Article

Regional groups in the European Middle Gravettian: A reconsideration of the Rayssian technology

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Abstract

The Gravettian is considered one of the first pan-European cultures of the Upper Paleolithic, spreading from Portugal to Russia between 28-20 000 years BP and characterised by backed blades and points. The Noaillian is a local variant in southern Europe (Northern Spain, Southern France and Italy). In France Noaillian is supposedly evolving into the Rayssian which is replaced later by recent Gravettian. By reconsidering the formation processes of some key stratigraphic sequences, the author demonstrates that the Rayssian is an idiosyncratic culture that does not have abrupt-backed bladelets, and that runs chronologically in parallel with the others. A case study, based on new work at the site of La Picardie (Indre-et-Loire), suggests that we should expect to defined different contemporary regional groups during this long period.

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... Touzé, 2011a ; le Fourneau-du Vignoles et al., 2019 ;Plasenn-al-Lomm ;Le Mignot, 2000 ;Sarrazin, 2018) l'association de la méthode du Raysse avec des armatures à dos gravettiennes classiques sur de nombreux sites est douteuse (e.g., de la Grotte du Renne ou l' Abri Pataud ; Klaric, 2007a) en raison du contexte stratigraphique souvent perturbé des abris sous-roche (e.g., Bordes, 2000Bordes, , 2002Texier, 2000Texier, , 2009 (2018), nous n'incluons pas le site de Chamvres dans corpus de sites Rayssien, en raison de l'absence des produits de la méthode du Raysse (lamelles du Raysse et de la Picardie) et du « facettage latéralisé oblique » sur les burins du Raysse. Nous rejoignons donc l'avis de L. Klaric (2013) de ne pas statuer avec certitude sur l'attribution chronoculturelle à un faciès ou une phase particulière du Gravettien (Rayssien ou Gravettien récent, en raison de la datation à 23 170 ± 230 BP ; ibid. ...
... Garonne, tandis qu'il perdurerait au sud (Klaric, 2007a). Malheureusement, de nombreuses incertitudes subsistent dans ce modèle en raison d'un manque cruel de données. ...
... Or il faut savoir que ces subdivisions correspondent en réalité à des regroupements a posteriori de lentilles et niveaux identifiés à la fouille. De plus, de nombreux processus postdépositionnels susceptibles d'avoir perturbé le matériel et occasionné des mélanges ont été mis en évidence dans cette séquence (e.g., terriers de rongeurs, blocs effondrés, ruissellement, solifluxion, installations humaines ; Bricker et al., 1995 ;Agsous, 2008 ;Klaric, 2007a ;Vignoles et al., 2019). ...
Thesis
L’un des enjeux majeurs de l’archéologie préhistorique est la définition des processus culturels à l’origine de la variabilité dans la culture matérielle des chasseurs-cueilleurs du passé. Dans cette thèse, nous proposons d’identifier certains des mécanismes à l’origine des trajectoires technologiques lithiques observées au Gravettien moyen – caractérisé par le Noaillien et le Rayssien (32-28.75 ka cal. BP) – et au Gravettien récent (28.75-26.5 ka cal. BP) en France et dans ses marges. Les unités archéologiques caractéristiques de ces périodes présentent une répartition géographique différente. Des changements technologiques majeurs sont chronologiquement associés à des périodes de forte instabilité climatique – telles que l’événement de Heinrich 3 (HE3) au Gravettien moyen, ou l’adoucissement climatique lié à l’interstade du Groënland 4 (GI 4) au Gravettien récent. Toutefois, la réalité d’une éventuelle relation causale entre variabilité technologique et écologique nécessite d’être testée plus précisément par le biais d’une approche quantitative et interdisciplinaire, visant à mieux mettre en relation des données archéologiques et environnementales.Dans cette optique, nous avons mis en place une approche intégrant l’étude typo-technologique de trois collections archéologiques – le niveau 10/11 de l’Abri du Facteur à Tursac, le gisement archéologique des Jambes à Périgueux et la séquence gravettienne du Flageolet I à Bézénac – et la modélisation de niches éco-culturelles, pour explorer les relations culture-environnement à différentes échelles. Nos résultats indiquent que les ruptures typo-technologiques observées sont concomitantes du changement des niches éco-culturelles dans des dimensions tant environnementales que géographiques. À partir de ces résultats, nous proposons l’action de trois mécanismes ayant pu influer sur ces trajectoires culturelles.• Au Gravettien moyen, la différenciation typo-technologique entre l’aire pyrénéo-cantabrique (Noaillien) et les territoires au nord de la Garonne (Noaillien et Rayssien) pourrait s’expliquer par les spécificités environnementales de chaque territoire, ainsi que par une probable spécialisation de la chasse au nord de la Garonne.• La généralisation de la méthode du Raysse au nord de la Garonne semble liée à un isolement démographique à mettre en relation avec des conditions inhospitalières dans le couloir de la Garonne et le désert périglaciaire des Landes. Dans ce contexte, des changements dans les modes de transmission ont pu favoriser la sélection de cette méthode au dépend d’autres pour la fabrication d’éléments d’armatures.• La disparition de la méthode du Raysse et le retour à des schémas de production de pointes à dos plus souples durant le Gravettien récent suggère un changement dans les normes entourant la fabrication d’éléments d’armatures, en lien avec une réorganisation territoriale des ressources liée à l’adoucissement du climat du GI 4.Ce scénario interprétatif met en évidence le rôle certes prépondérant de facteurs environnementaux, mais surtout leurs interactions avec des facteurs sociaux (e.g., stratégies de subsistance, organisation territoriale et technologique) dans la définition des mécanismes à l’origine des trajectoires technologiques et culturelles au Gravettien moyen et récent.
... Level 4: Middle Gravettian (or Noaillian/Rayssian) Level 4 is a very specific facies within the Gravettian sequence: a Middle Gravettian with both Noailles and Raysse burins. This facies represents a complete break with both the preceding Early Gravettian and the Recent Gravettian that follows it (David, 1985;Klaric, 2003Klaric, , 2007Rigaud, 2008Rigaud, , 2011Noiret, 2013). The basal portion of Eboulis 3/ 4 is also attributed to the Middle Gravettian (David, 1985;Pottier, 2005). ...
... Instead, he saw these processes as part of an adaptation to environmental pressure. Klaric (2007 proposed that, in the case of the Rayssian, the observed differences were chronological rather than functional. This author suggested that, within the greater Gravettian continuum, phases such as the Noaillian and Rayassian may be best understood as "limited palaeohistorical episodes indicating local cultural diversity" (Klaric, 2007: 188). ...
... There are around 150 sites containing Noaillian assemblages but only 23 containing the Rayssian (Noiret, 2013). The Noaillian is succeeded by the Rayssian at three sites (Pataud, Flageolet I, and Solvieux), and both types of burins coexist in the same archaeological layer at several sites (Pataud, Flageolet I, Solvieux, La Rochette, Bassaler-Nord, Grotte du Renne, and others; Klaric, 2007). Yet most sites contain either Noaillian burins (mostly in southern France, Spain, and Italy; e.g., Brassempouy and Isturitz) or Rayssian burins (in France, mainly north of the Loire; e.g., Plasenn-Al-Lomm, Picardie). ...
