Article

Vulnerability of coastal fishing communities to climate variability and change: implications for fisheries livelihoods and management in Peru

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Abstract

The warm phase of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is characterized in Peru by positive sea surface temperatures and negative sea level pressure anomalies. Biotic responses to this event range from changes in species composition, abundance and biomass, changes in reproductive success, larval dispersal and recruitment, as well as changes in food availability, competition and predation. The thesis characterized fishermen livelihoods and how they responded to El Nino events in two sites in the North (Sechura) and South (Pisco) of Peru. Additionally, it explored how institutions enable or constrain fishermen livelihoods andresponses to El Nino. While both sites have different histories of ENSO related impacts, they share the fact that the artisanal fishing sector plays an important role in the local economy.Livelihood assets exhibit mixed patterns with Pisco possessing a stronger livelihood platform in terms of assets but lower incomes than in Sechura. This finding highlights the fact that income is not an accurate measure of resilient livelihoods and needs to be contextualized. Seasonal migration is a livelihood option practiced by fishermen in both sites depending on seasonality, the de facto open access facilitating fishermen mobility. The thesis also identified that fishermen are largely dependent on marine resources for their livelihoods, occupational pluralism being low at both sites. Diversification being considered a risk-reduction mechanism and a building block towards resilient livelihoods, the findings suggest that fishermen are vulnerable to external shocks due to their high reliance on fishing activities. Moreover, disturbances do not only include climate variability, but also market changes to which fishermen must adapt. El Nià ±o events engender negative livelihood outcomes in the North, where floods have a significant impact on households and the collapse of the scallop fishery considerably decreases incomes. Conversely, in Pisco the increase in scallop landings provides an economic bonanza for fishermen. An array of coping strategies can be observed in both sites, mainly prey-switching and migration. However, in Sechura, exiting the fisheries sector is also a favored strategy. Additionally, the damages of the devastating floods in the North poses considerable strain on livelihoods and disaster risk reduction initiatives in thesecommunities are needed. Current institutional arrangements in the artisanal fishery, with the de facto open access, enable migration, an important livelihood option and coping strategy during El Nià ±o in both communities. With the current chorus of dissatisfaction and trend towards regionalization of the fishery, changes in this property right regime should be carefully evaluated before being implemented. Finally, the thesis revealed that formal institutions negatively affect livelihood outcomes in both sites, the failure of decentralization, hence institutional interplay, hamperingfisheries management. With El Nino being a recurrent phenomenon on the Peruvian shores, expected to increase in frequency due to global climate change, adaptive managementstrategies focusing on diversification of livelihoods, migration and property rights are imperative. The livelihood framework combined with institutional analysis and the resilience perspective provided a useful insight into the complex range of assets and activities affected by climatic events as well as the responses of fishermen. This work is, hitherto, one of the few empirical studies exploring fishermen livelihoods in Peru and further research is warranted as well as the incorporation of the findings into ecological and biological studies looking at the dynamics of the artisanal fisheries, especially in the context of El Nino.

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... During the following, strong EN event of 1997/98, the scallop population in the region of Pisco responded similarly to the event of 1983/84 . This time, special concessions for the purpose of sea ranching were created in Paracas (Pisco) (Ministerial Resolution N°406-97-PE, Badjeck 2008). However, the number of applications from fisher cooperatives soon overwhelmed local management authorities, who eventually decided to suspend concessions in 1998 (Ministerial Resolution N°418-98-PE; Badjeck 2008). ...
... The scallop fishery in Sechura was initiated through diving fishermen who immigrated to the area from other parts of the Peruvian coast (principally from Pisco) in the beginning of the 1990s (Badjeck 2008;Mendo et al. 2008). Initially, the open-access fishery exploited natural scallop banks discovered at a nearby island (Isla Lobos de Tierra). ...
... Sea surface temperatures reached up to 29°C (Takahashi 2004), thus exceeded the tolerance range of scallops and caused the decline in scallop biomass following the EN (Taylor et al. 2008a). In fact, scallop populations at Isla Lobos de Tierra tended towards zero in 1998 (Tafur et al. 2000) and fishermen adapted by switching target species or migrating to the Pisco region (Badjeck 2008). ...
Article
The South Pacific bay scallop Argopecten purpuratus represents a high-value species harvested along the Peruvian and Chilean coastline for more than 60 years. Following the strong El Niño event of 1983/84, both countries experienced a boom in scallop fisheries, but catches dropped as soon as environmental conditions normalized. Aquaculture production began in Chile, which dominated the Latin American scallop market in the 1990s. Peruvian production remained small until the early 2000s, but has increased dramatically ever since, with a single location in northern Peru, Sechura Bay, contributing most (50%) to the Latin American scallop production. We review the historical trends of this species’ production and analyse the ecological and socio-economic factors that have favoured Sechura Bay's progress, and largely displaced Chilean production through dominance of the market. Advantageous environmental conditions in Sechura Bay (e.g. low water depths, higher temperatures, high natural seed supply) result in improved scallop growth and production, and the socio-economic factors, causing lower operational costs than those of the Chilean production favoured this development. The bottom-up initiation of aquaculture operations by small-scale producers likely created a personal incentive for the long-term sustainable use, which differs from the more industrialized aquaculture activities in Chile.
... During climatic events disrupting livelihoods, ad hoc government and international emergency aid are the main sources of financial relief [86]. The most-affected people are unable to raise formal bank loans due to lack of collateral (often lost during the event) and do not have insurance [49]. ...
... Reductions in fishery-dependent incomes can also reduce the ability to purchase store-bought food during periods of natural resource scarcity [61]. Similarly, infrastructure damages due to extreme events or flooding can diminish access to local markets, reducing the availability of food products as well as increasing their prices [86,99]. ...
... In the North of the country during El Niñ o events, the increased river run-off in Sechura Bay leads to a higher mortality of benthic invertebrates such as scallops. Fisherfolk respond by targeting other species that increase in abundance due to appearance of brackish waters (mullet) or more tropical waters (shrimps) [86]. In the south, the scallop fishery experiences an opposite fluctuation in yields, leading to an increase in temporary and permanent migration [76]. ...
