covariance (EC) and statistical techniques to investigate carbon dynamics in frequently burned longleaf pine savannas along a gradient of soil moisture availability (mesic, intermediate and xeric). This research approach allowed us to investigate the complex interactions between carbon exchange and cyclic fire along the ecological amplitude of longleaf pine. Over three years of EC measurement of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) show that the mesic site was a net carbon sink (NEE = -2.48 tonnes C ha(-1)), while intermediate and xeric sites were net carbon sources (NEE = 1.57 and 1.46 tonnes C ha(-1), respectively), but when carbon losses due to fuel consumption were taken into account, all three sites were carbon sources (10.78, 7.95 and 9.69 tonnes C ha(-1) at the mesic, intermediate and xeric sites, respectively). Nonetheless, rates of NEE returned to pre-fire levels 1-2 months following fire. Consumption of leaf area by prescribed fire was associated with reduction in NEE post-fire, and the system quickly recovered its carbon uptake capacity 30-60 days post fire. While losses due to fire affected carbon balances on short time scales (instantaneous to a few months), drought conditions over the final two years of the study were a more important driver of net carbon loss on yearly to multi-year time scales. However, longer-term observations over greater environmental variability and additional fire cycles would help to more precisely examine interactions between fire and climate and make future predictions about carbon dynamics in these systems.
... Contrary to many forest types, in P. palustris stands, spatial patterns have long been recognized and even successfully incorporated into management (i.e., the Stoddard-Neel method; Jack et al., 2006;Neel et al., 2010). However, the existing silvicultural approach has been criticized because it does not translate well into quantifiable treatment guidelines and has been difficult to teach to timber markers (Way, 2006;O'Hara, 2014). A variety of methods exist to translate natural stand-level spatial variability of structure into tree-marking guidelines, and the individuals, clumps, and openings (ICO) approach is one such method. ...
Article
Stand structural complexity is increasingly valued by forest managers to promote resilience, and quantitative spatial data from reference stands can help achieve these goals. We questioned how stand structural elements were spatially distributed across a Pinus palustris woodland. Specifically, we sought to quantify patterns of individual trees, tree clumps, openings, and canopy disturbance and examine spatial relationships between P. palustris saplings and P. palustris and Quercus spp. trees. Fall Line Hills, Alabama, USA (32°56'12" N, 87°25'37" W). We recorded tree species, diameter, age, and location of all trees and reconstructed canopy disturbance events across a 1 ha site in a P. palustris woodland. We used global point pattern analysis (g(r) function) and a local spatial classification method (Individuals, Clumps, and Openings) to examine the distribution of stand structural elements and canopy disturbance. Trees were generally clustered by taxa and diameter. Pinus palustris saplings exhibited no spatial relationship with P. palustris trees, but were clustered around Quercus trees at variable distances. Approximately half of the trees in the stand occurred in large clumps, and approximately 10% of trees occurred as individuals that did not touch crowns with neighbors. For three of the five disturbance periods, canopy disturbances were clustered in space at various distances. Spatial randomness and clustering of structural elements and canopy disturbance events were evident across the reference site. The spatial patterns of stand structure quantified here, in conjunction with data from other georeferenced studies, can be used to develop silvicultural guidelines to enhance structural complexity and promote resilience.
