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Design Thinking for Social Innovation By

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DESIGNERS HAVE TRADIIONALLY FOCUSED ON ENHANCING THE LOOK AND FUNCTIONALITY OF PRODUCTS. RECENTLY, THEY HAVE BEGUN USING DESIGN TOOLS TO TACKLE MORE COMPLEX PROBLEMS, SUCH AS FINDING WAYS TO PROVIDE LOW-COST HEALTH CARE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. BUSINESSES WERE FIRST TO EMBRACE THIS NEW APPROACH—CALLED DESIGN THINKING—NOW NONPROFITS ARE BEGINNING TO ADOPT IT TOO.

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... Standford Üniversitesi ve IDEO'nun tasarım odaklı düşünmeye ait beş aşamadan oluşan doğrusal yaratıcı problem çözme modelleri şekil 1 ve şekil 2'de verilmiştir. Yenilikçiliğe ilham vermek ve tüketici deneyimlerinden yola çıkarak sorunları çözmek amacıyla geliştirilen bir kavram olan tasarım düşüncesi, küresel bir yenilik ve tasarım firması olan IDEO tarafından geliştirilmiştir (Brown ve Wyatt, 2010). "Daha erken başarı için erken başarısızlık" ilkesini benimseyen IDEO, öğrenmeyi mümkün kıldığı zaman başarısızlığın kabul edilebilir olduğu fikrini savunmaktadır (Link, 2018). ...
... Tasarım odaklı düşünme sürecinde, insanların ihtiyaçlarına yönelik kültürel bağlamda çözümler sunmak için çeşitli araçlar kullanılmaktadır (Brown ve Wyatt, 2010). Bu araçlar, erken prototiplemeye imkân vererek çizim gibi somut yollar aracılığıyla farklı çözümlerin görselleştirilmesini sağlamaktadır (Cross, 2011). ...
... Birçok çalışma, öğretmenlerin dersleri iş birliği içinde hazırlamasının öğretmenlerin dersleri bireysel olarak planlamasından daha iyi performans gösterdiğini belirtmişlerdir (Pol vd., 2010;Voogt vd., 2013). Derslerde STEM ve sorgulamaya yönelik uygulamalar konusunda öğretmenlerin öğrencilere korkuları ve endişeleri olmasına rağmen bu kazanımların öğrencilere kazandırılması çok önemlidir (Brown ve Wyatt, 2010). Bu bağlamda matematik veya fen bilgisi geçmişi olan öğretmenlerin büyük çoğunluğu, ihtiyaç duyulan uzmanlık eğitimine sahip olmasalar bile, derslerinde STEM veya mühendislik problem türlerini tanıtmak için sıklıkla bu yöntemlere başvurmaktadırlar (Ward, 2020). ...
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Tasarım odaklı düşünme, sorunları çözmek için hızlı bir şekilde prototip oluşturma, erken başarısızlık deneyimleri yaşama, tekrarlanan süreçler sağlama ve insan merkezli tasarım oluşturma gibi kazanımları içeren yenilikçi ve sistematik bir yaklaşım olarak kabul edilmektedir (Elsbach ve Stigliani, 2018). Geleneksel tasarım yaklaşımlarından farklı olarak tasarım odaklı düşünme, yaratıcılığı teşvik etmek ve sorunları çözme becerisi kazandırmak için kullanılabilir (Akçaoğlu 2014; Hwang vd., 2012). Tasarım odaklı düşünme, inovasyona ilişkin iç görüler geliştirerek gözlemleri yinelemeli ve doğrusal olmayan süreçlerden geçirerek beklenmedik keşiflerde bulunmayı sağlamaktadır. Tasarım odaklı düşünme süreci empati, merak, iş birliği, deneme, görselleştirme, esneklik ve sürekli öğrenme gibi becerilerin gelişimini destekleyen süreçleri içermektedir (Andreassen vd., 2016; Koliji 2016; Ward vd., 2009).
... IDEO's 3 I's (Inspiration, Ideation, Implementation) model was developed in 2001 as it sought to differentiate dialogue about design for social innovation from standard product design due to the organization being increasingly contracted to work on non-traditional design projects in health care and learning environments [45]. Within the context of undertaking new projects in non-traditional sectors where project teams may not necessarily be able to gain meaningful insights by interviewing a projects' commissioning body, who may themselves not be familiar with the intricacies of the project background, designers need to take initiative to intentionally gain increased embeddedness into the lives of the stakeholder group that their design is envisaged to aid. ...
... Ideation is the phase wherein the formal design process starts [46]. Brown and Wyatt, IDEO's CEO and Lead of Social Innovation, respectively, highlight that ideation must incorporate individuals with appropriate depth in a desirable skillset, partnered within an interdisciplinary group to provide scope, yet driven by an empathy for others that goes beyond the groups' own understanding or experience [45]. Implementation, the third phase, involves converting ideas into an implementable action plan. ...
... Implementation, the third phase, involves converting ideas into an implementable action plan. The action plan seeks to balance the three aspects of desirability, feasibility, and viability [37], perceiving that the ideal balance may be discerned via an iterative approach of prototyping and testing [45]. The models 3 I's acronym offers simplicity, which Tschimmel suggests can make it more memorable [46]. ...
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This paper highlights the growing importance towards supporting Chinese Small to Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) in adopting pro-active and collaborative behaviors that stimulate sustainability initiatives. Equating to 90% of enterprises in the country and contributing towards 60% of the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP), China’s SMEs are recognized for their willingness to engage in change, raising the potential for exploring and embarking on new ventures. This paper proposes that a design thinking mind-set, rooted in empathic stakeholder dialogue, conceptually supports SMEs to engage with the increasingly complex challenges that envelop China’s society, culture, economy, and environment. Discussion emphasizes that proactively including and responding to the various and ambiguous needs of stakeholders leads to increased opportunity for innovation and new ways of thinking, both being vital for sustainable and responsible growth. Equally, the questions of whom to empathize with and how should SMEs empathize are postulated as roadblocks to the adoption of design thinking in SMEs. This paper proposes a model for addressing those challenges.
... Design thinking is a concept used in theory and practice, in both design realm, as well as the business/management realm (Johansson-Sköldberg, Woodilla & Çetinkaya, 2013). It is a whole creation system that goes from inspiration, through ideation, to implementation (Brown & Wyatt, 2010). It is intimately connected to concepts of creativity and innovation, a designers' way of thinking and applying their sensibility and methods to concrete problem solving situations. ...
... It is intimately connected to concepts of creativity and innovation, a designers' way of thinking and applying their sensibility and methods to concrete problem solving situations. It is based on people's ability to be perceptive, innovative and creative, to recognise patterns and construct ideas that have emotional meaning, apart from being functional and purposeful (Brown & Wyatt, 2010). This form of thinking is rooted in how knowledge advances from one stage to another through the 'knowledge funnel'from something we cannot explain (mystery), through a rule of thumb that guides us towards a solution (heuristic), to a predictable formula that produces an answer (algorithm) (Martin, 2009). ...
... 540). Companies dedicated to understanding their clients and clients' needs, such as IDEO (Brown & Wyatt, 2010), move away from designing consumer products to designing consumer experiences. ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract There are Algeria sites and natural and cultural landscapes of high quality, often unknown in Europe: it is the case in particular in the area of El-Kala located in the extreme northeast of the country, the border with Tunisia. This space has been classified "protected area" through these very rich potential in terms of biodiversity (flora, fauna) and also in many natural ecosystems: lakeside (a wetland of international repute complex included on the Ramsar List) forestry, marine; climate; major outstanding natural sites and landscapes; historical and archaeological monuments, which require investment, particularly in terms of value creation and preservation and especially with the presence of its national park and nature reserve world heritage by UNESCO in 1990. This label would initiate development sustainable tourism in the region by highlighting its ecological and historical heritage and awareness for the preservation and promotion of heritage. This research attempts to analyze the current situation regarding the natural region of El Kala to identify the potentials and strengths that can be developed to promote tourism becomes the vector of the global economy, a tool revitalization of territories, an opportunity for sustainable development and a means to preserve biodiversity, natural ecosystems and cultural heritage and to define the challenges and opportunities for the future of this region. Keywords: Landscape, Tourism, Heritage, Protected area, Sustainable development, Preservation.
