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Most of the researches in Pakistan are concerned with the aetiological factors of drug addiction among the youth. However, few studies seek to explore the social aspects of this phenomenon. The present study aimed to explore the role of family, the influence of parental involvement, and communication styles in youth's drug addiction in a qualitative manner. Twenty drug addicts (age range 18-28 years) were taken as a sample from drug rehabilitation centres in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. A structured interview guide was administered comprising questions related to the individual's habits, relationship with family and friends, and modes of communication within the family. Case profiles of the participants were also taken. The rehabilitation centres offered family therapy and the researcher, as a non-participant, observed these sessions as part of the analysis. The demographic information revealed that majority of the participants were poly-substance abusers (80%) and the significant reasons for starting drugs were the company of peers and curiosity. The thematic analysis revealed parental involvement and emotional expressiveness as two major components in family communication. It was found that parents were concerned about their children, but were not assertive in the implementation of family rules. It was also found that the major life decisions of the participants were taken by their parents, which is a characteristic of collectivist Pakistani society.
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Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine: an Open
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An exploratory research on the role of family in
youth's drug addiction
Sobia Masood & Najam Us Sahar
To cite this article: Sobia Masood & Najam Us Sahar (2014) An exploratory research on the role
of family in youth's drug addiction, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine: an Open Access
Journal, 2:1, 820-832, DOI: 10.1080/21642850.2014.939088
To link to this article:
© 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor &
Published online: 20 Aug 2014.
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An exploratory research on the role of family in youths drug addiction
Sobia Masood*and Najam Us Sahar
Department of Behavioral Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
(Received 23 October 2013; accepted 11 June 2014)
Most of the researches in Pakistan are concerned with the aetiological factors of drug addiction
among the youth. However, few studies seek to explore the social aspects of this phenomenon.
The present study aimed to explore the role of family, the inuence of parental involvement,
and communication styles in youths drug addiction in a qualitative manner. Twenty drug
addicts (age range 1828 years) were taken as a sample from drug rehabilitation centres in
Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. A structured interview guide was administered
comprising questions related to the individuals habits, relationship with family and friends,
and modes of communication within the family. Case proles of the participants were also
taken. The rehabilitation centres offered family therapy and the researcher, as a non-
participant, observed these sessions as part of the analysis. The demographic information
revealed that majority of the participants were poly-substance abusers (80%) and the
signicant reasons for starting drugs were the company of peers and curiosity. The thematic
analysis revealed parental involvement and emotional expressiveness as two major
components in family communication. It was found that parents were concerned about their
children, but were not assertive in the implementation of family rules. It was also found that
the major life decisions of the participants were taken by their parents, which is a
characteristic of collectivist Pakistani society.
Keywords: drug addiction; Pakistani youth; rehabilitation; parental involvement; emotional
expressiveness; family therapy in Pakistan
1. Introduction
Drug abuse is a prevalent problem among Pakistans youth, who account for 28% of the whole
population of Pakistan (Niaz, Siddiqui, Hassan, Ahmed, & Akhtar, 2005; Royen & Sathar,
2013; United Nations Ofce on Drugs and Crime [UNODC] (2013)). According to the recent
report by UNODC and Pakistan Bureau of Statistics in 2013, an estimated 6.45 million of the
population in Pakistan use drugs on an annual basis with cannabis being the most commonly
used drug.
Among the youth population, nearly 25% are involved in some form of drug abuse. Among the
youngest drug users, between the ages of 15 and 19 years, the most commonly used drug is can-
nabis. Compared to other national estimates, opiate use is very high with one million people using
heroin or opium. The use of Sheesha
with cannabis (charas) and other drugs is a new emerging
trend and is being abused by both males and females, mostly from the upper socio-economic strata
living in the posh areas of cities (Ministry of Narcotics Control, Islamabad, Year Book, 2012).
© 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.
*Corresponding author. Email:
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (
licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
cited. The moral rights of the named author(s) have been asserted.
Health Psychology & Behavioural Medicine, 2014
Vol. 2, No. 1, 820832,
Availability of substances such as cannabis is determined culturally. The community and gov-
ernment inuence and decide which drugs should be controlled and how. Under Pakistani law,
shop owners cannot legally sell drugs, even cigarettes, to individuals below 18 years of age,
but people tend to nd ways to get around the law. In a number of studies of substance abuse
in the developing world, drug use has been characterized by the use of low-priced and accessible
drugs, such as cannabis, alcohol, and tobacco, and volatiles, such as glue (United Nations Inter-
national Childrens Emergency Fund, as cited in Sherman, Plitt, Hassan, Cheng, & Zafar, 2005).
The effects of substance abuse have far-reaching consequences. They not only affect the user
him/herself, but also their families, and society as a whole. The work sector loses able-bodied
individuals, which in turn affects the economy. The familys role in the development of substance
abuse is unique as the family simultaneously suffers from the direct consequences of the abuse,
while also holding the potential to be one of the most powerful protective inuences against it.
In supporting efforts to control drug-related problems in the country, the rehabilitation centres
in Pakistan mostly focus on culturally adapted rehabilitation techniques. Common therapies used
in rehabilitation centres include a modied version of the Alcoholics Anonymous treatment and
family therapy. Most of these rehabilitation centres are present in the urban areas and they recruit
psychologists and psychiatrists to work in these facilities.
Multiple drug use among young people is now a widespread phenomenon prevalent in almost
all sections of society. A large number of young people, both male and female, experiment with a
variety of illegal substances such as cannabis products (such as Hash/Hashish and marijuana),
cocaine, and heroin. Drug abuse among the youth of Pakistan is becoming a major
issue, and identifying the family dynamics and interfamily communication styles that may inu-
ence a youth to turn to drugs is the target of this article.
1.1. Family dynamics
Pakistan is a collectivistic culture in which the family is given priority as social and nancial
support is coveted. Family is the core for need fullment. This is why joint families prevail in
which grandparents, parents, children, and their uncles and aunts all live together. Members
make major life decisions with the approval from elders of the family as they are the primary
support network.
Family dynamics can be dened as the way a family is structured including the individual
interpersonal roles played by the members within the family unit. Family dynamics is the basis
for all individuals to learn how to cope with the challenges they might face in later life. Parental
support and unconditional positive regard strengthen self-esteem and self-condence, and their
absence reduces them.
Drug abuse is often referred to as a family issue because of the serious negative consequences
of addiction and because the importance of recovery affects not only the substance abuser, but
also all the members of the family. Therefore a focus on the role of families is critical in under-
standing and preventing the destructive intergenerational cycle of substance abuse and addiction.
