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Background The current study investigated the role of three facets of entitlement (active, passive and revenge) in various forms of subjective well-being (SWB): hedonistic and two facets of eudaimonic well-being (social and psychological). Social well-being was based on Keyes’ model (1998) and psychological well-being on Ryff’s model (1989). Participants and procedure The study was performed in three nations (Poland, Puerto Rico and Vietnam) on student samples (Poland, n = 245, Vietnam, n = 115, and Puerto Rico, n = 300). To assess entitlement level the Entitlement Questionnaire was used. The level of hedonistic well-being was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and eudaimonic well-being by the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF). Results Active entitlement was positively related to all aspects of SWB. Revenge entitlement was negatively related to hedonistic and psychological SWB in all samples and negatively related to social well-being only in Poland. Passive entitlement was unrelated to SWB. Conclusions The current study shows cross-cultural similarities in relationships of entitlement with hedonistic and psychological well-being and cross-cultural differences in the relationship of entitlement with social well-being. Additionally, the study indicates positive meaning of healthy aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being and negative meaning of dysfunctional aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being.
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health psychology report · volume 3(2), 5
original article
background
The current study investigated the role of three facets of
entitlement (active, passive and revenge) in various forms
of subjective well-being (SWB): hedonistic and two facets
of eudaimonic well-being (social and psychological). Social
well-being was based on Keyes’ model (1998) and psycho-
logical well-being on Ry’s model (1989).
participants and procedure
The study was performed in three nations (Poland, Puerto
Rico and Vietnam) on student samples (Poland, n = 245,
Vietnam, n = 115, and Puerto Rico, n = 300). To assess en-
titlement level the Entitlement estionnaire was used.
The level of hedonistic well-being was measured with
the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Positive
and Negative Aect Schedule (PANAS), and eudaimonic
well-being by the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form
(MHC-SF).
results
Active entitlement was positively related to all aspects of
SWB. Revenge entitlement was negatively related to he-
donistic and psychological SWB in all samples and nega-
tively related to social well-being only in Poland. Passive
entitlement was unrelated to SWB.
conclusions
The current study shows cross-cultural similarities in rela-
tionships of entitlement with hedonistic and psychological
well-being and cross-cultural dierences in the relationship
of entitlement with social well-being. Additionally, the study
indicates positive meaning of healthy aspects of entitlement
for subjective well-being and negative meaning of dysfunc-
tional aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being.
 
entitlement; hedonistic well-being; eudaimonic well-being
Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska
1 · A,B,D,E,F
Jarosław Piotrowski
2 · A,B,C,D,G
Amanda Clinton
3 · B,D,E
Jan Cieciuch
4 · B,D,E,G
Joanna Różycka-Tran
1 · B,D
Truong i Khanh Ha
5 · B,D
Entitlement and subjective well-being:
a three-nations study
 – 1: Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland·2: Institute of Psychology, University
of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poznan Faculty, Poznan, Poland·3: Institute of Psychology, University of Puerto
Rico, Puerto Rico·4: Institute of Psychology, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland·
5: Institute of Psychology, Vietnam National University, Vietnam
’  – A: Study design·B: Data collection·C: Statistical analysis·D: Data interpretation·
E: Manuscript preparation·F: Literature search·G: Funds collection
  – Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Ph.D., Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk,
4 Bażyńskiego Str., 80-952 Gdansk, Poland, e-mail: psymzp@ug.edu.pl
    – Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., Piotrowski, J., Clinton, A., Cieciuch, J., Różycka-Tran, J., & Truong Thi,
K. H. (2015). Entitlement and subjective well-being: athree-nations study. Health Psychology Report, 3(2), xxx.
DOI: 10.5114/hpr.2015.49635
 09.12.2014 ·  09.01.2015 ·  25.01.2015 ·  12.03.2015
Magdalena
Żemojtel-
Piotrowska,
Jarosław
Piotrowski,
Amanda
Clinton,
Jan Cieciuch,
Joanna
Różycka-Tran,
Truong Thi
Khanh Ha
2health psychology report
Background
Psychological entitlement, dened as a pervasive
sense that an individual deserves special treatment
(Campbell, Bonacci, Shelton, Exline, & Bushman,
2004; Twenge & Campbell, 2009), is assumed to be
negatively related to subjective well-being, as it plays
aparticular role in the link between narcissism and
well-being (Twenge & Campbell, 2009; Żemojtel-Pio-
trowska, Piotrowski, & Maltby, 2015c). Subjective
well-being refers to those aspects of well-being that
are based on psychological variables, such as aec-
tivity and evaluations of dierent aspects of an indi-
vidual’s life (Deci & Ryan, 2008). It results in general
life satisfaction (Deci & Ryan, 2008; Diener, Emmons,
Larsen, & Grin, 1985). However, both entitlement
and well-being are rather complex and broad phe-
nomena. For this reason, examination of the relation-
ship between entitlement and subjective well-being
should address the problem of entitlement’s and
subjective well-being’s conceptual complexity. In the
current study, we present results of research exam-
ining the relationship between three facets of enti-
tlement – active, passive, and revenge (Piotrowski
& Żemojtel-Piotrowska, 2009) – and various forms
of subjective well-being (SWB) – hedonistic and two
facets of eudaimonic well-being (social and psycho-
logical) (Deci & Ryan, 2008; Keyes, 1998; Ry, 1989)
– to address the complexity of both phenomena. e
data were obtained from three countries: Poland,
Vietnam and Puerto Rico. First, we aim to explore the
problem how entitlement is related both to hedonic
well-being and two facets of eudaimonic well-being
with particular consideration of its social aspect.