Article
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There is increasing concern over the consequences of global warming for the food security and livelihoods of the world's 36 million fisherfolk and the nearly 1.5 billion consumers who rely on fish for more than 20% of their dietary animal protein. With mounting evidence of the impacts of climate variability and change on aquatic ecosystems, the resulting impacts on fisheries livelihoods are likely to be significant, but remain a neglected area in climate adaptation policy. Drawing upon our research and the available literature, and using a livelihoods framework, this paper synthesizes the pathways through which climate variability and change impact fisherfolk livelihoods at the household and community level. We identify current and potential adaptation strategies and explore the wider implications for local livelihoods, fisheries management and climate policies. Responses to climate change can be anticipatory or reactive and should include: (1) management approaches and policies that build the livelihood asset base, reducing vulnerability to multiple stressors, including climate change; (2) an understanding of current response mechanisms to climate variability and other shocks in order to inform planned adaptation; (3) a recognition of the opportunities that climate change could bring to the sector; (4) adaptive strategies designed with a multi-sector perspective; and (5) a recognition of fisheries potential contribution to mitigation efforts.
... However, while some fishermen will see the disappearance of their target species, others could see an increase in landings of species of high commercial value. For example in the Humboldt Current system during El Niño years, landings of shrimp and octopus increase in northern Peru while in the south tropical warm water conditions increase the landings of scallops, these species having higher market values than traditional ones and developed international markets (Badjeck, 2008). ...
... Additionally, input of freshwater in estuaries may favour the appearance of brackish water species: increased rainfall in northern Peru changed salinity patterns in estuaries in Northern Peru during El Niño 1997-98, favouring the mullet fishery (Badjeck, 2008) while a tilapia fishery boom was observed in Columbia, caused by salinity changes during La Niña event of (Blanco et al., 2007). ...
... Additionally, input of freshwater in estuaries may favour the appearance of brackish water species: increased rainfall in northern Peru changed salinity patterns in estuaries in Northern Peru during El Niño 1997-98, favouring the mullet fishery (Badjeck, 2008) while a tilapia fishery boom was observed in Columbia, caused by salinity changes during La Niña event of 1999–2000 (Blanco et al., 2007). Small-scale fishers are particularly at risk of direct climate change impacts as they tend to live in the most seaward communities and are thus at risk from damage to property and infrastructure from multiple direct impacts like sea-level rise, increasing storm intensity and frequency. ...
... Haakonsen, 1991;Overå, 2001;Marquette et al., 2002;Binet et al., 2012;Njock and Westlund, 2010;Atuobi, 2016;Goldbach, 2017), East Africa (e.g. Wanyonyi et al., 2016) as well as South and Southeast Asia (Kramer et al., 2002;Islam and Herbeck, 2013;Goldbach, 2017), but there are also some examples from the Latinamerican context (Bremner and Perez, 2002;Badjeck, 2008;Badjeck et al., 2009). ...
... In the past, these movements mainly followed strong El Niño (EN)-induced changes in population dynamics of high valuable fisheries target species such as the Peruvian bay scallop Argopecten purpuratus (e.g. El Niño 1983/84 and1997/98;Badjeck, 2008;Badjeck, et al. 2009). Since the last strong EN of 1997/ 98, an ever increasing number of fishers from all over the country moved towards Piura region, gradually transforming the previously open-access fishery into an aquaculture activity, creating a flourishing new sector. ...
... Because of this, it was argued that migration and mobility pattern would be hampered in the face of a new external disturbance event (e.g. Badjeck, 2008;Kluger et al., 2019). ...
Article
Individual mobility – moving between and within different geographic regions – represents an adaptation strategy of natural resource users worldwide to cope with sudden and gradual changes in resource abundances. This work traces the recent history of Peruvian small-scale fishers’ migration, and particularly analyses the spatial mobility patterns of resource users along the Peruvian coastline in the aftermath of the coastal El Niño 2017. In February-March 2017, this event caused extraordinary heavy rains and a rise in water temperatures along the coast of northern Peru, inducing negative consequences for the small-scale fisheries and scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) aquaculture sectors, both representing important socio-economic activities in the region. Responses of local resource users to these changes were highly diverse, with a great number of people leaving the region in search for work in fishing and non-fishing activities. With a particular emphasis on the province of Sechura, this work attempts to shed light on how and why migration flows differ for fishers and scallop farmers and to explore future pathways in the context of post-disturbance recovery. About one year after the disturbance event, the small-scale fishery operated almost on a regular scale, while the aquaculture sector still struggled towards pre-El Niño conditions, reflected, for example, in a higher percentage of persons engaging in other economic activities within and outside the region. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of human movement and translocal social networks emerging in moments of crisis and should be considered for future development of long-term management strategies incorporating increasing interconnectedness of places on different scales in the face of future disturbance events. Understanding adaptation strategies of resource users in this particular social-ecological setting will further serve to inform other coastal systems prone to (re-occurring) environmental change by highlighting the diversity of socio-economic and natural drivers that can stipulate mobility and affect adaptive capacity of resource users.
... The state of Piura is particularly important for Peru's national coastal economy because it hosts the largest number of artisanal fishing vessels when compared to other regions of the country (Guevara-Carrasco and Bertrand, 2017) and a large part of its population depends on fisheries-related activities. The Peruvian artisanal fishery sector has historically been highly dynamic due to seasonal and longterm migrations of fishers and those involved in fishing-dependent activities following changes in local resource abundances (Badjeck, 2008;Badjeck et al., 2009). For example, during the two last strong El Niño events 1983Niño events /1984Niño events and 1997Niño events /1998, many people migrated towards the region of Pisco as a response to increased stock sizes of a valuable benthic resource, the Peruvian bay scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Wolff, 1984(Wolff, , 1987Wolff et al., 2007). ...
... However, since the El Niño 1997/1998-when water temperatures decreased along the Peruvian shores and an extended La Niña situation developed-a steadily increasing number of fishers have moved to the region of Sechura to grow scallops. The initially informal cultures were soon transformed into a legally regulated aquaculture activity through the designation of an increasing number of authorized concessions within the bay (Badjeck, 2008;Mendo et al., 2008;González-Hunt, 2010). Consequently, Sechura developed into a national hotspot for scallop culture, with up to 80% of national scallop production originating from its bay (in 2013; Mendo et al., 2016). ...
... Its fleet mainly applies purse seine and gillnets in the bay, as well as fishing rafts directed by 1-2 fishers using hook and lines. Trans-local mobility has always played a role for Peruvian artisanal fisheries (Badjeck, 2008;Badjeck et al., 2009) and also occurs during non-El Niño conditions. Fishers travel long distances to work as crew members on boats leaving from locations to the north (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
In February and March 2017, a coastal El Niño caused extraordinary heavy rains and a rise in water temperatures along the coast of northern Peru. In this work, we document the impacts of this phenomenon on the artisanal fisheries and the scallop aquaculture sector, both of which represent important socio-economic activities for the province of Sechura. Despite the perceived absence of effective disaster management and rehabilitation policies, resource users opted for a wide range of different adaptation strategies and are currently striving towards recovery. One year after the event, the artisanal fisheries fleet has returned to operating almost on a normal scale, while the aquaculture sector is still drastically impacted, with many people continuing to work in different economic sectors and even in other regions of the country. Recovery of the social-ecological system of Sechura likely depends on the occurrence of scallop seed and the financial capacity of small-scale producers to reinitiate scallop cultures. Long-term consequences of this coastal El Niño are yet to be studied, though the need to develop trans-local and trans-sectoral management strategies for coping with disturbance events of this scale is emphasized.
