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Chemical Constituents Analysis and Antidiabetic Activity Validation of Four Fern Species from Taiwan

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Abstract

Pterosins are abundant in ferns, and pterosin A was considered a novel activator of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which is crucial for regulating blood glucose homeostasis. However, the distribution of pterosins in different species of ferns from various places in Taiwan is currently unclear. To address this question, the distribution of pterosins, glucose-uptake efficiency, and protective effects of pterosin A on β-cells were examined. Our results showed that three novel compounds, 13-chloro-spelosin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), (3R)-Pterosin D 3-O-β-d-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (2), and (2R,3R)-Pterosin L 3-O-β-d-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (3), were isolated for the first time from four fern species (Ceratopteris thalictroides, Hypolepis punctata, Nephrolepis multiflora, and Pteridium revolutum) along with 27 known compounds. We also examined the distribution of these pterosin compounds in the mentioned fern species (except N. multiflora). Although all pterosin analogs exhibited the same effects in glucose uptake assays, pterosin A prevented cell death and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This paper is the first report to provide new insights into the distribution of pterosins in ferns from Taiwan. The potential anti-diabetic activity of these novel phytocompounds warrants further functional studies.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 2497-2516; doi:10.3390/ijms16022497
International Journal of
Molecular Sciences
ISSN 1422-0067
www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms
Article
Chemical Constituents Analysis and Antidiabetic Activity
Validation of Four Fern Species from Taiwan
Chen-Yu Chen 1,2, Fu-Yu Chiu 3, Yenshou Lin 3, Wei-Jan Huang 1,2, Po-Shiuan Hsieh 4,†
and Feng-Lin Hsu 1,2,†,*
1 College of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wuxing St., Taipei 110,
Taiwan; E-Mails: d301097006@tmu.edu.tw (C.-Y.C.); wjhuang@tmu.edu.tw (W.-J.H.)
2 Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University,
250 Wuxing St., Taipei 110, Taiwan
3 Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, No. 162, Sec. 1, Heping E. Rd.,
Taipei 106, Taiwan; E-Mails: richisland0418@gmail.com (F.-Y.C.);
yenshoulin@ntnu.edu.tw (Y.L.)
4 Department of Physiology and Biophysics, National Defense Medical Center, No. 161, Sec. 6,
Minquan E. Rd., Taipei 114, Taiwan; E-Mail: pshsieh@mail.ndmctsgh.edu.tw
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: hsu0320@tmu.edu.tw;
Tel.: +886-2-2736-1661 (ext. 6132); Fax: +886-2-2737-0903.
Academic Editor: Chang Won Choi
Received: 25 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 22 January 2015
Abstract: Pterosins are abundant in ferns, and pterosin A was considered a novel activator
of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which is crucial for regulating
blood glucose homeostasis. However, the distribution of pterosins in different species
of ferns from various places in Taiwan is currently unclear. To address this question,
the distribution of pterosins, glucose-uptake efficiency, and protective effects of pterosin A
on β-cells were examined. Our results showed that three novel compounds, 13-chloro-spelosin
3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (3R)-Pterosin D 3-O-β-D-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside
(2), and (2R,3R)-Pterosin L 3-O-β-D-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (3), were isolated
for the first time from four fern species (Ceratopteris thalictroides, Hypolepis punctata,
Nephrolepis multiflora, and Pteridium revolutum) along with 27 known compounds.
We also examined the distribution of these pterosin compounds in the mentioned fern
species (except N. multiflora). Although all pterosin analogs exhibited the same effects
OPEN ACCESS
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2498
in glucose uptake assays, pterosin A prevented cell death and reduced reactive oxygen
species (ROS) production. This paper is the first report to provide new insights into
the distribution of pterosins in ferns from Taiwan. The potential anti-diabetic activity
of these novel phytocompounds warrants further functional studies.
Keywords: pterosin; reactive oxygen species (ROS); rat pancreatic insulin-secreting
(RINm5F) cells
1. Introduction
Ferns are a group of approximately 12,000 species belonging to the botanical group known
as Pteridophyta. Certain fern species are consumed as food or as folk medicine in several countries
to treat various ailments. Ferns primarily contain flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, steroids, and triterpenoids;
exhibit various bioactivities such as antibacterial, antiosteoporosis, and anti-Alzheimer’s disease
activity; and possess hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic activities [1]. Therefore, ferns are a major
medicinal resource in ethnopharmacy.
Pterosin, sesquiterpenes with 1-indanone skeletons, were first isolated from the bracken fern
Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum (Pteridaceae) [2]. Approximately 31 pterosins have been isolated
from several fern species (Table S1) and exhibit anticancer, smooth-muscle relaxation, and leishmanicidal
activities [3]. Pterosin A was expressed against type 1 and type 2 diabetes in an animal model. In addition,
further research has indicated that pterosin A can promote glucose uptake, improve insulin sensitivity,
and enhance adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, which
regulates carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolisms [4]. Therefore, pterosin compounds may be useful
for treating metabolic disease in future studies.
Oxidative stress damages several cellular functions in the pathophysiology of various diseases.
Reportedly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced by macrophages and were responsible
for apoptosis or necrosis of insulin-secreting cells [5]. β-Cell compensation for insulin resistance occurs
by increased insulin secretion or cell mass, and lack of compensation causes glucose intolerance [6].
ROS production has been associated with β-cell dysfunction and cell death in both type 1 and type 2
diabetes [7]. Chronic exposure to long-chain saturated fatty acids is another major inducer of type 2
diabetes. Accelerated free fatty acid (FFA) production will promote oxidative process in mitochondria,
which may also enhance ROS production. Moreover, with an irregular protein synthesis rate,
the endoplasmic reticulum accumulates with increasing unfolded protein levels in the lumen, which
is associated with abnormal oxidation. Aggregated misfolding proteins may cause excess ROS
production, inducing gradual apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells [8].
AMPK is a cellular sensor that regulates energy and metabolic homeostasis; it activates in response
to increased ratio of AMP to adenosine triphosphate and calcium ion content. AMPK is a master
regulator in the physiology of several organs, regulating carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism.
AMPK activity primarily maintains the glucose content within the physiological range in various cells,
particularly β-cells [9]. However, increased AMPK activity can suppress insulin secretion to prevent
exhausted β-cells [10]. Impaired functional β-cell production after chronic compensation reduces
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2499
insulin secretion and AMPK activation, which may potentiate glycolipotoxicity-induced cell death [11].
Therefore, the AMPK pathway is crucial for regulating glucose homeostasis and is a major target
of therapy for type 2 diabetes.
However, the actual distribution and content of pterosin analogues in certain ferns from Taiwan
remains unclear. In the present study, we isolated 30 phytochemicals from four fern species:
Hypolepis punctata (Thumb.) Mett, Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn, Nephrolepis multiflora
(Roxb.) Jarret ex Morton and Pteridium revolutum (BI.) Nakai. Among these, 13-chloro-spelosin
3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (3R)-pterosin D 3-O-β-D-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (2),
and (2R,3R)-pterosin L 3-O-β-D-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (3) are novel compounds. Here we
describe the structural elucidations of 1, 2, and 3. These pterosin compounds were evaluated for their
antidiabetic activity. In addition, we developed and validated a sensitive and specific method involving
liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS) for analysis of these pterosins.