Article
Abri Pataud (France) is the type site in studies focusing on the appearance of modern humans and the development of classic Upper Paleolithic technocomplexes in Europe. It contains important evidence of successful adaptation strategies of modern humans to new territories and in response to sharply changing climatic conditions that characterized Marine Isotope Stages 3 and 2. Despite being for decades one of the best excavated and most studied Paleolithic sites, the chronology of Abri Pataud has lacked precision and revealed large discrepancies. The chronology of the lowermost part of the sequence (Levels 14–5) was refined in 2011 with the publication of 32 new radiocarbon determinations, mainly from the Aurignacian levels. In contrast, the Gravettian levels (Levels 5–2) remained poorly dated until now. Here, we present 18 new radiocarbon dates on cut-marked animal bones from the Gravettian part of the site, which complete the dating of this important sequence. The determinations are analyzed using Bayesian statistical modeling, and the results allow us to place the start of the Gravettian at the site between ∼33,000 and 32,000 cal BP (∼29,000–28,000 BP). We discuss the succession of the Gravettian facies across the sequence (Bayacian, Noaillian, Rayssian), as well as the likely duration of each archaeological level. With a total of more than 50 radiocarbon determinations, Abri Pataud offers secure information for the appearance and development of the technocomplexes linked with early modern humans and their establishment in western Europe. Based on published genetic data, it appears that it is the Gravettian hunter-gatherers and subsequent human groups, rather than the earlier Aurignacian and pre-Aurignacian groups, that contributed to the genetic signature of later and living Europeans. Hence, elucidating the precise timing of the Gravettian appearance has broad implications in our understanding of late human evolution across Europe.
... Past and on-going studies suggest that, at many sites, this association is not culturally meaningful due to imprecise excavation methods and / or disturbed stratigraphic contexts (e.g. Klaric, 2003Klaric, , 2007Vignoles et al., 2019; A. Vignoles, PhD thesis on-going). However, in a few stratified contexts, the development of the Raysse method is always stratigraphically younger than the Noaillian 3 (e.g., Abri Pataud and Flageolet I sites; David, 1985;Rigaud, 1982;Klaric, 2003). ...
... However, in a few stratified contexts, the development of the Raysse method is always stratigraphically younger than the Noaillian 3 (e.g., Abri Pataud and Flageolet I sites; David, 1985;Rigaud, 1982;Klaric, 2003). Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the co-occurrence of Noaillian and Rayssian materials in the same archaeological level, such as a gradual replacement of the Noaillian by the Rayssian (David, 1985;Pottier, 2005), differing site activities (Laville & Rigaud, 1973;Rigaud, 2008Rigaud, , 2011, the use of different typotechnological traditions within a broad regional population (Touzé, 2013) or the result of post-depositional mixing or the inability of old excavation methods to differentiate between discrete occupations (Klaric, 2003(Klaric, , 2007Vignoles et al., 2019). Unfortunately, taphonomic evaluations of individual sites are not yet sufficiently numerous to evaluate these hypotheses adequately (Klaric, 2003(Klaric, , 2007Pottier, 2005;Agsous, 2008;Michel, 2010;Gottardi, 2011). ...
... Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the co-occurrence of Noaillian and Rayssian materials in the same archaeological level, such as a gradual replacement of the Noaillian by the Rayssian (David, 1985;Pottier, 2005), differing site activities (Laville & Rigaud, 1973;Rigaud, 2008Rigaud, , 2011, the use of different typotechnological traditions within a broad regional population (Touzé, 2013) or the result of post-depositional mixing or the inability of old excavation methods to differentiate between discrete occupations (Klaric, 2003(Klaric, , 2007Vignoles et al., 2019). Unfortunately, taphonomic evaluations of individual sites are not yet sufficiently numerous to evaluate these hypotheses adequately (Klaric, 2003(Klaric, , 2007Pottier, 2005;Agsous, 2008;Michel, 2010;Gottardi, 2011). ...
Preprint
The French Middle Gravettian represents an ideal case study for attempting to identify mechanisms behind the diversity observed in the archaeological record. Associated with the relatively cold and dry environments of GS-5.2 and 5.1, this sub-phase of the Gravettian is characterized by two lithic typo-technical facies: the Noaillian (defined by the presence of Noailles burins) and the Rayssian (identified by the Raysse method of bladelet production).The two facies have partially overlapping geographic distributions, with the Rayssian having a more northern and more restricted geographic extension than the Noaillian. Their chronological relationship, however, is still unclear, and interpretation of their dual presence at many sites within the region of overlap is not yet consensual. Nonetheless, the absence of the Raysse method south of the Garonne River suggests that this valley may have separated two different cultural trajectories for which the Rayssian represents an adaptation to environmental conditions different from those associated with the Noaillian assemblages south of the Garonne River. The aim of this study is to test this hypothesis quantitatively using ecological niche modeling (ENM) methods. We critically evaluate published data to construct inventories of Noaillian and Rayssian archaeological sites. Using ENM methods, we estimate the ecological niches associated with the Middle Gravettian north (Noaillian + Rayssian) and south (Pyrenees Noaillian) of the Garonne River, and these predicted niches are then quantitatively evaluated and compared. Results demonstrate that, despite a relatively large degree of overlap, the niches are significantly different from one another in both geographic and environmental dimensions and that the niche associated with the northern Middle Gravettian is broader than that of the Pyrenees Noaillian. We propose that this pattern reflects different technological, subsistence and mobility strategies linked to the development of the Raysse method in the North, which was likely more advantageous in such environmental contexts than the hunting technologies employed by Pyrenees populations.
... For the region of Western Europe situated in present-day France, many archaeological cultures are minimally (few 14 C ages) or poorly (e.g., non-AMS ages produced decades ago, ages made on bulk samples, etc.) dated, and therefore their chronological relationships to Dansgaard-Oeschger variability remain unclear. This is especially the case for the middle phase of the Gravettian (Klaric, , 2007, early phases of the Solutrean (Renard, 2011(Renard, , 2010, and the initial phase of the Badegoulian (Ducasse, 3 2012(Ducasse, 3 , 2010. A number of recently completed and ongoing research projects 1 are, in part, focused on dating, using the most up-to-date methods, archaeological contexts associated with these archaeological cultures (i.e., typo-technological phases). ...
... Without a critical assessment of the contextual reliability of chronological data, inferences pertaining to the timing of cultural events, adaptations, or changes may be misleading or incorrect (Pettitt and Zilhão, 2015). Furthermore, even if they are accurate, radiometric determinations from insecure or compromised archaeological contexts are of little value, and the recent literature contains a number of examples of archaeological interpretations being 5 refuted when the archaeological contexts on which they were founded were further evaluated and found to be compromised by natural formation processes, post-depositional processes, or stratigraphic misinterpretation during excavations (Bordes, 2003;Discamps et al., 2015;Ducasse et al., 2019;Klaric, 2007;Teyssandier and Zilhão, 2018;Zilhão et al., 2015). Thus, before building any chronology, the archaeological contexts of the radiometric age determinations to be used must be critically evaluated so that only 14 C ages with reliable archaeological associations are retained. ...
... The former is defined based on the presence of a diagnostic and easily recognizable tool type, the Noailles burin. The Rayssian is characterized by a lithic industry that possessed a specific type of bladelet core, originally termed the Raysse burin, geared towards the production of blanks destined to be worked into armatures (Klaric, 2017(Klaric, , 2007. The Rayssian phase has a more northerly geographic extension than the Noaillian, is entirely absent from the Pyrenees archaeological record, and in the regions where both are observed the Rayssian stratigraphically succeeds the Noaillian. ...
Article
Full-text available
Investigations of chronology play a key role in the majority of archaeological research endeavors and are particularly pertinent to examinations of culture-environment relationships, especially during periods characterized by rapid and marked climatic variability and environmental reorganization. Rigorous evaluations of available data and robust methods are required if one wishes to reconstruct reliable chronologies, and this is especially the case when examining periods that are associated with a relatively few radiometric measurements. Such is the case for the Upper Paleolithic archaeological record documented in present-day France from 32,000 to 21,000 calibrated years BP. We take into account critically examined radiocarbon measurements from contextually secure archaeological contexts and employ a recently-developed method of Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling to reconstruct the chronology of archaeological cultures from the Middle Gravettian to the Badegoulian. The calculated chronological intervals for each typo-technologically defined culture phase are compared to the Greenland ice core climatic record and a terrestrial paleoenvironmental record from Bergsee Lake (Southern Germany)—itself expressed in calendar years calculated with the same calibration curve employed in our age model—thereby permitting each archaeological culture to be correlated accurately with documented paleoclimatic variability.
