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Effects of Supplemental Lighting within the Canopy at Different Developing Stages on Tomato Yield and Quality of Single-Truss Tomato Plants Grown at High Density

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Abstract

The single trass tomato production system (STTPS) was used to grow tomato plants at a density of 14.3 plants-irT2 for increasing the tomato yield in Japan. We applied supplemental lighting within the canopy at different tomato development stages to identify the most sensitive stage at which supplemental lighting will most effectively increase yield and quality of tomato fruits. Fluorescent lamps were used to supply intra-canopy lighting to tomato plants (5:00 21:00) during the stages of an thesis (stage 1), rapid fruit development (stage 2), fruit ripening (stage 3), and from initial anlhesis to red-ripe fruit (whole stage), respectively. Supplemental lighting applied to tomato plants during stage 2 and whole stage significantly increased the yield and sugar content of tomato fruits. Moreover, the contribution of supplemental lighting to the daily increase of tomato yield was highest at stage 2. The increase of fruit fresh weight and amount of supplemental lighting showed positive linear relationship. Supplemental lighting did not affect the ascorbic acid content of tomato fruits, fruit number per plant, and plant shoot weight among all the treatments. Thus, based on economic advantage, the use of supplemental lighting during the rapid fruit development stage of tomato plants under STTPS was most efficient.
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... Supplemental lighting is an artificial light resource that is applied to plant canopies and is considered an efficient method of solving the problem of indoor light insufficiency. Numerous studies have been conducted on the canopy layer [10,11], light source [12], light intensity [13,14], and light period [15] to assess the effects of supplemental lighting. At the same time, studies on light and other environmental factors [16][17][18][19] have recently become a popular research topic. ...
... Previous research results demonstrated that when plants are in the reproductive stage, their carbon exportation pattern changes, and more photosynthetic products are transported to the fruit, while concentrations in different leaves vary [14,23,29]. Since carbon assimilates in functional leaves, three leaves below the fruit largely determine fruit production [12,23], and different photosynthetic products from the 3rd leaf below the fruit under different supplemental lighting treatments ( Figure 3) could determine fruit yield. This demonstrates that more research is needed to determine how to develop the potential of this leaf. ...
... The nutritional quality of tomato fruit is primarily measured by the content of soluble protein, ascorbic acid, and lycopene. Studies have shown that the content of soluble protein and ascorbic acid in tomatoes can be significantly increased by increasing the lighting intensity [12] and the number of fruit truss [14]. In this experiment, the content of soluble protein and ascorbic acid in the T1 and T2 treatments were significantly higher than that for other treatments. ...
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Insufficient light supply for canopies is a constant issue during greenhouse production in most areas of Northern China. Applying supplemental lighting to plant canopies is an efficient method of solving this problem. Several studies were conducted to identify the optimal, economically efficient abaxial leafy supplemental lighting mode to produce high-quality greenhouse tomatoes. In this experiment, no supplemental treatment was used as a blank control (CK), while three supplemental lighting modes were used as treatments: T1, continuous supplemental lighting from 8:00–9:00 (at GMT+8, which is 6:00–7:00 local time, before the thermal insulation covers, abbreviated as TIC below, opening), and 20:00–22:00 (after TIC closing) with photosynthetic photon fluxion density (PPFD) of 200 μmol·m−2·s−1; T2, dynamic altered supplemental lighting with PPFD rising from 100 μmol·m−2·s−1 to 200 μmol·m−2·s−1 before TIC opening and falling from 200 μmol·m−2·s−1 to 100 μmol·m−2·s−1 after TIC closing; and T3, intermittent supplemental lighting which was automatically conducted with PPFD of 100 μmol·m−2·s−1 when indoor PPFD below 150 μmol·m−2·s−1 from 8:00–22:00. The results demonstrated that abaxial leafy supplemental lighting treatment could improve both fruit yield and quality. The total yield in the T1 and T2 treatments was higher than in other treatments, though there was no significant difference. Differences in leaf carbon exportation showed the possibility of determining fruit yield from the 3rd leaf under the fruit. The overall appearance, flavor quality, nutrient indicators, and aroma of cherry tomato fruits under T1 and T2 treatments were generally higher than in other treatments. Correlation analysis of fruit yield and quality parameters suggested that they produce relatively high yield and fruit quality. Combined with a cost-performance analysis, dynamic altered supplemental lighting (T2) is more suitable for high-valued greenhouse cherry tomato production.