... Longleaf pine ecosystems have one of the highest rates of fire frequency in the USA [31] and the world [32], and high biodiversity contributes to their unique structure and function [33]. Longleaf ecosystems cannot exist without fire and when fire is suppressed for as little as 4 years the ecosystem loses biodiversity, structure and function [34]. For this reason our study does not include a ''control site'' where fire is excluded. ...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The frequency and magnitude of fire determines structure and regulates function of savanna ecosystems worldwide, yet our understanding of prescribed fire impacts on carbon dynamics in these systems is rudimentary and becomes more uncertain with changing soil water availability. While we understand that fires occur cyclically and return at frequencies based on fire regime, the impact that fire has on carbon dynamics has often been viewed as a single event. We combined prescribed fire, eddy covariance (EC) techniques and fuel consumption plots over an ongoing study which currently includes 6 years of EC measurements and 3 dormant season burn cycles to examine the cyclic response of fire on longleaf pine forest carbon dynamics along an edaphic gradient (mesic, intermediate and xeric sites), in southwestern Georgia, USA. We estimated linear and nonlinear models, as well as used time series methods new to the EC community, to quantify drivers of carbon dynamics in these systems while addressing the questions: 1) How does fire influence net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross ecosystem exchange (GEE), and ecosystem respiration (Reco), and how long do these variables take to recover post-fire? 2) Do environmental conditions or prescribed fire have a greater influence on these ecosystems’ carbon dynamics? Results/Conclusions We determined from this study that our mesic site was a moderate sink of carbon, while the intermediate and xeric sites were carbon neutral during the course of this study. When loss associated with fire was combined with NEE rates, all sites became moderate carbon sources in the years that included a burn (2009, 2011 and 2013). Analyses of assimilation and respiration parameters (e.g., maximum photosynthesis, quantum efficiency, and daytime ecosystem respiration) showed a positive trend pre-fire and a negative trend post-fire for maximum ecosystem CO2 uptake rates, and the opposite relationship for daytime ecosystem respiration rates. Within 30 to 60 days following fire, ecosystem physiological activity was statistically similar to pre-fire and appeared to be driven by the pine canopy. Our results suggest that prescribed fire (low intensity, high frequency) does not re-set this ecosystem through its removal of litter and understory, but rather maintains the existing structure and function (in this case, carbon flux rates) because longleaf pine ecosystems have evolved with fire. While losses due to fire affected carbon balances on short time scales (instantaneous to a few months), environmental variation over the study was more important in determining the carbon dynamics of the longleaf pine ecosystem.
... Longleaf pine ecosystems have one of the highest rates of fire frequency in the USA [31] and the world [32], and high biodiversity contributes to their unique structure and function [33]. Longleaf ecosystems cannot exist without fire and when fire is suppressed for as little as 4 years the ecosystem loses biodiversity, structure and function [34]. For this reason our study does not include a ''control site'' where fire is excluded. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods Current general circulation models (GCMs) predict increased periods of prolonged drought in the Southeastern United States, and the average area burned annually in some forests may double by the year 2050. These predictions are largely associated with catastrophic wildfires in forests with long fire return intervals. These disturbances cause major changes in ecosystem carbon dynamics and forest structure, and recovery can take hundreds of years. Longleaf pine forests in the southeastern United States experience frequent, low intensity fires that sustain woodland forest structure and the highest levels of biodiversity recorded in North America. To date, only a limited number of studies have focused on prescribed fire's role in ecosystem carbon dynamics. We used the eddy covariance method along an edaphic moisture gradient in longleaf pine forests at the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center in Newton, Georgia to investigate how interactions between soil water availability and fire affect net ecosystem exchange (NEE). We hypothesized that soil water availability would play a larger role than fire in regulating ecosystem carbon dynamics. Observations began in the summer of 2008, and in the winter of 2009, prescribed fires were conducted on each site. Results/Conclusions Results from the first year show that the mesic site was a carbon sink (NEE = -142.16 g C m-2yr-1), and the xeric site was a slight carbon source (NEE = 13.82 g C m-2 yr-1). We attribute this to larger total leaf area index (LAI) and a faster rate of recovery from disturbance at the mesic site. NEE was reduced at both sites during January 2009 (the month of the fires), but recovered quickly by February 2009 due to a change in the diurnal source and sink relationships. These decreases in NEE appear to have been driven more by water availability associated with drought when the fires were conducted, than with the direct loss of photosynthetic capacityassociated with the burn. The quick recoveries of typical NEE rates at both sites are associated with the high evolutionary adaptation of these plant communities to low intensity fire. These findings also suggest the need to characterize the fire-adapted ecosystem process rates as a function of a broad range of abiotic controls across fine temporal scales and larger regional scales. Future analyses will focus on the seasonal and inter-annual variability of climate and soil water availability on ecosystem carbon dynamics.