According to the ndings of Bahr, Maughan, Marcos, and Lis(1998) study, the parentado-
lescent bond has indirect effects through religiosity, and family drug use. It was found that among
family variables the two major variables were for bond to mother, followed by family drug
problem. Bond to father, parental monitoring, and family aggression were relatively weak predic-
tors of adolescent drug use. Since the bond to mother is stronger, adolescents feel closer to them
and share their daily life routine, thus communicating frequently with their mothers. In Pakistani
society a strong bond to mother is observed as fathers are seen as the authority gure. Poor com-
munication within the family unit affects an individuals indulgence in drug abuse.
Health Psychology & Behavioural Medicine 821
The ndings from Manley, Searight, Skitka, Russo, and Schudys(1991) study found that the
families of adolescent drug abusers were more reserved in their expression of thoughts and feel-
ings. As fathers in Pakistani society are responsible for discipline, they are seen as less warm and
as such communicating on a one-on-one basis can prove to be a little difcult. Out of the many
conicts within a family, the lack of problem-solving abilities, interactions, and communication
are related to further addiction (Hosseinbor, Bakshani, & Shakiba, 2012; Sajida, Zia, & Irfan,
The objective of this study was to explore the role of family, the inuence of parental involve-
ment, and communication styles in youth drug addiction.
2. Methodology
2.1. Participants
The participants included in the study were substance abusers seeking treatment from validated
rehabilitation centres. The participants were selected through purposive sampling technique
from rehabilitation centres which were offering family therapy sessions, and where the clients
were residing in the facilities for a minimum of three months in order to facilitate detoxication.
All the participants were males between the ages of 18 and 28 years old and were being treated in
various drug rehabilitation centres in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.
The present research was conducted on 20 individuals who had an understanding of their
dependency. A preliminary study was conducted which helped in building rapport with the par-
ticipants. It also helped the researcher in identifying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Partici-
pants were excluded from the study if they were in an active phase of mental disorders such as
bipolar disorder, depression, or stable schizophrenia.
The facilities from which the data were collected were offering family therapy sessions con-
ducted by trained psychologists. These sessions were attended by immediate family members of
the individuals admitted for substance abuse. The family members included in the therapy ses-
sions were mostly the parents and wives of the clients. These sessions were attended by the
researcher with permission from the facility as well as the family members.
2.2. Instruments
2.2.1. Demographic data sheet
A demographic data sheet was used to collect data regarding the age, family income, family
system, siblings, marital status, family system, familial illnesses, as well as data regarding the sub-
stance abused, frequency of abuse, relapses, and the beginning of the addiction (Table 1).
2.2.2. Interview guide
A structured interview guide was constructed consisting of questions referring to the individuals
habits, relationship with family and friends, modes of communication within the family as well as
the social aspects of their lives. The interview guide was adapted and extended from the Family
Functioning Style Scale by Deal, Trivette, and Dunst (1988) and Dunst, Trivette, and Deal (1988).
2.2.3. Observation technique
It was a practice in the rehabilitation centres to hold family therapy sessions. The family therapy
sessions were conducted by three consultant psychologists of the facility, at different times, and
822 S. Masood and N. Us Sahar
were attended by three to ve members of the participants family, which included the parents and
spouses. Consent was obtained from the psychologists and the attending family members for the
researcher to attend the sessions herself as a non-participant observer. The data collected from
therapy sessions were in the form of eld notes.
Additionally, informal discussions were held with the participants, the psychologists, and
some of the family members present in the facility during the preliminary study. These discus-
sions helped the researcher in rapport-building and in understanding the setting of the session.
The researcher made case proles of the individuals which helped in formulating a compre-
hensive picture of the particular individual and in the corroboration of the information collected in
the focus group discussions during the family therapy sessions (Table 2).
2.3. Procedure
Data were collected from rehabilitation centres which were sanctioned by the Anti-Narcotics
Force of Pakistan in the vicinity of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Some government and private
institutions offer family therapy along with rehabilitation of drug addicts which is why these
specic centres were selected. The interviews took a minimum of 3040 minutes each. The
data were collected over a period of four weeks in the form of notes. Research ethics were fol-
lowed as the researcher took consent from the participant in the form of signatures on a
consent form.
The data collected were then translated from the native language, Urdu, into English. The
themes were generated based on the common responses by participants.
The researcher used the interpretive paradigm to code the verbatim responses collected from
the participants. A master code sheet was created on the basis of themes identied in Family
Table 1. Frequency and Percentage of participants demographic variables (age, education, marital status,
family system, birth order, occupation, mother, and father).
Variable Label Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
Age 1822 years 3 15.0
2328 years 17 85.0
Education Uneducated 2 10.0
Up to fth grade 5 25.0
Up to tenth grade 9 45.0
College level 4 20.0
Marital status Single/unmarried 9 45.0
Married 8 40.0
Separated/divorced 2 10.0
Widowed 1 5.0
Family system Joint 15 75.0
Nuclear 5 25.0
Birth Order First born 2 10.0
Middle born 14 70.0
Last born 4 20.0
Occupation Employed 14 70.0
Unemployed 6 30.0
Mother Alive 18 90.0
Deceased 2 10.0
Father Alive 12 60.0
Deceased 8 40.0
Note: (N= 20).
Health Psychology & Behavioural Medicine 823
Functioning Style scale (Dunst et al., 1988). The researcher continued to code the responses while
conducting interviews and observing the interaction between family members during the sessions.
Consensus was reached through committee approach during analysis.
Coding was applied to the responses pertaining to communication styles, social relationships,
and family dynamics. Subcategorization was done based upon the patientsresponses and then
counterchecked with the psychologists and families. The coding was then subjected to a peer
review process which involved the researchers and two anthropologists in order to facilitate
inter-coder reliability. (Table 3)
3. Results
The numerical data regarding the demographic characteristics showed that the majority of the par-
ticipants (85%) were within the age range of 2328 years; 45% were unmarried, 40% were
married, 10% were separated or divorced, and 5% were widowed. It was found that majority
of the participants (75%) lived in a joint family system, while 25% lived in a nuclear family
system. The majority of the participants (45%) were educated up to and above the tenth grade,
and all the participants were living with their parents. According to the demographics, both
parents of the majority (60%) of the participants were alive.