... For example, in the Humboldt Current system during El Niño years, landings of shrimp and octopus increase in northern Peru while in the south, tropical warmwater conditions increase the landings of scallops. These species have higher market values than more traditional species and international markets have developed for them (Badjeck, 2008). ...
... Additionally, input of fresh water in estuaries may favour the appearance of brackish water species. For example, during the El Niño of 1997 to 1998, increased rainfall in northern Peru changed salinity patterns in estuaries, favouring the mullet fishery (Badjeck, 2008) and in Columbia during the La Niña event of 1999 to 2000, a tilapia fishery boom was observed in Columbia. This was caused by salinity changes (Blanco, Narváez Barandica and Villoria, 2007). ...
... Sources: Badjeck, 2008;Badjeck et al. (2009). ...
... Additionally, both bays sustain significant stocks of Argopecten purpuratus, a highly profitable bay scallop typically harvested through bottom culture and enhanced-fishery systems. Pisco and Sechura have been the focal points of many ENSO-induced (mainly scallop driven) human migrations over the years (Badjeck, 2008;Mendo et al., 2008;Kluger et al., 2018). Although they share many features, these bays differ in their physical and ecological makeups, as well as in their social-ecological responses to environmental and anthropogenic stressors (Taylor et al., 2008a,b;Badjeck et al., 2009;Guevara-Carrasco and Bertrand(eds), 2017;Kluger et al., 2018). ...
... There is a historical, socio-economic connection between Pisco and Sechura, which has been the focal point of ENSOinduced (mainly scallop driven) human migrations over the years (Badjeck, 2008;Mendo et al., 2008;Kluger et al., 2018). This two-way migration's intricate dynamic is critical for understanding potential social-ecological repercussions in each system. ...
Article
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The coast of Peru lies within the tropics under the influence of the cold, nutrient-rich waters of the Humboldt Current and the interannual onslaught of the El Niño phenomenon. The Peruvian upwelling system is exceptionally productive and is comprised of subsystems at different scales along the coast. We aimed to understand the differences between two shallow coastal systems along a latitudinal gradient: Sechura Bay in the north (at the convergence of Humboldt and tropical waters) and Independencia Bay in the central-south (under typical upwelling conditions). We compared their biodiversity, trophic dynamics, community energetics, resource use and underlying abiotic conditions. Our analysis revealed that over the past two decades, Sechura has shown a warming trend, while Independencia has maintained its cold water conditions. Chlorophyll concentrations have risen significantly in both systems, higher values in Sechura suggesting there is an increase in local pressures that could lead to eutrophication. Trophic models of the La Niña 07/08 period revealed that both systems are bottom-up driven with high biomass and production at the lower trophic levels, though top-down controls were also shown, particularly in Sechura. While primary productivity was similar in both systems, differences were found in the structure and size of energy flows. More cycling and higher transfer efficiency were found in Independencia, where phytoplankton-based food chains played the main role in the overall dynamic. In contrast, the detritus food chain appears to be more relevant for energy flow in Sechura. Differences in biota and flow structure relate to the systems’ environmental conditions, i.e., more diverse warm-water species in the north and mostly cold water adapted species (mainly invertebrate filter-feeders and their predators) in the central-south. Catches in both systems were dominated by the diving fisheries and comprised mostly scallops (bottom-cultured), snails and fish in Sechura, and mussels, clams, crabs and fish in Independencia. Overall, system indicators suggest that Sechura is a comparatively less developed system. Independencia shall likely maintain its general highly productive system features, whereas Sechura will continue to be more frequently disturbed by El Niño and ongoing human-driven activities, reducing its overall stability and functionality. In the context of climate change, acknowledging these differences is essential for future adaptive management regimes.
... For example, in the Humboldt Current system during El Niño years, landings of shrimp and octopus increase in Northern Peru while in the south, tropical warmwater conditions increase the landings of scallops. These species have higher market values than more traditional species and international markets have developed for them (Badjeck, 2008). Moreover, input of fresh water in estuaries may favour the appearance of brackish water species. ...
... Moreover, input of fresh water in estuaries may favour the appearance of brackish water species. For instance, during the El Niño of 1997 to 1998, increased rainfall in Northern Peru changed salinity patterns in estuaries, favouring the mullet fishery (Badjeck, 2008) and in Columbia during the La Niña event of 1999 to 2000, a tilapia fishery bloom was observed (Blanco et al., 2007). Those increase the income of fishers and such positive impacts have been shown in many areas of the world. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fishers, as an important part of the fisheries, are threatened by many effects of global warming, including changes in ocean currents, rainfall changes that affect lake levels and river flows, increasing frequency and severity of storms, extreme events such as El Nino and hurricanes, and extreme floods and droughts. It can, therefore, be predicted that global fishers can be significantly affected by climate change which can be worse in future. There are some peer reviewed articles on impacts of climate change on fish and fisheries, but limited synopsis have been found on impact of climate change on the fishers. The present work provides a concise rather than comprehensive review on the consequences of climate change on global fishers. However, fishers of African continent attract more attention in future than other countries in this context. Different types of climate change impacts on fishers can be linked to the various elements of livelihoods frameworks such as impacts on assets and impacts on livelihoods activities. Commonly cited consequence of climate change and variability is decreased revenues for fishers due to decline in total catch and stock abundance. This can also be the result of the closure of fisheries activities during a weather anomaly related to climate change or the reduction of fishing days due to increased weather variability such as increased frequency of storms. Fishers‟ vulnerability to climate change will largely be a function of their capacity to adapt. Fishers are mostly poor or very poor and often without access credit to cope with the shocks and trends. Their typically poor health and inadequate health care systems make them further vulnerable to extreme events and outbreaks of diseases. If so, climate change has some positive impacts on fisher communities, though this is not persistence. The climate change impacts on marine ecosystems cannot be easily controlled by engineering measures, and a general strategy to conserve the sensitive habitats both in quantity and in quality would be an appropriate precautionary adaptation to the climate change effects.
... For example, in the Humboldt Current system during El Niño years, landings of shrimp and octopus increase in northern Peru while in the south, tropical warm- water conditions increase the landings of scallops. These species have higher market values than more traditional species and international markets have developed for them (Badjeck, 2008). ...