en, we explore cross-cultural dierences and simi-
larities in these relationships, extending our ndings
to cultural contexts beyond Poland.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ENTITLEMENT
AND SUBJECTIVE WELLBEING
Hedonistic well-being is conceptualised as expe-
riencing life satisfaction accompanied by positive
balance between positive and negative aect (Deci
& Ryan, 2008). Diener et al. (1985) distinguished be-
tween its cognitive aspect, expressed in a broadly
positive evaluation of life and its related domains,
and its aective component, comprised by experi-
encing higher positive aect and lower (or lack o)
negative aect (see also Carruthers & Hood, 2004).
Hedonistic well-being is based on the hedonic tradi-
tion in dening well-being as apleasure.
According to Deci and Ryan’s (2008) distinction,
hedonic well-being is only one facet of broadly dened
subjective well-being. e second important facet of
well-being is based on the eudaimonic tradition of de-
ning well-being as living well and actualizing the in-
dividual’s potential (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Psychological
well-being (Ry, 1989) and social well-being (Keyes,
1998) constitute broadly dened eudaimonic well-be-
ing (see also Keyes, Shmotkin, & Ry, 2002). Both these
aspects are highly positively correlated, or even hard
to statistically distinguish, especially if they are meas-
ured by Keyes’ (1998) Mental Health Continuum Scale
(see Jovanovich, 2015). Psychological well-being is
comprised by seeking meaning in life, self-acceptance,
personal growth, autonomy, environmental mastery,
and positive relations with others (Ry, 1989). is lat-
ter aspect overlaps with social well-being, dened as
positive evaluation of self in the social environment,
comprised by social integrity, social acceptance, social
contribution, social coherency, and social self-actual-
ization (Keyes, 1998).
Psychological entitlement is typically dened
as the pervasive sense that an individual is entitled
to and deserves more than others (Campbell et al.,
2004). A negative relationship between psycholog-
ical entitlement, life satisfaction and individual so-
cial functioning is broadly assumed (Bishop & Lane,
2002; Fisk, 2010; McGann & Steil, 2005; Twenge, 2006;
Twenge & Campbell, 2009). However, recent work
suggests that this negative relationship is limited to
dysfunctional aspects of entitlement (e.g. Lessard,
Greenberger, Chen, & Faruggia, 2011; Rothman, 2012;
Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Clinton, Piotrowski, Baltates-
cu, & Van Hiel, 2013). To date, among many compet-
itive approaches in examining entitlement as acom-
plex phenomenon, it is the 3-dimensional model of
entitlement that demonstrates cross-cultural validity
across cultural contexts (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al.,
2014a). is model assumes three dimensions of en-
titlement: active, based on protection of self-interest;
passive, focused on group interest with the convic-
tion that institutions and others are obligated to sat-
isfy their own needs; and revenge, which is based on
the protection of self-interest when it is threatened
or violated. Active and revenge entitlement correlate
with psychological entitlement (Żemojtel-Piotrow-
ska et al., 2015b); however, active entitlement seems
to be aproactive and agentic aspect of psychological
entitlement, while revenge entitlement seems to be
amore dysfunctional and excessive phenomenon due
to its positive correlation with unhindered agency
(Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Piotrowski, & Clinton, 2015a).
Passive entitlement, postulated on the basis of the
Central-European tradition of conceptualizing enti-
tlement as expectations toward the state, is distinct
from active and revenge entitlement. is is because
it represents the communal aspect of formulation de-
mands toward others in that it correlates positively
with collective narcissism (Golec de Zavala, Cichoc-
ka, Eidelson, & Jayawickreme, 2009) and communal
narcissism (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken, & Maio,
2012), as well as entitlement syndrome (Lewicka,
2002), which contains expectations toward the state.
Entitlement
and well-being
in three nations
3
volume 3(2), 5
Active and revenge forms of entitlement are relat-
ed to hedonistic subjective well-being (SWB, i.e. sat-
isfaction with life and positive aective balance): ac-
tive entitlement is related positively to SWB, revenge
entitlement is negatively related to SWB, and pas-
sive entitlement is unrelated to SWB (Żemojtel-Pio-
trowska et al., 2013). In prior studies only hedonis-
tic well-being was measured. For this reason, lile is
known about the relationship between eudaimonic
well-being and entitlement.