The drug-related questions revealed that the majority of the participants (80%) were poly-sub-
stance abusers, and 45% had been abusing drugs for over 10 years. A relapse ratio was estimated
by the number of treatments received by individuals from various facilities. Of the participants,
65% had received treatments 15 times, 30% were being treated for the rst time, and 5% had
received treatments 19 times, indicating a high rate of relapse which can be linked to dysfunction
within the family that can be seen in the following analysis. One respondent, who had relapsed
three times and was in the facility for his fourth treatment, stated that he had relapsed because
of ghts with his father.
Table 2. Frequency and percentage of participants according to demographic variables of drug use,
duration of drug use, single substance or multiple substance abuse, number of treatments, and reasons for
starting drugs.
Variables Label Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
Drug use Single 4 20.0
Multiple 16 80.0
Duration of abuse Less than a year 0 0
15 years 3 15.0
610 years 8 40.0
>10 years 9 45.0
Substance abused Single 4 20.0
Multiple 16 80.0
No. of treatments received First 6 30.0
15 times 13 65.0
610 times 0 0
1115 times 0 0
1620 times 1 5.0
Reasons for drugs Single 10 50.0
Multiple 10 50.0
Multiple reasons reported by the respondents Friends 5 25.0
Accident 1 5.0
Curiosity 4 20.0
Note: (N= 20).
824 S. Masood and N. Us Sahar
Referring to the reasons which caused the participants to become involved in substance abuse,
50% cited a single reason while the other 50% stated multiple reasons, of which the company of
peers (indicating peer pressure), curiosity, and stress were commonly cited.
3.1. Thematic analysis
In analyzing the responses and information provided by the participants and veried by family
members and psychologists during family therapy sessions, the following themes and related sub-
categories presented themselves.
3.1.1. Parental involvement
This theme contains information about family dynamics in terms of functions performed by all
members, as well as information concerning family cohesion, communication patterns, familial
support, decision-making, parental control, and supervision, among other topics.
Spending time with family members. Spending time with family is important. The majority of par-
ticipants (80%) stated that they communicated frequently with their parents on a regular basis, i.e.
every day, and whenever they had time to do so. As one respondent specically stated:
Whenever I get the time I talk to my parents
Only 20% of the participants stated that they seldom communicated with their parents. A majority
(70%) of the participants stated that they spent more time with their mothers rather than their
fathers, e.g. a respondent stated:
Table 3. Case studies.
Initials Age
No. of
treatments Reason given
Mr Z.A. 21 1st Peers
Mr S. 26 1st Death of elder brother
Mr F. 21 1st Curiosity, peers
Mr T. 25 1st Peers
Mr M.A. 23 2nd Peers, free time
Mr A.A. 28 2nd Peers
Mr S.A.M. 28 1st Curiosity
Mr R.W. 28 2nd Peers
Mr SM 28 2nd Peers
Mr A. 27 1st Peers
Mr R.U. 28 1st Authoritarian father, psycho-social stressors,
victim of child abuse
Mr N.M. 23 4th Due to injury sustained in an accident
Mr K. 28 3rd Peers
Mr A. 27 1st Peers
Mr S.S. 22 1st Peers
Mr N. 23 1st As a mistake
Mr D. 28 19th Curiosity
Mr R. 26 3rd Peers
Mr N.I. 28 4th Peers
Health Psychology & Behavioural Medicine 825
My mother liked spending time with me. My father didnt.
Over half (55%) of the participants stated that they were closer to their mother than their father,
which can be explained through the cultural context as in Pakistan fathers are reserved in their
affections towards their children.
Mode of communication with parents. Another sub-theme was the mode of communication with
parents, 55% of the participants stated that they communicated with both parents on a one-on-one
basis. In relation to communicating with the father, 15% stated that they did communicate with
their father on one-on-one basis, but also used another family member as mediator (usually the
mother). One of the reasons given by the participants was that the fathers were not willing to
listen to the individuals; hence they approached the mother, e.g. a respondent stated:
My father never bothered to listen to what I had to say. So I told my mother my opinion and she later
conveyed it to my father.
This statement explored the problems in family communication which was further explored and
the following reasons were reported by the participants. One of the reported barriers to effective
communication is the refusal to talk. Though the parents were not reported to ignore their chil-
dren, 60% of the participants reported that when they were angry, the parents stopped communi-
cation in order to avoid further conict.
When I became angry while being intoxicated, my parents stopped talking to me.
The reasons given for arguments were not agreeing on certain things and being beaten, along with
siblings, by the father, e.g. a respondent stated:
Yes, when my father used to beat me and my siblings, my mother used to scream at him to top hitting
Out of the total participants, 65% reported no incidence of arguments involving yelling with
parents. However, 35% of them reported frequent arguments with fathers. Moreover, they
reported their fathers yelling at them frequently. During an interview, a respondent stated:
Frequently, my father used to yell at me, hit and scream at me
Range of issues being discussed with parents. All the participants were aware of the prescribed
family rules such as mobility, social circles, and expenditures; hence the breaking of the rules
826 S. Masood and N. Us Sahar
incited the parentsdisapproval. This can be connected to the parentsattempt at controlling the
negative behaviour of the participants. Almost all the participants agreed upon the activities dis-
liked by their parents such as the use of drugs, coming home late, not listening to their parents
advice, spending money on drugs, selection of friends, refusal to go to school, and poor academic
performance. However, it was found that these rules were not put into practice because the parents
were not assertive in their implementation.
My parents dont like my friends. They tell me to leave them.
Most of the participants reported a consensus on major decisions such as choice of life partner,
career, and academics. Seventy per cent of the participants agreed that their parents knew how
they felt and thought about any given situation.
Theyre parents. Of course they know what Im thinking and feeling. They can always tell
Pertaining to the communication links between the individuals and their family, 50% of the par-
ticipants stated that they could discuss anything with both their parents. They were given the
freedom to express their opinions and their advice was sought. Only 15% of the participants
stressed that they discussed issues more with their father than their mother, another 15% of the
participants stated that they used to discuss their problems with both of the parents before
being involved in substance abuse, but afterwards they were more comfortable discussing their
problems with an elder sibling (usually a brother) as evident from the following statement:
I can discuss every problem with my parents. I dont because then theyll get worried. So I go to my
elder brother for guidance.
Referring to the parentsapproval of the friends of the participants, a majority of the participants
(65%) stated that their parents did not approve of their peers as they feared that their children
would get into bad habits such as substance abuse.
My father never liked my friends. He was afraid I would get into bad habits like substance abuse or
drinking alcohol.
Pertaining to parentsknowledge of their whereabouts, 75% of the participants reported that their
parents were aware.