2. Results
2.1. Structural Elucidation
Fresh fern material from H. punctata, C. thalictroides, N. multiflora, and P. revolutum was
extracted using organic solvent. Repeated chromatography on silica gel and highly porous polymer
gel produced three new compounds (Figure 1) in addition to 27 known compounds, which were
determined by comparing their physicochemical and spectroscopic data with published reports.
Figure 1. Structures of Compounds 13.
Compound 1 was obtained as a colorless oil. The IR spectra at 1598 and 1697 cm1 indicated
the presence of a benzene ring and carbonyl group. Characteristic 1H-NMR spectra revealed signals
assignable to gem-dimethyl (δ 1.07, 1.61 (each 3H, s, H-10, 11)), two aromatic methyl groups at δ 2.50
(3H, s, H-15) and 2.73 (3H, s, H-14), one chloroethyl group (δ 3.93 (2H, m, H-13), 5.40 (1H, dd,
J = 5.4, 5.2 Hz, H-12)), one allylic oxygenated methylene at δ 4.84 (1H, s, H-3), and one aromatic
proton (δ 7.53 (1H, s, H-5)). In addition, the 1H-NMR shifts at δ 3.27–4.56 suggested one sugar
moiety. These signals indicated the presence of a pteroside skeleton. On the basis of the correlation
spectroscopy (COSY) and heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) spectra, the glycosidic
moieties were assigned as a glucopyranose. The configuration of the anomeric position (δ 4.56) was
confirmed as a β-configuration by the coupling constant (J = 7.7 Hz). The heteronuclear multiple bond
coherence (HMBC) correlations between glucopyranose H-1' and aglycone C-3 suggested that glucose
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2500
was substituted at C-3. Moreover, ESI-MS revealed isotopic [M + H]+ ion peaks at m/z 443/445, and
the molecular formula of Compound 1 was suggested as C21H29ClO8. A comparison of this aglycone
with spelosin [12] revealed an upfield shift of the C-13 spectra; thus, the chlorine group was attached
at C-13. Acid hydrolysis of 1 gave the aglycone and glucopyranose, rescpectively, and their structures
were confirmed by comparison of the 13C-NMR spectra with those of references. The absolute
configuration of aglycone was determined by the specific rotation with a value of [α]D24 + 82.6 (c = 0.7,
MeOH) similar to that of spelosin ([α]D22 + 83.3 (c = 0.7, MeOH)) [12]. Consequently, Compound 1 was
determined as 13-chloro-spelosin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside.
The molecular formula of Compound 2 was C30H36O10Na, as determined from HR-ESI-MS
m/z 556.2312 [M + Na]+. The 1H-NMR showed gem-dimethyl at δ 1.08 (3H, s, H-10), 1.29 (3H, s,
H-11), two aromatic methyl groups at δ 2.46 (3H, s, H-15) and 2.63 (3H, s, H-14), two coupled
methylenes of a hydroxyethyl group (δ 3.30 (2H, t, J = 7.7 Hz, H-12) and 3.60 (2H, t, J = 7.7 Hz,
H-13)), one allylic oxygenated methylene at δ 4.85 (1H, s, H-3), and one aromatic protons (δ 7.57 (1H,
s, H-5)) for a pterosin D skeleton, along with a p-coumaroyl group (δ 6.40 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz),
δ 7.66 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz), δ 6.80 (2H, d, J = 8.4 Hz), and δ 7.46 (2H, d, J = 8.4 Hz)), except
for the presence of sugar signals. According to the COSY and HMQC spectra, the glycosidic moiety
was assigned as a glucopyranose. The HMBC correlation between glucopyranose H-1' and aglycone
C-3 suggested that glucose was substituted at C-3 of pterosin D. A comparison of the 1H-NMR spectra
for Compound 2 with (3R)-pterosin D 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside revealed a downfield shift of H-3'
(δ 5.12) of the glucose moiety, which supported together with the HMBC signal H-3'/C-9" the linkage
of the p-coumaroyl group to C-3' (Figure 2). Comparison of the specific rotation of pterosin D
([α]D24 + 4.8 (c = 0.5, MeOH)), which was obtained by acid hydrolysis of 2, with that of previously
isolated (3R)-pterosin D ([α]D22 + 5 (c = 0.35, MeOH)) [12] led to the (3R)-configuration of 2.
Additionally, based on the result of NOESY correlation of H-10/H-3 and H-11/H-1', the absolute
configuration of 2 was suggested to be the same as that of (3R)-pterosin D. Accordingly, Compound 2
was identified as (3R)-pterosin D 3-O-β-D-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside.
Figure 2. HMBC (heteronuclear multiple bond coherence) correlations for Compound 2.
The molecular formula of Compound 3 was determined as C30H36O11Na m/z 572.2263 [M + Na]+
by HR-ESI-MS. The 1H- and 13C-NMR data (Table 1) were similar to those of Compound 2, except for
the one hydroxymethyl group at H-2 of the 1-indanone skeleton. Compound 3 revealed a p-coumaroyl
moiety, a glucopyranose unit, and pterosin L as determined by the NMR data [12]. From the HMBC
data, the correlation of H-3 with anomeric carbon (C-1') suggested that glucose was substituted at C-3
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2501
of pterosin L. In addition, the substantial downfield shift of H-3' indicated the connection site
of the coumaroyl group. The HMBC correlation demonstrated that the H-3' linkage was located
at the conjugated carbonyl of p-coumaroyl. Acid hydrolysis of 3 yielded pterosin L, p-coumaric acid,
and glucopyranose. The optical rotation of pterosin L with a value of [α]D24 + 19.5 (c = 1.1, MeOH)
were consistent with literature values ([α]D22 + 20 (c = 0.25, MeOH)) [12]. Thus, Compound 3
was structurally elucidated as (2R,3R)-pterosin L 3-O-β-D-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside.
Table 1. 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra for compounds 1, 2 and 3.