CURRENT RESEARCH
Subjective well-being could be considered an outcome
of entitlement. Dysfunctional aspects of entitlement
are linked to lower life satisfaction, as ahigher level
of expectations could be associated with the feeling
of disappointment when these expectations are not
met. ese assumptions are supported by ndings on
relationships between psychological entitlement and
satisfaction with work (Harvey & Martinko, 2009)
and from a study on the relationship between rela-
tional entitlement and functioning in romantic rela-
tionships (Tolmacz & Mikulincer, 2011). Highly enti-
tled people manifest lower job satisfaction (Harvey
& Martinko, 2009) and lower satisfaction from roman-
tic relationships (Tolmacz & Mikulincer, 2011). How-
ever, more adaptive forms of entitlement could aect
positively happiness, since formulating demands
toward others increases one’s chances of satisfying
one’s own needs. For instance, among several forms of
relational entitlement, Tolmacz and Mikulincer (2011)
identied alack of entitlement, labelled by them as re-
strictive entitlement. is lack of entitlement in close
relationships is related to lower life satisfaction simi-
lar to other dysfunctional forms of relational entitle-
ment, but contrary to assertive relational entitlement
(Tolmacz & Mikulincer, 2011). Similar ndings were
reported by Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Piotrowski, and Ba-
ran (2014b) for three forms of entitlement and satisfac-
tion with aclose relationship: revenge entitlement was
related negatively to satisfaction with aclose relation-
ship, whereas active entitlement was positively related
to higher satisfaction (specically, higher levels of per-
ceived similarity to the partner and lower disappoint-
ment from him/her).
In the current study, we chose this direction of
interrelations. We assumed that the relationship
between hedonistic and eudaimonic psychological
well-being and all facets of entitlement would be
cross-culturally universal, and the relationship be-
tween entitlement and social well-being culturally
specic. Both in individualistic and collectivistic so-
cieties, expectations toward others could result in in-
creases in hedonism if the chances for satisfying one’s
own needs also increase. It is possible when these ex-
pectations are reasonable – rather than excessive in
form – and when formulating expectations toward
others does not mean discontinuing one’s own ac-
tivity. According to Welzel and Inglehart (2010), in-
creasing the signicance of agency results in higher
levels of satisfaction with life. For this reason in in-
dividualistic societies life satisfaction is higher than
in collectivistic ones. Since active entitlement is pos-
itively related to agency, or, more specically, active
pursuit of one’s own goals and afocus on actions,
and passive entitlement is positively related to com-
munion, or, more specically, afocus on interperson-
al relations (Żemojtel-Piotrowska, et al., 2015a, see
also Bakan, 1966; Helgeson & Frizt, 1999), we hypo-
thesize that active entitlement will increase levels
of hedonistic well-being while passive entitlement
will not. We do not formulate expectations related
to revenge entitlement, since it is related to agency
(Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2015a) but not related to
higher self-esteem (Piotrowski & Żemojtel-Piotrow-
ska, 2009). Since higher self-esteem is one of the most
important predictors of hedonistic well-being (Di-
ener, Oishi, & Lucas, 2003), this lack of interrelations
between revenge entitlement and self-esteem points
to the lack of arelationship between revenge enti-
tlement and hedonistic well-being. Moreover, since
revenge entitlement is positively related to unmiti-
gated agency (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2015a), it
could be potentially destructive for social well-being.
In relation to eudaimonic well-being, we assume
that passive entitlement will be related positively to
social well-being, as it is based on communion and
acommunal vision of the social world (Żemojtel-Pi-
otrowska et al., 2015a). We also predict a negative
relationship between revenge entitlement and social
well-being, since insisting on revenge could be de-
structive for social relations and, furthermore, because
revenge entitlement is associated with anegative vi-
sion of the social world, including close relationships
(Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2014b). Further, we as-
sume that the relationship between entitlement and
social well-being could be culturally diverse.
We tested our assumptions in three countries: Po-
land, Puerto Rico1 and Vietnam. ey were chosen due
to their cultural dierences, as they represent three
distinct geographical regions – Europe, Asia and Latin
America. ese countries dier in some important cul-
tural, economic and political aspects. For example, in
terms of Hofstede’s dimensions (Hofstede, 2011; Hof-
stede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010), Poland is an individ-
ualistic country, whereas Puerto Rico and Vietnam are
collectivistic cultures. All three societies also dier on
the dimension of indulgence. Indulgence is adimen-
sion related to socialization of children and aitudes
toward enjoying life and having fun. Poland and Vi-
etnam are countries of low indulgence (i.e. restraint),
and Puerto Rico is acountry of high indulgence. is
dimension could be particularly important from the
perspective of formulating demands and expectations
Magdalena
Żemojtel-
Piotrowska,
Jarosław
Piotrowski,
Amanda
Clinton,
Jan Cieciuch,
Joanna
Różycka-Tran,
Truong Thi
Khanh Ha
4health psychology report
toward others. High indulgence manifests in allowing
others free expression of their own needs, afocus on
enjoying life and an emphasis on personal freedom
and happiness. As such, formulating demands toward
others may not be perceived as negative, since mem-
bers of high indulgence cultures are more benevolent
towards pursuit of personal freedom and assertiveness
in pursuit of individual goals (Hofstede, 2011). On the
other hand, in the countries of low indulgence (i.e. re-
straint), people could perceive formulating demands
as egoism and lack of self-control. For this reason, we
do not only expect dierences in the relationship be-
tween entitlement and social well-being on the basis
of collectivism (assuming mutual obligations) and in-
dividualism (assuming self-reliance), but also on the
basis of the indulgence-restraint dimension. Further-
more, these three countries have dierent political sys-
tems, and political systems make aparticularly impor-
tant contribution to the formulation of expectations
toward the state and others. According to the Econo-
mist Intelligence Unit (2015), for example, Poland is an
invalid democracy. Puerto Rico, which is aterritory of
the United States, is considered afull democracy, and
Vietnam is dened as an authoritarian regime. ese
three countries also vary in their respective levels of
economic freedom (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2015).