Yes, my father knew where I was. He had spies everywhere. He used to drop by when I least expected
him to, to check up on me.
Health Psychology & Behavioural Medicine 827
Of the participants, 15% stated that their parents had no idea about their childs social life. A
respondent, upon being asked about his parents knowledge of his whereabouts, reported:
No. Only when I needed money from them did I tell them where I was going. Otherwise no one knew
where I was or with whom.
The choice of selecting their own life partner is an important aspect where communication dis-
crepancies can be brought to the surface. It can also be one of the major causes of drug addiction
as reported by participants. In a collective culture like Pakistan, life partner selection is mostly
done by the family as the family provides nancial, social, and moral support. This is why
most people prefer arranged marriages. In the present study, out of the 40% of married partici-
pants, two-thirds of them had arranged marriages. One of the advantages of an arranged marriage
is social compatibility, where both families work together to keep harmony. Of the total partici-
pants, 75% reported that their opinion on family issues were held in regard and respected. They
stated that their parents were ultimately responsible for making all the decisions.
All participants were focused on their future goals, which included quitting drugs, getting married,
reuniting with their spouses, and nding secure jobs to support their families. The decision-making
is inuenced by family support and it is this social support which helps in future planning.
Emotional expression. In this section the participants reported the characteristics of their com-
munication styles with their families. The data within this section help in exploring the gaps per-
ceived by the participants in communicating with their families which could possibly lead to
conict and may provide insight into their addiction.
Using profanities. Sixty per cent of the participants admitted to using profane language generally,
which is one of the common characteristics of problematic communication style. Thirty-ve per
cent of them admitted to using profane language with their family, but only under the inuence of
drugs or alcohol, e.g. a respondent stated:
Yes [I curse] sometimes. When I was under the inuence of drugs I used to curse.
They used profanities in conversations with their friends as well as in response to situations. The
rest of the participants denied using profane language.
Being good listeners & speakers. All participants agreed that they were good listeners with whom
family and friends could discuss various problems. They also felt that they were good speakers,
being clear in their expression and maintaining eye contact. However, it was observed that 15% of
the respondents mumbled while conversing with the researcher.
Assertiveness. A majority of the participants reported themselves to be assertive and expressive;
however, discrepancies were found amongst the statements given by the participants pertaining to
communication with their parents and friends. The participants stated outright that they were
assertive, that they were able to say noto a decision taken by their family, and that they took
responsibility for their actions. However, upon conversing with the researcher, some participants
negated this statement. As recorded, a participant, upon being asked if he expressed his feelings in
828 S. Masood and N. Us Sahar
regard to a given situation, stated:
No. My parents make all the decisions.
Expression of negative emotions and arguments. Ten per cent of the participants stated that they
used drugs as a means to express themselves. They viewed substance abuse as an escape from
reality. Upon being asked how they expressed their negative emotions, most of the participants
(80%) stated that they yelled and shouted.
Presenting Nervous Tics. Forty-ve per cent of the participants reported nervous tics such as nail
biting, smoothing hands over their lips, and playing with their hair. This might be due to the side
effects of the drugs or the medication used in the treatment. One of the reasons stated by a par-
ticipant was that because he used heroin in panni (silver paper), the skin under his nails blackened
and thus biting his nails became a habit.
Yes, I used to bite my nails. That was when I used to use heroin in panni. The skin under my nails used
to be blackened hence I bit my nails out of habit.
The aforementioned analysis revealed parental involvement and emotional expressiveness as two
major components in family communication. It has been further revealed that culture plays an
important role in family dynamics with reference to the major life decisions being taken.
Another aspect identied was the presence of physical abuse in the family. With reference to
the communication style, it has been noted that the elements of respect and emotional expressive-
ness have been present. This will be further discussed in the following section.
4. Discussion
It was found by the researchers that all the participants unanimously agreed in their communi-
cation styles stating that they were assertive, good listeners, and future-oriented. However, it
was found that there were discrepancies among the participantsviews and the observations of
the researcher and the psychologists involved in their rehabilitation. The participants sometimes
refused to make eye contact and were not clear in their verbal expression, i.e. they mumbled
answers, which may be due to the effect of the medications they are given for their treatment.
It is the understanding of the researcher, as well as the consulted psychologists, that these dis-
crepancies can be attributed to denial. In the case of drug abuse, impaired insight causes what is
referred to as denial. Denial of addiction is a common, if not a core, feature of most substance-
use disorders and has been conceptualized as a psychological phenomenon (Rinn, Desai, Rosen-
blatt, & Gastfriend, 2002). The rst step of treatment is the confrontation of this denial, as
reported by the psychologists.
The ndings of the present research are consistent with previous researches which stated that
the family of a drug addict plays an important role as the causal or aetiological factor for the addic-
tion itself. The main problem reported was with authoritarian fathers and submissive mothers, as
well as lack of communication between parents and children, particularly with their fathers and
during conicts. This has been reected in the thematic analysis under the subsection of spending
Health Psychology & Behavioural Medicine 829
time with family members. It can be inferred from other studies that authoritarian parents, who are
highly demanding but less responsive, tend to make demands on their children but not respond
well to their needs. It can also be inferred that due to this parenting style a communication gap
can develop among the family which prohibits direct communication, especially the expression
of anger (Verdejo-Garcia, Rivas-Perez, Vilar-Lopez, & Perez-Garcia, 2007).
Parental monitoring has been associated with elements of parental control such as imposing
rules and restrictions on childrens activities and associations (Borawski, Ievers-Landis, Love-
green, & Trapl, 2003; Nash, McQueen, & Bray, 2005). Monitoring of adolescentsbehaviour,
which includes tracking and surveillance, is an essential parenting skill. A large amount of
studies show that well-monitored youths are less involved in delinquency and other norm-break-
ing behaviours (Cleveland, Feinberg, Osgood, & Moody, 2012; Stattin & Kerr, 2000). The nd-
ings of the present study are in contradiction with the ndings of the aforementioned studies as
75% of the participants stated that their parents were aware of their whereabouts, and yet, the par-
ticipants were still involved in norm-breaking behaviours. One of the possible reasons for this can
be the lessened mobility restrictions on males in Pakistani culture.
It was observed by the researcher and the psychologists that dysfunction within the family of
an addict was the leading cause of relapse. Lavee and Altus (2001) also noted that individuals in a
dysfunctional family were at a higher risk of relapse than those who were not. It was found by the
researcher that most of the participants (65%) who had relapsed did so because of the problems
they faced within their family, for example communicating directly with the fathers who were
unwilling to listen and talk to their sons. This, in the case of 35% of the participants, resulted
in frequent arguments with their fathers which involved yelling.