... Past research has shown that students who have not received appropriate instructional strategies or problem-solving approaches lack the ability to tackle hands-on activities successfully, with significant effects on learning performance . The design thinking model provides practical problem-solving approaches for art, business, engineering field…etc (Micheli et al., 2019;Brown & Wyatt, 2010) have suggested that the DT model, different from other strategies and methods that merely adopted the steps of procedures, incorporates three aspects-desirability, viability, and feasibility. However, in the implementation process in the field of education, we expect students to acquire knowledge and skills through experience and practical processes. ...
... (2) Define: Through an experiential learning cycle, this step reorganizes abstract, divergent, and fragmented cognitive content to combine the knowledge acquired through recent and past experiences, and after structuring, deleting, exploring, and infusing, redefines questions by exploring the iceberg beneath the surface to learn the actual needs of users (Brown & Wyatt, 2010;Henriksen et al., 2017;Lynch et al., 2019). (3) Ideate: In this step, students form groups and share their thoughts on personal experiences to assist with the design of their products. ...
... In this light, for the core of product development-starting with discovering problems through real-life experiencesthe students in the EG collected information on problems more systematically and gained experience on the inconveniences in life for the elderly through empathizing using the DT model, making it is easier to know about the problems and difficulties of the elderly (Maher et al., 2018). Therefore, the EG participants were better assisted in thinking, expressing, presenting, and designing compared with the CG participants (Authors, 20XX; Brown & Wyatt 2010). ...
... The act of searching articles with the search term, "gender" and "design thinking" was The second most cited article (1797 citations) was "Design thinking for social innovation" (Brown & Wyatt, 2010). This article focused on how to utilize design thinking in social innovation projects. ...
... The search results show that relatively little scholarly attention has been placed on ethics, design thinking and particularly the matter of creativityas a praxis and discoursethrough the lens of gender. Despite projects aiming directly at equality and increased quality of life as seen in for instance, by Brown and Wyatt (2010) and Lopes et al., (2020), ethical issues pertaining to gender representation among designers and developers seems relatively unexplored. In fact, the impact of the young [white] trendy designer/entrepreneur/developer/architect stereotype, myth or fact in predominant software practice and business still appears to be overlooked when discussing the relationship between ethics and AI logic. ...
... ticularly considering the systemic technological future that is emerging. Design thinking is treated as multi-faceted, far beyond any understanding of a five-step method. Besides posing some open questions regarding design thinking, the article does not delve deeply into the nuances of considering design thinking from a critical gender perspective.Brown and Wyatt (2010) was the most cited in this search category. It is seen in this article that issues of gender in design thinking are tightly intertwined with the ethical considerations of wellbeing and equality. The third most cited article (102 citations), "Combining critical reflection and design thinking to develop integrative learners," byWelsh et a ...
Article
Ethics, artificial intelligence (AI), and design thinking are current buzz words. The threat of bias-riddled machine learning algorithms is represented media-wide. Research and development initiatives are endeavoring to ‘translate’ ethics into processes and machine logic and design thinking as a method is adopted to gauge the interests and values of a vast range of stakeholders. Gender, its framing, reflection, and critical evaluation in relation to design thinking as a means for developing ethical AI appear to be less represented in scholarly discourse. Against a background of critical theory and gender studies that describe and problematize gender, its construction and norms in socio-technological discourse, the authors of this article aim to generate insight into the current state of gender in design thinking research focused on ethics and AI. A review of scholarly articles revealed trends in popularity of concepts and prominence in the application of design thinking in specific fields (i.e., educational research). Repetition characterizes the more challenging topics or wicked problems. Provocation and investigation of gender from the perspectives of practitioners, creativity, and its influence in design thinking seem all but visible.
... It felt necessary to take this design approach to implement contextually appropriate technology for the farmers due to the HCD consideration of the end-user and their needs or wants. HCD considers the desirability, feasibility, and viability of the outcome, and these, in turn, create much better suited and tailored solutions for the farmers themselves (Brown and Wyatt, 2010). The inclusion of farmers within the design process allows a bond to be formed with the design outcome and, therefore, creates a sense of responsibility and a feeling of ownership over the product itself. ...
... It thus starts the Human-Centred Design process of listening to the disempowered voices. Design innovation through the HCD process relies on the product's usability, feasibility, and viability (Brown 2010). The three stages of HCD, according to IDEO (2010), are the hear, create and deliver outlines through the outcomes of the sub aims detailed below. ...
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Small-scale agriculture has a vital role to play in the broader issue of food security. Land and water are two critical requirements for any farming, and with climate change, access to water is becoming even more of a concern. There is an ever-growing need to address the sustainable use of water for these farmers, especially in water-constrained urban areas. This design study was aimed at mitigating the irrigation issues that the farmers face, as mentioned above. The lack of accessible, affordable, and contextually appropriate irrigation technology has been a barrier encountered by most small-scale farmers. Limitation of resources and the need for affordable tooling and manufacturing drive the demand for low-cost product development. The high cost of initial setup, maintenance, and training for correct equipment use often deters farmers from venturing out to seek solutions for their problems. This calls for contextually appropriate innovations that allow for adoption by farmers. Open-source forums and platforms were utilized to develop electrical and physical prototypes that monitored the farmers' water use patterns. The incorporation of new technological advancements enabled the development of appropriate technology that meets the intended users' requirements, in this case, the farmers. Through a Human-Centered Design lens, the developmental process looked to pragmatism theories, research through the design, and appropriate technology to guide the study. This documented study is sectioned into the three phases of the Human-Centered Design. The hear phase analyzed existing literature framing the landscape of farming in South Africa; small-scale farming, in particular, concluding in the possible areas of problem mitigation. It then moved onto the Create stage, where the insights gained from the Hear chapter were implemented through extensive interviews and observations through inputs and participation from urban farmers to understand deeper problems that might be overlooked through a process of secondary research. This section also narrates the design. iv The final phase is the Deliver phase which tackles the installation and review of the kit by farmers and documents the various iterative stages of the design process after initial feedback. The final solution was delivered in kit format, and further design refinements have been recommended for future research.
... Finally, the project managers had to choose among the many versions of the design thinking process that are framed into any number of different phases, from Simon's seminal 7 stage model [26] to IDEO's 3 'I's-Inspiration, Ideation, Implementation-model [27]. For the present experiment, they relied on the six steps of the design thinking model presented by Lewrick et al. [28]. ...
... Finally, the project managers had to choose among the many versions of the thinking process that are framed into any number of different phases, from Simon inal 7 stage model [26] to IDEO's 3 'I's-Inspiration, Ideation, Implementation- [27]. For the present experiment, they relied on the six steps of the design thinkin presented by Lewrick et al. [28]. ...
Article
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A project using design thinking (DT) was conducted among internal stakeholders of a large state Japanese university to design a user-centric brochure promoting study abroad programs at francophone partner universities. The low-fidelity prototype and the final product created with DT were tested by asking potential student-users to compare it with a standard brochure through two sets of surveys. Analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed that low-fidelity prototyping was effective to enhance both the utility and usability of the final product. We also show how DT helped expose cognitive biases among designers.
... Discovery is viewed as developing a deep understanding of a product or user through engagement, observation, creative thinking, and user feedback and then explains different perspective of problems and needs (Badding, 2017). The third creative synthesis process is prototyping, which refers to the skill of making ideas turning into actual products and services to be tested, iterated, and refined (Badding, 2017;Brown and Wyatt, 2010). Traditionally, prototyping is considered as a method to assess potential future success of a design idea (Badding, 2017;Brown and Wyatt, 2010). ...