... Additionally, input of fresh water in estuaries may favour the appearance of brackish water species. For example, during the El Niño of 1997 to 1998, increased rainfall in northern Peru changed salinity patterns in estuaries, favouring the mullet fishery (Badjeck, 2008) and in Columbia during the La Niña event of 1999 to 2000, a tilapia fishery boom was observed in Columbia. This was caused by salinity changes (Blanco, Narváez Barandica and Villoria, 2007). ...
... In this context of considerable natural resource dependency, the capital assets (natural, physical, human, financial and social capital), the activities, and the access to these (mediated by institutions and social relations) determine the income and the " livelihood platform " of users of natural resources (Niehof, 2004; Bond et al., 2007). Capital assets are not only resources that people use in building livelihoods, they are assets that give them the capability to be and to act (Badjeck, 2008). ...
... In this context of considerable natural resource dependency, the capital assets (natural, physical, human, financial and social capital), the activities, and the access to these (mediated by institutions and social relations) determine the income and the " livelihood platform " of users of natural resources (Niehof, 2004; Bond et al., 2007). Capital assets are not only resources that people use in building livelihoods, they are assets that give them the capability to be and to act (Badjeck, 2008). In particular, asset-specificity is thought to be an important predictor of whether or not an inter-firm collaboration will emerge (Williamson, 1981; Grandori and Soda, 1995). ...
... The fishery for Peruvian scallop started in 1991, where fishers limited themselves to the collection of wild mature individuals (Badjeck, 2008). However, after the ENSO of 1997/1998 the bay's environmental conditions changed, increasing significantly scallop biomass (Mendo et al., 2016). ...
... Between 2003 and 2004, the regional government of Sechura granted the first 12 authorizations for fishers' associations to conduct aquaculture in the bay, and since then the number of fishers has increased dramatically (Badjeck et al., 2009). Moreover, Sechura started to receive fishers from other fishing towns, particularly from Pisco (southern Peru), where the scallop stocks had already been depleted (Badjeck, 2008;Burga, 2012) (Fig. 1). ...
Article
Social capital has been a key factor for co-management initiatives' success in small-scale fisheries. Nonetheless, this is a complex concept, which can be operationalized in different ways and has no specific standardized measures. This research explores Peruvian scallop aquaculture in the Sechura Bay of Peru as a case study, focusing on the development of social capital among fishers, enterprises and authorities. We evaluated social capital through three of its conceptual building components: (i) trust, (ii) collaboration and reciprocity, and (iii) common norms and sanctions. Specific indicators for each component were developed for analytical purposes. We conducted 66 surveys and 12 interviews with fishers and other key stakeholders. Based on our results, there is weak social capital among aquaculture fishers, enterprises and authorities in the Sechura Bay. This is evident through the low levels of trust and collaboration, as well as the lack of respect for common norms. Weak social capital may explain the two critical problems the system is currently facing for achieving sustainability: reduced availability of seeds and unfair agreements between enterprises and fishermen associations. Strengthening social ties and collaboration can increase aquaculture's resilience at Sechura Bay.
... A similar situation is also facing fishing communities in mainland Tanzania (Kangalawe and Lyimo, 2010). Similarly, a study by Badjeck (2008) in rural Peru found that more than 94% of the fishers do not own vessels and other fishing equipment. Most of the equipment is owned by middlemen or wealthy local people. ...
... Comparatively, more households in Matemwe had radios and furniture than those in Kiuyu Mbuyuni (Table 4), which could be attributed to the better economic position in the former site compared to the latter. Since these assets and services have financial implications (Badjeck 2008), their absence in homes demonstrated, yet again, a low return from livelihood activities, low savings and a high level of poverty across the study sites. Ownership of such items may be helpful gaining access to information on various aspects including climate warnings. ...
Article
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Climate variability related events such as drought and associated food shortages are not new along the coast of Zanzibar, but are projected to increase with the impacts of global climate change. This paper examines the ‘internal’ characteristics that make Zanzibar’s coastal communities vulnerable to these and other changes, focusing on the factors that affect adaptive capacity (i.e. household and community assets) and sensitivity (i.e. livelihood activities and diversification). The sustainable livelihood approach and framework, especially the five capitals or assets, provided a lens to examine households’ capital stocks and the factors influencing access to these, as well as the outcomes for livelihood activities. Access to different capitals and assets were found to affect the range and choices of livelihood activities available to households as well as their ability to cope and adapt to existing and new risk. Our analysis shows how households on the drier and harsher east coast of the Zanzibar islands are particularly sensitive to climate variability and change in concert with other livelihoods challenges. This is primarily due to their high dependence on natural-resource based livelihood activities, which are already facing pressures. Moreover, low levels of most livelihood capitals limit the choices households have and undermine their adaptive capacity and ability to bounce back from climate and other shocks and stressors.
... In the region, many benthic species suffered from almost tropical conditions (e.g., macroalgae, crabs), while others flourished (e.g., scallops, sea stars, and sea urchins) (Taylor et al., 2008). The Peruvian bay scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), increasing fiftyfold in biomass during the El Niño 1983/84 stipulating a "gold-rush" environment for fishers from all over the country hurrying to make use of this opportunity, is a particular example for effects on fisheries (e.g., Wolff, 1984;Meltzoff et al., 2005;Wolff et al., 2007;Badjeck, 2008;Gonzalez, 2009). ...
... So far, most research has aimed to understand consequences of environmental variability on Peruvian fisheries through a natural science lens, with little attention to the human dimension (but see Meltzoff et al., 2005;Badjeck, 2008;Gonzalez, 2009;Kluger et al., 2018). Given the socio-economic importance of the HCUS and its resources, and the uncertainty associated with foreseeing future disruptive events and climate change effects, the setting provides a rich case for studying possible futures and consequences thereof through a participatory scenario approach. ...
Article
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In the face of global change, the exploration of possible futures of marine social-ecological systems (MSES) becomes increasingly important. A variety of models aims at improving our understanding of ecosystem dynamics and complexities by assessing how systems react to internal and external drivers of change. However, these models are often built from a natural-science perspective through a reductionist and top-down knowledge production process that does not engage with the interests, concerns and knowledge of stakeholders. Our work explores different futures of the Peruvian MSES tied to the Humboldt Current Upwelling System (HCUS) through a sequential integrative participatory scenario process. The methodology used opens novel ways to explore, at different contextual levels, the uncertainties of the future and, in doing so, to include diverging world views of different actors. This approach implies a broader social processing of scientific projections about the future and encourages the articulation of different notions of sustainability. We thereby contribute to current scientific discussions on scenario planning in MSES by exploring potential futures through the analysis of narratives, a process that helps to identify plausible future development pathways that can inform different types of ecosystem modeling or policy making.