In addition to the family being the aetiological factor in addiction, it was found paradoxically
to be part of the cure as well. Repeated admissions to the rehabilitation centres show continued
family support since the families were willing to invest emotionally and nancially in the
improvement of their sons. In Pakistan choice and nancial liability are on parents part, so
this practice can be used as an indicator of family support in the treatment.
Since the family plays an integral part in the rehabilitation process, the centres included the
component of family therapy into the treatment programme. This will help to integrate the
family and improve communication between the individuals as well as encourage families to
show their support to the addict. Through their support the family can lessen environmental stres-
sors such as peer pressure and help the addict.
It can be stated that if parents and signicant others identify the signs of addiction at an early
stage, the family can stage an intervention and potentially stop the behaviour before it becomes
worse. The importance of communication between the parents (especially fathers) and children is
stressed as it may be the key link in the detection and prevention of self-destructive acts.
4.1. Conclusion
The current study provides an insight into the role played by family in youths drug addiction. It
found that parental involvement and emotional expressiveness were two of the major themes
4.2. Limitations and suggestions
The present study aimed to explore the role of family in youth drug addiction, but there are a few
limitations of the study that must be taken into consideration.
First is the time limit. The researcher did not have ample time to conduct the study on a larger
number of participants because of the short time period supplied for this project. Due to this
830 S. Masood and N. Us Sahar
shortage of time, the time spent on one-on-one session with the participants was limited. Hence
unstructured interviews and a deeper exploration into the problems stated by the participants were
not possible.
The present study is focused only on the role of parents in youth addiction, not taking into
consideration the role of siblings or peers of the addicted. However, the researcher believes
that if the study were to be conducted in a longitudinal manner, more aetiological factors
would come to light for addiction with respect to Pakistan. Other areas of interest as well as
other factors, bio-socio-cultural factors, remain to be explored as well as their contribution to
addiction among youth.
1. An oriental tobacco pipe with a long exible tube connected to a container where the smoke is cooled by
passing through water.
2. Ketamine commonly used as a safe, effective, anesthetic agent, but misused as a club drug.
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832 S. Masood and N. Us Sahar
... It is associated with recurrent relapse which might be associated to genetic factors (Jabeen, 2016) or neural adaptations (Auriacombe et al., 2018). Many psychosocial factors like poor self-regulation, adverse family environment, lack of parental warmth, and peer influence also play a contributory role (Kushner, 2014;Masood & Sahar, 2014;Melemis, 2015). Relapse is thus very difficult to fight because the individual has to again overcome effectively all the biological as well as the psychosocial factors which are associated with the relapse condition. ...
... Relapse is an issue that needs to be addressed in Pakistan because of the growing rate of substance use and relapse (UNODC, 2013). Statistics demonstrate that about 70% of drug addicts in Pakistan are with a relapse history (Masood & Sahar, 2014). The researchers of Pakistan have studied pattern of substance use and its relapse (Abdullah et al., 2020;Afaq et al., 2022;Batool et al., 2017). ...
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Relapse is an inevitable part of recovery from substance use such that polysubstance users have high chances of relapse (Andreas et al., 2015). In Pakistan, approximately 70% of people with substance use have history of relapse (Masood & Sahar, 2014). Actively changing substance use behavior have a protective effect against relapse (Hartney, 2020) which is basic component of personal growth initiative (Robitschek, 1998). The overall personal growth initiative however has not yet studied in this context. The present study thus aimed to assess relationship of personal growth initiative and chances of relapse along with the moderating role of polysubstance use for this relationship. Personal Growth and Initiative Scale-II-Urdu (Zaman & Naqvi, 2020) and Advance Warning of Relapse (AWARE-Urdu) Questionnaire (Sahar & Naqvi, 2021) were administered on sample of people with substance use (N = 240) ranging in age from 20-60 years. The sample was recruited from rehabilitation centers within Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Findings demonstrate that personal growth initiative negatively associates and explains 15% variance in chances of relapse. Results from moderation analysis suggest that the interaction effect for polysubstance use and personal growth initiative explains about 5% of variance in chances of relapse (ΔR2 = .05) such that, significant decrease in chances of relapse is observed with increasing personal growth initiative among the drug addicts with lower polysubstance use. It was found that the most commonly used drugs among the sample were cannabis (n = 109), cocaine (n = 74), and alcohol (n = 67). These findings could help address relapse among drug addicts.
... The significant risk factors associated with relapse are peer pressure, lack of acceptance by society, family factors like addicts in the family and conflicts with relatives, polydrug abuse, lack of hobbies, psychiatric disorders, financial instability, and occupational factors. [10][11][12][13] This study aimed to discover the most common risk factors of relapse in drug addicts who have suffered single or multiple relapses and are currently in the care of rehabilitation centers in Peshawar city. The outcomes of this study will be shared with professionals, the general population, and officials with the hope that this study may help them create policies and strategies to prevent relapse among drug addicts. ...
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Objective: To find the common risk factors of relapse in drug addicts after being treated in a rehabilitation center. Materials And Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in four rehabilitation centers, i.e., Da Haq Awaz, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), and two Dost welfare Foundations in Peshawar City, from October 2019 to August 2021. The non-probability sampling method selected 70 addicts who had undergone single or multiple relapses. The Data was collected using a questionnaire, developed and validated via a structured seven-step process proposed by AMEE guide no. 87, which provides questionnaire development (conduction of literature review, interviews, synthesizing the literature review and development of items) and questionnaire validation (conduction of expert validation; content and face validation, cognitive interviews, and construct validation by pilot study resulting in a Cronbach’s ? = 0.7). Data were analyzed using SPSS-23. Results: A total of 70 drug addicts participated in the study. All of them were males, out of which 78% were adults, 4.3% were elderly and the remaining 17.1% were adolescents. The most common risk factor of relapse was found to be the lack of hobbies, n=32 (45.3%), followed by peer pressure, n=26 (33%), while the least common was economic factors, n=13 (18.6%). Association among variables such as age, peer pressure, family issues, polydrug abuse, lack of hobbies, disturbed sleep, and financial issues was significant p<0.05. Conclusion: Among various risk factors for relapse, polydrug use, withdrawal syndrome, living status, peer pressure, family factors, lack of hobbies, psychiatric disorders, and financial aspects, lack of hobbies is the most common risk factor for relapse in drug addicts who had relapsed and were currently under the care of rehabilitation centers. Keywords: Relapse, Drug Addiction, Substance Use Disorder, Rehabilitation.