Position 1 2 3
δH (J in Hz) δC δH (J in Hz) δC δH (J in Hz) δC
1 211.1 211.3 207.9
2 52.8 52.6 55.9
3 4.84, s 86.0 4.85, s 86.5 4.74, s 84.1
4 153.1 151.8 145.2
5 7.53, s 128.0 7.57, s 126.8 7.54, s 125.0
6 146.0 146.2 136.5
7 140.2 138.3 132.3
8 139.0 138.6 137.2
9 131.5 130.9 131.3
10 1.07, s 22.7 1.08, s 22.0 1.22, s 17.2
11 1.61, s 22.2 1.29, s 22.8 3.56, m 65.7
12 5.40, dd (5,4, 5.2) 71.9 3.30, t (7.7) 33.1 3.00, t (7.7) 31.7
13 3.93, m 47.8 3.60, t (7.7) 61.6 3.58, t (7.7) 60.2
14 2.73, s 15.1 2.63, s 14.1 2.65, s 12.7
15 2.50, s 22.0 2.46, s 21.4 2.47, s 20.0
1' 4.56, d (7.7) 105.9 4.70, d (7.7) 105.8 4.64, d (7.9) 104.3
2' 3.27–3.43, m 75.3 3.00–4.00, m 73.8 3.00–4.00, m 72.2
3' 3.27–3.43, m 78.2 3.00–4.00, m 79.1 3.00–4.00, m 77.3
4' 3.27–3.43, m 71.7 3.00–4.00, m 69.9 3.00–4.00, m 68.4
5' 3.27–3.43, m 78.0 3.00–4.00, m 77.9 3.00–4.00, m 76.7
6' 3.72–3.75, m 62.9 3.72–3.93, m 62.5 3.70–3.80, m 60.9
1" 127.3 125.9
2",6" 7.46, d (8.4) 131.1 7.50, d (8.6) 129.7
3",5" 7.64, d (8.4) 116.8 6.80, d (8.6) 115.4
4" 161.2 159.9
7" 7.66, d (15.8) 146.6 7.67, d (16.0) 144.9
8" 6.40, d (15.8) 115.6 6.41, d (16.0) 114.1
9" 169.1 167.6
2.2. LC-MS-MS of Pterosins A, I, and Z
We analyzed the isolated pterosins by LC–MS–MS. Figure 3 presents the MRM and daughter ion
chromatograms obtained for analyzing the pterosin mixture of the analytes.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2502
Figure 3. LC–MS–MS chromatography of pterosins. (A) High-performance liquid
chromatography of pterosins A, I, and Z and piromidic acid (internal standard);
(B) Multiple reaction monitoring chromatography corresponding to the LC–MS–MS
analyses of pterosins and piromidic acid and (C) daughter ion chromatograms.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2503
Fragmentation patterns of the precursor ions were observed for pterosins (A, Z, and I) when these
were analyzed using ESI with a triple quadrupole MS. After CID, the [M + H]
+
of the aforementioned
pterosins produced a major fragment ion at m/z 249.43, 233.36, and 247.41, respectively. Each [M + H]
+
pterosin of the parent ion was screened based on the first paragraph. The cleavage fragments (daughter
ions) were detected by a second mass analysis. Pterosins of daughter ion mass spectra revealed
collision energies of 18 eV (pterosin A and I) and 28 eV (pterosin Z) (Figure 4). Each of the three
components exhibited fractured fragments, and the relative strength of the various peaks of fragments
can be used to identify the features of the constituents.
Figure 4. First mass scan analysis and daughter ion mass spectra of three pterosins:
(A) pterosin A; (B) pterosin Z; and (C) pterosin I.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2504
2.3. Biology Activity
2.3.1. Pterosins Increased Cellular Uptake of Glucose
We investigated the glucose uptake activities of pterosins in C2C12 myocytes based on the
2-deoxyglucose uptake levels after a 20-min treatment with 1 µM of the aforementioned pterosin
compounds. 2-Hydroxypterosin C and (2S,3S)-pterosin C significantly increased glucose uptake
(p < 0.01), as indicated by the mild elevation with pterosins A, I, and Z (p < 0.05) (Figure 5).
Figure 5. Effects of the isolated pterosins on glucose uptake in C2C12 myocytes. The cells
were treated with the test compounds (1 μM) and 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose was added
to determine the glucose uptake activity. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.005, *** p < 0.001.
2.3.2. Pterosin A Protected H2O2-induced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) through Adenosine
Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation
The generation of ROS, including hydroxyl radicals (·OH), H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2),
and the concomitant formation of NO was associated with β-cell dysfunction and cell death [7].
The RINm5f β-cells were incubated with various concentrations of pteroisn A with and without 40 μM
H2O2; subsequently, the cell viability and ROS levels were determined using MTT and NBT assays,
respectively. Pterosin A exhibited a mild protective effect through H2O2-induced cell death,
and the scavenging capacity effect of ROS was dose-dependent (Figure 6A,B); therefore, pterosin A
may, as an antioxidant, reduce oxidative stress-induced cell death in β-cells.
Pterosin A was found to be a novel AMPK activator. In addition, AMPK phosphorylation inhibits
NO-induced apoptosis [13]. Therefore, we examined the protective effects of pterosin A on cells
through AMPK activation. The AMPK activation was more substantial with H2O2 pretreatment than
that with pterosin A or H2O2 alone (Figure 6C); however, Compound C attenuated the protective
effects of pterosin A on H2O2-induced oxidative stress (Figure 6D). Thus, the cytoprotective effects
of pterosin A might be partially mediated through AMPK activation.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Glucose uptake
(Fold of control)
*
**
***
**
(1 μM)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2505
Figure 6. Pterosin A protected against H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cell
damage through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation.
(A) RINm5f cells were treated with 40 μM H2O2 for 2 h and then incubated with various
doses of pterosin A for 18 h; (B) The cells were coincubated with H2O2 (40 μM)
and various doses of pterosin A for 18 h. The ROS levels were determined using an NBT
assay; (C) Cell viability on incubation with H2O2 with and without pterosin A (100 μM)
and Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) for 2 h; (D) The cells were incubated with H2O2
for 2 h and exposed to pterosin A, followed by western blot analysis of phospho-T172
AMPK and total AMPK levels. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p < 0.05.
2.3.3. AMPK Activation Avoided Palmitate-Induced Lipotoxicity by Pterosin A
H2O2 is produced by oxidative stress, which may result from excess glucose or lipid intake.
In the present study, the RINm5f β-cells were pretreated with Compound C before incubation
with palmitate and pterosin A cotreatment. Cell viability decreased with antioxidant palmitate,
and palmitate with Compound C also reduced cell viability, but this diminished cell viability was
dose-dependently reversed by pterosin A (Figure 7A,B). Pterosin A dose-dependently enhanced
the AMPK phosphorylation in the palmitate-stimulated β-cells by at least 24 h (Figure 7C). Therefore,
pterosin A might play a protective role in reducing lipotoxicity-induced cell death in β-cells through
AMPK activation.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2506
Figure 7. Effects of pterosin A on palmitate-induced lipotoxicity and AMPK expression
in RINm5F cells. (A) Cell viability on cotreatment with various doses of pterosin A and
palmitate (250 μM) for 24 h; (B) The cells were pretreated with Compound C (20 μM)
for 2 h, followed by cotreatment with plamitate (250 μM) with and without pterosin A
for 24 h; (C) Western blot analysis of total and phospho-AMPK (A: 5-aminoimidazole-4-
carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) was used as a positive control). Data are presented
as mean ± SEM. * p < 0.05; *** p < 0.001.