... The third creative synthesis process is prototyping, which refers to the skill of making ideas turning into actual products and services to be tested, iterated, and refined (Badding, 2017;Brown and Wyatt, 2010). Traditionally, prototyping is considered as a method to assess potential future success of a design idea (Badding, 2017;Brown and Wyatt, 2010). However, according to Institute of Design at Stanford, benefits of prototyping have become far greater than testing for only functionality (Badding, 2017). ...
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Background Competence in design thinking plays a pivotal role when undertaking innovative problem-solving. Our knowledge on nursing students' self-perceived design thinking competence, however, is noticeably lacking, particularly in Taiwan. Object To examine Taiwanese nursing students' self-perceived competence in design thinking. Design Descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study. Participants One hundred and one nursing students enrolled in the interdisciplinary capstone courses, which were jointly offered to industrial design students, as part of a 4-year nursing program at a science and technology university in northern Taiwan. Methods Self-reported questionnaire data were collected from students, including their demographics and self-perceived competence in design thinking as measured by the Creative Synthesis Inventory and the Design Thinking Traits Questionnaire between January 2020 and January 2021. Results Distinctive and reliable individual differences were found in nursing students' self-perceived competence in design thinking. In addition, students perceived a significantly higher creative synthesis skill of discovery in developing an understanding of potential users and a significantly lower design thinking trait of optimism, not backing down from challenging problems. Finally, greater perceived competence in creative synthesis skills were significantly correlated with greater perceived competence in all design thinking traits, except the trait of optimism. Conclusions Results indicated that significant individual differences exist in Taiwanese nursing students' self-perceived design thinking competence, suggesting opportunities for helping students with lower perceived competence. Overall, Taiwanese students believed themselves to be less skilled in visualization, prototyping, and evaluation as well as lacking an attribute of optimism when encountering challenging problems. Therefore, as informed by the design thinking framework, nursing schools should focus on developing strategies through training and practice to foster creative synthesis skills and designer traits in students, particularly targeting those who self-perceived as less competent and those skills and traits self-perceived as weaknesses.
... It focuses on people and not only the ones who are the recipients of the knowledge (i.e., the LL in our context) but also the ones who created them in the first place. Problem solvers are required to have awareness and empathy of what people experience, including emotions, values and actions as well as meaning in operational contexts, and the ability to frame problems or opportunities based on problem solvers' points of view from those experiences [52,60,61]. Researchers developed new methods and practices for problem solving for human experiences, such as observations, interviews and participatory design [35,62,63]. ...
... There exist many task-based paths that guide creative systems design efforts. The design thinking framework is a well-known one [60,61,67], and it is mostly applied in single-product innovation for users' needs satisfaction. It follows an overall path comprising three phases, including a. understand, b. explore and c. test [68,69]. ...
Article
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The importance of learning from experience is incontrovertible; however, little is studied regarding the digitalization of in- and inter-project lessons learned in modern organizational practices. As a critical part of organizational knowledge, lessons learned are known to help organizations adapt to the ever-changing world via the complex systems development projects they use to capitalize on and to develop their competitive advantage. In this paper, we introduce the concept of human-centered digitalization for this unique type of organizational knowledge and explain why this approach to managing lessons learned for complex systems development projects is necessary. Drawing from design thinking and systems thinking theories, we further outline the design principles for guiding actions and provide a case study of their implementation in automated systems projects for maritime industries.
... Active involvement of the target group through cocreation in development is a way to ensure that a DSMES intervention meets the needs, preferences and resources of the target group [21]. Co-creation processes can increase the cultural sensitivity of interventions, which may lead to improved health outcomes [20]. ...
... CUSTOM was developed in co-creation with members of the target group, researchers from Steno Diabetes Centre Copenhagen and healthcare professionals from the Centre for Diabetes. The methodology of design thinking was used, which is a participatory approach in three phases: inspiration, ideation, and implementation [21,26]. The project first entailed a needs assessment based on reviewing the literature, fieldwork and workshops with the target group and health care professionals. ...
Article
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To examine the impact of a co-created culturally sensitive diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) intervention on the physical and mental health of immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Pre- and post-test among people with T2D whose primary language was Urdu, Arabic or Turkish (n = 97). Participants were offered a six-week intervention based on a person-centred approach using research-based dialogue tools to facilitate learning and reflection, which was developed in co-creation with immigrants and healthcare professionals. Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention and after 6 months and analysed using paired t-tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, chi-square tests and regression models when appropriate. Several clinical outcomes were improved post-intervention, including HbA1c (P < 0.001), body fat percentage (P = 0.002), self-rated general health (P = 0.05), well-being (P = 0.004) and several self-management behaviours, e.g., physical activity (P < 0.001). Most outcomes remained improved after 6 months, but the effect on HbA1c was no longer statistically significant. Some outcomes were improved only at 6 months, including waist circumference (P < 0.001) and diabetes-related emotional distress (P < 0.001). Fatigue did not change. Attendance at more programme sessions was associated with better outcomes. The DSMES intervention developed in a co-creation process was highly effective in improving the health of immigrants with T2D.
... It involves a well-planned thinking process to find the right visuals to communicate a message best, considered under design thinking. According to Brown & Wyatt (2010), design thinking is an optimistic, constructive, and experiential process that incorporates consumer insights and rapid prototyping aimed at getting beyond the assumptions that block effective solutions. Unfortunately, designers sometimes stay in a comfort zone where they remain static in using only a particular design style to solve a specific problem. ...
... According to Brown & Wyatt (2010), design thinking is an optimistic, constructive, and experiential process which "incorporates consumer insights in depth and rapid prototyping aimed at getting beyond the assumptions that block effective solutions". Design thinking is "a system of overlapping spaces" and can be iterative until the final idea is developed. ...
Article
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World development has fostered the effectiveness of utilizing visuals in print and electronic media communication. The visuals for communication are crafted through the ideation process to the final execution of the project. In completing a design project, ideation must be successfully carried out. But sometimes, there are instances where the process is hindered since designers may want to settle for comfort zones and thus become fixated on ideas. This study therefore aims at exploring the challenges associated with design fixation in ideation in the local setting and how to mitigate them. Using interviews and observation in a qualitative inquiry, the researchers examined the phenomenon under study with the aid of the Ideation Activity Model as a theoretical lens. The study revealed an insightful relationship between designers, tools (manual and digital), design process, ideation techniques, client, design team, and the outcome of a designer’s activity during ideation. Four major themes that affect design fixation were discovered: the Designer’s background, Digital Ideation, Client and Designer tensions, and Fixation type. Keywords Design Fixation, Communication, Ideation, Activity Model, Fixated
... Tahap ketiga Metode Riung Desain adalah tahap Jadikan (Brown, 2008;Brown dan Katz, 2009;Brown dan Wyatt, 2010;IDEO, 2013;Stringer, 1999;Creswell;2008;Berg dan Lune, 2012). Tahap jadikan ini dibagi menjadi 3 tahapan, yaitu: jadikan 1 -Peta Pengalaman dan Proposisi Nilai , Jadikan 2 -membangun kelompok masyarakat, Jadikan 3 -Rencana Aksi & Intervensi Masyarakat (Community Action Plan) dalam bentuk Indikasi Detail Kebutuhan Warga RW 10 Semper Timur. ...