... Securing local food supplies and livelihoods in the face of climate variability (such as increased frequency of droughts, floods and extreme weather events) will be of strategic importance. Additionally, infrastructure damages due to extreme events or flooding can diminish access to local markets, reducing the availability of food products as well as increasing their prices [46][47]. ...
Article
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Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational agroclimatology, for an efficient use of natural resources and a better management of climatic risks. Many countries, including the developing world, now benefit from well-trained staff in the use of climate data, physical and biological information and knowledge to reduce negative climate impacts. A significant volume of data and knowledge about climate–agriculture relationships is now available and used by students, scientists, technicians, agronomists, decision-makers and farmers alike, particularly in the areas of climate characterization, land suitability and agroecological zoning, seasonal climate forecasts, drought early warning systems and operational crop forecasting systems.
... Thus, the hostile circumstance was liable for annihilating and deranging productive assets like fishing gear, net, boat etc. (Jallow et al., 1999). These consequences affected roads and transportation systems; even sometimes, roads went underwater for dense rainfall that reduced the availability of daily necessities in the native market and raised commodity price (Broad et al., 1999;Badjeck, 2008). ...
Article
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This study identifies the livelihood characteristics of small-scale fishers and how their livelihoods become affected through climate change-induced events, based on fieldwork in four fishing communities in lower Padma hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) sanctuaries. To collect empirical data, several qualitative tools were employed, such as individual interviews, focus group discussions, oral history, and key informant interviews. A conceptual framework named Sustainable Livelihood Approaches (SLA) was used to analyze the data. The insights of the livelihood and climate vulnerability of small-scale fishers and fisheries management were addressed. The factors related to climate change included fluctuation of temperature and rainfall, frequent natural calamities, tidal inundation and outbreak of diseases. In addition, river pollution, alteration of migratory routes, poverty, malnutrition, debt cycle, social tension, stakeholder conflicts and lack of alternative earning flexibility made them more vulnerable. The current findings, derived from fishers' perceptions, are crucial for sanctuary's co-management, biodiversity conservation, planning and development of livelihoods of the small-scale fishers.
... The combination of a dramatic increase of the scallop population due to high SST and growing international demand resulted in the i rst 'scallop boom', with both intensii ed individual i shing effort and more i sherfolk, taking regulatory agencies by surprise ). The scallop 'boom' resulted in an economic bonanza not only for divers, but also other i sherfolk using other gears, small-scale processors (mainly women, Box 8.5, Figure 8.2 ), and local businesses (Badjeck 2008 ). ...
Chapter
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Humans are integral parts of marine social-ecological systems. Changes in marine ecosystems impact human communities, and changes in human communities impact marine ecosystems. The interactive nature of these systems is the key to their understanding and governance. This chapter focuses on communities with small-scale fisheries interacting with their local and regional marine ecosystems. It asks what contributes to high or low resilience to global changes, and considers the intensity of changes, the exposure of the human community, and the ability of the community to cope and adapt. Two additional themes run through the chapter: value, including both monetary and non-monetary (e.g. cultural) values; and scale, in particular scale mismatches between non-human marine ecosystems, fishing communities, and their governance systems. Understanding what makes marine social-ecological systems resilient or vulnerable in a world of increasing uncertainty requires the collaborative efforts of natural and social scientists, resource users and managers, and the larger resource community.
... For example, in the Humboldt Current system during El Niño years, landings of shrimp and octopus increase in northern Peru while in the south, tropical warmwater conditions increase the landings of scallops. These species have higher market values than more traditional species and international markets have developed for them (Badjeck 2008). ...
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Fish contributes about 50% of total animal protein intake in some small islands and other developing states. Fish products provide 15% or more protein consumed by nearly 3 billion people worldwide. Highly important to culture and human welfare, fisheries have often faced the brunt of nature and the impending impacts of overfishing, pollution as well as natural climate variabilities that often arise from extreme events. Although much hyped and vaunted by different sectors as a cash crop, an economic growth booster in rural areas with few other economic activities, the looming threat of climate change may pose a serious set-back to fisheries production. The effects of climate change on marine ecosystems cannot be easily controlled by simple engineering measures. Therefore, a general strategy to conserve these habitats both in quantity and in quality would be an appropriate precautionary adaptation to the effects of climate change. Furthermore, the better the condition of these habitats, the more resilient they will be. Additionally, the greater the area of coastal habitats such as mangroves, sea grasses and reefs that are important for fisheries, the less likely it will be affected to the impact of climate change and destruction of these habitats would contribute to critical condition of fish. The promotion of marine protected areas and environmental conservation thus become a focus of the adaptation strategy. The creation and management of marine protected areas (MPA) is advocated, in recognition of their value in reducing the negative influence of climate change.
... Traditional area-based access rights institutions will become strained by the loss or relocation of local resources. However, while some fisher folk will see the disappearance of their target species, others could see an increase in landings of species of high commercial value (Badjeck 2008). ...
Technical Report
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This is a product of an expert workshop that was held on 6–9th March 2012 in Bohol, Philippines. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) funded the four-day workshop, which brought together 20 participants with scientific and policy expertise in ocean acidification, climate change, ecosystem approaches to fisheries management, and the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI). Participants included representatives from the Coral Triangle Support Partnership (CTSP), the US CTI Program Integrator, California State University Monterey Bay, Hasanuddin University, James Cook University, Blue Green Ocean Advisors, Secretariat for the Pacific Community (SPC), University of British Columbia, University of the Philippines, Universiti Malaya, University of Sains Malaysia, University of Connecticut, the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, and the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (Appendix A)
... Community threats and shocks can come in many forms, and the impacts of change will depend upon many different factors. Although there is a rich literature on the effects of climate change on marine coastal communities, almost all of these studies focus on non-US communities (e.g., Badjeck 2008, Chouinard, Plante, and Martin 2008, Crona et al. 2010, Race, Luck and Black 2010, Silver 2013, Abernethy et al. 2014, Orchard, Stringer and Quinn 2014. Transferring these results to US-based communities is problematic because community resilience and adaptability is place dependent (Storbjörk and Hedrén 2011, Johnson, Henry, and Thompson 2014, Dawley et al. 2015. ...
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Special Issue on the Economics of Changing Coastal Resources: The Nexus of Food, Energy, and Water Systems. - Volume 46 Issue 2 - Mario F. Teisl, Kathleen P. Bell, Caroline L. Noblet
... It is common for fishermen to engage in many different fisheries, using a "portfolio approach," shifting focus among fisheries in response to various social and ecological drivers [4][5][6][7]. Historically, fishermen have shifted effort among fisheries because of (1) management strategies that limit or promote particular gear types [8], (2) the availability of more valued or abundant species [7], (3) climate variability [9], and (4) ease of adapting one's vessel, gear, or location [10]. However, because of regulatory and economic factors, fisheries diversification is declining in the US [11][12][13]. ...