... There are the numerous Psycho-social risk factors behind drug addiction (Glantz & Hartel, 1999) including lack of parental supervision (Hill, K.G, 2005), and low parental monitoring (Haugland et al., 2019), poverty, unemployment, accessibility of drugs, negligence, depression, absence of parental attention, and easy approach to drugs are reported as important factors behind the use of drugs (Qasim, 2015;Zaman et al., 2015;Masood & Sahar, 2014). ...
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Mal-adaptive behavior problems of drug addiction and juvenile delinquency have reached at a very destructive and disturbing situation in Pakistan. The level of severity of the drug addiction and juvenile crime in Sindh-province of Pakistan requires the joint efforts and struggle from parents, social science researchers and members of society in order to recognize and eliminate such fatal behaviors among adolescents, which are building the blocks of any society. This is a theoretical study-designed to review the parental control, and analyze the impact of parental control with drug addiction and juvenile delinquency. Further, it also supposed that although there are the various families –related reasons behind drug addiction and juvenile delinquency among adolescents, family and parental attitude in general and parental control in a specific is highly responsible for such destructive and maladaptive behaviour among youth. For better understanding of the problem; this investigation reviewed extensively empirical research studies about parental control and both problem behaviors. The study found parental attitude and parental control specially related, greatly responsible for psycho-social problems of drug addiction and juvenile delinquency. The findings of this theoretical research highlighted the importance of parents ‘control and its relationship with children’s the overall behaviour. Further, the research task highlighted the importance of parents’ relationship with children and their control, and also monitoring of children as well adolescents. Thus, the research study concludes with some recommendations to address the problems of drug addiction and juvenile crime among adolescents.
... Many participants claimed that they use drugs like cocaine and ice because it increases their energy and boosts their con idence. Research conducted in Rawalpindi and Islamabad reached similar conclusions indicating that youths (ages 18 to 28) are highly involved in substance abuse due to peer pressure and to boost con idence and energy (Masood, 2014). Statements shared by participants regarding entertainment purposes: I was living in a private dormitory and studying for the CSS exam. ...
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The current qualitative research focuses on substance abuse and addiction among young people as a primary area of investigation. This study aimed to shed light on the substance that young people in Hyderabad, Sindh, take the most frequently and the most critical factors contributing to drug addiction. The research was carried out by proceeding to a mental hospital drug rehabilitation ward in Hyderabad, Sindh, and conducting face-to-face interviews with a total of 36 participants, ranging in age from 16 to 22, including both males and females. The participants were selected using a technique known as purposeful sampling. The study's findings indicated that alcohol, heroin, and ice drugs are the three substances used by young people with the most significant prevalence. In addition, researchers found that intra-personal factors, such as problems with mental health and entertainment, and extra-personal factors, such as peer pressure and the influence of the neighborhood, as well as the impact of the media, are the primary contributors to substance abuse among young people. According to the findings of the study, one preventative measure that may be taken to lower rates of drug addiction among young people is for parents, schools, governments, and other social groups to work together to educate young people about the negative consequences of drug consumption.
... The number of drug addicts in the world is rising daily as a result of numerous sociocultural, psychological, and familial variables. Complex social and peer group influences, frustration, despair, curiosity, subcultural and psychological environments (Patoari, 2021), easy and affordable access (Masood and Us-Sahar, 2014;Qasim, 2015;Zaman et al., 2015) to narcotics, all contribute to young people abusing drugs that urge young people to take drugs. Family disorganization, parental neglect, parentchild conflict, spouse loss, turmoil, indiscipline, loneliness, lack of emotional support, rejection of love, overprotection, unemployment, repeated failure, personality, maladjustment, and easy access to drugs are major risk factors for drug usage . ...
... Curiosity and recreation are the major causes of substance misuse, followed by life-changing events and peer pressure [17]. Most people with SUDs seeking treatment are chronic drug users [20]. However, relapse is very common among this population. ...
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Background Psychotherapy is the preferred form of treatment for psychological disorders worldwide. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is one of the most widely used psychotherapies due to its proven efficacy for psychological disorders, including substance abuse. However, CBT was developed in the West according to the culture of developed countries. Therefore, it requires cross-cultural adaptation for non-Western countries. Pakistan is one of the developing non-Western countries where substance use disorders are increasing at an alarming rate. Despite the proven efficacy of CBT for substance use disorders, there is a dearth of its utilization in Pakistan. Therefore, in the present study, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with CBT practitioners in Pakistan to understand barriers and challenges in this regard. The study was a part of a broader project aimed at cultural adaptation of CBT for people with substance use disorders (SUDs) in Pakistan. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with CBT practitioners (N = 8) working in rehabilitation centres and hospitals in Islamabad, Pakistan. Thematic content analysis was conducted to develop core themes from the data. Results CBT for SUDs requires some adjustments according to Pakistani culture for successful utilization. The challenges in providing CBT for SUDs revolved around three main themes, i.e., the mental health system, societal practices, and therapeutic issues, and 10 subthemes. Conclusion In order to utilize the benefits of CBT for SUDs in Pakistan, cultural adaptation is necessary as an initial step. However, its delivery requires stringent modifications in the health care system to address these challenges.
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The emergence of drug use among children and their inclination towards addiction has become an epidemic that has thoroughly seeped into society and now overwhelmingly trickling down to younger generation. The present qualitative and descriptive study was designed to investigate the familial and social reasons that have contributed to the emergence of drug use among children, the type of drugs mostly used by them and the way they access to drugs. The study further explored how the families are being affected due to the presence of an addict in the family. Ten students of Malir University were selected through purposive sampling and interviewed by using an open-ended questionnaire, and the results were drawn through thematic analysis. The results indicate that lack of parents' support & absence of family quality time in which proper care and emotional feelings of the children are not being addressed and they feel neglected and being left out appeared to be the main reasons for children diverting towards different types of drug abuse. Other reasons included lack of understanding about the harmful effects of drug use and their easy accessibility. The study suggested awareness of parents, highlighting the importance of parental care, support, and guidance to develop self-confidence and self-esteem among children to protect them from any danger. Workshops at the community level need to be conducted to provide drug education to parents & the general public about drug types, their negative physical and psychological effects, and how to save the children from this menace. The active participation of civil society and media is also important to work towards drug reduction.