... Dalam hal ini desain menjadi generator dan akan menjadi ruang yang hidup (life space), ruang publik yang 'dekat' (public space of proximity), terus menjadi ruang yang 'lain' (other spaces) dan menjadi ruang katalis yang harus diciptakan terus menerus.Riung Desain adalah suatu metode untuk pemetaaan situasi sosial, budaya dan ekonomi sekaligus pembangunan intervensi dan rencana aksi masyarakat.Metode Riung Desain (RD) adalah cara pikir siklus yang mengutamakan empati & berpusat pada kebutuhan manusia, kerjasama kolaborasi tim dari semua pemangku kepentingan untuk merumuskan masalah dengan cepat dan tepat. Kemudian menawarkan pasti solusi inovatif & yang mewujud pada sebuah hasil purwakarya yang nyata, berkelanjutan dan berdaya(Tim DAG, 2017-2021.Ada 3 tahap dalam Metode Riung Desain ini, yaitu(Brown, 2008;Brown dan Katz, 2009;Brown dan Wyatt, 2010; IDEO, 2013): 1. Tahap Temukan adalah tentang bagaimana kita mendengarkan, memperhatikan dan selalu terbuka dengan hal-hal yang tidak kita duga. Pada tahap temukan ini yang dilakukan adalah melakukan wawancara mendalam dan melakukan Tahap Bedakan adalah tentang bagaimana kita mengubah data menjadi konsep yang bermakna dan dapat dirumuskan fokus permasalahan yang perlu diselesaikan. ...
... It is not only human-centered; it is deeply human in and of itself. Design thinking relies on our ability to be intuitive, to recognize patterns, to construct ideas that have emotional resonance as well as functionality, to express ourselves in media other than words or symbols…" (Brown & Wyatt, 2010). As seen, being equipped with the design mindset and looking at the issues from a designer´s lens would massively change the way we solve problems or develop solutions. ...
Chapter
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The historical periods of disruptions for almost every field of life underlines the necessity of bottom-up development, which requires citizens to realize its potential and take the responsibility to make a change. Social innovations are believed to play the role that technological innovation did during the industrial development one century ago. Proven experiences suggest that there is an immense need of cultivation of an 'innov-active' society which is sensitive to the challenges around them, capable of analyzing the situation, determining the point of action, developing alternatives and providing necessary resources in an innovative and collaborative manner without awaiting or expecting the intervention of others. Unlocking the potential of the people necessitates taking advantage of collective intelligence; a participators design approach, improving the community feeling and level of trust; developing necessary tools for action; and improving the active citizenship mindset, which eventually contributes to an entrepreneurship spirit and thus creates a risk-taker and resilient society.
... Admittedly, for designers who live in urban areas, it is difficult to understand how to help those "users" living in underdeveloped or developing regions since there is a vast gap between them, as well as the fact that few people themselves usually have any idea of what they intend for, thus, how to discover the actual needs is an obstacle faced by the designers. To better understand their requirements of them, the methods frequently used are co-design [30] and participatory design [31] , and design thinking is often emphasised [32] among the social design outputs. Although, on some occasions, including some research papers [33] , co-design and participatory design are treated as equivalent methods, they differ and have their applicability: co-design is used to work with the expertise demanding the co-workers to share their knowledge, indicating that co-design is used with any walks of experts; In contrast, participatory design only requires the participants to share ideas rather expertise, meaning that this method is suitable for collaborating with the mass [34] and a way of demonstrating social inclusiveness. ...
Chapter
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The paper aims to construct a framework for museums’ cultural and creative product design and summarize the potential gaps in this field. To achieve this goal, the author used a literature review method integrated with a systematic review and bibliometric analysis. In the analysis stage, the paper identified two significant aspects and seven themed clusters of design research and discovered four primary potential gaps that need to be filled in the future.
... The dashboard was developed locally between 2015 and 2017, influenced by design thinking [28], loosely following a process to empathize, define, ideate, prototype, and test, moving back and forth between these stages. These design efforts fed into the process of creating a pilot platform that connected several tools, datasets, and visualization displays considered useful in psychosis care. ...
Article
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Background Individuals with psychotic disorders experience widespread treatment failures and risk early death. Sweden’s largest department specializing in psychotic disorders sought to improve patients’ health by developing a point-of-care dashboard to support joint planning and co-production of care. The dashboard was tested for 18 months and included more than 400 patients at two outpatient clinics. Methods This study evaluates the dashboard by addressing two questions: Can differences in health-related outcome measures be attributed to the use of the dashboard? How did the case managers experience the accessibility, use, and usefulness of the dashboard for co-producing care with individuals with psychotic disorders? This mixed-method case study used both Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROM) and data from a focus group interview with case managers. Data collection and analysis were framed by the Clinical Adoption Meta Model (CAMM) phases: i) accessibility, ii) system use, iii) behavior, and iv) clinical outcomes. The PROM used was the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0), which assesses functional impairment and disability. Patients at clinics using the dashboard were matched with patients at clinics not using the dashboard. PROM data were compared using non-parametric statistics due to skewness in distribution. The focus group included five case managers who had experience using the dashboard with patients. Results Compared to patients from clinics that did not use the dashboard, patients from clinics that did use the dashboard improved significantly overall ( p = 0.045) and in the domain self-care ( p = 0.041). Focus group participants reported that the dashboard supported data feedback-informed care and a proactive stance related to changes in patients’ health. The dashboard helped users identify critical changes and enabled joint planning and evaluation. Conclusion Dashboard use was related to better patient health (WHODAS scores) when compared with matched patients from clinics that did not use the dashboard. In addition, case managers had a positive experience using the dashboard. Dashboard use might have lowered the risk for missing critical changes in patients’ health while increasing the ability to proactively address needs. Future studies should investigate how to enhance patient co-production through use of supportive technologies.
... Human-centeredness is most-often promoted as a key defining attribute of Design Thinking (Brown and Wyatt, 2010); yet, unlike other industries dealing specifically with human needs such as healthcare, social work or psychology, design has no commonly agreed and authoritative code of practice (Cook, 2019;Buwert, 2018). While professional codes do exist in design, there appears to be little consensus between them regarding ethical, social or environmental issues. ...
Article
This article provides a critical commentary of Design Thinking education and proposes a new model for incorporating responsibility within these teaching and learning practices. The need for this approach becomes more urgent as Design Thinking is increasingly integrated across disciplinary boundaries into business schools where it is seen as a pathway to commercial innovation that ultimately impacts society. Within this article, Responsible Design literature is reviewed to identify principles and practices that can inform Design Thinking education, bringing critical depth, as well as social and environmental impact into its broader ambit. It is argued that principles of social responsibility, environmental sustainability, ethics, critical thinking and accountability can be combined with feasibility, viability and desirability to create a new model for Responsible Design Thinking education. Based on these principles, three different conceptualizations are presented to indicate how Responsible Design Thinking may be applied in teaching practice. This model is proposed with the intention of supporting educators who are seeking to introduce Responsible Design Thinking into their teaching practice, as well as provoking discussion about the current and future state of Design Thinking education.
... (Buchanan, 1992). Based on the nature of embracing challenges, design thinking enables innovation to replace strategic management as an approach to tackle the wicked problems in the complex society (Brown & Wyatt, 2010;Johansson-Sköldberg, Woodilla, & Çetinkaya, 2013). An interdisciplinary team and project-based design work, therefore, become the key characteristic of design thinking, which as well as represent the feature that design thinking is opened for those without a design background (Brown & Katz, 2011;Dunne & Martin, 2006;Johansson-Sköldberg et al., 2013;. ...
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Proceedings of International Conference on Humanities, Social and Education Sciences © 2021 Published by the ISTES Organization ISBN: 978-1-952092-18-3 Editors: Stephen Jackowicz & Ismail Sahin Articles: 1-28 Conference: International Conference on Humanities, Social and Education Sciences (iHSES) Dates: April 22-25, 2021 www.ihses.net
... The AMORE Platform was developed and tested following a design-thinking approach between June and August 2020. 49,[92][93][94][95] The final version was completed in February 2022. The digital web-based platform was developed for this project by the principal investigator with input from experts in data science, public health, logistics, and mobility and a wide range of stakeholders (A description of the development and piloting phases of the AMORE Platform can be provided). ...