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Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.
... Traditional area-based access rights institutions will become strained by the loss or relocation of local resources. However, while some fisher folk will see the disappearance of their target species, others could see an increase in landings of species of high commercial value (Badjeck 2008). ...
... Extreme climatic events adversely affect the non-productive assets like housing and community infrastructure (Westlund et al, 2007). Damage of roads, transportation and other infrastructure reduce the food availability in local market that induces the price hike (Broad et al., 1999;Badjeck, 2008). Roads go under water during heavy rains and flood washed way cattle and paddy crops and homestead vegetable that also add the risk of malnutrition and under nutrition. ...
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Bangladesh is considered as one of the most vulnerable countries to the anticipated impacts of climate change but very few studies focused on the coastal fishing people, though they are one of the most vulnerable professional groups to climate change impacts. Based on a fieldwork in four fishing communities living adjacent to upper Meghna hilsa sanctuary, this study identifies how climate change induced events affect the livelihoods strategies of hilsa fishers and how their coping strategies hamper hilsa conservation by increasing fishing pressure. To collect empirical data, a household survey was conducted and a number of qualitative tools such as interviews, focus group discussions and oral history were employed. The cruxes that respondents identified as related to climate change include fluctuation of temperature and rainfall, cyclones, tidal surges and outbreak of damning diseases. Immediate aftermath of the any disaster, fishers are found to survive primarily from income though illegal fishing as well as relief from government, taking loan from NGOs and mohajon (money lender). In case of long term responses, improvement of physical capital, harvest rain water and tree plantation around houses are common strategies found among fishers. For further resilience fishers want better education for their children so that they can leave risky professions and places. A number of suggestions are elicited from fishers’ perception for effective tackling of climate change that include plant vegetable trees and seeds on raised bed, raft and plastic bottles around their water logged unused land to meet their daily consumption.
... During the period of natural resource scarcity there is reduction in fishery-dependent incomes which has a direct effect on the reduction of the ability to get store-bought food (Callaway et al., 1999). Similarly, during the extreme events or flooding the infrastructure is damages which can reduce the local markets access, the availability of food products reduced as well as their prices will increase (Badjeck, 2008). However, this adverse impact can be mitigated by different adaptive actions. ...
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Small scale fishing (SSF) communities of the inland open water area are one of the most vulnerable communities. Actually, fishery activities provide significant support regarding food nutrition and security as well as alleviating poverty and maintaining sustainable livelihoods of the people. However, their contributions are undervalued in the global and national scale by scholars. This study assessed the impact of climate change on SSFs from the vulnerability perspective, using two livelihood vulnerability indices. Firstly, using the Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI), and second, using IPCC Vulnerability Framework Approach (LVI-IPCC framework). The main objectives of this study were to assess the vulnerability status of SSFs communities due to the impact of climate change. To achieve the objective, data on SSF communities in three sub-districts were randomly selected. They were fishers from Chatmohor, Gurudaspur and Tarash. A total of 352 SSF households were interviewed. Overall, the results of LVI and LVI-IPCC did not change the ranking of vulnerability status as both cases the households of Tarash were found to be most vulnerable than that of Chatmohor and Gurudaspur. Moreover, this study also found that SSFs were surrounded by various problems including insufficiency in food, lack of access to cash, chronic diseases, unsafe drinking water, unemployment, lack of physical assets, lack of availability of early warning systems (EWS), and low involvement in social networking. Finally, to improve the quality of the SSF livelihoods, some changes in food policy, health facilities, informal credits access, trainings, establishing efficient EWS should be provided by the policy makers.
... Section 5.6 will introduce participants to other climate adaptation and mitigation initiatives such as CDM, REDD and LULUF. The lectures will be illustrated with practicals, field visits and case studies on impact of climate change on fisheries and livelihoods of fishers and adaptation and mitigation strategies (e.g., Aiken et al. 1992;Broad et al. 1999;Jallow et al. 1999;Sarch and Allison 2000;Turner et al. 2007;Badjeck 2008;Badjeck et al. 2009;Iwakasi et al. 2009;Ogutu-Ohwayo et al. 2013;Musinguzi et al. 2016). ...
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Climate variability and change, which intensified since 1970s, are threatening natural resources and livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa where people depend on climate sensitive natural resources, such as agriculture and fisheries, but have limited capacity to adapt. Increasing human and institutional capacity to address threats posed by climate change to natural resources and livelihoods requires building capacity to generate and disseminate information and knowledge on climate change, its impacts, adaptation and mitigation through research, education and raising awareness by tertiary training institutions. Most tertiary training institutions in Africa have curricula covering basic and applied natural resources management but most of them do not include climate change. This paper presents a training curriculum and manual that was developed to fill this gap. The purpose of the paper is to provide in-depth information on how Climate Change can be integrated into the fisheries and aquaculture curricula of tertiary training institutions. It also provides students, scientists, practitioners, and policy makers with an understanding of key concepts and approaches to climate change mitigation measures, adaptation strategies, and policies. The aim is to mainstream climate change in fisheries training. The specific objectives are to facilitate introduction of climate change in fisheries training in Uganda that can be developed further and adopted by other countries in Africa and elsewhere; Equip students with scientific and technical capacity to anticipate and evaluate changes in climate and its influence, communicate information to stakeholders, design, and test adaptation strategies and mitigation measures; and Increase human resource capacity to address climate change issues through reviewing and strengthening of the national education system. The curriculum consists of seven modules covering: Major threats to natural resources; Introduction to climate change; Implications of climate change on aquatic productivity processes and fisheries; Implications of climate change on aquaculture; Livelihoods, impacts, adaptation and mitigation; Aquatic ecosystem modeling in relation to climate change; Principles, policies, regulations and institutions required to address impacts of climate change. The modules will be delivered through lectures, discussions, case studies and field visits. It is recommended that the curriculum and manual be incorporated into training programs of tertiary training institutions to build the capacity required to address climate change challenges particularly for fisheries in Africa.
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Livelihoods in Cambodian fishing communities are complex and dynamic. Fluctuations in resource abundance, seasonal cycles of resource use, and changes in access create conditions that bring challenges for rural households, as do economic and policy drivers. Nonetheless, people are continuously "doing something" in response to these stresses and shocks. This paper sets out to explore how households and community members attempt to mitigate against such challenges. The analysis of livelihood stresses and shocks in two Cambodian fishing villages shows that diversification is a commonly used strategy for coping and adapting. Analyzing responses at multiple scales, with emphasis on resilience-building strategies at household and community levels, illuminates aspects of livelihoods. To study local-level perspectives of resilience, well-being was used as the surrogate of resilience, producing three clusters of responses related to economic conditions, resources, and relationships.