This article attempts to provide an insight into the experiences of drug addicts at a rehabilitation center, run by the provincial Social Welfare Department in Lahore, Pakistan, through a qualitative approach. The menace of drugs is increasing worldwide, including Pakistan. Effective treatment and rehabilitative services can lower the prevalence rate of drug addiction. The aim of this research was to understand/explore the experiences of research participants about the phenomenon of drug addiction and rehabilitation services provided in the field of social welfare. This research extends the current knowledge of individuals’ drug addiction by revealing the complexities and intricacies of this behavior.
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Bu çalışma ile bağımlı bireylerle çalışan profesyonellerin gözlemlerinden yola çıkarak gençlerde madde kullanımının oluşumu ve tedavi süreçlerinde aile etkisinin etiyolojini ortaya çıkarabilmek ve bağımlılık öyküsü içerisinde aile deneyimlerini daha yakından inceleyebilmek amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma, nitel araştırma yöntemine ve fenomenolojik desene uygun olarak yürütülmüştür. Birbirinden farklı kurumlarda görev yapan, farklı mesleklere sahip ve madde bağımlısı bireylerle çalışan 15 kişiyle derinlemesine mülakat gerçekleştirilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler sonucunda; bağımlılığa evrilen aşamadan bağımlılık sonrası aşamalara kadarki her bir süreç içerisinde aile faktörünün farklı etki ve deneyimlere sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bağımlılık öncesi süreçte krizler, problemler, iletişimsizlikler, travmatik yaşam deneyimleri sıklıkla karşılaşılan aile özellikleri olurken; bağımlılık sürecinde madde kullanımından geç haberdar olma, şok-panik-öfke-gizleme gibi davranışsal tepkiler verme ve eş bağımlılık geliştirme gibi aile deneyimleri öne çıkmaktadır. Bağımlılığın tedavisi aşamasında ise sürecin başarılı olabilmesi için aile katılımı ve desteği en önemli unsurlardan biridir. Tedavi aşamasında hızlı ve kolay çözüm yolları talep eden veya var olan tedavinin aksaması durumunda hızlı şekilde motivasyon kaybı yaşayabilen aile deneyimleri tespit edilmiştir. Yine annelerin babalardan daha uzun süre ve daha aktif şekilde tedavi sürecine katıldıkları aileler çoğunluktadır. Sonuç olarak aile faktörü bağımlılığın her aşamasında kendi özel şartları içerisinde değerlendirilmeli ve tedavi sürecine dahil edilmelidir. Tedavi süreçleri sadece bağımlı bireylerle sınırlandırılmamalı, sosyal çevrenin ve özellikle ailelerin de tedaviye uyumu desteklenmelidir. (Based on the observations of professionals who work with addicted individuals, this study aims to reveal the etiological origins of the family effect in the formation and treatment processes of substance addiction in young people, and to understand family experiences in the addiction history better. The research was carried out in accordance with the qualitative research method and the phenomenological approach. In-depth interviews have been conducted with 15 people with different professions working in different institutions with drug addicts. As a result of the data that have been obtained, it has been determined that the family factor has different effects and experiences in each process from the stage that turns into addiction to the stages after addiction. While we see family problems, miscommunication, and traumatic life experiences occur in the pre-addiction process, during the addiction processes family members that become aware of the substance use later, that give behavioral responses like shock-panic-anger-hiding and develop co-dependence become prominent. During the treatment of addiction, the necessity and support of family participation is one of the most important elements for this process to be successful. Families that demand quick and easy solutions during the treatment or that can quickly lose motivation in case of disruption of the existing treatment have been identified. Likewise, it is far more frequent to see the mother participating in the treatment process longer and more actively than the father in a family. As a result, the family factor should be evaluated in its own special conditions at every stage of addiction and should be included in the treatment process. Treatment processes should not be limited only to addicted individuals, and the adaptation of the social environment and especially the families to treatment should be supported.)
Background Relapse of drug use makes addiction more complex and difficult. This study aims to access the rate of drug use relapse and its determining factors among users referred to addiction treatment centers in Saveh, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 403 users referred to Saveh addiction clinics, in Iran. Data were collected using a survey using stratified random sampling methods. Results A total of 374 men and 29 women participated in this study. The mean age of participants was 37.9 ± 10.1 years old but the mean age of first use was 17.6 ± 5.3 years old. More than half of the participants had elementary education. Most of those (74%) had a history of relapse. Escape from daily life challenges, place of residency, unemployment, and availability of drugs were dominant factors for relapse. The demographic factors of gender, and duration of the addiction and psychological factors of resilience, positive outcome expectancies, urges and temptations to use, self-efficacy, social support, and emotion-oriented coping were significant variables in predicting relapse (p < .05). Conclusion This study finding has significant implications for policy decision makers and educational interventions. Addressing determinants of drug use relapse is the primary strategy for preventing and reducing drug use.
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Background: Family functioning is considered to have a significant impact on the beginnings and maintenance of substance use. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to examine and compare the dimensions of family functioning among addicted and non-addicted individuals. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, the study sample consisted of 228 individuals, including 118 addicted and 110 non-addicted subjects. The addicted persons were recruited from patients who attended the Baharan Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic for treatment of substance dependence disorders and 110 non-addicted (normal) individuals who were selected from normal populations (students, staff of the hospital and people accompanying patients without a history of substance use) through convenience sampling. The Family Assessment Device (FAD) was used to assess six dimensions of family functioning. The data were analyzed using descriptive indexes (ie, frequency, mean and standard deviation) and t test. Results: The results showed significant differences in the mean scores of family functioning dimensions including; problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, affective involvement, behavioral control and overall family performance (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Results of this study confirmed the lower functioning levels of substance dependent clients' families on all subscales of the FAD, than in families of non-addicted individuals. It is therefore concluded, that providing interventional strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance use that focus on and involve families in the delivery of health care services is a necessity.
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Although studies have demonstrated that an adolescent's parents and friends both influence adolescent substance use, it is not known whether the parenting experienced by one's friends also affects one's own use. Drawing on conceptions of shared parenting and the tenets of coercion theory, we investigated the extent to which three domains of parenting behaviors (parental knowledge, inductive reasoning, and consistent discipline) influenced the alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use of not only their own adolescent children but also of members of their adolescents' friendship groups. Analyses of friendship nominations within each of two successive ninth-grade cohorts in 27 Iowa and Pennsylvania schools (N = 7,439 students, 53.6% female) were used to identify 897 friendship groups. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine prospective associations between 9th-grade friendship group-level parenting behaviors and adolescent self-reported alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in 10th grade. Adolescent substance use in 10th grade was significantly related to parenting behaviors of friends' parents, after controlling for adolescents' reports of their own substance use and their own parents' behaviors at the 9th grade level. These associations were particularly strong for parents' knowledge about their children and use of inconsistent discipline strategies. Significant interaction effects indicated that these relationships were strongest when adolescents received positive parenting at home. Some, but not all, of the main effects of friends' parents' parenting became nonsignificant after friends' substance use in ninth grade was included in the model. The findings suggest that the parenting style in adolescents' friends' homes plays an important role in determining adolescent substance use. Implications of the joint contribution of parents and peers for prevention and intervention are discussed.