Article
This protocol proposes an approach to assessing the place of residence as a spatial determinant of health in cities where traffic congestion might impact health services accessibility. The study provides dynamic travel times presenting data in ways that help shape decisions and spur action by diverse stakeholders and sectors. Equity assessments in geographical accessibility to health services typically rely on static metrics, such as distance or average travel times. This new approach uses dynamic spatial accessibility measures providing travel times from the place of residence to the health service with the shortest journey time. It will show the interplay between traffic congestion, accessibility, and health equity and should be used to inform urban and health services monitoring and planning. Available digitised data enable efficient and accurate accessibility measurements for urban areas using publicly available sources and provide disaggregated sociodemographic information and an equity perspective. Test cases are done for urgent and frequent care (i.e., repeated ambulatory care). Situational analyses will be done with cross-sectional urban assessments; estimated potential improvements will be made for one or two new services, and findings will inform recommendations and future studies. This study will use visualisations and descriptive statistics to allow non-specialized stakeholders to understand the effects of accessibility on populations and health equity. This includes “time-to-destination” metrics or the proportion of the people that can reach a service by car within a given travel time threshold from the place of residence. The study is part of the AMORE Collaborative Project, in which a diverse group of stakeholders seeks to address equity for accessibility to essential health services, including health service users and providers, authorities, and community members, including academia.
... 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Design Thinking [3] Characterized design thinking as an undisciplined process of creation, there is no best way or best standard operating procedure which such a process can occur, although there are starting points and milestones on the design thinking processes or phases. [19] Stated design thinking as a methodology that is driven by design "philosophy" with characteristics such as problem-driven, stakeholder focus, holistic perspective, visualization, experimentation, and abductive reasoning. ...
... On a more traditional side, Brown and Wyatt's (2010) work is one of the primary examples of adapting conventional design thinking to social innovation. Their design process consists of inspiration, ideation, and implementation stages. ...
Conference Paper
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Designerly approaches have long been appropriated for systems thinking and design. This appropriation brings with it tensions regarding the pace at which design is conducted. It is crucial to unveil and reflect on these tensions, particularly within a social innovation context. This is due to social innovation’s unique complexities regarding stakeholder networks, sociopolitical influences and change management. This position paper discusses how these tensions become apparent at the two ends of the pace spectrum of doing systemic design. It examines the translation of these pace tensions to tradeoffs; both at the principles level (e.g. stakeholder engagement, project scoping and long-term commitment) and at the practices level (e.g. network building, prototyping’s role and room for reframing). By doing so, this paper takes an initial, exploratory step towards explicating tensions regarding the pace of conducting systemic design for social innovation. It aims to spark critical discourse around such implicit and explicit pace tensions, with the intention to enable better resolution of these tensions in practice.
... To address this, design thinking approaches will be employed. Design thinking considers design as an ever evolving iterative process [47], with stakeholders at the centre. Inclusion of users in design allows for ongoing feedback [48], ensuring any omissions, assumptions or "blind-spots" can be identified and resolved early [49]. ...
Chapter
Public engagement remains a challenge within energy behaviour change interventions, and serious games appear a promising mechanism to mitigate this. While social factors are commonly employed within such serious games, analysis of their specific impact is outstanding. This paper seeks to examine the social aspects of serious games and explore how they may be leveraged to support and incentivise energy related behaviour change. To demonstrate how social strategies may be used within a serious game to increase impact, the EVIDENT project is presented as a case study. Analysis of the literature suggests positive effects of social strategies within serious games, with peer comparison, collaboration, and competition commonly employed. However, as serious games often include multiple behaviour change strategies, both social and non-social, componential analysis is needed to determine the relative impacts of different approaches. As such, several social factors will be applied within the EVIDENT serious game including 1) stakeholder inclusion in design, 2) shared learning through social groups, 3) social inclusion, 4) social considerations to support maintenance of effects, and 5) social comparison. While positive effects for social factors within serious games are clear, this paper argues that additional analyses of how they may be best applied within serious games is needed.
... The business sector has implemented DT to innovate and bring solutions faster to the market [46]. Healthcare and social organizations have applied DT to develop empathy with customers and to create solutions collaboratively [47,48]. Companies such as IBM and Toyota have reportedly used DT to deeply understand customers' needs in order to develop Agile UX solutions [49]. ...
Article
Context: Agile UX methods such as Design Thinking, Lean Startup, and Lean User Experience have been employed to deliver customer value and improve organizational performance. However, there is a lack of studies that assess how these tools are used at different stages of maturity of digital startups. Objective: The present study aims to compare the knowledge of graduated, incubated, and pre-incubated digital startups at university incubators concerning the use of Agile UX methods so that weaknesses and opportunities can be identified to provide co founders and scholars with new strategic insights. Method: Six reduced focus groups were conducted with 14 members of the six selected startups via multiple case studies. Answers were registered by researchers and then analyzed using an inductive process and codification. Results: The results indicated that digital startups had contact with consumers through market research, viability analysis, and product discontinuity. However, except for one startup, deficiencies in co-founders' participation throughout developing products and services projects were identified. As far as the multiple case studies are concerned, Design Thinking and Lean Startup were employed by four of the startups, while two of them used the Lean User Experience method due to its higher maturity level. Conclusion: Although all Agile UX methods were employed, all six digital startups reported having made adaptations to the methods or to have used them only partially. Finally, it was concluded that the maturity level influences the Agile UX methods of each digital startup according to its nature and its stage of development in the market.
... This served as a catalyst of mass following and formation of settlement houses across the United States of America and Europe, creating global reach. Social enterprises offer an innovative approach to bringing about desired change through reconceptualizing the mission of the enterprise and rethinking the of value creating logic (Brown & Wyatt, 2015). Social entrepreneurship starts with comprehending a social opportunity, then moves into an enterprise model, amasses the necessary resources for execution, gives life to and nurtures the enterprise, and eventually reaches the intended destination (Doherty et al., 2014). ...
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Social entrepreneurship is a social action that the profession of social work can use as a working model to propel the profession forward economically, professionally, and socially. Social entrepreneurship can help mitigate complex and vexing social and environmental issues in the future, while creating a larger social impact and transformational shift to social change and social justice, through the social enterprise. The social enterprise brings social policy efforts to life through immediate social action. This article will discuss the historical perspective of the social work profession and social entrepreneurship, the imperative need for social innovation and social impact through the utility of education of social entrepreneurship, and the social enterprise in social work practice models.
... Para se desenvolver soluções que vão de encontro às necessidades básicas das pessoas é necessário que sejam utilizados métodos e ferramentas que aproximem ou incluam os interessados na construção destas soluções em todas as etapas de seu desenvolvimento (BROWN; WYATT, 2010). O design thinking atualmente é uma das metodologias mais utilizadas para desenvolvimento de novos produtos que atendam às necessidades sociais das pessoas. ...
... Each group was required to discuss their idea and explore possible gaps in their thinking with me at least once before their presentation in a 30-minute meeting. With two lectures spent on humancentered design thinking 13 , 39 group projects resulted in areas of health, social welfare, waste, transportation, energy, and water to be launched on the university campus, in the city, the province, the country, or internationally. In their sections, each group had 15 minutes to present their social problem and solution with an additional five minutes allocated at the end of the presentation for Q&A. ...
Article
Instructional design problems are one of the most complicated and ill-structured types of problems due to the dynamic nature of design problems and decision-making processes. Formulating instructional design solutions thereby requires teachers to possess adequate decision-making knowledge and skills and apply them to instructional design. This study investigated how pre-service teachers made formative instructional design decisions for technology integration. Through a formative design activity related to teaching and technology, the study identified factors that influenced pre-service teachers’ design decision-making for technology integration as well as instructional approaches that can help pre-service teachers make design decisions. Based on the analysis of pre-service teachers’ design journals, design artifacts, and survey results, we identified six themes in terms of design decision-making according to three metathemes: (a) emphasis on the design process, (b) collaborative design experiences, and (c) iterative decision-making during prototyping. Meanwhile, instructional approaches such as open-ended guiding questions, conjecture mapping, peer-reviewing, and reflective practices allowed pre-service teachers to take an active role in instructional design decision-making for technology integration. Implications for teacher education practices and instructional design decision-making are discussed.