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Aldo Leopold's classic work A Sand County Almanac is widely regarded as one of the most influential conservation books of all time. In it, Leopold sets forth an eloquent plea for the development of a "land ethic" -- a belief that humans have a duty to interact with the soils, waters, plants, and animals that collectively comprise "the land" in ways that ensure their well-being and survival.For the Health of the Land, a new collection of rare and previously unpublished essays by Leopold, builds on that vision of ethical land use and develops the concept of "land health" and the practical measures landowners can take to sustain it. The writings are vintage Leopold -- clear, sensible, and provocative, sometimes humorous, often lyrical, and always inspiring. Joining them together are a wisdom and a passion that transcend the time and place of the author's life.The book offers a series of forty short pieces, arranged in seasonal "almanac" form, along with longer essays, arranged chronologically, which show the development of Leopold's approach to managing private lands for conservation ends. The final essay is a never before published work, left in pencil draft at his death, which proposes the concept of land health as an organizing principle for conservation. Also featured is an introduction by noted Leopold scholars J. Baird Callicott and Eric T. Freyfogle that provides a brief biography of Leopold and places the essays in the context of his life and work, and an afterword by conservation biologist Stanley A. Temple that comments on Leopold's ideas from the perspective of modern wildlife management.The book's conservation message and practical ideas are as relevant today as they were when first written over fifty years ago. For the Health of the Land represents a stunning new addition to the literary legacy of Aldo Leopold.
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Much of American soil has been poorly treated since European settlement. Many early settlers brought poor agricultural practices with them: the Scots, for example, were known for their crude agriculture as late as 1780. The cheap and unlimited land promoted a widespread attitude that land could be used, exhausted, or destroyed as the case may be, and then abandoned for new land. Such a system existed well into the 20th century, at least in much of the southeast, and the depredations on the landscape are still visible today.-from Author
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List of Illustrations List of Tables Preface Introduction: The Hidden History of American Conservation PART ONE: Forest: The Adirondacks 1. The Re-creation of Nature 2. Public Property and Private Parks 3. Working-Class Wilderness PART TWO: Mountain: Yellowstone 4. Nature and Nation 5. Fort Yellowstone 6. Modes of Poaching and Production PART THREE Desert: The Grand Canyon 7. The Havasupai Problem 8. Farewell Song Epilogue: Landscapes of Memory and Myth Chronology of American Conservation Notes Bibliography Index
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Foreword: Why Worry about Roads, by William CrononAcknowledgmentsThe Problem with WildernessKnowing nature through Leisure: Outdoor Recreation during the Interwar YearsA Blank Spot on the Map: Aldo LeopoldAdvertising the Wilde: Robert Sterling YardWilderness as Regional Plan: Benton MacKayeThe Freedom of the Wilderness: Bob MarshallEpilogue: A Living WildernessNotesSourcesIndex
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Health. to Aldo Leopold it was the most vital function of living organisms. Land, like the human body, Leopold argued, was subject to disturbances that resulted in sickness and possessed a physiological capacity for self-renewal once disturbed. The allusions to land health in A Sand County Almanac, a text heralded for laying the foundations of biocentrism, are striking. How are we to make sense of this seemingly incongruous mixture of medicine - the most anthropocentric of scientific arts - with conservation - the province and values of which Leopold hoped to ground largely in nonhuman nature? Why, if health was so central to Leopold's conservation thought and practice, has it not been a subject more central to environmental history? This essay offers a pr eliminary historiographic survey of landscape and disease in American environmental history. It is a search for past places where health dwelled prominently in the landscape and shaped human-environment interactions. Whether through intimate bodily experience of illness and place, or through abstracted scientific knowledge of ecological communities, conceptions of health have been integral to environmental experience and understanding. As Leopold recognized, health is a relational concept. Health acquires meaning only by virtue of the relationships between and among living organisms - be they the cells of the human body or the species of a biotic community - and their environments. Knowledge, too, is a relational concept. It is the product of a network of material, social, and symbolic relations between and among human and non-human actors. In cutting across the categories of human and non-human, health offers a useful means for rethinking nature and how we come to know the natural world.