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Bangladesh has recently experienced a number of high-profile disasters, including devastating cyclones and annual floods. Poverty is both a cause of vulnerability, and a consequence of hazard impacts. Evidence that the impacts of disasters are worse for women is inconclusive or variable. However, since being female is strongly linked to being poor, unless poverty is reduced, the increase in disasters and extreme climate events linked with climate change is likely to affect women more than men. In addition, there are some specific gender attributes which increase women's vulnerability in some respects. These gendered vulnerabilities may, however, be reduced by social changes.
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This article uses a systemic perspective to identify and analyze the conceptual relations among vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity within socio-ecological systems (SES). Since different intellectual traditions use the terms in different, sometimes incompatible, ways, they emerge as strongly related but unclear in the precise nature of their relationships. A set of diagnostic questions is proposed regarding the specification of the terms to develop a shared conceptual framework for the natural and social dimensions of global change. Also, development of a general theory of change in SESs is suggested as an important agenda item for research on global change.
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Adaptive co-management brings together collaborative and adaptive approaches in pursuit of sustainable resource use and social–ecological resilience. Enthusiasm for this management approach, however, is countered by recent critiques regarding outcomes. A lack of evidence from consistent evaluation of adaptive co-management further exacerbates this situation. This paper revisits the issue of evaluation in natural resource management and recasts it in light of complex adaptive systems thinking. An evaluative framework for adaptive co-management is developed which directs attention toward three broad components: ecosystem conditions, livelihood outcomes and process and institutional conditions. Scale-specific parameters are offered for each component to facilitate systematic learning from experience and encourage cross-site comparisons. Conclusions highlight the importance of systematically incorporating evaluation into the adaptive co-management process and recognize the challenge for resource agencies and researchers to shift from a conventional to a complex adaptive system perspective.
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The biosphere is increasingly dominated by human action. Consequently, ecology must incorporate human behavior. Political ecology, as long as it includes ecology, is a powerful framework for integrating natural and social dynamics. In this paper I present a resilience-oriented approach to political ecology that integrates system dynamics, scale, and cross-scale interactions in both human and natural systems. This approach suggests that understanding the coupled dynamics of human-ecological systems allows the assessment of when systems are most vulnerable and most open to transformation. I use this framework to examine the political ecology of salmon in the Columbia River Basin.
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This paper argues that resettlement affects the way households cope with crisis situations. Information on Zimbabwean households shows that households in resettlement areas are more likely to develop individual strategies, while households in communal areas are more likely to receive assistance from someone in their support network. Quantitative analysis shows these differences can partly be attributed to differences in wealth and kin relationships within villages, while qualitative data suggest there is also a difference in the attitude of resettlement farmers, and attitudes toward resettlement farmers, that might make it more difficult for them access assistance when it is needed.
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Central Việt Nam is one of the most vulnerable areas in the country to natural disasters. In 1985 a major typhoon hit the Tam Giang Lagoon coastal area in the province of Thừa Tiên-Huế, Central Việt Nam, with severe impacts on the sampan dwellers who lived there on boats and fished for their livelihoods. Since then, the government has attempted to resettle them on land in order to decrease their vulnerability to such events. Consequently, this process has changed the livelihood options as well as the social networks of the sampan dwellers. This study of the resettlement village of Thụy Điển analyses the social networks and different forms of social capital being utilised by the resettled sampan dwellers as part of their changing livelihoods and questions whether the social capital formed will indeed lead to a long term decrease in vulnerability. It is found that while bonding and linking social capital have been newly formed, the trust required for bridging social capital formation is still missing, and this in turn is hindering the possibilities of sustainable livelihood formation.
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A multiscalar, multistressor assessment of rural vulnerability is presented, illustrating how globalization, market liberalization, and climatic risk simultaneously structure the livelihood strategies of Mexican smallholders. Ethnographic data collected in three communities are used to argue that farmers’ capacities to manage climatic risk are circumscribed by the ways in which they are able to negotiate changes in agricultural policy. Four livelihood strategies are explored in detail to show that market integration does not necessarily improve risk management capacity, and that subsistence maize production—while highly sensitive to hazards—may actually serve to enhance livelihood stability. The dominance of economic uncertainty over environmental risk in households’ decision making implies a continued role for government intervention to help households adapt to climatic stress.
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The study of fisheries governance has made considerable progress in recent years largely as a result of the concerted actions of the social sciences. A particular focus for this work has been the concept of participative governance and the co-management systems in which responsibility for management is shared between the state and user groups, usually at the local level. With the publication of two books – a scholarly treatise and a practitioners’ guide – drawing upon the same international project, our understanding of the complexities of governance in the context of fisheries takes a major step forward. We need to recognise three distinct but interconnected levels of governance: the first dealing with day to day issues of management; the second concerned with institutional arrangements; the third focusing on the construction of images, values, principles and criteria to guide fisheries policy making along a consistent path. The authors’ contention is that too much attention has been paid to the end stages of the policy process and too little to refining the principles that underlie sound decision making in the face of often difficult choices. Much of the progress in this field is due to an increasingly multidisciplinary approach followed by the social sciences.
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The literature on common property-based resource management comprises many important studies that seek to specify the conditions under which groups of users will self-organize and sustainably govern resources upon which they depend. Using three of the more comprehensive such studies, and with an extensive review of writings on the commons, this paper demonstrates that the enterprise of generating lists of conditions under which commons are governed sustainably is a flawed and impossibly costly research task. For a way out, the paper examines the relative merits of statistical, comparative, and case study approaches to studying the commons. It ends with a plea for careful research design and sample selection, construction of causal mechanisms, and a shift toward comparative and statistical rather than single-case analyses. Such steps are necessary for a coherent, empirically-relevant theory of the commons.
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A broad-brush review is provided of key issues and events of science-based fisheries management from historical times to the present. Key trends in fisheries assessment, control and surveillance, capacity and its relevance to marine fishery ecosystems are described, particularly those issues where FAO has played a key role. The paper also considers social and institutional issues of relevance. A perspective is offered for the evolution of possible fishery management paradigms that may apply at the start of the third Millenium.