Article
Bu çalışma ile otizmli çocukların giyinme/giydirilme sırasında, giysilerle ilgili yaşadıkları problemlerin belirlenmesi, bu problemlerin giderilmesi için annelere giysi modifikasyon tekniklerini uygulayabilme becerisi kazandırmak hedeflenmiştir. Araştırmanın evrenini, Türkiye’de yaşayan otizmli çocuk anneleri, amaçlı örneklemini ise İstanbul’da ikamet eden, Tohum Otizm Vakfı, OÇEM’ ler, MEB’e bağlı özel eğitim sınıflarında, Özel Eğitim ve Rehabilitasyon Merkezlerinde eğitim gören 6-12 yaş aralığında otizmli çocuğu olan ve araştırmaya gönüllü katılmayı kabul eden 10 anne oluşturmuştur. Annelere, otizmli çocuklarının giyinmelerini kolaylaştıracak fotoğraflı ve aşamalı giysi modifikasyon tekniklerini anlatan bir kılavuz (GİMUK) hazırlanmıştır. Kılavuzun tasarımı ve uygulamaları sebebiyle “tasarım tabanlı araştırma modeli” kullanılmıştır. Çevrimiçi ebeveyn anketiyle toplanan verilere göre her bir çocuğun ihtiyaçları özel olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Bu nedenle Tim Brown’un “İnovatif Alan Yaklaşımı” ve “Kullanıcı Merkezli Tasarım” modelleri tercih edilmiştir. Öncelikle çevrimiçi anket ile hangi giysi grubuna hangi tekniklerin uygulanacağı belirlenmiştir. Sonra hazırlanan GİMUK e-kılavuz’ a dönüştürülmüş ve annelerin incelemesine sunulmuştur. Çevrimiçi anket ile GİMUK’ daki uygulamaların otizmli çocuklara ve annelere katkısı olup olmadığı ölçülmüştür. Anketi cevaplayan anneler, GİMUK’ un otizmli çocukların giyinme/ giydirilme problemlerinin çözümüne katkı sağlayacağını belirtmişlerdir. Sonuç olarak GİMUK’ un, farklı giysi gruplarının da dahil edilerek, basılı hale getirilip çoğaltılmasının otizmli çocuğa sahip tüm anneler için ulaşılabilir ve daha çok kişi tarafından uygulanabilir olacağı düşünülmüştür.
Article
Background: Health inequalities are rooted in historically unjust differences in economic opportunity, environment, access to healthcare services, and other social determinants. As a result, the COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected underserved populations, notably people of color, incarcerated and formerly incarcerated individuals, and those unable to physically distance. However, people most heavily impacted by health disparities, and by the pandemic, are not frequently engaged in research, either as researchers or participants, resulting in slow progress towards improving health equity. Establishing ways to foster engagement of historically excluded people is crucial to improving health equity through patient-centered health research. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the use of equity-centered design thinking (EDT) to engage community members in research prioritization related to COVID-19. The co-design methods and subsequent production of a toolkit that can be used for engagement was assessed through process evaluation and qualitative methods. Methods: Process evaluation and qualitative inquiry, using reflexive thematic analysis, was undertaken to examine the use of equity centered design thinking. Patient community members and stakeholders partnered remotely with design and health researchers in a year-long digital process to co-create capacity building tools for research agenda-setting related to the impact of COVID-19 on health outcomes. Through a series of three workshops, five community partners engaged in equity-centered design thinking activities to identify critical issues for health and well-being of their communities. The subsequent tools were tested with health researchers who provided critical input over the course of two workshops. Interviews, project materials, and feedback sessions were used in process evaluation and finalization of an equity-centered toolkit for community engagement in research. Data from the co-design process, meetings, workshops and interviews, were also analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis to identify salient themes. Results: Process evaluation illustrated ways that the EDT co-design offered an approach to engage patient partners and community stakeholders in health-related research around COVID-19. Participants expressed satisfaction with design thinking approaches, including creative activities and iterative co-design, as a means of working together. Thematic analysis identified three key themes: the value of authentic partnerships, building trust and empathy through design, and fostering candid dialogue around health and social issues impacting historically underrepresented and underinvested communities. Conclusions: The project addressed a need to test EDT strategies for fostering inclusive community engagement in health research agenda-setting, and provided an alternative to traditional top-down models. Despite increasing use of human centered design in health, few projects explicitly include equity in design thinking approaches. The use of methods and tools to intentionally engage underrepresented stakeholders in the process of research agenda-setting, and equitably sharing power between researchers and community members, may improve health research, ultimately improving health equity.
Thesis
Ce travail doctoral par article traite des projets de conception de téléréhabilitation (TR) dans les maladies chroniques (MC) et plus particulièrement de la complexité et de la rigueur nécessaire dans la conception de la TR. La contribution majeure de la thèse concerne la proposition d’une nouvelle démarche scientifique actionnable, à partir des connaissances académiques croisées en Systèmes d’Information, en Marketing dans le secteur de la e-santé, permettant aux acteurs de terrain d’agir pour favoriser l’optimisation d’un projet de conception de TR. Concrètement, en identifiant ce qui a été évalué dans la TR puis en intégrant les parties prenantes et l’utilisateur patient, nous cherchions à savoir comment favoriser la réussite d’un projet de conception de TR. Pour ce faire, nous proposons tout d’abord d’avoir une vision d’ensemble des domaines et processus d’évaluation de la TR dans le contexte des MC. Dans le premier manuscrit, nous concluons sur des besoins de multidisciplinarité et d’exhaustivité dans l’évaluation de la TR et confirmons une faible attention portée sur la phase de conception de la TR. A ce titre, nous décidons alors d’approfondir le caractère complexe des projets de conception auquel sont confrontées les différentes parties prenantes. A l’aide d’une étude de cas sur un projet de conception d’un dispositif de téléréhabilitation auquel nous sommes engagés, nous présentons, dans le manuscrit 2 un exemple de défis rencontrés lorsque l’organisation est face à la persistance de paradoxe. Nous montrons que les différents acteurs inter-organisationnels, présents dans le projet de conception, font l’usage d’objets frontières quand le paradoxe, lié à la place du patient comme partie prenante dans la conception, persiste dans le temps. A l’issue d’une analyse approfondie des premiers résultats de cette étude de cas, nous identifions d’autres défis sur les projets dont sont confrontés les différentes parties prenantes. Nous exposons alors dans le manuscrit 3, la manière dont se construit la légitimité organisationnelle d’un projet de conception de TR, qui est une vision originale dans la compréhension d'un projet de conception TI. Nos données montrent notamment que la réparation de la légitimation se situe au niveau symbolique autour d’une partie prenante « dormante », le patient, créant ainsi une cohésion entre les acteurs du projet. Le quatrième manuscrit présente finalement un nouveau terrain de recherche, où le patient n’a pas été partie prenante dans la conception car celle-ci est mise en place dans une situation d’urgence sanitaire. Au sein d’un réseau de santé accompagnant des malades respiratoires chroniques, ce dernier travail de thèse, en cours d’élaboration, vise à présenter la façon dont le patient vit cette expérience de TR en post-implémentation. Notre attention est portée sur le parcours patient intégrant la TR avec un double objectif : d’une part, approfondir la compréhension de ce parcours en restituant l’« expérience » patient et, d’autre part, identifier l’impact sur le processus de conception d’un nouveau service de e-santé comme celui de la TR. La discussion de la thèse aborde les conditions de succès de la démarche scientifique interdisciplinaire, proposée par les travaux de cette thèse, le choix des situations sur laquelle elle s’applique et les perspectives de recherche qui en découlent.