... Li et al. [18] applied supplemental intracanopy LED illumination to tomato plants and also observed a significant enhancement in both the stomatal conductance and the photosynthetic capacity for carbon absorption/assimilation in the leaves in the lower and middle canopies; the final yield increased by 8.7%. Lu et al. [19] observed that photosynthesis of tomato could be stimulated by SL, and there was a positive linear relationship between the fruit fresh weight and days of SL application. However, it is still not clear whether SL improves photosynthesis throughout the entire life cycle of plant leaves or merely at a certain stage. ...
... Therefore, based on the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus, we conclude that the SL treatment improved the ABS/CS, φ Eo and PI abs values of the leaves, which increased the photosynthetic capacity accordingly, and enhanced the yield and fruit quality. The increase in fruit fresh weight and amount of supplemental lighting showed a positive linear relationship [19]. In the present study, compared with the CK group, the LED-treated group presented a 9.53% greater yield, which was significantly different, while the yield of the HPS lamp-treated group was only 4.14% higher and did not significantly differ (Table 4). ...
... Tewolde et al. [20] reported that RB-LED lighting treatment for 10 h in the winter increased the soluble solid content and titratable acidity of tomato fruits by 20% and 25%, respectively. Similarly, Lu et al. [19] applied intracanopy lighting at different developmental stages of single-truss tomato plants, and the sugar content increased to 12% (Brix%). Lu and Mitchell [8] used a LED-SL strategy, which successfully increased the sugar content of tomato fruits by 11-12%. ...
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The addition of supplemental light (SL) is an effective way to offset insufficient lighting. Although it is commonly believed that SL increases leaf photosynthesis and therefore improves yield and fruit flavor, the mechanism underlying the effects of SL on the photosystem II (PSII) apparatus remains unclear, and SL leads to high energy consumption. In order to save energy, we investigated the physiological status of the PSII apparatus, plant growth parameters and fruit parameters under two types of overhead SL with a low daily energy consumption of 0.0918 kWh m ⁻² . The results showed that SL significantly increased the leaf chlorophyll content from full unfolding to yellowing. However, a remarkable increase in the absorption flux per cross-section (ABS/CS), the quantum yield of electron transport (φ Eo ) and the performance index (PI abs ) was observed only in a relatively short period of the leaf life cycle. SL also enhanced the fruit yield and quality. The obviously increased ΔV K and ΔV J components of the chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetic (OJIP) curve, along with the significantly decreased PI abs from days 40–60 after unfolding in the SL-treated groups, resulted in more rapid leaf aging and earlier fruit ripening compared with the control plants (CK). Therefore, an energy-friendly SL strategy can alter the physiological status of the PSII apparatus, affecting yield and fruit quality and maturity.
... Recently, the effect of the spectra and the period of supplemental lighting on the production and quality of tomato fruits was investigated [1]. Among different colors of supplemental lighting, red supplemental light is known to increase tomato yields [8,9]. Red light is also considered the most efficient light for driving photosynthesis [4,10]. ...
... For primary metabolism, in the low N soil, red lighting increased some sugars (sucrose and maltose), and in the high N soil, red lighting increased sugars (xylose and galactose) in the current study. This is in line with Lu et al. [8], who showed that tomato plants grown under supplemental lighting for 28-55 days increased fruit sugar content compared to those treated for 10 days. They also reported higher fruit yield per plant in the longer supplemental lighting condition. ...
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Tomato cultivation in the greenhouse can be facilitated by supplemental light. We compared the combined effects of nutrients, water, and supplemental light (red) on tomato fruit quality. To do this, three different nutrient conditions were tested, i.e., (1) low N, (2) standard N, and (3) high N. Water was supplied either at −30 kPa (sufficient) or −80 kPa (limited) of soil water potential. Supplemental red LED light was turned either on or off. The metabolites from tomato fruits were profiled using non-targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic approaches. The lycopene content was highest in the condition of high N and limited water in the absence of supplemental light. In the absence of red lighting, the lycopene contents were greatly affected by nutrient and water conditions. Under the red lighting, the nutrient and water conditions did not play an important role in enhancing lycopene content. Lower N resulted in low amino acids. Low N was also likely to enhance some soluble carbohydrates. Interestingly, the combination of low N and red light led to a significant increase in sucrose, maltose, and flavonoids. In high N soil, red light increased a majority of amino acids, including aspartic acid and GABA, and sugars. However, it decreased most of the secondary metabolites such as phenylpropanoids, polyamines, and alkaloids. The water supply effect was minor. We demonstrated that different nutrient conditions of soil resulted in a difference in metabolic composition in tomato fruits and the effect of red light was variable depending on nutrient conditions.