... One Noailles burin was recently published from El Castillo's level 14, while several more pieces are likely to have been found in level 12 and 14 during the excavation, but are now lost (Bernaldo de Quir os et al., 2015). Although recently obtained C 14 dates from El Castillo may situate these assemblages chronologically in an earlier Noaillian phase according to the French system (Klaric, 2007;Klaric et al., 2009), a more general chronological subdivision of the Cantabrian assemblages seems to be inappropriate at the present. ...
... The same is true for the Noailles burins. While these have been interpreted as being chronologically-and regionallysignificant in southwestern France (Klaric, 2007;Klaric et al., 2009), in the Cantabrian Region they are noted both in the oldest assemblages (Aitzbitarte III level V, El Castillo level 14), as well as in the youngest ones (Amalda level V, Brassempouy level 2D). Although they are more spatially-clustered in the eastern part of the region, they are also documented in western assemblages, like at La Viña's level IX. ...
Article
The field and laboratory work carried out in recent decades have substantially changed our vision of various aspects of the Gravettian in the Cantabrian Region and the western Pyrenees. The objective of this work is to carry out a critical synthesis of the available data for the lithic industry of the Gravettian in this region, according to raw material procurement, exploitation strategies and typological markers. Thereby several aspects are of importance: (1) the alternating availability of high quality raw material, where two territories can be divided: one to the West, where raw material acquisition is showing a wide range of raw materials (notably flint, quartzite, quartz), and one to the East, where assemblages are completely dominated by a single raw material: flint; (2) the great similarity between different reduction strategies, mainly in relation to flint; and (3) an existing polymorphism throughout the territory in case of the tool types, within which protrude two typological groups: back elements and burins, notably the Noailles burins. The latter are massively present in the eastern part of the Cantabrian Region and the western Pyrenees. This variability does not seem to correspond to chronological phases, but has to be probably understood in functional terms.
... Discovered during the 80′s by B. Walter, and surveyed with T. Aubry in 1999 and 2001, over 84 m 2 of it was excavated between 1998 and 2008 by one us (LK). The site provided a rich lithic industry attributed to the Rayssian phase belonging to the second half of the Middle Gravettian (Klaric 2003(Klaric , 2007Klaric et al., 2011Klaric et al., , 2018. The technological study of the lithic industry permitted to identify a new type of projectilethe lamelle de La Picardieconsidered along with the Burin du Raysse as a fossile directeur or marker of this period (Klaric et al., 2002;Klaric, 2017). ...
... On a larger scale, documenting the origin of objects found on archaeological sites elucidates the structure and extent of networks that circulate materialsand thus ideaswhich are themselves foundations of Palaeolithic cultures and may suggest their likely dissemination. As such, the Rayssian is an ideal case study having less than thirty identified sites (n = 28) in a large portion of southwest France (Klaric, 2003(Klaric, , 2007(Klaric, , 2008(Klaric, , 2017; sites which are themselves grouped into three large regions: The Périgord -Bassin de Brive -Quercy complex; The Touraine -Poitou complex and the Yonne Valley. Other sites indicate the use of areas outside these regions: Plasenn'al Lomm in Brittany; La Martinière in Anjou; Les Battuts rockshelter in Tarn (Fig. 5). ...
Article
doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2020.102369. Editor embargo until May 2022. For several years, multidisciplinary archaeological operations organized by the Ministry of Culture and named ‘Collective Research Projects’ (PCR) have enabled the design and use of a descriptive database for a part of southern and central France. This data base describes and stores the main geological aspects of sedimentary silicified rocks of chemical, biochemical or diagenetic origin (abbreviated SSR in the rest of the text) and their primary and secondary outcrops. Data were collected through a survey form describing the flint formations and using different observation grids which make up complete identity cards for each type of flint. Using their spatial attributes, these different data are linked to a shape file for flint formations, themselves digitized with ArcGIS and QGis on the basis of harmonized protocols with several layers of the WebMapService (WMS) Infoterre of the BRGM. Today, data sharing is made possible through the use of the ArcGisOnLine platform (AGOL) meeting the needs of the various users. Applied to an archaeological series, the database considers the concept of an evolutionary chain of SSR and extends an enquiry into the prehistoric relationship between SSR and their environments. According to the same criteria as those defined for the characterization of geological samples (petrology and alterology forms), it allows one to reconstruct the route traveled by any flint before its collection by prehistoric humans and then, by the use of a taphonomic form, decrypts the post-depositional SSR evolution in order to decipher the intensity and chronology of the mechanisms likely to have taken part in the sedimento-genesis of the archaeological site. In terms of understanding paleogeography, the ultimate aim of this approach, the accuracy of petro-ar- chaeological studies is firmly established rather than being anecdotal. By demonstrating that only quantity, genetic and gitological diversity and the way in which materials from coherent geological spaces (i.e. geotopes) are introduced into the archaeological sites, allows one to discuss the method of acquisition of the materials concerned and thus to approach an understanding of the organization of prehistoric societies through their management of landscape and their relationship to territoriality. After the application of this method using the database the results are presented for particular materials coming from the Middle Gravettian series of la Picardie (Preuilly-sur-Claise, Indre-et-Loire, France).
... While Noailles burins appear only in small numbers in the western part of the Cantabrian region (El Castillo: Bernaldo de Quir os et al., 2015;La Viña: Fortea et al., 2010) their spatial distribution is concentrated within the Eastern Cantabrian region and the French Pyrenees (Foucher, 2013). In contrast to the French pattern (Klaric, 2007), associated assemblages show no chronological affinity in Northern Spain. While the model of a "Noailense" subphase was recently falsified (Peña, 2009;Arrizabalaga and Peña, 2013), the spatial distribution of these burins, supported by other features including the raw material distribution, nonetheless supports the idea of a strong connection within the Pyrenees regions (Foucher et al., 2008). ...
... Nonetheless, these facies forming the foundation of the model of Gravettian polymorphism (e.g. Klaric, 2007;Pesesse, 2008) could have also been the starting point for cultural segregation of different groups. Based on the conservative character of these societies and their low population density, such segregation could have been caused by the strong stability reflected in the archaeological record during a timeframe of ongoing climatic changes. ...
Article
The origins and expansion of Gravettian industries in Western Europe have recently been considered a cultural mosaic phenomena marked by regional technological facies. Probably associated with climatic oscillations, the development of these facies is likely related to sociocultural patterns and human adaptations to different ecological niches. Thereby, changes of subsistence strategies and mobility patterns are also reflected by technological and typological adaptations and innovations within the lithic assemblages. With the Iberian Peninsula being an important ecological niche for studying these phenomena , we conducted a comparative analysis of two occupations to test human ecological and lithic technological adaptations during the early Gravettian in Iberia: Cueto de la Mina on the northern Iberian Atlantic coast and Vale Boi on the western Portuguese Atlantic coast. Results show that these occupations exhibit major technological differences, but also strong similarities in the case of typological innovation/ adaptation, possibly related to local resource accessibility (e.g. high-quality raw material). Based on these observations, the study provides further information concerning possible connections throughout the Iberian Atlantic coastline during an early Gravettian timeframe.
... Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cooccurrence of Noaillian and Rayssian materials in the same archaeological level, such as a gradual replacement of the Noaillian by the Rayssian (David, 1985;Pottier, 2005), differing site activities (Laville and Rigaud, 1973;Rigaud, 2008Rigaud, , 2011, the use of different typo-technological traditions within a broad regional population (Touz e, 2013) or the result of post-depositional mixing or the inability of old excavation methods to differentiate between A. Vignoles, W.E. Banks, L. Klaric et al. Quaternary Science Reviews 253 (2021) 106766 discrete occupations (Klaric, 2003(Klaric, , 2007Vignoles et al., 2019). Unfortunately, taphonomic evaluations of individual sites are not yet sufficiently numerous to evaluate these hypotheses adequately (Klaric, 2003(Klaric, , 2007Pottier, 2005;Agsous, 2008;Michel, 2010;Gottardi, 2011). ...