Article
The COVID‐19 pandemic generated impacts on all segments of society, including the food industry, which had to adapt to the reality of greater demand and increased costs. During the pandemic period, the new Brazilian legislation on microbiological food standards came into force, demanding documentary evidence of the adequacy of production processes and food safety. Every day the need for international cooperation, local actions and agile working methods becomes more evident. The objective of this work was to engage professionals remotely to verify a new egg handling process in a food industry, where powdered eggs were replaced by the in natura form during the pandemic. A process description was developed with a flowchart and microbiological sampling plan to verify the process, using the Design Thinking method, conducted by videoconference by professionals from four microbiology laboratories together with professors, researchers and industry technicians. The analysis results proved the microbiological adequacy of the egg handling process. The method of remote decision‐making by Design thinking and the engagement of different laboratories and professionals intends to subsidize other food and food service industries, making it possible to structure the monitoring and verification of food processes, in an agile and economical way.
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Este trabalho é um diálogo entre três disciplinas relacionadas ao Design: os Métodos Ágeis, o Design Thinking e a Tecnologia Assistiva-as primeiras cada vez mais utilizadas, difundidas e aperfeiçoadas; e a última, que vem recebendo atenção devido à ampliação de público-alvo e suas demandas, mas que ainda compreende importantes lacunas a serem observadas. Buscaram-se pontos comuns e possíveis aplicações dos Métodos Ágeis e do Design Thinking com vistas a melhorar processos projetuais em Tecnologia Assistiva. Partiu-se de obras de referência relacionadas aos temas e de literatura identificada com a técnica Snowball Sampling. Foram identificadas convergências entre os assuntos, como a orientação à composição de equipes interdisciplinares e ao envolvimento dos usuários nos projetos, além de princípios e ferramentas utilizadas nas rotinas dos Métodos Ágeis e do Design Thinking, que podem contribuir com o desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços de Tecnologia Assistiva.
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The authors aim at revealing themes in this research field throughout the years between 1970 and 2016 by using the terms of social innovation and collaboration together. They apply co-citation analysis to find out the theoretical foundations of this recently emerged field. Thus, they obtain six clusters with different attributes, such as cross-sector partnerships in social innovation, the definition of social innovation, transition studies, social entrepreneurship, innovation studies, and inter-organizational relations.
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The Connection to Care (C2C) project, a transdisciplinary work-in-progress, employs community-engaged participatory research and design methods at the nexus of policy adaptation and product innovations. C2C aims to advance practices that identify and leverage the critical junctures at which people with substance use disorder (SUD) seek lifesaving services and treatment, utilizing stakeholder input in all stages of design and development. Beginning in the Fall of 2018, members of our research team engaged with those at the forefront of the addiction crisis, including first responders, harm reduction and peer specialists, treatment providers, and individuals in recovery and in active substance use in a community greatly impacted by SUD. Through this engagement, the concept for programs and products representing a connection to care emerged, including the design of a backpack to meet the needs of individuals with SUD and those experiencing homelessness. From 2020 to 2022, more than 1,200 backpacks with lifesaving and self-care supplies have been distributed in local communities, as one component of the overall C2C initiative. The backpack is a recognized symbol of the program and has served as an impetus for further program and policy explorations, including as a lens to better understand the role of ongoing stigma. Though addiction science has evolved significantly in the wake of the opioid epidemic, artifacts of policies and practices that criminalize and stigmatize SUD remain as key challenges. This paper explains the steps that C2C has taken to address these challenges, and to empower a community that cares.
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The B374 project: “Integrated Management of Design and Innovation. Contributions for a theoretical-conceptual and methodological review", was accredited by the National University of La Plata as a 2020 Biennial Research and Development Project and responds to the need to survey, analyze and form a base of new theories, concepts, categories and definitions related to design and innovation management, focusing attention on three main axes: marketing, local development and entrepreneurship; which will be transversally analyzed by the approaches: education, profession, and research. RESUMEN. El proyecto B374: “Gestión Integrada de Diseño e Innovación. Contribuciones para una revisión teórico-conceptual y metodológica”, fue acreditado por la Universidad Nacional de La Plata como Proyecto de Investigación y Desarrollo Bienal 2020 y responde a la necesidad de relevar, analizar y conformar una base de nuevas teorías, conceptos, categorías y definiciones relacionadas con la gestión del diseño y la innovación, centrando la atención en tres ejes principales: marketing, desarrollo local y emprendedorismo; los cuales serán transversalmente analizados por los enfoques: educación, profesión, e investigación.
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Partiendo de la evolución histórica del paradigma de la Administración, se busca demostrar cómo, a partir de nuevas teorías, hechos y paradigmas, el diseño de políticas públicas ha evolucionado de un modelo top-down a un diseño bottom-up, abandonando el modelo weberiano de Administración pública. De este modo y en el marco del paradigma del gobierno abierto, el diseño y la implementación de políticas públicas se apoyan en distintas disciplinas para cumplir los objetivos propuestos de transparencia, participación y colaboración. Es así como las metodologías de pensamiento de diseño se presentan como una posibilidad de mejora continua y creación de valor público.
Article
The effectiveness of design thinking (DT) education is increasingly demonstrated; it allows teachers to face complex challenges in their day-to-day work. However, few teachers have training in this discipline. This study presents the ‘Think-Create-Teach’ (TCT) methodology to help preservice teachers to create instructional materials guided by DT. The TCT methodology is applied and assessed through quantitative methods in a project-based learning subject with 56 preservice teachers (experimental group). Subsequently, the work processes and instructional materials developed by the experimental group were compared to a control group of 52 preservice teachers who did not use TCT. The quantitative results were supported with qualitative methods to understand the reasoning behind. This paper demonstrates the TCT contribution to designing better instructional materials, its integration into the teaching curriculum, its validity as design training, and its ability to help teachers answer today's changing education. This paper shows that design discipline and the methodology proposed have a relevant role in the training of preservice teachers.
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In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using design thinking for business model innovation. However, few studies have explored the application, potential and challenges of design thinking from a comprehensive perspective. In order to better understand how design thinking can contribute to business model innovation, this paper regards business model innovation as a subject of design research and provides a critical review of researchers’ explorations of how to apply design thinking for business model innovation. In light of the literature review, this paper distils seven key design research themes: (1) design thinking as a mindset and a methodology; (2) designers of business models; (3) design activities for business model innovation; (4) design tools for business model innovation; (5) design approaches for business model innovation; (6) co-creation of new products, services and business models, and (7) evaluating and measuring the impact of design thinking. The themes not only highlight the potential of applying design thinking as a necessary mindset and methodology to business model innovation, but also emphasise the nature of designing as a social process.
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In Africa, where strained economies have failed to address harsh social conditions, Social Innovation can be viewed as the response to achieve large-scale positive societal transformation. In this chapter, we question our understanding of social innovation drivers in African economies. Given the specific constraints of the continent, we propose a conceptual partnership-based framework to enable the creation of an ecosystem for social innovation emergence and growth. We confront the proposed framework to contextual data from Morocco and conclude that it successfully captures the dynamics that help unleash social innovation’s potential to create sustainable and inclusive development in the region.
Article
Objectives To report a design-thinking approach to a user-centred agenda-setting tool for use in type 2 diabetes clinics. Methods The study followed design-thinking phases: emphasizing, defining, and ideating an intervention, followed by iterative user-testing of prototypes. It was conducted at a Danish diabetes center using observations, interviews, workshops, focus groups, and questionnaires. Results Nurses wanted to put more emphasis on agenda-setting in status visits. During brainstorms the idea of using illustrated cards that listed key agenda topics was proposed and became the goal of this research. Adopting a design-thinking approach provided the basis for developing prototypes for iterative user-testing that led to a version that was acceptable to stakeholders. The resulting tool, Conversation Cards, was a set of cards that listed and illustrated seven key topics that were considered important to consider during diabetes status visits. Conclusion The goal of the Conversation Card intervention is to support collaborative agenda-setting in diabetes status visits. Further evaluation is needed to determine the utility and acceptability of the tool to nurses and to people with diabetes in routine settings. Innovation This novel tool is designed to trigger agenda-setting conversations and thereby prioritize individuals' choice of topics to talk about during diabetes status visits.