2.3.4. Pterosin A Inhibition in Palmitate-Induced ROS Production
A recent study indicated that inhibition of ROS plays a protective role in palmitate-induced
β-cell apoptosis [14]. We assessed ROS generation by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA)
staining in β-cells. The palmitate-treated RINm5f cells revealed increased ROS levels at 24 h
(Figure 8). Moreover, pterosin A revealed a dose-dependent reduction in ROS production.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2507
Figure 8. Effects of pterosin A on palmitate-induced ROS in RINm5F cells. The cells
were exposed to various doses of pterosin A with palmitate (250 μM) (A: AICAR was
used as a positive control). Fluorescent microscopy to determine the ROS levels
by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining (original magnification 200×),
Hoechst staining of nuclei.
3. Discussion
Pterosins comprise a large group of sesquiterpenes, and these compounds occur widely
in the Dennstaediaceae and Pteridaceae families. We isolated the seasonal variations of pterosins
compounds and other components from four fern species, including nine pterosins, five pterosides,
six lignans, three flavonoids, six phenolics, and one carbohydrate, along with photochemicals from
C. thalictroides and N. multiflora. In addition, Compounds 21 to 23 were identified for the first time
in H. punctata. Moreover, seven compounds (Compounds 10 to 12, 14, and 25 to 27) were identified
in P. revolutum for the first time. Furthermore, the results revealed that the distributions of the pterosin
compounds and pterosin A in the three aforementioned species (H. punctata, C. thalictroide,
and P. revolutum), except N. multiflora (Nephrolepdiaceae), were higher than the corresponding
distributions of the other pterosin analogs (Table S2). Several previous studies have isolated several
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2508
triterpenes and steroids from Nephrolepdiaceae [15]. These findings clearly indicated the presence
of nonpterosin-type components in N. multiflora.
However, whether pterosin A has protective effects on pancreatic β-cells against oxidative stress
remains unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the possible beneficial effects of pterosin A
on cell survival and ROS production in insulin-secreting cells subjected to oxidative stress
or lipotoxicity. In this study, pterosin A effectively reduced the ROS-induced cell damage in the
insulin-secreting cells through the AMPK signaling pathway. Reportedly, pancreatic abnormal glucose
metabolism and long-term treatment with FFA can cause defects in mitochondrial function and gradual
increase of ROS production, which leads to β-cell dysfunction [16–18]. We observed that pterosin A
could not reverse the ROS-reduced cell viability but could reduce ROS production. Additional studies
focused on detecting the activity of antioxidant enzymes under pterosin A treatment may be required
to confirm this indication.
In the present study, pterosin A protected cells against oxidative stress or lipotoxicity-induced
damage through AMPK activation. Cotreatment with Compound C inhibited the AMPK activation
and eliminated the protective effects of pterosin A on cell viability, with consequent cell injury
induced by palmitate or H2O2. AMPK activation exhibited positive effects on the functional
impairment and cell mass of β-cells because of glucotoxicity [13]. Tuberous sclerosis complex 2
(TSC2), downstream of AMPK, can protect against cell death through various signal pathways that
regulate cell size, translation, and apoptosis in adverse growth environments [19]. In addition, AMPK
activity may be useful to promote the physiological functions of β-cells. Therefore, the protective
effects of pterosin A against oxidative damage through AMPK activation presented in our preliminary
data may be explained by the aforementioned mechanisms; however, further research is required
to confirm these findings.
As described previously, pterosin A is a major compound of pterosins that has antidiabetic
and protective effects against β-cell damage. Therefore, pterosin A may be used as a lead compound
in the development of drugs for type 2 diabetes. However, the impaired glucose transport in skeletal
muscles observed in patients with type 2 diabetes was considered as a major factor responsible
for reduced overall glucose uptake in the body [20]. Both insulin stimulation [21] and AMPK
activation [22] enhance glucose uptake. In addition, AMPK activation is insulin independent.
Moreover, a previous study demonstrated that pterosin A increased the glucose uptake in skeletal
muscle cells [4]. In the present study, we screened other pterosin-type compounds to determine
whether these pterosins analogs promoted glucose uptake as well, and these pterosins exhibited
the same effects in the glucose uptake assays. These findings indicate that pterosins influence various
biological processes.
Only few studies have investigated the ptaquiloside content in the products of milk, soil,
and groundwater [23] but never the pterosin detection methods. LC-MS-MS is a powerful technique
with extremely high sensitivity and selectivity and is thus useful in various applications.
In our previous study, we investigated the concentrations of pterosins A, I, and Z present in various
fern samples collected from H. punctata, C. thalictroide, and P. revolutum which revealed the same
effects in glucose uptake assays. Therefore, the present study is the first to establish an LC–MS–MS
method to determine three compounds: pteroisns A, I, and Z. In addition, the present study proposed
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2509
a method for pterosin detection that presented a clear separation on chromatograms, indicating that this
method may be useful to determine the pterosin content in ferns in Taiwan.
4. Experimental Section
4.1. Chemicals and Reagents
RPMI-1640 and Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) were purchased from
Gibco-BRL-Life Technologies (Grand Island, NY, USA); fetal bovine serum from Thermo Scientific
(South Logan, UT, USA); (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) MTT, H2O2,
nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (NBT), and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) from Sigma
Chemical Company (St. Louis, MO, USA); 6-[4-[2-(1-Piperidinyl)ethoxy]phenyl]-3-(4-pyridinyl)-
pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine dihydrochloride (Compound C) from Tocris Bioscience (Bristol, UK);
antibodies for phospho-AMPK-α (Thr172) and total AMPK from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly,
MA, USA); and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antirabbit secondary antibody from Jackson
(West Grove, PA, USA). The solvents used for column chromatography, including methanol, i-PrOH,
n-BuOH, dichloromethane, chloroform, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, acetone, and formic acid,
were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany).
4.2. General Experimental Procedures
The optical rotations were measured using a JASCO P-2000 polarimeter. Infrared (IR) spectra were
measured using an Avatar-320-FT-IR spectrometer. In addition, 1D and 2D NMR spectra were
obtained by using a Bruker AM-500 (500 MHz) FT-NMR spectrometer with tetramethylsilane
as an internal standard. A VG Platform Electrospray mass spectrometer was used for high-resolution
electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). Column chromatography involved the use
of Diaion HP 20 (100–200 mesh, Mitsubishi Chemical Industries, Tokyo, Japan), MCI-gel CHP 20P
(75–150 μm, Mitsubishi Chemical Industries, Japan), and Cosmosil C18-OPN (75 μm, Nacalai
Tesque, Kyoto, Japan). Thin-layer chromatography involved silica gel plates (70–230 mesh, Merck),
in which a 10% sulfuric acid solution was used as a visualizing agent during heating.
4.3. Plant Material
H. punctata, C. thalictroides, N. multiflora, and P. revolutum were collected from Hehuan
Mountain, Sun Lake, Jinquashi, and Siyuan Wind Gap, Taiwan, respectively, and were identified
by Chen-Meng Kuo (Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, National Taiwan University,
Taiwan). Voucher specimens were deposited at the Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College
of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University.