It is possible that formulating demands toward others
could be positively related to subjective well-being in
more auent and eective social systems, while the
contrary would be observed in less auent societies,
since there is agreater likelihood of expectations be-
ing fullled in the former, as these expectations have
higher chances of being positively addressed.
Boski (2009) analysed the source of satisfaction
with life both in Polish and Vietnamese samples.
He found dierent sources of life satisfaction. ese
results were conrmed in another study that meas-
ured the adaptation and integration of Vietnamese
and Slavic (Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarusian) im-
migrants in Poland (Boski & Biłas-Henne, 2010).
Dierent predictors of general life satisfaction were
found: eudaimonia (e.g. thri) was amajor predic-
tor of SWLS among the Vietnamese, and hedonism
(e.g. spending extravaganza) was amajor predictor
for Slavic people. is reects cultural dierences
between these two groups: whereas eudaimonia (fru-
gality) is integrated into Confucian virtues (see Bond,
1983; Hofstede, 2001), hedonism (extravaganza) is in-
corporated into Slavic Sarmatism (Boski, 2009). Since
the Caribbean region has not been studied in any
depth by subjective well-being researchers, lile is
known about predictors of well-being in this cultur-
al group. For instance, Morris, Martin, Hopson, and
Welch-Murphy (2010) compared US youth with their
Caribbean counterparts (namely, from Aruba), and
they found no dierences in the level of well-being
among them; however, Caribbean participants re-
ported fewer depressive symptoms overall.
ParticiPants and Procedure
PARTICIPANTS
Five hundred and thirty-four students of social sci-
ences and management (Poland, n = 245, 31% men,
Vietnam, n = 115, 36% men, and Puerto Rico, n = 300,
43% men) ranging in age from 16 years to 47 years
(M = 21.47) participated in the study.
MEASURES
Entitlement. Entitlement aitudes were measured by
the Entitlement estionnaire – Short Form (Żemoj-
tel-Piotrowska et al., 2015b). is scale consists of 15
items, ve per scale. It serves as ameasure of active
entitlement (e.g. Ideserve the best; It is necessary to
claim what you deserve; I oen demand to be treated
properly), passive (Everybody has the right to expect
help from the state when in need; Disadvantaged per-
sons deserve institutional help; e state should take
care of the livelihood of the poorest); and revenge
(Someone who hurts me cannot expect my sympathy;
I have diculty forgiving harm done to me; I don’t
forgive the wrongs I have suered). Participants an-
swered questions on the scale with scores rang-
ing from 1 or completely disagree to 6 or completely
agree. e scale has proven reliability and validity
(Piotrowski & Żemojtel-Piotrowska, 2009; Żemojtel-
Piotrowska et al., 2015b). Cronbach’s α reliabilities of
active, passive and revenge entitlement were, respec-
tively, .80, .90, .81 in Poland, .72, .63, .80 in Puerto
Rico, and .67, .67, .81 in Vietnam.
Hedonistic well-being. Hedonistic well-being was
dened as general satisfaction with life and positive
evaluation of its dierent aspects (cognitive compo-
nent) and as a positive aective balance (aective
component, see Diener et al., 1985). Based on the con-
ception of Diener et al. (1985), we included two meas-
ures of cognitive well-being: the Personal Well-Being
Index (PWI, International Wellbeing Group, 2013)
and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) (Diener
et al., 1985) and a measure of aective well-being:
the Positive and Negative Aect Schedule (PANAS)
(Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). e PWI contains
8 items, each one describing aspecic domain. Par-
ticipants answer (on ascale from 0 – completely not
satised to 10 – totally satised) to what extent he
or she is satised with aparticular domain (e.g. fu-
ture security or health) (see International Wellbeing
Group, 2013). e SWLS is one of the most popular
scales available for measuring general satisfaction
with life. In the current study, participants answered
questions on the scale with scores from 1 – strongly
disagree to 5 – strongly agree (Diener et al., 1985). e
PANAS serves as ameasure of the aective compo-
nent of well-being and contains 10 descriptions of
Entitlement
and well-being
in three nations
5
volume 3(2), 5
positive emotions (e.g. enthusiastic, happy) and 10
of negative emotions (e.g. frightened, upset). Partic-
ipants are asked how oen they have experienced
a particular emotion within recent weeks. In the
present study, we asked participants how they typi-
cally feel, and they answered on ascale ranging from
1 – very slightly or not at all to 5 – extremely (Watson
et al., 1988).
Eudaimonic well-being. e Mental Health Contin-
uum-Short Form was used to measure two facets of
eudaimonic well-being. e scale contains 14 items,
6 of which serve as a measure of social well-being
as dened by Keyes (1998), and 6 of which serve as
ameasure of psychological well-being as dened by
Ry (1989). We omied the emotional well-being
subscale since we were interested only in the social
and psychological aspects of eudaimonic well-being.
ese items are the most representative for the long
form and are intended to cover whole constructs.
e structure of the scale was conrmed in conr-
mational factor analysis (CFA) (see Karaś, Cieciuch,
& Keyes, 2014).