... Quaternary Science Reviews 253 (2021) 106766 discrete occupations (Klaric, 2003(Klaric, , 2007Vignoles et al., 2019). Unfortunately, taphonomic evaluations of individual sites are not yet sufficiently numerous to evaluate these hypotheses adequately (Klaric, 2003(Klaric, , 2007Pottier, 2005;Agsous, 2008;Michel, 2010;Gottardi, 2011). With respect to geography, these two archaeological traditions have only partially overlapping distributions (Fig. 2). ...
Article
The French Middle Gravettian represents an interesting case study for attempting to identify mechanisms behind the typo-technological variability observed in the archaeological record. Associated with the relatively cold and dry environments of GS.5.2 and 5.1, this phase of the Gravettian is characterized by two lithic typo-technical entities (faciès in French): the Noaillian (defined by the presence of Noailles burins) and the Rayssian (identified by the Raysse method of bladelet production). The two faciès have partially overlapping geographic distributions, with the Rayssian having a more northern and restricted geographic extension than the Noaillian. Their chronological relationship, however, is still unclear, and interpretations of their dual presence at many sites within the region of overlap are not yet consensual. Nonetheless, the absence of the Raysse method south of the Garonne River suggests that this valley may have separated two different cultural trajectories for which the Rayssian represents an adaptation to environmental conditions different from those associated with Noaillian assemblages south of the Garonne River. The aim of this study is to test this hypothesis quantitatively using ecological niche modeling (ENM) methods. First, we critically evaluate published data to construct inventories of Noaillian and Rayssian archaeological sites. Next, using ENM methods, we estimate the ecological niches associated with the Middle Gravettian north (Noaillian + Rayssian) and south (Pyrenees Noaillian) of the Garonne River, which are then quantitatively evaluated and compared. Results demonstrate that, despite a relatively large degree of similarity, the niches differ significantly from one another in both geographic and environmental dimensions and that the niche associated with the northern Middle Gravettian is broader than that of the Pyrenees Noaillian. We propose that this pattern reflects different technological, subsistence and mobility strategies linked to the development of the Raysse method in the North, which was likely more advantageous in its environmental contexts than technologies employed by contemporaneous populations in the Pyrenees.
... The Noailles burins from the top of GFU 5 are a diagnostic stone-tool type only known in the Early and Middle Gravettian contexts of France, northern Spain, and Italy. Gravettian occupations with Noailles burins have provided 14 C ages covering a wide period between 28,000 and 32,000 cal yr BP (Klaric, 2015;Peña Alonso, 2010;Foucher et al., 2011;Rigaud et al., 2016). ...
... The age obtained for sample 172212 (31.5 ± 1.6 ka) could be related to the Middle Gravettian occupation associated with the Noailles burins from the top of GFU 5 and is in agreement with radiocarbon ages obtained for other Middle Gravettian contexts (Klaric, 2015;Peña Alonso, 2010). The ages from samples 172213 to 172215 (28.7 ± 1.6, 25.6 ± 1.4, and 27.5 ± 2.5, see Fig. 10, Table 1), are statistically indistinguishable from the results obtained by TL for the base of GFU 4 (27.8 ± 1.5, 28 ± 2.1, 27 ± 1.8, 26.5 ± 1.8, and 30.1 ± 1.5 ka) in the area excavated between 1995 and 2001 (see Fig. 3; Valladas et al., 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
The timing of the Neanderthal-associated Middle Palaeolithic demise and a possible overlap with anatomically modern humans (AMH) in some regions of Eurasia continues to be debated. The Iberian Peninsula is considered a possible refuge zone for the last Neanderthals, but the chronology of the later Middle Palaeolithic record has undergone revision and has increased the debate on the timing of Neanderthal extinction. Here we report on a study of the 5-m-thick archaeological stratigraphy of the Cardina-Salto do Boi, an open-air site located in inland Iberia, from which optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages were obtained for Middle and Upper Palaeolithic occupations preserved in overbank alluvial deposits. Geomorphology, archaeostratigraphy, stone-tool evolution, and OSL dating support the persistence of Neanderthals after 41 ka in central Iberia; the transition between the Middle Palaeolithic material culture and the AMH-associated Aurignacian blade and bladelet production is estimated to lie between 34.0 ± 2.0 ka and 38.4 ± 1.9 ka. Our results demonstrate that investigations focusing on different geomorphological situations are necessary to overcome the current limitations of the evidence and to establish more consistent models for Neanderthal disappearance and AMH expansion in the Iberian Peninsula.
... Discovered during the 80′s by B. Walter, and surveyed with T. Aubry in 1999 and 2001, over 84 m 2 of it was excavated between 1998 and 2008 by one us (LK). The site provided a rich lithic industry attributed to the Rayssian phase belonging to the second half of the Middle Gravettian (Klaric 2003(Klaric , 2007Klaric et al., 2011Klaric et al., , 2018. The technological study of the lithic industry permitted to identify a new type of projectilethe lamelle de La Picardieconsidered along with the Burin du Raysse as a fossile directeur or marker of this period (Klaric et al., 2002;Klaric, 2017). ...
... On a larger scale, documenting the origin of objects found on archaeological sites elucidates the structure and extent of networks that circulate materialsand thus ideaswhich are themselves foundations of Palaeolithic cultures and may suggest their likely dissemination. As such, the Rayssian is an ideal case study having less than thirty identified sites (n = 28) in a large portion of southwest France (Klaric, 2003(Klaric, , 2007(Klaric, , 2008(Klaric, , 2017; sites which are themselves grouped into three large regions: The Périgord -Bassin de Brive -Quercy complex; The Touraine -Poitou complex and the Yonne Valley. Other sites indicate the use of areas outside these regions: Plasenn'al Lomm in Brittany; La Martinière in Anjou; Les Battuts rockshelter in Tarn (Fig. 5). ...
Article
For several years, multidisciplinary archaeological operations organized by the Ministry of Culture and named ‘Collective Research Projects’ (PCR) have enabled the design and use of a descriptive database for a part of southern and central France. This data base describes and stores the main geological aspects of sedimentary silicified rocks of chemical, biochemical or diagenetic origin (abbreviated SSR in the rest of the text) and their primary and secondary outcrops. Data were collected through a survey form describing the flint formations and using different observation grids which make up complete identity cards for each type of flint. Using their spatial attributes, these different data are linked to a shape file for flint formations, themselves digitized with ArcGIS and QGis on the basis of harmonized protocols with several layers of the WebMapService (WMS) Infoterre of the BRGM. Today, data sharing is made possible through the use of the ArcGisOnLine platform (AGOL) meeting the needs of the various users. Applied to an archaeological series, the database considers the concept of an evolutionary chain of SSR and extends an enquiry into the prehistoric relationship between SSR and their environments. According to the same criteria as those defined for the characterization of geological samples (petrology and alterology forms), it allows one to reconstruct the route traveled by any flint before its collection by prehistoric humans and then, by the use of a taphonomic form, decrypts the post-depositional SSR evolution in order to decipher the intensity and chronology of the mechanisms likely to have taken part in the sedimento-genesis of the archaeological site. In terms of understanding paleogeography, the ultimate aim of this approach, the accuracy of petro-archaeological studies is firmly established rather than being anecdotal. By demonstrating that only quantity, genetic and gitological diversity and the way in which materials from coherent geological spaces (i.e. geotopes) are introduced into the archaeological sites, allows one to discuss the method of acquisition of the materials concerned and thus to approach an understanding of the organization of prehistoric societies through their management of landscape and their relationship to territoriality. After the application of this method using the database the results are presented for particular materials coming from the Middle Gravettian series of la Picardie (Preuilly-sur-Claise, Indre-et-Loire, France).