... Seedlings cultivated under supplementary light are robust and have good resistance to adversity; moreover, the fruit quality of these plants is improved at the harvest stage (Lu et al., 2012). Studies also show that LED lighting application increases the resistance of strawberry to Botrytis cinerea and cucumber to root knot nematodes; it can also increase the stress resistance of gourd seedlings and pomegranate saplings (Meng et al., 2018;Khan and Siddiqui, 2021). ...
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Adverse environmental conditions, such as low temperature (LT), greatly limit the growth and production of tomato. Recently, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with specific spectra have been increasingly used in horticultural production facilities. The chosen spectrum can affect plant growth, development, and resistance, but the physiological regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of LED light supplementation (W:B = 2:1, light intensity of 100 μmol⋅m–2⋅s–1, for 4 h/day from 9:00 to 13:00) from above and below the canopy on tomato resistance under sub-LT stress (15/8°C). The results showed that supplemental lighting from underneath the canopy (USL) promoted the growth of tomato seedlings, as the plant height, stem diameter, root activity, and plant biomass were significantly higher than those under LT. The activity of the photochemical reaction center was enhanced because of the increase in the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and photochemical quenching (qP), which distributed more photosynthetic energy to the photochemical reactions and promoted photosynthetic performance [the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax) was improved]. USL also advanced the degree of stomatal opening, thus facilitating carbon assimilation under LT. Additionally, the relative conductivity (RC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were decreased, while the soluble protein content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were increased with the application of USL under LT, thereby causing a reduction in membrane lipid peroxidation and alleviation of stress damage. These results suggest that light supplementation from underneath the canopy improves the cold resistance of tomato seedlings mainly by alleviating the degree of photoinhibition on photosystems, improving the activity of the photochemical reaction center, and enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, thereby promoting the growth and stress resistance of tomato plants.
... profile, being this associated with mutual shading (De Pascale et al., 2012). In greenhouse cultivation, light turns out to be a limiting factor, most specifically for the lower part of the canopy (Lu et al., 2012a;Tewolde et al., 2016;Jiang et al., 2017). ...
Article
In recent years, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have experienced a wide increase in their employment for protected horticulture in Northern Europe, offering the possibility to enhance plant growth under controlled environmental facilities. Light is an important source of energy for plant development and, therefore, the lack of a proper supply of sunlight can be a drawback which can lead to a decrease in the plant yield. Supplemental LED interlighting can prevent light shortage by providing plants with the needed radiative fluxes. In this study, the effects of supplemental LED interlighting on vegetative growth, fruit growth, yield, fruit quality and physiological traits of high-wire tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Siranzo’) during the spring season were addressed. Tomato plants were grown under hydroponic conditions in an environmentally controlled commercial greenhouse. Two treatments were applied, including a control relying on solar radiation only and an illuminated treatment, where plants were supplied with supplementary LED interlighting system consisting of blue and red diodes (RB ratio of 3), whose peak wavelength were 465 and 669 nm, respectively. Interlighting lamps were placed at 2 m height within the canopy and supplied 170 µmol m‑2 s‑1 light at 30 cm distance from the lamp for 16 h day-1. Weekly measurements highlighted greater vegetative and fruit growth, yield and physiological parameters when supplementary lighting was provided. The research explores the sustainability of supplemental LED interlighting in Mediterranean high-tech greenhouse tomato production.
... Under such illumination, the lighting systems give light to the middle and bottom canopy, which can lead to higher whole plant photosynthesis and better crop productivity. Many studies have shown that supplemental lighting within the canopy can enhance yield of crop plants [42][43][44]. A previous study assessed the possibility to increase cannabis yield by sub-canopy LED lights, and the results showed a 5% increase in THCA + THC concentrations, but not other cannabinoids, as well as a 13-17% increase in inflorescence yield [22]. ...