STATISTICAL ANALYSES
To examine the relationships between entitlement at-
titudes and dierent aspects of subjective well-being,
we conducted structural equation modelling (SEM) in
each country separately. In the rst step we assessed
ameasurement model for entitlement and each form
of well-being in each country separately, which was
composed of six latent factors: active, passive, and
revenge entitlement, hedonistic well-being, social
well-being and psychological well-being. en we ran
multi-group conrmatory factor analyses to deter-
mine whether we achieved measurement invariance
of methods across countries. Model 1 assumed cong-
ural invariance, i.e. the same structure of scales (num-
ber of factors and paern of loadings) across countries.
Model 2 assumed metric invariance, i.e. equivalence
of factor loadings across countries. Metric invariance
allows comparison between structural models in our
three national samples (see Steinmetz et al., 2005).
Aer establishing metric invariance we ran SEM
analyses in each country separately, examining the
interrelations between entitlement and dierent as-
pects of well-being, i.e. a structural model. Finally,
we compared dierent solutions, assuming cross-cul-
tural dierences with regard to all interrelations (un-
constrained model) and assuming similarity in the
relationship between entitlement and those aspects
of well-being that were unrelated to others (i.e. he-
donistic and psychological) and cultural dierences
in the relationship between entitlement and social
well-being, as reecting social functioning of the in-
dividual (constrained models).
results
MEASUREMENT MODEL
To test for measurement models we used conrma-
tory factor analysis parcels (2-3 aggregated items) as
observed variables. e parcelling was used to reduce
Table 1
Model fit indices for measurement models in three nations – single conrmational factor analysis
χ2df CFI RMSEA SRMR
Entitlement estionnaire – SF (three latent factors, each of them loaded by two parcels)
Poland 6.49 6.999 .018 (< .001 .087) .024
Puerto Rico 7.05 6.998 .024 (< .001 .082) .034
Vietnam 9.62 6.980 .073 (< .001 .154) .039
Hedonistic well-being (one latent factor loaded by four parcels: summated scores of PWI, SWLS,
and Negative aectivity and Positive aectivity from the PANAS, estimate errors for the PANAS
scales correlated)
Poland 0.08 11.00 < .001 (< .001 .111) .004
Puerto Rico 2.97 1.994 .081 (< .001 .195) .018
Vietnam 1.15 1.998 .037 (< .001 .255) .026
Social and psychological well-being (two latent factors, each of them loaded by two parcels)
Poland 4.58 1.993 .121 (.028 .242) .011
Puerto Rico 26.61 1.956 .293 (.203 .393) .027
Vietnam 1.40 1.998 .059 (< .001 .265) .012
Magdalena
Żemojtel-
Piotrowska,
Jarosław
Piotrowski,
Amanda
Clinton,
Jan Cieciuch,
Joanna
Różycka-Tran,
Truong Thi
Khanh Ha
6health psychology report
estimation errors (Coman & MacCallum, 2005), im-
prove model t, and stabilize parameter estimates
(see Matsunaga, 2008). We tested four models: in the
rst one three entitlement factors were loaded by par-
cels created in random fashion (each factor loaded by
two parcels), in the second one the latent factor of he-
donistic well-being was loaded by results obtained in
the PWI, SWLS, and Negative aectivity and Positive
aectivity from the PANAS (which served as substan-
tive parcels), and in the third one the latent factors
of eudaimonic and social wellbeing were loaded by
parcels, created in random fashion from MHC items
intended to measure the appropriate constructs. All
latent factors were measured by at least two parcels
and all parcels loaded on aproper factor signicantly
(p < .001, all factor loadings higher than .40 with the
exception of Negative aectivity from the PANAS). To
assess the goodness of t of the model we used the fol-
lowing cut-o criteria: the root mean square error of
approximation (RMSEA) and standardized root mean
square residual (SRMR), both smaller than .08, and
comparative t index (CFI) larger than .90 (see Lance,
Bus, & Michels, 2006 for areview).
Table 1 shows that the measurement model ts
the data well in each country separately.
A problem could be noted with regard to social
and psychological well-being in Puerto Rico, as they
were highly positively correlated.
In the next step we established measurement in-
variance of the measured constructs across three
countries. Because we were interested in relation-
ships between the variables, we tested for the metric
level of measurement invariance.
Table 2 shows that metric invariance was estab-
lished for each measurement model, and in conse-
quence all variables measured in the study, because
in all cases CFI was lower than .01, meeting the rec-
ommended cut-o of .01 (Chen, 2007).
STRUCTURAL MODEL
e structural model assessed the impact of entitlement
aitudes on subjective well-being. It was assumed that
three facets of entitlement inuence subjective well-be-
ing, both hedonistic and eudaimonic (psychological and
social). Based on former research, described in the in-
troduction, we examined the inuence of active and re-
venge entitlement on hedonic, psychological and social
well-being and the inuence of passive entitlement on
psychological and social well-being.
Table 3 shows the t indices for the structural
model in each country separately. In each sample the
structural model ts the data well.