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In his twelve years as the nation's chief forester, Pinchot transformed a sleepy office of ten that controlled no forests of its own, into the U.S. Forest Service with a staff of over 2,500. Many of these foresters were professionally trained - a disproportionate number at the Yale School of Forestry. The Forest Service actively managed an empire of reserves which, by the time Pinchot was forced out of office in 1910, consisted of approximately 200 million acres. Pinchot also promoted the concept of conservation as Teddy Roosevelt's de facto adviser on this policy area and through numerous presidential commissions. Before examining Pinchot's use of personal and financial ties, his metamorphosis from novice forester to American expert, and his turn toward market models in order to demonstrate that forestry paid, it is useful to examine Gifford Pinchot's personal motivations and how he reconciled these with the demands of career, religion, and class. Pinchot's personal resolution, it turned out, resonated with millions of Americans precisely because it resolved some of the tensions between consumption and utility (categorized later by scholars as preservation and conservation). Pinchot was no theorist. More than anything else, he was a guy who wanted to get out into the woods. But there was no escaping the upper-class background, religious upbringing and parental demands that enveloped him. It was out of these influences that Pinchot forged a career in forestry. Nor did there seem to be any way to manage a forest successfully save through the federal government. The solutions that Pinchot crafted to these pressures ultimately did help him get out into the woods, at least when he was not behind his federal desk.
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For nineteenth-century Americans, human bodies were not independent of the natural environment but continually permeated and changed by it. Consequently, the colonization of western lands raised anew critical questions about the nature of racialized bodies, North American environments, and the relation between the two. Certain environments threatened particular kinds of bodies, even while the labor of bodies could, in turn, alter those same environments. The relationship between bodies and landscapes was reciprocal and dynamic. The challenge lay in harmonizing the two, for environmental changes would be registered, for better or for worse, in the health of local people.
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First describes the South Atlantic landscape, then outlines the impact of Old World explorers, human habitation, forestry and agriculture on these ecosystems. This assessment of ecological changes stresses the significance of Native Indians and African slaves in addition to the white settlers, and pays particular attention to regional variations, explaining how local geography and settlement patterns influenced the environment. Although the focus is on the English South, the book also shows how economic and ecological developments in Europe, the Caribbean, and elsewhere frequently dictated how South Atlantic colonists used their land. -after Author
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Professor Chapman has long studied the influence of fire on the reproduction of longleaf pine. In this article he distinguishes between (1) burning preceding seeding and subsequent complete or periodic protection and (2) complete protection before and after seeding. His experiments convince him that the ground must be freed of competing material prior to seed fall by means of fire but that annual burning subsequent to seeding is highly detrimental. His experiments on intermittent burning and protection at two- to three-year intervals after seeding and prior to the start of height growth are not completed, but they indicate some value in bringing about conditions favorable to healthy height growth.
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Environmental history in and of the American South has developed in a different direction than the field in general in the U.S., which has been shaped by its origins in the history of the American West. The history of humans and the environment in the South has been much more driven by the history of agriculture than by frontier or wilderness interactions, as well as by the history of the relationship between white and black Americans and their respective uses of the land in the region. It also has more in common with environmental history outside the U.S. than with the field as it at first developed in the U.S.
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ABSTRACT The loss and abandonment of agricultural land in thirty-one states of the eastern United States has been more widespread than is commonly recognized. Changes in the acreage of cleared farm land provide a better indication of farm land loss and abandonment than changes in the total acreage of farm land, because of geographical and historical variations in the acreage of farm woodland. Eight areas in the East experienced especially heavy losses of cleared farm land between 1910 and 1959. No single statistical indicator provides a satisfactory explanation of the complex geographical patterns of loss and abandonment. Although urban expansion is a major cause for the permanent loss of cleared farm land, and despite its importance on the fringes of metropolitan areas, it is but one of many factors which influence loss and abandonment. Strip mining and the loss of a locally dominant crop have been important factors in certain areas. The Soil Bank program has had its greatest impact upon land of intermediate quality. Land acquisition by forest industry companies has borne little relationship to the loss and abandonment of farm land. In the East as a whole it appears that physical hindrances to effective agriculture have been the most important factor influencing the loss and abandonment of cleared farm land.