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Indpur, in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh, is home to naturally grown Moringa Oleifera (MO) trees. Widely known for its health benefits, MO can be a sustainable source of livelihood for rural communities, provided a user-centric affordable technology is adopted by the community. This study is in continuation to the human-centric research focused on sparse income opportunities for women conducted at Indpur. This study was focused on the enhancement of the native resident’s awareness of the promising Moringa plant as a rich source of nutrition and medicinal benefits, while also assessing the community needs in terms of intervention design. Co-design methodology was conducted with Indpur’s women. The outcome, supplemented by a literature-based comparative study, helped to zero in on Hammer Mill grinding process for powdering the Moringa plant. The study involved developing a rough prototype of Hammer Mill on-field by which the participants were able to visualize the design. The study concludes with an overview of Hammer Mill technology. The study was relevant to achievement of the following United Nation’s (UN) SDGs at the local level—SDG 5, SDG 8, and SDG 17.KeywordsCo-designIncome generationIndpurLive-in-Labs®Moringa OleiferaSustainable development
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The new coronavirus, which produces a highly contagious sickness, enters the picture. Globally, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has boosted the use of Internet commerce. It has resulted in an increase in the number of FTUs, or first-time e-commerce users, in India, who were previously unable to purchase online. Customers are depending on Amazon more than ever before in their social isolation and self-quarantine attempts, according to Amazon, one of the country’s and the world’s major e-commerce businesses (https://retail.economictimes.indiatimes.com/re-tales/impact-of-covid-19-on-onlineshopping-in-india/4115). The goal of this study is to determine the elements that influence customers’ online purchases of mobile phones, as well as how that practice has altered since the global COVID-19 outbreak. An online survey was done, and data were gathered from primary sources to interpret the objectives. The goal of the study is to figure out how successful online advertising is at raising awareness and what the link is between Internet advertising and purchasing decisions.KeywordsCovid-19E-commerceMarketingConsumer choiceInternet advertising
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One of the greatest challenges in today’s world is to satisfy the energy needs of a growing population, in a sustainable way. In Developing countries, actual electrification of rural areas is hindered by high costs and unreliability of service, which often discourage rural communities to avail energy services even when they are available. This study aimed at better understanding the energy struggle of Indian rural communities, and propose efficient technological solutions to address it. Taking the case of a community located in the Himalaya region, a field based, participatory and bottom-up approach is taken to assess the community needs, expectations, and actual resources. A prototype of solar panel using machine learning-assisted automatic sun tracker system is proposed to provide sustainable and affordable electricity to the community.KeywordsRural electrificationSustainable developmentRural IndiaLive-in-Labs®
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Since China actively joined the globalization process, industrialization and urbanization have brought economic development to China’s traditional rural areas, but at the same time, many problems have also arisen. Among them, the problems faced by rural areas where ethnic minorities live in compact communities are more severe. Besides the common problems in rural areas, they also need to face the decline and disappearance of ethnic culture. The design and social innovation of rural areas and ethnic minority settlements have attracted scholars from many fields to study and practice. In 2013, we formed an interdisciplinary team to cooperate with Guangxi’s ethnic management agencies to carry out a series of social innovation practices in many places in Guangxi, China, this paper explores the development model of local social innovation and promotes the sustainable development of local society. Based on the Internet platform application service thinking design and product-service system design method, a new model is established to promote the local economic development and protect and inherit the national culture characteristic. The experiences, sustainability and discussed methods in this paper provide reference for the practice and research of different social innovation and social lessons.KeywordsSocial innovationService designProduct service systemNational culture
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China’s hyper-speed modernisation process generates complex problems demanding new approaches to designing equitable, integrated, liveable, urban and rural places. The Chinese hinterland city of Chongqing’s vast urban and rural area provides rich opportunities for investigating how art and design can help address related liveability and place-making challenges. This research aims to use Sino-Australian co-design to test how participatory urban media (large and small interactive screens, installations, façades, and devices) can act as a dialogic interface between diverse community, industry, and government stakeholders to increase our capacity to manage regional urban place-making problems. Our paper presents three empirical perspectives critically reflecting on a two-day co-design workshop conducted in Chongqing during December 2019 prior to the COVID19 pandemic. Informed by our own observations, and insights contributed by participating urban planners, architects, artists, designers, local government, academics, and students, we take a multi-vocal approach to evaluating the workshop methods, outcomes, and interactions. The unfolding narrative illustrates how transcultural and interdisciplinary co-design processes are entangled in language, local knowledge and traditions, socio-cultural hierarchies, different disciplinary fields and levels of professional status, as well as assumed Western design histories and local understandings of the role of art and design in relation to society. We argue these factors also influence the presentation of knowledge in academic writing about design. This highlights the urgent need for pluriversal modes of co-design, research through design, and scholarship about design which can inclusively impact and respond to the diverse needs of the new international situation and our shared urban futures.KeywordsSino-Australian co-designChongqingUrban mediaPlace-makingParticipatory design
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The world is changing, so are the demands on the Design industry, from businesses, and society as a whole. Design fundamentally is about change as it responds to the external environment to identify opportunities to create new design activities and outcomes. Consequently, design (in theory and practice) tends to elevate its role as a catalyst for change, influencing strategic decisions, producing clear visions, shared beliefs, and values, and the models, methods, and tools to innovate with an emphasis on a systemic, whole-system interpretation of sustainable development. Why is it that Design professionals and Design academics don't exchange their knowledge for the common good? In this paper, therefore, a central objective is to build an argument for why the value of Design in business, and its economics thinking and approach in management, need a common purpose system view to tackle this century's technological, ethical, social, and ecological challenges. In the end, Design is seen as complex, while designers advocate for specific capabilities to innovate by making things simple and better. To achieve a common ground, we refer to Donella Meadows’ definition of a system and to the literature on the Design industry. We use her model to draw a simple form that brings together all parts of design activity, practice, or theory in order to develop a collective vision and help the understanding of the Design industry's purpose, ethics, and responsibility for a life-centred future.KeywordsDesign industryDoughnut economicsSystems theoryDesign valueDesign in businessStrategic design
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Design thinking is a powerful tool to boost team performance and it was viewed as a team-based creative process. In addition, past research has shown that individual characteristics of personality traits (i.e., the Big-Five Model) were the most key factor to determine successful team performance. However, there is a lack of research to probe the relationship between team personality propensity and team performance. This research aimed to investigate the team personality traits composition from the individual level to group level by applying experimental manipulation in the design thinking course practices. As a result, we found the convergence effect of team personality propensity occurred in order to facilitate team process-performance, and thus influenced the overall team performance.KeywordsPersonality traitsTeam personality propensityTeam performanceConvergence effectDesign thinking
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The paper explores the innovation model from the perspective of design for social innovation by case study and literature research. The study proposes the “Five Helix” innovation model by the government, industry, NGO/NPO, research institution, and citizen, discusses the role of the stakeholders and participation motivation, and presents the features of the “Five Helix” innovation model. The approaches discussed and lessons learned in this paper provides a starting point for the practice and research of the innovation model of design for social innovation.KeywordsDesign for social innovationInnovation modelStakeholderRoleMotivation
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Contemporary residential contexts are characterized by new ICT products and services, which collect data about user behaviours. These data are rarely used to develop services for user or community well-being. By contrast, designers typically focus on these goals in contemporary design. An analysis using Systemic Design tools was carried out to understand the type of data flow that is generated by users in contemporary living contexts, to identify the main stakeholders of this data flow, and to highlight the main problems of data collection for the users, the community, and the local area. This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research, highlighting its most important problem which designer must solve to realize the right user-generated data flow system in contemporary living contexts.
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