In the next step we assessed three competitive
models: one unconstrained, assuming all direct paths
as diverse across countries (Model 1); fully constra-
Table 2
Results for multi-group confirmatory factor analysis
χ2df CFI RMSEA SRMR
Entitlement estionnaire – SF (three latent factors, each of them loaded by five items)
Configural 23.19 18 .996 .021 (< .001 .043) .024
Metric 36.01 24 .992 .028 (< .001 .045) .024
Hedonistic well-being (one latent factor loaded by four parcels: summated scores of PWI, SWLS, and
Negative aectivity and Positive aectivity from the PANAS)
Configural 4.20 3.998 .025 (< .001 .074) .004
Metric 7.37 91.00 < .001 (< .001 .038) .024
Social and psychological well-being (two latent factors, each of them loaded by two parcels)
Configural 32.55 3.977 .122 (.087 .162) .011
Metric 35.42 7.978 .079 (.054 .105) .017
Table 3
Goodness of fit indices for structural model in three nations
χ2df CFI RMSEA SRMR
Poland 134.00 62 .958 .069 (.053 .085) .052
Puerto Rico 122.83 62 .964 .057 (.042 .072) .048
Vietnam 94.17 62 .942 .067 (.037 .094) .071
Entitlement
and well-being
in three nations
7
volume 3(2), 5
ined, assuming regression weights equal across coun-
tries (Model 2); and partially constrained, assuming
that the relationships between entitlement and psy-
chological and hedonic well-being are equal across
countries and the relationship between entitlement
and social well-being diers across countries (Model 3).
Table 4 shows indices for the t of models.
Model comparisons indicated that Model 1 (un-
constrained) did not dier signicantly from Model 3
(CFI = .00). Model 2 diers signicantly from both
Model 1 and Model 3 (CFI = .06), despite ing the
data.
As predicted, cross-cultural dierences were ob-
served only for the relationship between entitlement
aitudes and social well-being (see Figure 1). Rela-
tionships between active entitlement and hedonistic
and psychological well-being were positive, congru-
ent with predictions. Revenge entitlement was re-
lated negatively to both hedonistic well-being and
psychological well-being. Passive entitlement was
unrelated to psychological well-being.
Active entitlement was related positively to social
well-being in all three countries. Direct comparisons
between the strength of relationship between these
two variables in three countries revealed no signicant
dierences (Zranged from 0.34 for the Poland-Viet-
nam comparison to 1.25 for the Puerto Rico-Vietnam
comparison, all insignicant). Passive entitlement was
unrelated to social well-being in all three countries.
Revenge entitlement was negatively related to social
well-being only in Poland, an individualistic culture of
high restraint (β = –.18, p = .001).
Generally, only the aspects of entitlement that
were related to individual interest (i.e. active and
revenge entitlement) were correlated with aspects
of subjective well-being that are related to satisfy-
ing individual needs. Active entitlement seems to be
particularly protable for individual well-being. is
supports Welzel and Inglehart’s (2010) thesis that in-
creasing the level of agency can increase one’s life
satisfaction.
conclusions
Despite their preliminary and exploratory charac-
ter, the current ndings support the authors’ thesis
about cross-cultural similarities in terms of a pos-
itive relationship between the agentic, non-narcis-
sistic form of entitlement and dierent aspects of
subjective well-being. is result is distinct from
the negative, costly eect of psychological enti-
tlement on life satisfaction (Twenge & Campbell,
2009; Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2015c). Revenge
entitlement, as related to narcissism (Piotrowski
& Żemojtel-Piotrowska, 2009; see also Exline & Zell,
2009) and dissatisfaction with close relationships
(Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2014b), was predicted
to be negatively related to subjective well-being, es-
pecially the social aspect. ese assumptions were
conrmed in relation to hedonism and psychological
well-being, and – partially – to social well-being (in
Poland). Since revenge seems to be especially dys-
functional in terms of interpersonal relationships,
its relatively lesser impact on social well-being (in
comparison to hedonistic and psychological aspects)
is surprising. However, vengefulness and vindictive-
ness are oen related to neuroticism (Bellah, Bellah,
& Johnson, 2003), as observed in the current research
Table 4
Model fit indices for measurement models in three nations
χ2df CFI RMSEA SRMR
Model 1: Unconstrained 351.18 186 .958 .037 (.031 .043) .052
Model 2: Constrained 627.58 246 .903 .049 (.044 .053) .063
Model 3: Partially constrained 361.50 196 .958 .036 (.030 .042) .056
Note. Non-significant standardized regression weights are under-
lined. Regression coeicients are presented in the following order:
Poland, Puerto Rico, Vietnam. Only latent factors are presented in
Figure 1, without observed variables.
Figure 1. Structural unconstrained model presenting
the relationship between entitlement aitudes and
subjective well-being.
Active
entitlement
Hedonistic
well-being
Social
well-being
Psychological
well-being
.48 .39 .52
–.34 –.30 –.35
.39 .37 .34
–.11 .10 –.21
.06 .03 .04
–.26 –.27 –.22
–.19 –.10 –.10
.26 .19 .46
Revenge
entitlement
.40
.28
.52
.76
.83
.68
.42
.64
.59
.67
.70
.86
.50
.41
.72
.04
.00
.30
Passive
entitlement
Magdalena
Żemojtel-
Piotrowska,
Jarosław
Piotrowski,
Amanda
Clinton,
Jan Cieciuch,
Joanna
Różycka-Tran,
Truong Thi
Khanh Ha
8health psychology report
and supported in previous research ndings. Passive
entitlement, contrary to predictions, did not demon-
strate a relationship with any aspect of subjective
well-being, although a positive relationship with
social well-being, particularly in collectivistic cul-
tures, was anticipated. However, the results did not
support this assumption. e lack of arelationship
between passive entitlement and subjective well-be-
ing is congruent with the lack of arelationship be-
tween passive entitlement and satisfaction with close
relationships (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2014b) and
its independence from hedonic well-being (Żemojtel-
Piotrowska et al., 2013). Finally, congruent with pre-
dictions, we found cultural dierences in relation-
ships between entitlement and social well-being, but
they were limited to vengefulness. Revenge entitle-
ment is undesirable only in Poland, an individualistic
country with ahigh level of restraint, with ahedonic
tradition in shaping general well-being.
LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
FOR FURTHER WORK
e current research is preliminary in character. e
participants were young, well-educated individuals.
Student samples are not representative for research
in general. However, results obtained in research
such as the present work could serve as asource for
further investigation and hypotheses. In spite of this
limitation, however, it is important to note that we
found similar results for countries on three distinct
continents and with dierent political and cultural
traditions. Another limitation is the lack of inclusion
of countries with low power distance in terms of Hof-
stede’s (2011) model. Research suggests that certain
amounts of cross-cultural generalization may be ac-
ceptable; however, there is still lile known about the
myriad cultural and political contexts of the world. In
the current study, social and psychological well-be-
ing demonstrated a strong positive correlation. For
this reason, one could doubt whether both aspects
of eudaimonia should be distinguished, in line with
Jovanovich’s critique (2015), stating that there should
not be separate scores for the respective subscales of
the MHC-SF. However, we found some dierences in
correlations between entitlement and both facets of
eudaimonic well-being. Finally, despite our causality
assumptions (i.e., that entitlement aects subjective
well-being), the opposite direction of interrelations
is also plausible.
e work of Jarosław Piotrowski was supported by
grant awarded by University of Social Sciences and Hu-
manities, Poznan Faculty and the work of Jan Cieciuch
was supported by Grants DEC-2011/01/D/HS6/04077
from the Polish National Science Centre.
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... Also, most studies have focused on the costs of entitlement and have viewed it as a negative trait that predicts low satisfaction with life (Grubbs & Exline, 2016). However, there is growing evidence that sense of entitlement is a complex and multidimensional construct that has both costs and benefits in terms of life satisfaction (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2015). ...
... Several studies support a model that offers an integration between the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of entitlement by differentiating between three components of entitlement: 1) active entitlement, which includes believing in one's legitimate right to promote one's self-interest; 2) revenge, which is the feeling of being wronged and thus more entitled; and 3) passive entitlement which reflects the belief that institutions and other people are obligated to fulfill one's needs and rights (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2015(Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., , 2017. These components are independent (although not orthogonal), and each individual may be characterized by one or more of these components. ...
... The focus of active entitlement is the achievement of personal goals and is therefore related to agency and to the promotion of favorable outcomes (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2013). In a former study that examined entitlement across different cultures, active entitlement was positively related to different aspects of well-being, including life satisfaction (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2015). The active form of entitlement may foster an assertive expression of one's demands and needs toward others and, as such, may increase one's chances of satisfying one's own needs, eventually leading to higher satisfaction with life (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2015). ...
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Sense of entitlement is gaining more scientific attention as a multidimensional concept that includes adaptive as well as maladaptive components that may make a unique contribution to the life satisfaction of parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD). Social support is an important resource that can alter the different relationships between the components of entitlement and life satisfaction. However, the moderating role of social support in the relationship between entitlement and life satisfaction among parents of children with DD has not yet been explored. Ninety-four parents of children with DD completed sense of entitlement, social support, and life satisfaction questionnaires. Results showed that social support was related to greater satisfaction with life and had a moderating effect on the relationship between all three of the components of sense of entitlement and life satisfaction. The active component of entitlement was positively associated with life satisfaction only where there were high levels of support. The revenge component was negatively related to life satisfaction only where there were low levels of support. The passive component was negatively related to life satisfaction in the context of low levels of support, while the reverse trend was demonstrated in conditions of high and medium levels of support. Interventions that enhance the perception of social support and adaptive aspects of entitlement can be valuable in terms of the life satisfaction of parents of children with DD.
... Sense of entitlement includes the expectation that others, including public institutions, should fulfill and support one's needs (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al. 2017). Studies have demonstrated that sense of entitlement levels can be higher among specific social groups and in different contexts (Tolmacz et al. 2017;Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al. 2015Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al. , 2019. Of special interest in this regard are mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD), who face many challenges (Lee et al. 2019). ...
... Evidence of the influence of context on entitlement can be found in studies showing that entitlement is more strongly activated among certain social groups, especially those related to legitimate social rights (e.g. Cohen et al. 1996;Tolmacz et al. 2017;Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al. 2015Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al. , 2017. ...
... Findings from former studies suggest that sense of entitlement is a concept with unique relevance to life satisfaction . Moreover, increased levels of sense of entitlement were evident among specific social groups in which achieving social rights and assistance were a major concern in their lives (Tolmacz et al. 2017;Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al. 2015Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al. , 2019. For example, in a study on sense of entitlement among adoptive and non-adoptive families it was found that sense of entitlement levels were higher among families who were facing different difficulties and challenges, regardless of adoption (Cohen et al. 1996). ...
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The interplay between sense of entitlement and hope might have a unique contribution to mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) life satisfaction. Seventy-three mothers of children with DD and 47 mothers of children without DD participated in the study. Mothers of children with DD (vs. without DD) experienced low levels of life satisfaction and high levels of entitlement. The relationship between being a mother of children with DD and life satisfaction was mediated by the interaction between sense of entitlement and hope. Higher entitlement was negatively related to life satisfaction when mothers' hope was low and positively related to life satisfaction when mothers’ hope was high. Entitlement can act as a resource for life satisfaction, depending on hope levels.