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When the cotton boll weevil crossed the Mexican border into Texas around 1892 andbegan a slow march across the Cotton Belt, many predicted that the pest would destroythe plantation South, whose economy and society rested on the production of cotton.As the pest began devouring the staple and moving through the region, land owners,tenants, politicians, and extension agents continued to paint the pest as a direct threatto their livelihoods. Despite the fear that gripped the South, by the time the weevil madeits way to the Atlantic Ocean, the pest had made no major, lasting effect on theeconomic, social, or environmental structures of the region. This dissertation examineshow individuals and communities in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, andGeorgia reacted to the arrival of the pest, and how in each place forces acted to use theboll weevil to advance their own purposes. Instead of blaming antiquated creditsystems, Jim Crow racial codes, and poor agricultural practices, contemporaries andscholars alike used the boll weevil as a material scapegoat for enduring poverty in therural South, as well as changes to the land and society that had little to do with the pest's arrival. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Georgia, 2004. Directed by James C. Cobb. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 379-411). Electronic reproduction. s
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Thesis (Ph. D. in History)--Vanderbilt University, 2002. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 225-245).
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By the 1880s hay fever (also called June Cold, Rose Cold, hay asthma, hay cold, or autumnal catarrh) had become the pride of America's leisure class. In mid-August each year, thousands of sufferers fled to the White Mountains of New Hampshire, to the Adirondacks in upper New York State, to the shores of the Great Lakes, or to the Colorado plateau, hoping to escape the dreaded seasonal symptoms of watery eyes, flowing nose, sneezing fits, and attacks of asthma, which many regarded as the price of urban wealth and education. Through a focus on the White Mountains as America's most fashionable hay fever resort in the late nineteenth century, this essay explores the embodied local geography of hay fever as a disease. The sufferers found in the White Mountains physical relief, but also a place whose history affirmed their social identity and shaped their relationship to the natural environment. And, they, in turn, became active agents in shaping the geography of place: in the very material relationships of daily life, in the social contours of the region, and in the symbolic space that nature inhabited. In the consumption of nature for health and pleasure, this article suggests, lies an important, yet relatively unexplored, source for understanding changing perceptions of environment and place and the impact of health on the local and regional transformation of the North American landscape.
Committee of the Quail Study Fund For Southern Georgia and Northern Florida
  • Herbert Stoddard
Herbert Stoddard, "Report on Cooperative Quail Investigation: 1925-1926" (Committee of the Quail Study Fund For Southern Georgia and Northern Florida; U.S. Biological Survey), 56.
The River of the Mother of God and Other Essays by
  • Aldo Leopold
  • Paul S Sutter
Aldo Leopold, The River of the Mother of God and Other Essays by Aldo Leopold, Susan L. Flader and J. Baird Callicott, eds., (Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1991); and Paul S. Sutter, Driven Wild: How the Fight Against Automobiles Launched the Modern Wilderness Movement (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002).
American Environmental History: The Development of a New Historical Field
  • Karl Jacoby
There is too much scholarship on the West to cite here. For an older overview, see Richard White, "American Environmental History: The Development of a New Historical Field," Pacific Historical Review (August, 1985): 297-335; on the Northeast, see Richard Judd, Common Lands, Common People: The Origins of Conservation in Northern New England (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997); and Karl Jacoby, Crimes Against Nature: Squatters, Poachers, Thieves, and the Hidden History of American Conservation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001). On the South, see Albert E. Cowdrey, This Land, This South: An Environmental History (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1983);
  • Jack Temple Kirby
Jack Temple Kirby, Poquosin: A Study of Rural Landscape and Society (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1995);
Re-Greening the South and Southernizing the Rest
quote on 147; "Re-Greening the South and Southernizing the Rest," Journal of the Early Republic, 24 (Summer, 2004): 242-251; "Southern Environmental History," in A Companion to The American South, ed. John Boles (Blackwell Publishers, 2002), 409-23; and the Prologue to 'What Nature Suffers to Groe,' 1-20.
Looking For Longleaf: The Fall and Rise of an American Forest
  • Lawrence S Early
Lawrence S. Early, Looking For Longleaf: The Fall and Rise of an American Forest (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004);
For a brilliant set of reflections on the longleaf forest, see all of Janisse Ray's writings, especially Ecology of a Cracker Childhood
  • W G Wahlenberg
  • Longleaf Pine
W. G. Wahlenberg, Longleaf Pine: Its Use, Ecology, Regeneration, Protection, Growth, and Management (Washington D. C.: U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1946). For a brilliant set of reflections on the longleaf forest, see all of Janisse Ray's writings, especially Ecology of a Cracker Childhood (Minneapolis: Milkweed Press, 1999).