... ka calBP, human settlement and technological adaptation to new territories, natural resources and climatic changes during MIS 3-2, are reflected in the variability of the archeological record (e.g., Kozłowski, 2015;Svoboda, 2005Svoboda, , 2007. Thus, such cultural mosaic, seen as a reflex of different technological patterns and organization, has recently been recognized in different regional and ecological territories during the expansion of Gravettian in such a short timeframe, that has been argued as one of the most important steps for the so-called techno-cultural polymorphism that characterizes all the Upper Paleolithic sequence (Klaric, 2003;Pesesse, 2006;Klaric, 2007;Moreau, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
During the Upper Paleolithic, lithic variability is one of the most important keys to recognize hunter-gatherer behavior, technology, ecology, and social dynamics. The origin and expansion of Gravettian populations in Eurasia has been seen as one of the most critical episodes in human evolution, argued to be the first clear evidence of the so-called polymorphism among modern human populations. In the case of southern Iberian Peninsula, recent data have shown a new regional and diachronic organization for the Gravettian occupation in this region. Therefore, the interpretation of such variability is one of the most important questions, and functional analysis is a fundamental proxy to recognize human technological, settlement and ecological adaptations as major factors for this polymorphism. This study focused on lithic use-wear analysis of the Early Gravettian of Vale Boi (southern Portugal), in order to understand lithic technological organization and variability within and between occupations at the site. Results show similar patterns between assemblages, showing that different materials were worked at the site, although showing reduced time of work, low variability and percentage of pieces used. Unlike other Gravettian contexts in southern Iberia, the Early Gravettian from Vale Boi is characterized by some variability of backed points, marked by the predominance of bipointed double-backed bladelets. Functional analysis of the Early Gravettian lithic industries of Vale Boi provide a new insight to interpret human technology and settlement strategy during the onset of Upper Paleolithic industries in western Eurasia.
... BAUCHE 1987; SCHÖN 1996; HARTZ 1999). The typological classification was conducted based on several publications of different tool classes (HAHN 1978; ARRIZABALAGA 1994; KLARIC 2007; MOREAU 2009; SIMONET 2009). The restricted number of microscopic classifications of raw material units were done with a Dino-Lite Digital Microscope (20X– 60X). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the Gravettian technocomplex in the Cantabrian region and the province of Cantabria in particular has long been an understudied area of Upper Palaeolithic research, recent investigation on this topic discovered a large variety of settlement types, comprehensive procurement patterns for lithic raw materials and extensive connections to the French Pyrenees. Unfortunately, lithic technological studies are still rare, which hampers, together with a small and unrepresentative radiocarbon dataset, a deeper diachronic and regional understanding of the observed variability. Therefore, this study contributes new data for the age model and a comprehensive description of the lithic chaîne opératoire from the Gravettian assemblage of Level 4 of Cueva Morín.
... Similarly startling differences are observed between lithic inventories from two sites in southern Poland -Kraków Spadzista and Jaksice II (Koz³owski et al. 1974;Wilczyñski et al. 2015a). Similar substantial diversity of stone inventories and site organisation can be observed among some Gravettian sites in the Russian Lowland and in Western and Central Europe (Sinitsin 2007;Klaric 2007;Klaric et al. 2009;Polanská and Hromadová 2015;Zheltova 2015). Therefore, the diversity of lithic inventories is seemingly not dependent on only single factors such as available raw material, season of occupation, or type of hunted animals; the explanation for variability must be more complex, but such considerations extend beyond the scope of this study. ...
... In studies of Gravettian lithic variability, culture-historical causes have received considerable attention (e.g. Djindjian and Bosselin, 1994;Klaric, 2007;Otte and Noiret, 2007;Svoboda, 2007;Moreau, 2010Moreau, , 2011Pesesse, 2010;Anghelinu et al., 2012;Ríos-Garaizar et al., 2012;Djindjian, 2013;Wierer, 2013;Marreiros et al., 2015;Polansk a and Hromadov a, 2015). This is partly imputable to the definition and routine practice of the chaîne op eratoire as an analytical tool (Pelegrin et al., 1988), and related with it, the underlying claim of reading the enculturated minds of prehistoric knappers (Audouze, 1999;Bar-Yosef and Van Peer, 2009). ...
Article
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Willendorf II provides the longest and best-studied MIS 3 sequence in the Middle Danube region, and represents one of the key reference sequences for this time period in Central Europe. The assemblage chosen for analysis derives from archaeological horizon (AH) 5, attributed to the period of the first Gravettian between 30 and 27 ka uncal. BP. While previous analyses were all based on a selected inventory (mainly tools and cores) derived from the 1908/1909 excavations, the discovery of labelled wooden boxes containing numerous additional artefacts from the 1908/1909 excavations at the end of the 1990s in the cellar of the Natural History Museum in Vienna considerably raises the total number of finds for all archaeological horizons, and opens new perspectives for investigating Upper Palaeolithic behavioural variability in the Middle Danube region. For the first time, the total assemblage of AH 5 has been analysed. Moreover, for the first time all artefacts have been assigned to a raw material source area, allowing for quantified observations on raw material economy and technological variability in the early Gravettian of the Middle Danube region. Willendorf II provides an excellent basis for the study of Gravettian lithic assemblage variability due to the wide array of local and nonlocal lithic resources available at varying distances from the settlement. We discuss the results in the light of the concepts of "technological provisioning" developed by S.L. Kuhn (1992), as it turns out that distance to source alone is not suitable to predict and explain raw material frequencies and the character of transported technologies on nonlocal material at Willendorf II-AH5. We argue that other factors such as the degree of anticipation of foreseeable activities and occupation span might account for the observed economic patterns. Our results clearly have broader relevance for understanding assemblage variability in the Gravettian of Central Europe and further afield.
... These diverse archaeological units are often geographically as well as temporally restricted (e.g. Grigor'ev 1993;Djindjian et al. 1999;Klaric 2007). Their developments and disappearances may be linked to the rather dramatic climatic changes that occurred during this period. ...
Article
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It is now well established that many previously obtained radiocarbon dates for the earlier part of the Upper Palaeolithic are problematic, and that archaeological chronologies based on such dates may require revision. In order to help address this problem for the Gravettian of European Russia, eight new radiocarbon dates were obtained on samples of bone from Kostënki 8 Layer II, Kostënki 4 and Borshchëvo 5. The dates for Kostënki 8/II agree with the most ancient date previously obtained for the layer and confirm the dating of the assemblage to ca. 32 000-31 000 calBP, or early Greenland Stadial (GS) 5. The new dates for both Kostënki 4 and Borshchëvo 5 are markedly more ancient than those previously published. They indicate that both sites are ca. 2 000 years older than formerly believed, and that both date to ca. 29 500-28 500 calBP, i.e. the very end of GS 5 or Greenland Interstadial (GI) 4. The dates suggest that Kostënki 4 and Borshchëvo 5 are both older than the sites of the Kostënki-Avdeevo Culture, with which they previously seemed to be contemporary. The revised chronology suggests that cold stadial conditions were associated with a relatively low number of archaeological sites in Russia, but also that a notably greater geographical distribution and number of sites may have been associated with GI 3 than with the preceding GI 4. This means that a straightforward correlation between climatic conditions and site numbers should not be postulated based on present evidence.