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Indicator systems are seen as central tools for ecosystem-based fisheries management, helping to steer fisheries towards sustainability by providing timely and useful information to decision-makers. Without testing hypotheses about the links between policies and outcomes, however, indicator systems may do little more than promote ad hoc policies, possibly even prolonging the transition to sustainable fisheries. The Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework is a robust framework that has been used extensively to design policy experiments and empirically test theories and models linking ecological–economic systems, institutions and the sustainability of common pool resource systems. A modified IAD framework is developed that transparently encompasses both process-oriented pressure-state-response (PSR) and structurally oriented sustainable livelihood indicator frameworks, thus providing a platform for ecosystem-based fisheries management policy experiment design and monitoring. An institutional approach to fisheries management facilitates critical examination of important cross-cutting issues, including assumptions regarding what comprises sustainability and how market, government and civil society organizations use strategic investments in capital assets and institutions to achieve sustainability objectives. The emphasis on capital assets keeps attention on the relative merits of alternative investment options in policy experiments.
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This paper presents the results of a bibliometric analysis of the knowledge domains resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the research activities on human dimensions of global environmental change. We analyzed how 2286 publications between 1967 and 2005 are related in terms of co-authorship relations, and citation relations.The number of publications in the three knowledge domains increased rapidly between 1995 and 2005. However, the resilience knowledge domain is only weakly connected with the other two domains in terms of co-authorships and citations. The resilience knowledge domain has a background in ecology and mathematics with a focus on theoretical models, while the vulnerability and adaptation knowledge domains have a background in geography and natural hazards research with a focus on case studies and climate change research. There is an increasing number of cross citations and papers classified in multiple knowledge domains. This seems to indicate an increasing integration of the different knowledge domains.
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The poor conservation outcomes that followed decades of intrusive resource management strategies and planned development have forced policy makers and scholars to reconsider the role of community in resource use and conservation. In a break from previous work on development which considered communities a hindrance to progressive social change, current writings champion the role of community in bringing about decentralization, meaningful participation, and conservation. But despite its recent popularity, the concept of community is rarely defined or carefully examined by those concerned with resource use and management. We seek to redress this omission by investigating “community” in work concerning resource conservation and management. We explore the conceptual origins of the community, and the ways the term has been deployed in writings on resource use. We then analyze those aspects of community most important to advocates for community's role in resource management — community as a small spatial unit, as a homogeneous social structure, and as shared norms — and indicate the weaknesses of these approaches. Finally, we suggest a more political approach: community must be examined in the context of development and conservation by focusing on the multiple interests and actors within communities, on how these actors influence decision-making, and on the internal and external institutions that shape the decision-making process. A focus on institutions rather than “community” is likely to be more fruitful for those interested in community-based natural resource management.
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Using data from approximately 13,000 individuals in 14 different OECD regions, we find that culture, as expressed by religious beliefs, generates public goods contributions. We characterize individuals into systems of religious beliefs using latent class analysis and find that some types of beliefs influence pro-environment behaviors and attitudes, even after controlling for religious affiliation, political views and activism, and socio-demographic characteristics. We find a role for beliefs that is separate from social capital accumulated via membership in church groups and church attendance. Finally, we make a methodological contribution by showing that the use of latent class analysis to describe systems of beliefs yields more meaningful interpretations than the standard approach of dummy variables for specific beliefs.
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New institutional economics and its forerunners have, we argue made important contributions to the evolving agenda of ecological economics. The conceptualisation of environmental problems as instances of interdependence and the acknowledgement of positive transaction costs are key insights into the nature of environmental problems. We also discuss how plurality of behavioural motivations and limited cognitive capacity have important implications for environmental decision making and its analysis. We show how evolutionary and collective action theories offer complementary takes on the choice and change of environmental governance institutions and how the concept of social capital can enrich analyses of environmental governance. We conclude that an emerging institutional ecological economics has the greatest relative advantage in analysing the design, implementation and effectiveness of environmental governance solutions.
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Research exploring how climatic variability impacts fishing economies in high-latitude regions was conducted in south-central Iceland and southwest Alaska during 2001-2004. Important differences were found regarding the economic impacts of climatic variations in the commercial economies in Iceland and Alaska, versus in the native subsistence economies in Alaska. In general, the commercially inclined economies in both regions seemed less resilient to ordinary climatic variability. Moreover, both of the commercial economies were importantly influenced by fluctuations in global fish markets that are prompted by climatic variations occurring in regions that are geographically very distant from them. A better understanding of how climatic variability affects fishing economies in high-latitude regions will help in the development of more sustainable fisheries policies for these regions, which may already be experiencing radical climatic and ecological change.
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Decentralization is highly considered as an alternative to make better fisheries management. This is due to that decentralization appears as a means for increasing the efficiency and equity of development activities and services delivery, and also for promoting local participation and democracy. The evolution of decentralization of fisheries management policy in Indonesia showed that the decentralization was gradually developed from deconcentration and delegation to devolution form. After Reform Era, devolution form of decentralization has been implemented due to the enactment of UU 22/1999 (the Local Autonomy Law), where local government has gained the amount of new authorities concerning marine-fisheries management. By such devolution, however, the community based management system, which is rooted from traditional fishing communities, is recognized. The effectiveness of the community based management system for the marine resources sustainability is caused by the bottom up planning and participative approach that led to the increasing of the local fishers' sense of stewardship over the resources. Even though this kind of decentralization practice has been dealing with several problems, this is still a better way rather than centralization. This paper identifies some agendas are being encountered both in the central and the local level. This is related to the need of improvement of the legal framework, the capacity building of the local government, and the revitalization of the local institution.
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Social-ecological complexity challenges conservation-oriented interventions even in settings with a small number of actors and conflicts involved. This article examines the development and trajectory of King and Snow Crab fisheries in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (BR), the highly remote but globally connected Southern tip of the Americas. The feasibility of the Chilean legal instrument of Marine Management Areas (MMA) is assessed as a tool for mitigating impacts of overfishing in the area. Examining the local fishers' perspectives in complement to a context analysis we find that external management models such as the MMA are not suited to make Cape Horn fisheries sustainable. Instead, efforts should be dedicated to a continuous process of stakeholder collaboration for developing site-specific management concepts and structures. These should be embedded in the larger BR initiative. Considering the area's particular conditions, several recommendations for such a process are formulated.
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Incl. abstract and bibl. references International norms of social, economic and political rights are presented as a means of transforming social relations in developing countries. Yet, when rights norms are introduced into domestic practice, they do not always produce liberal, democratic results. Instead, rights and local practices of clientelism mix. This article examines this political process in rural Peru. Alternatives to clientelism emerge when NGOs and international development agencies forge strategic and selective coalitions between urban middle-class sectors and the rural poor. This calls for an explicit politics of advancing rights by any means necessary: accepting hybrid forms when inevitable, incorporating excluded groups when possible, and striking alliances that displace traditional elites.