... Although conventional logic suggests that entitlement would be found to increase dysfunctional or undesirable outcomes, this study proposes that an active orientation and a focus on the satisfaction of one's needs is beneficial for cocreation, which is in line with the results of recent studies that show entitlement as a precursor to creativity (Zitek and Vincent, 2015). Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al. (2015) show that active entitlement results in improvements in hedonic, social and psychological well-being. Those authors reason that the pursuit of one's personal goals and the focus on one's own actions increase satisfaction with life. ...
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... An indulgent culture emphasizes the gratification of desires as it allows individuals to indulge in things that lead to enjoying life, such as those pertinent to leisure and spending; individuals can freely convey their needs and expectations. In contrast, a restraint culture has strict norms and standards for controlling or delaying individuals' gratification; conveying one's needs and demands is construed as a form of egoism (Hofstede 2011(Hofstede , 2013Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al. 2015). ...
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We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.
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Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological entitlement (active, passive, and revenge), narcissism and two types of organizational behaviors in employees. Interactions between narcissism and psychological entitlement as predictors of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) were explored. Predictors were analyzed in an effort to determine whether psychological entitlement plays a more destructive role among narcissistic employees than among non-narcissistic ones and whether the effects of narcissism on OCB and CWB are mediated by entitlement. Participants and procedure Data were obtained from 100 employees (34% men) aged 22 to 59 years (M = 37.00, SD = 9.30) from public and private companies. Participants were asked to complete the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale (OCBS), the Counterproductive Organizational Behaviors Scale (COBS), the Entitlement Questionnaire, and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). Results Positive aspects of entitlement were positively associated with OCB only among narcissistic employees, and active entitlement mediated the effects of narcissism on CWB. Active entitlement was negatively related to CWB. Negative aspects of entitlement were negatively related to OCB and unrelated to CWB. Conclusions This study provides evidence for positive (healthy) aspects of entitlement for organizations. The unexpected interaction between narcissism and entitlement in predicting higher levels of OCB suggests that among narcissistic employees, healthy aspects of entitlement are desirable and profitable for an organization. Psychological entitlement was observed to be an important predictor of organizational behaviors beyond narcissism itself.
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In this study, the relationship between agency, communion, and the active, passive, and revenge forms of entitlement is examined. Results indicate that active entitlement was positively related to agency, negatively to communion (Study 1), and unrelated to unmitigated agency and communion (Study 2). Passive entitlement was positively related to communion (in regular and unmitigated forms) and negatively related to agency (in both forms). Revenge entitlement was positively related to agency (unmitigated and regular), and negatively related to both regular and unmitigated communal orientations. Detected relationships were independent from self-esteem (Study 1). The findings are discussed in relation to distinctions between narcissistic and healthy entitlement, and within the context of the three-dimensional model of entitlement. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
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This study examined parental and peer attachments and their relationship to entitlement attitudes and subjective well-being among a sample of affluent adolescents. We sought to integrate the perspectives of both clinical and social psychology in examining entitlement attitudes, ranging from healthy to narcissistic. This was accomplished by using a new method of assessing entitlement from the social psychological perspective and comparing entitlement attitudes to attachment. Attachment was measured in terms of trust, communication, and alienation in relationships with parents and peers. Stereotypes of the affluent were explored. Findings showed that adolescents reporting higher levels of alienation from, and lower levels of trust in, primary attachment figures, also indicated higher levels of narcissistic entitlement. By contrast, less alienation from parents and peers, and greater well-being was associated with healthier entitlement. Attachment was shown to be a better predictor of entitlement attitudes than perceived level of wealth. Thus the stereotype that entitlement, particularly narcissistic entitlement, is linked to the wealthy was unsupported.
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The revolutionary study of how the place where we grew up constrains the way we think, feel, and act, updated for today's new realities The world is a more dangerously divided place today than it was at the end of the Cold War. This despite the spread of free trade and the advent of digital technologies that afford a degree of global connectivity undreamed of by science fiction writers fifty years ago. What is it that continues to drive people apart when cooperation is so clearly in everyone's interest? Are we as a species doomed to perpetual misunderstanding and conflict? Find out in Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. A veritable atlas of cultural values, it is based on cross-cultural research conducted in seventy countries for more than thirty years. At the same time, it describes a revolutionary theory of cultural relativism and its applications in a range of professions. Fully updated and rewritten for the twenty-first century, this edition: Reveals the unexamined rules by which people in different cultures think, feel, and act in business, family, schools, and political organizations Explores how national cultures differ in the key areas of inequality, collectivism versus individualism, assertiveness versus modesty, tolerance for ambiguity, and deferment of gratification Explains how organizational cultures differ from national cultures, and how they can--sometimes--be managed Explains culture shock, ethnocentrism, stereotyping, differences in language and humor, and other aspects of intercultural dynamics Provides powerful insights for businesspeople, civil servants, physicians, mental health professionals, law enforcement professionals, and others Geert Hofstede, Ph.D., is professor emeritus of Organizational Anthropology and International Management at Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Gert Jan Hofstede, Ph.D., is a professor of Information Systems at Wageningen University and the son of Geert Hofstede.