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The purpose of the present research was to determine the role of family functioning and psychological problems of drug addicts and non addicts by assessing the difference between the two groups. After detailed literature review it was hypothesized that scores on the variable of communication, affective expression and control among family members of addicts will be higher than non addicts. Furthermore scores on the variables of anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self will also be higher of addicts. This was a cohort study. A cluster sampling method was used. Sample of present research consisted of 240 adolescents divided into two groups of 120 addicts and 120 non-addicts each from different socio-economic status. General scale of Family Assessment Measure-Version III (FAM-III) was administered in order to measure the level of communication, value and norms whereas dyadic Relationship Scale was used to measure affective expression and control among the family members of addicts and non addicts. Renold Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory was administered in order to assess anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self in addicts and non addicts. t-test was calculated in order to determine the difference in the level of communication, value and norms, affective expression and control among families of addicts and non addicts. Furthermore difference in anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self between the addicts and non addicts was also determined by calculating t-test. Results showed significant differences in the variables among the family members and there is also a significant difference between addicts and non addicts. Avenues for further research have been suggested.
Objectives: To study the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of drug abuse among young adults aged 16-21 from upper socio-economic strata. The survey was conducted to identify certain psychosocial risk factors such as coping skills, independence/self-confidence, family communication, peer relationships and motivational factors for drug abuse among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using a structured questionnaire with thirty-four close-ended questions, plus two open ended questions. Data was collected from different educational institutions located in Defence and Clifton areas of Karachi Pakistan. Researchers of this study collected the data and verbal consent was obtained from the participants. Results: A total of 300 students were interviewed. 192 were males and 108 females. 51% of students were studying at school level and 47% at college level. 34% reported drug abuse out of which 21% were males and 13% were females. 52% reported cigarette smoking out of which 33% were male and 19% females. 17% of drug abusers, parents were divorced or separated. 31% reported their best friends consume drugs out of which 22% were drug abusers themselves. A total of 35% of students reported their parents' indulgence in alcohol/ drug abuse. Among students who themselves abuse drugs 63% reported their parent's indulgence in drugs. The most common drugs taken by students were Alcohol, Ecstasy and Hashih i.e. 37.9%. Highly significant positive correlations existed between drug abuse with parents' marital status as divorced or separated (p=.290). Significant differences (p< 0.001) were observed between abusers and non-abusers on sub-scales of coping skill, self-control, parental relations and peer relations. Highly significant negative correlations existed for high score on subscales of coping skill (-.344), self-control (-.332), peer relations (-.277) and parental relations (-.357) for drug abuse. Conclusion: There is a need for population-based studies to determine other correlates of drug abuse among young adults in Pakistan. Parents, teachers and public health agencies should be alert to this rising epidemic of drug abuse among the Pakistani youth.
With questionnaire data from a random sample of 13,250 adolescents, we used structural equation modeling to estimate how mother-adolescent bonding, father-adolescent bonding, parental monitoring, family aggression, family drug problems, and religiosity were associated with adolescent drug use. Mother-adolescent bonding and family drug problems had modest, indirect effects on the likelihood of adolescent drug use. Father-adolescent bonding, parental monitoring, and family aggression had relatively weak effects on adolescent drug use. Students who were religious tended not to use drugs or to have close friends who use drugs. The influence of these risk factors was similar for both females and males and for all three types of drugs.
This work has included both the conduct of numerous empirical investigations designed to disentangle the complexities of family functioning and a series of model-demonstration projects that have developed, field-tested, and validated different approaches for helping families identify and meet their needs in a way that strengthens family functioning. The material described in this book represents the aggregate of this research and clinical work. It is designed specifically for use by professionals working in the early intervention field, although the procedures have utility for other helping professionals. This book was specifically written for early intervention practitioners who are being asked to work with families but who have not had extensive training in family systems assessment and intervention procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study examined family-of-origin (FO) characteristics of drug addicts and their spouses, who participated in an in-home drug treatment program. Discriminant analysis revealed a set of FO characteristics that differentiated between 25 men who remained drug-free for six months after detoxification and 25 men who suffered a relapse. This set of FO characteristics successfully predicted relapse 30 months later. Men who remained drug-free for the entire period maintained closer relationships with healthy than with unhealthy families, whereas those who relapsed maintained closer relationships with unhealthy families. Compared with those who relapsed, men who remained drug-free also maintained closer relationships with their spouses' families. The findings are discussed in terms of the family system's view of drug abuse, as well as their implications for family-based intervention.
The Family-of-Origin Scale (FOS), a 40-item, ten-subscale measure of family processes, exhibits promise for assessing adolescents' perceptions of family health. While initial research has suggested that the instrument demonstrates factorial validity, the reliability of the FOS for adolescents has not been established. The present study involved administering the FOS to 88 adolescents on two occasions, with a two-week interval between testings. The global FOS index and ten subscale scores demonstrated high test-retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability for the instrument was also high. When taken together with previous research, the current study's results suggest that the FOS for adolescents is psychometrically sound.
Monitoring (tracking and surveillance) of children's behavior is considered an essential parenting skill. Numerous studies show that well-monitored youths are less involved in delinquency and other normbreaking behaviors, and scholars conclude that parents should track their children more carefully. This study questions that conclusion. We point out that monitoring measures typically assess parents' knowledge but not its source, and parents could get knowledge from their children's free disclosure of information as well as their own active surveillance efforts. In our study of 703 14-year-olds in central Sweden and their parents, parental knowledge came mainly from child disclosure, and child disclosure was the source of knowledge that was most closely linked to broad and narrow measures of delinquency (normbreaking and police contact). These results held for both children's and parents' reports, for both sexes, and were independent of whether the children were exhibiting problem behavior or not. We conclude that tracking and surveillance is not the best prescription for parental behavior and that a new prescription must rest on an understanding of the factors that determine child disclosure.