William Warren Rogers and Clifton Paisley have written most extensively about the region
  • Grady Thomas
  • Georgia In
  • Leon In Florida
  • Georgia Thomasville
  • Florida Tallahassee
The Red Hills region makes up portions of four counties: Thomas and Grady in Georgia, and Jefferson and Leon in Florida. Thomasville, Georgia, and Tallahassee, Florida, are the urban centers. William Warren Rogers and Clifton Paisley have written most extensively about the region. See William Warren Rogers, Thomas County 1865-1900 (Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1973);
Transition to the Twentieth Century
  • Rogers William Warren
William Warren Rogers, Transition to the Twentieth Century: Thomas County, Georgia, 1900-1920 (Tallahassee: Sentry Press, 2002);
Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Frontier Before the Civil War
  • Clifton Paisley
Clifton Paisley, From Cotton to Quail: An Agricultural Chronicle of Leon County, Florida, 1860-1967 (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1968); and Clifton Paisley, The Red Hills of Florida: 1528-1865 (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1989); also see Edward E. Baptist, Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Frontier Before the Civil War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002).
A Comprehensive Study of a Portion of the Red Hills Region of Georgia
  • Steve Gatewood
Steve Gatewood et al., A Comprehensive Study of a Portion of the Red Hills Region of Georgia (Thomasville: The Thomas College Press, 1994).
For full treatment of the White Mountains, see Mitman
  • Mitman
Mitman, "In Search of Health," 198. For full treatment of the White Mountains, see Mitman, "Hay Fever Holiday."
For a nuanced view of how personal connections led to the formation of the conservation state, see Brian Balogh
  • See Samuel
  • P Hays
  • Robert Wiebe
See Samuel P. Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 1890-1920 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959); and Robert Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877-1920 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1967). For a nuanced view of how personal connections led to the formation of the conservation state, see Brian Balogh, "Scientific Forestry and the Roots of the Modern American State: Gifford Pinchot's Path to Progressive Reform," Environmental History 7 (April 2002): 198-225.
Baldwin was married to Lillian Converse Hanna, sister of Mark and Howard Hanna, and was well-connected to the quail preserve set
  • Barrow
Baldwin was married to Lillian Converse Hanna, sister of Mark and Howard Hanna, and was well-connected to the quail preserve set. On the advent of bird-banding, see Mark V. Barrow, Jr., A Passion for Birds: American Ornithology After Audubon (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).
Bird Banding in Milwaukee and Vicinity
  • Herbert Stoddard
Herbert Stoddard, "Bird Banding in Milwaukee and Vicinity," in Yearbook of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, vol. 3, 1923: 117.
When the Forest Service was still debating the role of fire, Schiff had already detailed the early struggles over fire within its ranks, and gave much attention to the fire debates that originated in the longleaf forests
  • J Stephen
  • Pyne
This essay owes a great deal to the path-breaking scholarship on fire by Ashley Schiff and Stephen J. Pyne. When the Forest Service was still debating the role of fire, Schiff had already detailed the early struggles over fire within its ranks, and gave much attention to the fire debates that originated in the longleaf forests. See his Fire and Water: Scientific Heresy in the Forest Service (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962). Pyne's work is crucial to anyone wanting to understand both the cultural and physical aspects of fire. A good place to start is Fire in America: A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982).
The Bobwhite Quail: Its Habits, Preservation and Increase
  • Herbert L Stoddard
Herbert L. Stoddard, The Bobwhite Quail: Its Habits, Preservation and Increase. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1931), 401. 41. Ibid., 403.
Geological Survey of Alabama
  • Roland Harper
Roland Harper, Geological Survey of Alabama, monograph no. 8, 1913.
Factors Determining Natural Reproduction of Longleaf Pine on Cutover Lands
  • H H Chapman
H. H. Chapman, "Factors Determining Natural Reproduction of Longleaf Pine on Cutover Lands in La Salle Parish, La.," Yale University School of Forestry Bulletin 16 (1926);
Use of Fire on Southeastern Game Lands
  • Herbert L Stoddard
Herbert L. Stoddard, "Use of Fire on Southeastern Game Lands," in "The Cooperative Quail Study Association, July 1, 1934 to April 15, 1943" (Tallahassee, Fla.: Tall Timbers Research Station, 1961)