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Since plant organs sense their environment locally, gradients of micro-climates in the plant shoot may induce spatial variability in the physiological state of the plant tissue and hence secondary metabolism. Therefore, plant architecture, which affects micro-climate in the shoot, may considerably affect the uniformity of cannabinoids in the Cannabis sativa plant, which has significant pharmaceutical and economic importance. Variability of micro-climates in plant shoots intensifies with the increase in plant size, largely due to an increase in inter-shoot shading. In this study, we therefore focused on the interplay between shoot architecture and the cannabinoid profile in large cannabis plants, ~2.5 m in height, with the goal to harness architecture modulation for the standardization of cannabinoid concentrations in large plants. We hypothesized that (i) a gradient of light intensity along the plants is accompanied by changes to the cannabinoid profile, and (ii) manipulations of plant architecture that increase light penetration to the plant increase cannabinoid uniformity and yield biomass. To test these hypotheses, we investigated effects of eight plant architecture manipulation treatments involving branch removals, defoliation, and pruning on plant morpho-physiology, inflorescence yield, cannabinoid profile, and uniformity. The results revealed that low cannabinoid concentrations in inflorescences at the bottom of the plants correlate with low light penetration, and that increasing light penetration by defoliation or removal of bottom branches and leaves increases cannabinoid concentrations locally and thereby through spatial uniformity, thus supporting the hypotheses. Taken together, the results reveal that shoot architectural modulation can be utilized to increase cannabinoid standardization in large cannabis plants, and that the cannabinoid profile in an inflorescence is an outcome of exogenous and endogenous factors.
... Future studies are needed to check whether daylighting decreases or exacerbates candlepower gradients. Inter-lighting by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) improved common shading of tomatoes at elevated planting compactness and better tomato production by 12-14% compared to the control [8]. Ceiling lighting combined with intra-canopy lighting with HPS lamps improved cucumber production in the tightrope crop drive arrangement by 11% measured to usual ceiling lighting [10] (Fig. 6). ...
Conference Paper
Abstract:The growing world population requires the maximization of food production per unit area. A vertical system can meet this need. this technique uses stacked grow beds with artificial lighting and an automatic irrigation system to significantly eliminate water and nutrient loss. The addition of polyhouse to the system makes it possible to grow factories at high altitude, thereby minimizing transportation and overall cost. this system are often wont to produce most sorts of crops, from ornamentals to high altitude plants and grasses. The extensive recycling of nutrients makes the implementation of this agricultural technique sustainable and profitable. it's perfect for the urban population where agricultural land is shrinking and therefore the scarcity of beverage is increasing day by day.
... Although an overhead lighting supply may be preferred by growers due to both its easy installation in greenhouses and reduced labor requirements for crop management (Gunnlaugsson and Adalsteinsson, 2005), intracanopy lighting can increase light interception within a canopy, enhance light use efficiency thanks to better lighting distribution and maintain the photosynthetic capacities of lower leaves (Trouwborst et al., 2011). The efficacy of intracanopy lighting on tomato production has already been ascertained by using HPS and fluorescent lamps (Gunnlaugsson and Adalsteinsson, 2005;Lu et al., 2012a), although its feasibility for technological uptake emerged only after the introduction of low-surface-temperature LEDs (Hao et al., 2012;Guo et al., 2016). In our research, the majority of considered trials applied intracanopy LED lighting alone, sometimes combined with overhead HPS lamps. ...
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Intensive growing systems used for greenhouse tomato production, together with light interception by cladding materials or other devices, may induce intracanopy mutual shading and create suboptimal environmental conditions for plant growth. There are a large number of published peer-reviewed studies assessing the effects of supplemental light-emitting diode (LED) lighting on improving light distribution in plant canopies, increasing crop yields and producing qualitative traits. However, the research results are often contradictory, as the lighting parameters (e.g., photoperiod, intensity, and quality) and environmental conditions vary among conducted experiments. This research presents a global overview of supplemental LED lighting applications for greenhouse tomato production deepened by a meta-analysis aimed at answering the following research question: does supplemental LED lighting enhance the yield and qualitative traits of greenhouse truss tomato production? The meta-analysis was based on the differences among independent groups by comparing a control value (featuring either background solar light or solar + HPS light) with a treatment value (solar + supplemental LED light or solar + HPS + supplemental LED light, respectively) and included 31 published papers and 100 total observations. The meta-analysis results revealed the statistically significant positive effects (p-value < 0.001) of supplemental LED lighting on enhancing the yield (+40%), soluble solid (+6%) and ascorbic acid (+11%) contents, leaf chlorophyll content (+31%), photosynthetic capacity (+50%), and leaf area (+9%) compared to the control conditions. In contrast, supplemental LED lighting did not show a statistically significant effect on the leaf stomatal conductance (p-value = 0.171). In conclusion, in addition to some partial inconsistencies among the considered studies, the present research enables us to assert that supplemental LED lighting ameliorates the quantitative and qualitative aspects of greenhouse tomato production.
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