4.4. Extraction and Isolation
(1) C. thalictroides (L.) Brongn: Fresh whole plants (50 kg) were extracted three times with MeOH
at room temperature. The MeOH extract (490 g) was partitioned between with n-hexane/H2O
and EtOAc/H2O. The EtOAc fraction (265.7 g) was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 with 95%
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2510
EtOH to yield four fractions (CT1–4). The fraction CT1 (30 g) was further applied to MCI gels with
an H2O-MeOH gradient to yield caffeic acid methyl ester [24] (15, 11.7 mg), quercetin
3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside [25] (22, 174.2 mg), and kaempherol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside [25]
(23, 356.9 mg). The CT2 (20 g) fraction was chromatographed on an MCI-gel CHP 20P with
an H2O-MeOH gradient to produce CT2.1–2.5; subsequently, each subfraction was further purified
on silica gel with a CH2Cl2-MeOH gradient and a reverse-C18 silica gel column with an H2O–MeOH
gradient to yield p-coumaric acid [24] (16, 23.8 mg) and p-coumaric acid methyl ester [24]
(17, 7.5 mg). The CT3 (20 g) fraction was chromatographed on silica gel with a CH2Cl2–MeOH
gradient to produce pterosin A [26] (6, 6 mg) and pterosin Z [27] (7, 3.5 mg). The CT4 (30 g) fraction
was repeatedly chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 with an H2O–MeOH gradient to produce
CT4.1–4.4; subsequently, each subfraction was further purified on silica gel with a CH2Cl2–MeOH
gradient to yield Compound 1 (3.6 mg), Compound 2 (2 mg), Compound 3 (3 mg), pterosin D
3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside [27] (4, 38 mg), pteroside Z [28] (5, 14 mg), and 6-O-p-coumaroyl-D-
glucopyranoside [29] (18, 3.5 mg).
(2) H. punctata (Thumb.) Mett: Fresh whole plants (20 kg) were extracted three times with
MeOH at room temperature. The methanolic extract (1.2 kg) was evaporated and partitioned using
n-hexane/H2O to yield n-hexane (350 g) and water fractions. The water fraction was further partitioned
using EtOAc/H2O to obtain EtOAc (230 g) and water fractions (640 g). The EtOAc fraction
was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 with an H2O–MeOH gradient to yield HP factions 1 to 3.
The HP-2 (35.6 g) fraction was subfractionated to HP2.1–2.3 on MCI gels with an H2O–MeOH
gradient. The HP2.2 fractions were purified using a silica gel column with n-hexane–EtOAc (3:1
to 2:1) to yield pterosin A [26] (6, 4 g), pterosin Z [27] (7, 2.3 g), pterosin D [27] (8, 50 mg),
and pterosin I [27] (9, 187 mg). The fraction HP1 (42 g) was chromatographed on a MCI-gel CHP 20P
with an H2O–MeOH gradient to produce subfractions HP1.1–1.5; each subfraction was then further
purified on silica gel with a CH2Cl2–MeOH gradient, Sephadex LH-20 with acetone, and a reverse-C18
silica gel column with an H2O–MeOH gradient to yield quercetin [30] (21, 1.2 g), quercetin
3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside [25] (22, 394 mg), and kaempherol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside [25] (23, 355 mg).
(3) N. multiflora (Roxb.) Jarret ex Morton: Fresh whole plants (20 kg) were extracted three times
with MeOH and then concentrated to a residue (460.8 g) under vacuum at 40 °C, dissolved in H2O,
and partitioned between n-hexane/H2O, EtOAc/H2O, and CH2Cl2/H2O to produce four layers.
The concentrated EtOAc extract (35.5 g) was subjected to column chromatography on a Sephadex
LH20 column and silica gel eluted with a CH2Cl2–MeOH gradient to produce kaempherol
3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside [25] (23, 23.6 mg), matairesinoside [31] (29, 15.8 mg), shikimic acid [32]
(19, 95.5 mg), ethyl shikimate [33] (20, 25 mg), and ethyl β-D-fructopyranoside [34] (30, 16.8 mg).
Subsequently, the CH2Cl2 fraction (22.1 g) was chromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 with 95% EtOH
to yield three fractions, which were further purified on silica gel and n-hexane-EtOAc along
with an MCI-gel column with an H2O–MeOH gradient to yield arctigenin [35] (24, 412.1 mg)
and arctiin [35] (28, 88 mg).
(4) P. revolutum (BI.) Nakai: Fresh whole plants (50 kg) were extracted with MeOH at room
temperature; after evaporation of the organic solvent, the extract was subjected to Celite CC sequential
elute with n-hexane, CH2Cl2, and MeOH to produce three fractions. The CH2Cl2 extract (151.1 g)
underwent column chromatography on the MCI gel eluted with an H2O–MeOH gradient to produce
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2511
three fractions. The PR1 (12.4 g) fraction was purified on silica gel (CH2Cl2/MeOH 14:1) to produce
three subfractions PR1–3. The PR1.1 (8.7 g) fraction was applied on silica gel (n-hexane/EtOAc 1:2)
and reverse-C18 silica gel (CH3CN/H2O 20:80–30:70) to produce pterosin A [26] (6, 238 mg),
(2R,3R)-pterosin L [12] (10, 179 mg), and pterosin G [36] (11, 73 mg). The PR1.2 (1.5 g) fraction
was then chromatographed on silica gel (n-hexane/EtOAc 1:2) and a reverse-C18 silica gel
(CH3CN/H2O 10:90) to produce 2-hydroxypterosin C [27] (12, 4.3 mg). The PR2 (4.8 g) fraction
was purified on silica gel (n-hexane/EtOAc 1:2) to produce eight fractions. The PR2.5 fraction was
further purified on silica gel with hexane–EtOAc to yield (2S,3S)-pterosin C [36] (13, 162 mg),
(2R,3S)-pterosin C [37] (14, 13 mg), balanophonin [38] (25, 45.3 mg), pinoresinol [39] (26, 251 mg),
and lariciresinol [40] (27, 7 mg).
13-Chloro-spelosin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1): colorless oil; [α]D25 + 9.08 (c = 1.0, MeOH);
IR (KBr) vmax : 3387, 1697, and 1598 cm1; UV (MeOH) λmax: 211, 227, and 311 nm; 1H- and
13C-NMR spectra (Table 1); HR-ESI-MS m/z: 445.1631 [M + H]+ (calcd. for C21H29ClO8, 445.1629).
(3R)-pterosin D 3-O-β-D-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (2): colorless oil; [α]D25 11.04
(c = 1.0, MeOH); IR (KBr) vmax: 3408, 2962, 1697, and 1603 cm1; UV (MeOH) λmax: 218, 260,
and 310 nm; 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra (Table 1); HR-ESI-MS m/z: 556.2312 [M + Na]+ (calcd.
for C30H36O11Na, 556.2308).
(2R,3R)-pterosin L 3-O-β-D-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (3): colorless oil; [α]D25 26.0
(c = 1.0, MeOH); UV (MeOH) λmax: 218, 260, and 310 nm; IR (KBr) vmax: 3419, 2931, 1695,
and 1605 cm1; 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra (Table 1); HR-ESI-MS m/z: 572.2263 [M + Na]+
(calcd. for C30H36O11Na, 572.2258).