... In studies of Gravettian lithic variability, culture-historical causes have received considerable attention (e.g. Djindjian and Bosselin, 1994;Klaric, 2007;Otte and Noiret, 2007;Svoboda, 2007;Moreau, 2010Moreau, , 2011Pesesse, 2010;Anghelinu et al., 2012;Ríos-Garaizar et al., 2012;Djindjian, 2013;Wierer, 2013;Marreiros et al., 2015;Polansk a and Hromadov a, 2015). This is partly imputable to the definition and routine practice of the chaîne op eratoire as an analytical tool (Pelegrin et al., 1988), and related with it, the underlying claim of reading the enculturated minds of prehistoric knappers (Audouze, 1999;Bar-Yosef and Van Peer, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Willendorf II provides the longest and best-studied MIS 3 sequence in the Middle Danube region, and represents one of the key reference sequences for this time period in Central Europe. The assemblage chosen for analysis derives from archaeological horizon (AH) 5, attributed to the period of the first Gravettian between 30 and 27 ka uncal. BP. While previous analyses were all based on a selected inventory (mainly tools and cores) derived from the 1908/1909 excavations, the discovery of labelled wooden boxes containing numerous additional artefacts from the 1908/1909 excavations at the end of the 1990s in the cellar of the Natural History Museum in Vienna considerably raises the total number of finds for all archaeological horizons, and opens new perspectives for investigating Upper Palaeolithic behavioural variability in the Middle Danube region. For the first time, the total assemblage of AH 5 has been analysed. Moreover, for the first time all artefacts have been assigned to a raw material source area, allowing for quantified observations on raw material economy and technological variability in the early Gravettian of the Middle Danube region. Willendorf II provides an excellent basis for the study of Gravettian lithic assemblage variability due to the wide array of local and nonlocal lithic resources available at varying distances from the settlement. We discuss the results in the light of the concepts of "technological provisioning" developed by S.L. Kuhn (1992), as it turns out that distance to source alone is not suitable to predict and explain raw material frequencies and the character of transported technologies on nonlocal material at Willendorf II-AH5. We argue that other factors such as the degree of anticipation of foreseeable activities and occupation span might account for the observed economic patterns. Our results clearly have broader relevance for understanding assemblage variability in the Gravettian of Central Europe and further afield.
... All these sites are located in the southern half of France ( Figure 1). Final Gravettian is an original and unusual facies, its affiliation with the Gravettian mosaic remains a topic of discussion (e.g.: Klaric 2003Klaric , 2007Klaric , 2010Surmely et al. 2008;Guillermin 2011;Surmely and Hays 2011). The recovery of a new excavation thus offered the opportunity to provide new informations. ...
Conference Paper
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The latest excavation of Level 2 at the Abri Pataud (final Gravettian, 22.0 ky BP), proceeding since 2005, is based on a threefold analytical approach: fieldwork, archive analysis and analysis of old collections. Throughout the scientific project, these three approaches have enriched each other. They have identified precisely the potential of information as well as the limits of old data. The excavation protocol and the sampling strategy have been conceived in order to give answers to the remaining unanswered questions. The results, which have also their own methodological limitations, have clarified the status of human remains found in Level 2 as funerary deposits. The results also allowed us to gain a better understanding of the modalities of the successive occupations of this level, although the surface of excavation was voluntarily limited.
... The process which led to the emergence of this cultural unit has not been fully elucidated and still raises much controversy (Conard 2000;Svoboda 2007;Kozłowski 2013). Although the Gravettian entity is characterized by a marked uniformity, which is noticeable especially in the case of figural art, its lithic inventories sometimes display a considerable diversity, observed both in Western and Central Europe (Klaric 2007;Klaric et al. 2009;Oliva 1999;Polanská 2013;Wilczyński et al. 2015a). ...
... The only features they have in common are the presence of backed blades, Gravettian points retouched on the ventral side (not always isolated in publications which have described these assemblages), and a high ratio of burins e although at some other Late Gravettian sites there are deviations from these generalizations. The differences among Gravettian assemblages are known for the whole territory covered by Late Gravettian settlement (Klaric, 2007;Sinitsyn, 2007;Nuzhny, 2009;Polansk a and Hromadov a, 2015). Such a situation requires an explanation, but we are not able to propose a clear solution at this stage of research. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article summarizes archaeological data obtained from two Late Gravettian assemblages discovered at Kraków Spadzista and Jaksice II sites. At the Kraków Spadzista site different tool types in each zone were discovered, what could be a reflection of the varied activities carried out on each part of the site. From the other hand at Jaksice cite a homogeneous lithic assemblage, with a predominance of the armatures was discovered. These two inventories differ fundamentally both in terms of the raw materials used, tool-making technologies, as well as the lithic typology and morphology. These dissimilarities could be observed not only between above mentioned sites, but also among other Late Gravettian localities known from Central Europe and they concern primarily retouched tool assemblages. This leads us to conclude that in this period we could observe a mosaic of dissimilar inventories, but – at least at the current stage of research – they do not define any group of sites either geographically or chronologically. Whether this is the reflection of cultural diversity or seasonally varied assemblages used by Palaeolithic hunter–gatherers we can not unriddle. We could only state that the problem is most complicated, and needs more detailed studies focused not only on the lithic artefacts, but also on faunal remains, chronology, and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Only the correlation of all this data can bring us closer to solving the problem of the diversification of the Late Gravettian industries.
... BAUCHE 1987; SCHÖN 1996; HARTZ 1999). The typological classification was conducted based on several publications of different tool classes (HAHN 1978; ARRIZABALAGA 1994; KLARIC 2007; MOREAU 2009; SIMONET 2009). The restricted number of microscopic classifications of raw material units were done with a Dino-Lite Digital Microscope (20X– 60X). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the Gravettian technocomplex in the Cantabrian region and the province of Cantabria in particular has long been an understudied area of Upper Palaeolithic research, recent investigation on this topic discovered a large variety of settlement types, comprehensive procurement patterns for lithic raw materials and extensive connections to the French Pyrenees. Unfortunately, lithic technological studies are still rare, which hampers, together with a small and unrepresentative radiocarbon dataset, a deeper diachronic and regional understanding of the observed variability. Therefore, this study contributes new data for the age model and a comprehensive description of the lithic chaîne opératoire from the Gravettian assemblage of Level 4 of Cueva Morín. RESUMEN Aunque el tecno-complejo gravetiense de la región cántabra y la provincia de Cantabria en particuar ha sido, durante mucho tiempo, una zona poco estudiada en la investigación del Paleolítico superior, una reciente investigación sobre este tema ha descubierto una gran variedad de tipos de asentamientos, amplios patrones de obtención de materias primas líticas y extensas conexiones con los Pirineos franceses. Lamentablemente, los estudios tecnológicos líticos todavía no son habituales, lo cual dificulta, junto un conjunto pequeño y poco representativo de datos de radiocar-bono, la comprensión diacrónica y regional más profunda de la variabilidad observada. Por lo tanto, este estudio aporta nuevos datos para el mo-delo de edad y una descripción exhaustiva de la chaîne opératoire lítica de la colección gravetiense del nivel 4 de Cueva Morín. LABURPENA Kantabriako eskualdeko eta, zehazki, Kantabria probintziako teknokonplexu gravetiarra, denbora askoan, Goi Paleolitikoan gutxi ikertutako eremua izan den arren, gai horren inguruan egin berria den ikerketak kokaleku mota ugari, lehengai litikoak eskuratzeko patroi ugari eta Frant-ziako Pirinioetako mendiekiko konexio zabalak aurkitu ditu. Zoritxarrez, ikerketa teknologiko litikoak oraindik ez dira oso ohikoak. Horrez gain, erradiokarbonoaren edo karbono-14aren datuen multzoa txikia eta adierazgarria izateak zaildu egiten du behatutako aldakortasunaren uler-men diakroniko eta erregional sakonagoa egiteko aukera. Horrenbestez, ikerketa honek datu berriak eskaini ditu Morin kobazuloko 4. mailako bilduma gravettiarraren chaîne opératoire litikoaren deskribapen zehatzerako eta adin-eredurako.
... These diverse archaeological units are often geographically as well as temporally restricted (e.g. Grigor'ev 1993;Djindjian et al. 1999;Klaric 2007). Their developments and disappearances may be linked to the rather dramatic climatic changes that occurred during this period. ...
... In contrast, an assembly of sites dated in the range of the climate deterioration of Heinrich Stadial 3 associated with the Rayssian phase (cf. Klaric, 2007) shows a clear increase in specialization (e.g. 96.8% of reindeer in Abri Pataud Level 4 Upper), possibly related to the change of habitat. ...