Acid hydrolysis of compounds 13. Compounds 13 (2 mg) were treated with 2 N HCl in aqueous
MeOH (2 mL) for 4 h, and the reaction mixture was further extracted with EtOAc. The EtOAc
layer was removed in vacuo and the residue was passed through the silica gel with eluent of
n-hexane/EtOAc to yield 13-chloro-spelosin, (3R)-pterosin D and (2R,3R)-pterosin L, respectively.
The sugar was analyzed by silica gel TLC [i-PrOH–Me2CO–H2O (5:3:1)] comparison with
an authentic sample.
4.5. Pterosin Analysis by LC–MS–MS
Three pterosin compounds (pterosins A, I, and Z, 120 μg/mL and internal standard stock solution
(piromidic acid, 11.1 μg/mL) were prepared. Separation involved a reverse-phase C18 column
(Cosmosil MS-II, 3C18, 4.6 × 100 mm) under gradient elution. The mobile phase comprised a mixed
solvent system of acetonitrile/H2O/0.25% formic acid (A/B/C) at a 220-nm wavelength. The elution
conditions were maintained at 20/60/20 to 80/0/20 (A/B/C) for 0 to 25 min (linear gradient) and 80/0/20
(A/B/C) for 5 min, set at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min with a split ratio of 1:1 in a photodiode array
and a tandem mass spectrophotometer. ESI was used for operating the ion source in the positive mode,
which was monitored using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The source and desolvation
temperatures were set at 120 and 350 °C, respectively. The desolvation gas flow (N2) was 600 L/h,
and the cone gas flow (N2) was 60 L/h. The capillary and cone voltages were 3.0 kV and 80 V,
respectively. The collision energies were optimized for each compound. Qualitative analysis
was achieved by daughter ion analysis.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2512
4.6. Cell Culture
C2C12 myoblast and rat pancreatic insulin-secreting (RINm5F) cells were obtained from
the American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD, USA). The cells were maintained in DMEM
and RPMI-1640 medium at 37 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2.
4.7. Biological Validation
4.7.1. Determination of Glucose Uptake in C2C12 Myocytes
Glucose uptake was determined based on the uptake of the radioactive glucose analogue
2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) as described previously [41].
The C2C12 myocytes were washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and incubated in serum-free
DMEM and then treated with pterosin compounds (1 μM) at 37 °C for 1 h. The glucose uptake
was determined by adding 0.5 μCi 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose for 20 min. The reaction was terminated using
ice-cold PBS. After centrifugation, the cells were washed twice with ice-cold PBS to remove extrinsic
glucose and lysed with 0.1% SDS; the glucose uptake was then estimated using a scintillation counter.
4.7.2. Measurement of ROS and Cell Viability
ROS levels were determined by NBT analysis as described previously [42]. The cells were seeded
in 24-well plates at 2 × 105 cell/well and then treated with pterosin A at various doses and incubated
for 18 h. The absorbance was recorded at 630 nm. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay.
The RINm5F cells were seeded in 24-well plates at 2 × 105 cell/0.5 mL and grown for 3 days
for adherence. Subsequently, 50 μL of MTT solution (1 mg/mL in PBS) were added to each well
for 2 h at 37 °C. The medium was aspirated, and 200 μL of DMSO were added. After the formazan
product was dissolved, the absorbance at 570 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer.
4.7.3. Immunofluorescence Study
Intracellular oxidation was analyzed using a fluorometric assay with DCFH-DA. DCFH-DA
transports across the cell membrane and deacetylates by cellular esterases to nonfluorescent DCFH,
which quickly oxidizes to highly fluorescent DCF by ROS [43]. The RINm5F cells (3 × 105 cell/well
in 12 wells) were exposed to different treatments for varying durations after adhering for 3 days. In
total, 10 μM of DCFH-DA was added with no serum medium for 20 min. The cells were washed two
times with PBS and then subjected to DCF fluorescence by using fluorescence microscopy at 488-nm
excitation (argon laser) and 515-nm long-pass emission.
4.7.4. Western Blot Analysis
Total cellular proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto polyvinylidene difluoride
membranes for immunoblotting. Nonspecific binding was blocked using a blocking buffer containing
5% fat-free milk powder in Tris-buffered saline with 1% Tween-20 for 1 h at room temperature.
The lysates were incubated with monoclonal antibodies against phospho-AMPK and total AMPK.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 2513
The protein expression was determined using an enhanced chemiluminescence kit (Amersham
International, Amersham, UK).
4.8. Statistical Analysis
The significance of various treatments was determined by one-way analysis of variance. Data were
expressed as mean ± SEM. Statistically significant differences were considered at p < 0.05.
5. Conclusions
This paper reports the isolation of pterosin-type compounds (discovered in three fern species:
H. punctata, C. thalictroides, and P. revolutum), that have the same effects on glucose uptake assays
as known isolated pterosins. In addition, three new compounds were isolated from the C. thalictroides
fern. Moreover, the present study is the first to demonstrate that pterosin A has protective effects
on insulin secretion in cells against ROS- and palmitate-induced cell damage. We provide information
regarding these signals with pterosin-like UV spectra in the chromatographic system, which is vital to
determine the pterosin-type constituents in ferns.
Supplementary Materials
Supplementary materials can be found at http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/02/2947/s1.
Acknowledgments
We thank Hsien-Chang Chang for help in identifying the desired plant material. The authors
are grateful to Shu-Yun Sun (Taipei Regional Analytical Instrumentation Center, NSC) for measuring
the HR-ESI-MS spectra and Shwu-Hui Wang (Core Facility Center, Office of Research and
Development, Taipei Medical University) for measuring the NMR spectra.
Author Contributions
Feng-Lin Hsu designed the experiment and contributed to manuscript preparation; Chen-Yu Chen
carried out the experiment and wrote the manuscript; Wei-Jan Huang, Po-Shiuan Hsieh, Yenshou Lin
and Fu-Yu Chiu performed and analyzed the bioassay and LC-MS-MS.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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... Pharmacognosy. The plant extracts possess antibacterial [273], anti-inflammatory [274], antioxidative [275] and antidiabetic activities [276]. ...
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Ferns are used as traditional and fascinating foods in many countries. They are also considered to possess important ethnomedicinal values; however, ferns are one of the underutilized plant resources by both scientific and local communities. Pharmagonostical studies reveal that ferns and fern-allies possess several biological activities including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antimalarial, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, antifertility, etc. Flavonoids and terpenoids are major secondary metabolites present in ferns. Ugonins, particularly isolated from Helminthostachys zeylanica, have found diverse bioactivities. Ptaquiloside, a norsesquiterpene glucoside, found in Pteridium revolutum, Dryopteris cochleata and Polystichum squarrosum, is one of the hazardous metabolites of ferns which is responsible for the toxic effect. Alkaloids are reported to be present in the ferns; however, the qualitative data are uncertain. Some fern metabolites, such as cyanogenic glycosides and terpenoids, are considered to possess defensive activity against animal attacks. Some ferns are also used for manuring as biological alternative to pesticides. Nepalese have consumed at least 33 species of ferns and fern-allies belonging to 13 families, 20 genera as cooked vegetable foods. The aim of this review is compilation of information available on their distribution, ethnomecinal values, pharmcognosy, pharmacology and phytochemistry.
... The presence of active methylene hydrogens adjacent to the carbonyl group of indanone makes it important in condensation reactions or some organic transformations. 8 In recent years indanone derivatives with anticancer, 9 antibacterial, 10 antiviral, 11 anticonvulsant, 12 antimicrobial, 13 antidiabetic, 14 antimalarial, 15 anti-inflammatory 16 activities have been reported. Indanone derivatives also found useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's diseases, 17 as well as insecticidal in the agrochemical field. ...
... Indanone derivatives also found useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's diseases, 17 as well as insecticidal in the agrochemical field. 18 The structures of some biologically active 1-indanone derivatives 14,15,19 are depicted in Fig.-2. The combination of active scaffolds may offer a synergistic effect to improve therapeutic potential. ...
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A series of aryl pyrazole-indanone hybrids were synthesized by the Knoevenagel condensation of 5-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde 4 with various 1-indanones 5 at room temperature. The structural investigations were carried out with IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectral data. All the newly synthesized compounds were assessed for their anticancer and antimicrobial properties. Among the compounds screened 6d, 6e and 6f displayed moderate anticancer potential against MCF-7 (IC50 42.6-53.9 µM). On the other hand compounds 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d and 6g unveiled potent activity against S. aureus and compound 6c and 6b displayed moderate activity against E. coli.
... Presence of active methylene hydrogens adjacent to carbonyl group of indanone makes it important in condensation reactions or in some organic transformations [1,2]. In past few years, indanone derivatives have been reported to possess antimicrobial [3], antibacterial [4], antiviral [5], anticancer [6], vasodilation [7], anticonvulsant [8], anti-diabetic [9], antimalarial [10] and anti-inflammatory [11] activities. Indanone derivatives also found useful in the treatment of Alzheimer disease [12]. ...
... Pterosins isolated from methanolic extracts of bracken fern also exhibited glycophenotypic alterations in gastric mucose of mice (Gomes 2012). Finally, pterosin A was identified to be the most potent candidate for the treatment of diabetes (Hsu et al. 2013;Chen et al. 2015). Later, six other pterosins, i.e., [(2S)-pterosin A, (2R)-pterosin B, and transpterosin C and their associated glycosides, namely, (2S)-pteroside A, (2R)pteroside B, and pteroside Z] were assessed and found to have antidiabetic activity (Mohammad et al. 2016). ...
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The antidiabetic potentials of algae, bryophytes, and pteridophytes have been reviewed in this chapter. The aim was to provide a compilation as well as a ready reckoner of the available information for further exploitation. The pharmacological studies conducted with these plants and their bioactive compounds have been discussed. Various extracts of lichens, liverworts, and mosses, as well as a number of algae and pteridophytes and their bioactive compounds, were found to possess significant α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. Many of these also exhibited blood glucose lowering activities. These indicated the antidiabetic potential of these plants. The limitations of using these lower plants for commercial production of antidiabetic therapeutics and their future prospects have also been discussed.
... Safety, efficacy and fewer side effects are the reasons increased of the demand [1,2]. L. microphyllum are classified as pteridophytes and estimated about 10,500 to 11,300 species have been described and recorded in the tropical rain forest of Malaysia [3]. L. microphyllum was used as a traditional medicine with a different preparation for a different mode of uses. ...
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Objective: The antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of L. microphyllum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods: Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by injecting alloxan through intravenous (i. v) at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight. Aqueous extract of L. microphyllum at different doses (400, 200 and 100 mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally (orogastric intubation) for 14 d. Blood glucose and oxidative stress markers were measured. Hematoxylin and eosin staining method were used to examine the pancreatic tissues.Results: At the 14 d interval, fasting blood glucose showed a reduction in serum glucose levels in animals pretreated with L. microphyllum compared with alloxan alone treated group. Oxidative stress was noticed in rat’s pancreatic tissue as evidenced by a significant decrease in glutathione level, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and catalase activities. Malondialdehyde showed a significant increase compared to the normal saline-treated control group. Serum biochemistry and oxidative stress markers were consistent with the pancreatic histopathological studies. Treatment of diabetic rats with L. microphyllum at a dose level of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight leaves extract for 14 d significantly prevented these alterations and attenuated alloxan-induced oxidative stress (P<0.05).Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the antihyperglycemic potential of L. microphyllum might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Thus, it is concluded that L. microphyllum may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress.
Chapter
From Silurian period, pteridophytes exist in the nature and expected to harbour various useful secondary metabolites. By the presence of secondary metabolites, pteridophytes are able to survive for more than 450 million years and house various biological activities, viz. anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotectivity, wound healing, etc. The review intends to summarize the available biopotential of pteridophytes from 2000 to 2021. A total of 244 species are taken into account for the present review. This chapter recorded anti-oxidant potential (135), anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities (97), cytotoxic properties (61), anti-cancer activities (39), anti-inflammatory activities (26), anti-diabetic potential (23), hepatoprotective properties (9), wound healing potential (7) and larvicidal activities (6) of pteridophytes. We made an attempt to provide an update on the biopotential of pteridophytes. This review might be useful for the pteridologist, phytochemist and pharmacist for further research.
Chapter
Ferns are good resource of medication for a variety of infirmities. Even though they possess immense medicinal potential, ferns are less used as medicine compared to angiosperms. Medicinal properties of some ferns are mentioned in various ancient literatures by Theophrastus, Sushruta, Charaka, Dioscorides, etc. Information regarding few ferns used as drugs is available in pharmacopoeias of different countries. Ethnic communities all over the world use ferns for various ailments such as dysentery, malaria, stomach ache, urinary disorders, burns, etc. Ayurvedic, Homeopathic and Unani medicines utilise ferns for various medicinal preparations. Recently, many phytochemical and pharmacological studies of ferns are carried out by various workers, and information with respect to the bioactive components of important medicinal ferns is also available. The chapter delineates the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of ferns along with potential medicinal properties like antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancerous, etc. In addition to this, the chapter reviews various chemical compounds isolated and characterised from ferns and analyses future prospects of fern research.