Article
Human societies have been challenged by internal and external disturbances throughout history. However, our knowledge of the dynamics and parameters of their resilience remains remarkably incomplete. This deficiency is particularly evident for the longest part of our past, when humans lived as hunter-gatherers. Following Holling's adaptive cycle model, we propose an approach to reconstruct socio-economic developments in hunter-gatherer populations as transitions between different attractor states of complex adaptive systems, with connectedness as a key concept. This allows a reinterpretation of the classical ‘simple’e‘complex’ hunter-gatherer dichotomy by shifting attention to the mechanisms of adaptation and dynamics holding socio-ecologic systems of hunter-gatherers in tension. Applied to the situation in Europe during the late Pleistocene, a model explaining the different long-term dynamics observable in the aftermath of the arrival of the first anatomically modern humans is discussed.
... The result of 24,820 ± 220 BP (Lyon-9985 SacA 32,610) (Morala, 2015) falls within the age range for the Middle Gravettian in the Southwest of France (e.g. Klaric, 2007). ...
Article
European Mid Upper Paleolithic mortuary practices have been traditionally associated with primary burials, ochre, body ornaments and grave goods. Recently, evidence of the post-mortem treatment of skeletal remains, such as the displacement and removal of skeletal elements, has been reported for the Gravettian period in the Southwest of France. Here, we present the preliminary results of anthropological and taphonomic analyses of the human remains from the Gravettian site of Fournol (Soturac, Lot, France). We describe the first evidence of the scalping and disarticulation of human remains, a previously unknown post-mortem treatment in Gravettian contexts from the South West of France. Author's final version: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02266452
... The situation concerning Gravettian assemblages is rather similar, in that numerous Gravettian faciès are described for different time periods and areas based on assemblage contents, particularly the presence of particular index fossils: our knowledge of these across Europe is perhaps better than for Aurignacian assemblages, and examples include the Rayssian, Noaillian and Kostënki-Avdeevo Culture groups (e.g. Klaric 2007;Noiret 2009;de la Peña and Vega Toscana 2013;Noiret 2013;Pesesse 2013;Reynolds 2014;Lengyel 2016). For later periods, the situation becomes more complicated. ...
Preprint
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Manuscript version of: Reynolds, N. (in press). Threading the weft, testing the warp: population concepts and the European Upper Paleolithic chronocultural framework. In: H.S. Groucutt (Ed.), Culture History and Convergent Evolution: Can we Detect Populations in Prehistory? Springer, Cham, Switzerland.
... This approach reconstructs the different stages of flint production, from the acquisition of raw material through to the finished product and the abonnement of the used tool (Pelegrin 1985(Pelegrin , 1995Pelegrin et al. 1988 (Pelegrin 1985(Pelegrin , 1995Pelegrin et al. 1988). In turn, the identification of the different societies helps researchers reconstruct the chronological, technological and economic transformations that occurred in specific regions (Valentin 1995;Klaric 2007). ...
... One interesting technical feature is the large size of the artifacts in the assemblage, especially large blades, whose presence in Gravettian assemblages from the Iberian Peninsula is rarely discussed even if they are more common in Western Europe (Ríos Garaizar et al. 2011Garaizar et al. , 2013Domingo et al., 2012;Wierer et al., 2017). Burins on truncation, with a high degree of technical and morphological variability (Bracco et al., 2006;Klaric, 2007), are additional indicators commonly associated with the Gravettian. ...
Article
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Traditionally, fossil directors have been key elements for the characterization of chrono-cultural series over time. Current research on lithic technology demonstrate extensive and growing variability within technocomplexes, particularly in the Upper Paleolithic, making more complex the previously established chrono-cultural organization. In this article we analyze the lithic technology of level 497C from Cova Gran de Santa Linya, dated to 26.220 ± 220 BP (31260–30580 cal BP). Chronometric data indicates the assemblage is located between MIS 3 and MIS 2, likely placing it within the Gravettian tradition. The level 497C constitutes one of the few archaeological sites in NE Iberia for this period and allows identifying technical traits in core reduction methods, stone tools manufacture and site composition. Reduction strategies through prismatic cores were used to obtain distinct sequences of blades and bladelets. The assemblage of retouched artifacts is mainly composed by “fond commun”, pieces with abrupt retouch, and burins (mostly on oblique truncation). Backed tools, which were common during this period, are notably rare, as are Gravette points and Noailles burins, classic indicators that are not represented here. Nevertheless, a group of partially retouched macro-flakes forms a little-known category of instruments that can provide remarkable information regarding the technical behaviors of human groups. The technological features seen in level 497C may be consistent with the Gravettian technocomplex. However, we suggest the integration of technical-organizational indicators to assist the contextualization of the diversity of responses and technological decisions identified in technocomplexes. In this sense, the characteristics of this assemblage offer keys for evaluating archaeological sequences without fossil directors, thereby expanding our understanding of technological variability in this period in Iberia.
... A very similar armature technology was recovered in Portugal at the Early Gravettian site of Vale Boi, where burins without any traces of use served as cores for bladelet production (Marreiros et al., 2018) and in France, where Middle Gravettian sites distinguished as Rayssian, dated to 31.2-27.4 ky cal BP, have produced burins used to produce blanks for backed artefacts and Gravette/microgravette points (Klaric, 2007). Use of burin spalls as blanks for microgravette production, although not so numerous (8%) as that at Lubná VI (27%), is also observed at layer 2 of the Kostenki 8 site (Reynolds, 2014;Borgia, 2017). ...
Article
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This paper presents the results of excavations conducted at the Late Gravettian site of Lubná VI in 2012 and 2018. This site is an exceptional example of a short-term Late Gravettian campsite, occupied between 27.5 and 27.1 ka cal BP. Due to the specific location of this site, in an area situated far from lithic raw material sources, the archaeological remains offer a rare possibility to understand the subsistence strategy of highly mobile hunter-gatherers in the Late Pleistocene. The knapped lithic assemblage is composed of erratic Cretaceous flint imported over long distances, and the tool inventory is typical of Late Gravettian assemblages from Central Europe, with a dominance of burins and backed implements. However, the lack of chert and flint raw material in the vicinity of the site inspired the occupants to use bladelet blanks to make hunting weaponry from burin spalls. This specific behaviour is unique among Gravettian inventories known from the western Carpathians. Reindeer dominate the faunal assemblage over other species. The season of occupation at Lubná VI was probably early autumn, and may be associated with the maximum use of environmental resources by the hunter-gatherers. The small campsite was located at a convenient spot for processing reindeer carcasses, where some hearth stone constructions were arranged. Because there was no woody vegetation in the closest vicinity of the site, reindeer bones and fat were used as fuel in hearths. Given the lack of nearby flint raw materials, the accessibility of large numbers of reindeer near Lubná, probably present on a seasonal basis, explains the occurrence of Late Gravettian occupation in this micro-region.
... However, today it is not possible to establish chronological or regional cultural sub-units, like e.g. in southwestern France (cf. Klaric, 2007). If this is due to a lack of AMS radiocarbon datings, the research bias regarding open air sites, or if this reflects an ancient pattern, is open to discussion. ...
Poster
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Agent-Based Modelling provides a simulation approach for for gathering the fragmented knowledge we have to identify probability-based most likely scenarios for the living conditions and dynamics of the Gravettian societies of Northern Spain (cf. Banks et al., 2013). Referring on anthropological models (e.g. Kelly, 1995) and closely aligned with the available empirical data, simulation models are used as "behavioural laboratories" (Premo, 2008: 36) and also simply as an illustrative format to replay sets of potential narratives of the local and regional histories. Agent-based simulation models designed to model idealtypical specialized and unspecialized hunter-gatherer mobility considering different paleoenvironmental scenarios (e.g. stadial-interstadial alterations) demonstrate the general high survival chance of Gravettian populations in a context of significant environmental changes.