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Dietary fern Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. (Athyriaceae family) has a wide range of biological properties, including that against diabetes mellitus. The current work was conducted to perform an in silico docking study of bioactive phytoconstituents from D. esculentum against a mutated protein of diabetes mellitus. Out of 16 reported phytoconstituents, five were identified and chosen based on meeting the Lipinski rule of 5. The drug-likeness score and side effects for the selected compounds were predicted using Molsoft L.L.C and ADVERPred databases. The pharmacokinetics and toxicological properties of the chosen phytoconstituents were predicted using the PreADMET online server tool. Further, a docking study was performed using the AutoDock tool and Vina to predict the binding affinity of the selected phytoconstituents with the mutated protein from the protein data bank. Pterosin B scored the highest drug-likeness score (0.58) in comparison to beta-ocimene, showing a negative score (− 1.63). Molecular docking experiments revealed that the ligands bind to the active site of the targeted protein and have good binding energy values. Ptaquiloside showed the highest binding affinity (− 7.2 kcal/mol) with the targeted protein, whereas beta-ocimene (− 5.0 kcal/mol) showed the least. Our findings indicated that screened phytochemicals in D. esculentum could be a potential therapeutic option against diabetes mellitus and need to be further investigated and confirmed with detailed in-vitro and in-vivo studies.Graphical abstract
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A new series of 2-[1-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-meth-(E)-ylidene]-indan-1-one derivatives (5a-l) have been synthesized through through the Knoevenagel condensation of pyrazole carbaldehydes with differently substituted 1-indanone derivatives in the presence of base. A high yielding and solvent-free method was developed for the synthesis of hydrazones from acetophenones under microwave irradiation in a very short reaction time. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were affirmed by IR, 1H & 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis. The confirmed structures were screened for their antibacterial potency against S. aureus and E. coli bacterial strains. Among the series, compounds 5b, 5c and 5f were evoked as potent antibacterial agents
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Bracken fern is carcinogenic when fed to domestic and laboratory animals inducing bladder and ileal tumours and is currently classified as a possible human carcinogen by IARC. The carcinogenic illudane, ptaquiloside (PTQ) was isolated from bracken fern and is widely assumed to be the major bracken carcinogen. However, several other structurally similar illudanes are found in bracken fern, in some cases at higher levels than PTQ and so may contribute to the overall toxicity and carcinogenicity of bracken fern. In this review, we critically evaluate the role of illudanes in bracken fern induced toxicity and carcinogenicity, the mechanistic basis of these effects including the role of DNA damage, and the potential for human exposure in order to highlight deficiencies in the current literature. Critical gaps remain in our understanding of bracken fern induced carcinogenesis, a better understanding of these processes is essential to establish whether bracken fern is also a human carcinogen.
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the chemical constituents of the two liverworts Dumortiera hirsute and Pallavicinia ambigua. METHODS: Chromatography was used to isolate and purify chemical constituents, and their structures were elucidated based on spectral evidence together with physiochemical properties. RESULTS: Five compounds were isolated from the two plants and identified as; ethyl shikimate (I) , 3, 4-O-isopropylideneshikimic acid (II), luteolin (III), 3-carboxy-6,7-dihydroxy-1-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-naphthalene (IV) and 3-carboxy- 6, 7-dihydroxy- 1- (3′,4′- dihydroxy- phenyl)-naphthalene-9, 5″-O-shikimic acid ester (V). CONCLUSION: Compound I is obtained for the first from natural sources while compound II is an artifact produced during the separation process; Compound W and V were isolated from the Pallaviciniaceae for the first time.
Article
From the fronds of Pteris bella, three new pterosin-type compounds, I, III and XI, were isolated along with pterosins B (VI), C (II), Q (VII) and T (IV), setulosopterosin (X), pterosin C 3-O-β-D-glucoside (IX) and pterosin Q 3-O-β-D-glucoside (VIII). From the fronds of Pteridium aquilinum subsp. wightianum, two new pterosin-type compounds, XVI and XVII, were isolated along with pterosins C (II), D (XVIII), F (XXII), H (XX), I (XXI) and Z (XIX) and astragalin (XXIII). The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and spectral data.
Article
The constituents of five Costa Rican ferns of Preridaceae were investigated. The ferns and isolated compounds are as follows. Acrostichum aureum : quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (I), ponasterone A (III). Neurocallis praestantissima : 2-deoxy-D-glucose (IV), 3, 6-anhydro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (V). Pteris podophylla : 6-(2-chloroethyl)-2 (S)-hydroxy-methyl-5, 7-dimethylindan-1-one (X), pterosin G (XI), kaempferol 3, 7-di-O-α-L-rhamnoside (II), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (VI), luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (VII). Pteris livida : pterosin C (VIII), pterosin S (IX), 9-hydroxy-15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oyl-β-D-glucoside (XII), 6β, 11β-dihydroxy-15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oyl-β-D-glucoside (XIII), 6β, 9-dihydroxy-15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oyl-β-D-glucoside (XIV), paniculoside III (XV), ptero-kaurene L1 (XVI), 11β-hydroxy-15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (XIX). Pteris altissima : VII, XI, XII, XIII, XV. Among the above products, X, XII, XIII and XIV are new compounds and their structures were elucidated by chemical and physicochemical methods.
Article
Lignans of Trachelospermum asiaticum were isolated from the polar fraction of the methanol percolate, and the structures were determined. Trachelosiaside (matairesinol 5'-C-β-D-glucoside)was isolated as the first naturally occurring C-glucoside of lignan. Glucosides of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and bisdihydrosiringenin were obtained as minor components, along with many glucosides and gentiobiosides of arctigenin, matairesinol, trachelogenin, and nortrachelogenin.
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The effects of O-methylation and O-glucosylation on the carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of matairesinol (1), (+)-pinoresinol (6) and (+)-epipinoresinol (11) are discussed. The chemical shifts of carbons on the 2, 3-dibenzylated butyrolactone and 2, 6-diarylated 3, 7-dioxabicyclo [3. 3. 0] octane rings are not affected by methylation and glucosylation of hydroxy groups on the aromatic rings. As regards the chemical shifts of aromatic carbons caused by O-methylation, all the 1'(1"), 3'(3"), and 4'(4") carbons of the guaiacyl unit are characteristically shifted downfield by 1.6±0.1, 1.3±0.1, and 2.4±0.1 ppm, respectively, while the 5'(5") carbons are shifted upfield by 3.5±0.1 ppm. In the case of the chemical shifts of aromatic carbons caused by O-glucosylation, all the 1'(1") and 3'(3") carbons of the guaiacyl unit are characteristically shifted downfield by 3.0±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 ppm, respectively.
Article
The aim of the present investigation was to study whether prolonged exposure of isolated rat islets to the long chain fatty acid sodium palmitate leads to uncoupling of respiration. It was found that culture of islets in the presence of palmitate abolished glucose-sensitive insulin release and decreased insulin contents. This was paralleled by decreased ATP contents, increased respiration, and decreased islet cell mitochondrial membrane potential. Using electron microscopy, an increase in the β-cell mitochondrial volume in islets exposed to palmitate was observed. The addition of the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, at a concentration that decreased mitochondrial membrane potential to a similar extent as palmitate, diminished the glucose-induced insulin release. In addition, islet generation of reactive oxygen species, but not of nitric oxide, was increased in response to a long-term palmitate exposure. It is concluded that long-term exposure to a long chain fatty acid induces partial uncoupling of β-cell oxidative phosphorylation and that this may contribute to the loss of glucose-sensitive insulin release.