Chapter
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With the analysis of the inner sequence of Aitzbitarte III we finish the study of the lithic assemblages of this site, which were initiated in 2011 with the publication of the exterior sequence results. The techno-typological analysis of the lithic assemblages recovered from the stratigraphic units of the inner sequence, has allow us to assess the integrity of the assemblages, and to propose a chronocultural attribution. It also has been used to describe the technological and economic organization strategies practiced by the human groups occupying the cave. The lower units of the sequence (VI y V) correspond to succesive human occupations that took place between ca. 31.000 and 24.000 cal BP. The chronology of the occupations, and its techno-typological composition clearly relate these assemblages with the Gravettian rich in Noailles burin technocomplex, which is poorly represented in the Cantabrian Region, but quite abundant in the western Pyrenees. This technocomplex is not represented in the exterior sequence, although the chronology of these occupations slightly overlaps the dates available for units Va and IV of the exterior sequence, and it fills the gap observed in the exterior sequence between the Early Gravettian (units Va and IV) and the Terminal Gravettian (unit III). The upper units of the inner sequence (units IV and III-II), show more taphonomic problems, which limits the range of the study. Unit IV has been dated between 27869 and 18750 cal BP, that is, in similar dates than the unit III of the exterior sequence. It also has some similarities, from a techno-typological perspective, with this unit, and therefore we could situate these occupations at the very end of regional Gravettian or at the beginning of Solutrean. The unit III-II presents also some taphonomic problems. Its techno-typological features and the available dates, suggest that it could correspond with occupations that took place at the very end of the Solutrean or at Initial Magdalenian. Finally, the unit I-SUP is too altered to allow any interpretation of it. We have observed important differences between the different units, which correspond to successive occupations, in different periods, of the cave. These differences represent changes in the technological provisioning strategies, being a clear cut between units Vi-V and units IV-III-II. These differences suggest not only the existence of different settlement systems, but also differences in the function of the cave.
Chapter
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Resnik – Kaštel Štafilić is an open air Middle Paleolithic site from a period when the sea level was much lower than today. Small scale underwater excavation and systematic collection of surface finds at the site using a grid have been ongoing since 2008. The methodology applied will be further described in this paper. Exploration of the site is important for several reasons: it adds to the overall picture of the area that was once land and connects it to the other sites, it allows for a development of methodology for underwater excavation of Paleolithic sites, and it also opens up a whole set of questions related to the processes of formation and destruction of underwater sites.
Article
Nomadism is traditionally considered the unique lifestyle of the European Upper Palaeolithic before the appearance of the settled way of life characterizing the Neolithic. A semi-sedentary intermediate organization based on the economy of the mammoth was nevertheless proposed for the Gravettian and Epigravettian of Central and Eastern Europe. Paradoxically, though the Gravettian is considered to be the first European culture of modern humans, this working hypothesis has not been raised in Western Europe. Indeed, in the unity/diversity debate for the Gravettian phenomenon, the importance of territorial organization is underestimated, given that it is just as important as the lithic and osseous industries. Based on a study of the lithic industry, I explore the possibility that the Gravettian groups occupying Brassempouy (Landes, France) approximately 30,000 BP lived a semi-sedentary lifestyle.
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During the 2006 excavation at the Grotte de la Verpillière in Germolles, a team from the University of Tübingen under the direction of Prof. Harald Floss found a new archeological site. The site, now called Grotte de la Verpillière II, is situated around 50 m south of the well‐known Verpillière cave (since then it has been called Verpillière I) in the same communal subdistrict of Verpillière. Between 2006 and 2008 mixed sediments and big limestone blocks from a roof collapse were removed to gain entrance to the cave. In 2009, intact layers with Middle Paleolithic artifacts were found and remain under excavation today. The intact find layers contain lithic artifacts, faunal elements and thousands of charcoal fragments that occur in discrete lenses. The lithic industry contains a high percentage of Levallois elements and the uppermost intact find layer (GH 3) yields a bifacial component that can be related to the Keilmessergruppen (assemblages with backed bifacial knifes), Micoquien (sensu Bosinski), Charentian with Micoquian influence (sensu Farizy), Mousterian with Micoque option (sensu Richter) of central Europe or the Mousterian with bifacial tools (sensu Ruebens) in northern France and the Benelux. Here, we provide an overview of the first insights gained from ongoing excavations (here described insights from the campaigns 2006 to 2013) and analyses at this new Middle Paleolithic site in Eastern France.
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This overview paper presents the leading theories which attempt to explain the emergence of one of the prominent features specific to our species – the protruding chin. Established theories discussing this phenomenon include the effect of masticatory stress theory, a sexual selection theory and theories relating the human chin to the emergence of spoken language. However, these explanations have proved inconclusive and the processes responsible for the emergence of mentum osseum in the Late Pleistocene remain unclear.
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This paper presents the first results from a new research project that focuses on the emergence of ceramic technologies across Paleolithic Europe. Pavlovian ceramics from Moravia provide the earliest known evidence of these technologies, with one of the largest assemblages from the site of Pavlov I. This paper presents new analyses of both the figurative art and the broader assemblage of worked “pellets,” shedding new light on the range of technologies employed when working with this innovative material. Using both macro‐ and microscopic analyses, we identified four distinct chaînes opératoires across the figurative and non‐figurative ceramics that were excavated from Pavlov I in the 1950s—1960s, demonstrating a more diverse range of manufacturing sequences than scholars previously purported. In particular, analyzing the “pellets” demonstrates that studying the figurative sculptures in isolation may lead to biased interpretations of the importance of some techniques, such as engraving.
Chapter
Interpretations of the European Upper Paleolithic archaeological record have long relied on concepts of past populations. In particular, cultural taxonomic units—which are used as a framework for describing the archaeological record—are commonly equated with past populations. However, our cultural taxonomy is highly historically contingent, and does not necessarily accurately reflect variation in the archaeological record. Furthermore, we lack a secure theoretical basis for the description of past human populations based on taxonomic units. In order to move past these problems and satisfactorily address questions of Upper Paleolithic populations, we need to entirely revise our approach to chronocultural framework building. Here, I outline a specific way of describing the archaeological record that deliberately avoids the use of cultural taxonomic units and instead concentrates on individual features of material culture. This approach may provide a more appropriate basis for the archaeological study of Upper Paleolithic populations and for comparisons with genetic data.
Article
After nine years of excavation (1998–2008) the site of La Picardie has delivered a significant lithic collection (more than 13,000 artefacts coordinated) chronologically related to the “Raysse burin” phase of the Gravettian (second phase of Middle Gravettian ca. 25–23 ky BP uncal.). The study of the lithic material has provided several important results, including the chronological attribution of the site, the description of a new type of retouched bladelet, and the reconstruction of the flint knapping process for blade and bladelet production on site. The palethnographic study and interpretation of the site have, however, not been discussed to date. In spite of some taphonomic issues the coalescence of different studies has allowed us to further our understanding of the site, notably via the functional analysis of stone tools, the evaluation of different skill levels in flint-knapping, the vertical and horizontal distributions of artefacts and tools, and finally the study of the different organised “structures” made of limestones blocks. Using several examples we will describe in a step by step manner the various elements that helped us to rebuild the probable function(s) of the site and propose a first palethnographic assessment.
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The excavations at site Kraków Spadzista (Poland) were conducted in eleven trenches from 1968 until present with several interruptions. During this period approximately 370.0 m2 of the site were explored. The series of radiocarbon dates cluster from 25.0 to 20.0 ky uncal BP, placing the site into the Gravettian cultural complex. Up to 2013 more than 50, 000 bone remains of different mammals of the Pleistocene steppe‐tundra environment were discovered. At Kraków Spadzista site most of the faunal remains belong to woolly mammoth, of which a minimum of 93 individuals were estimated. Other large mammal taxa are represented only by isolated bones and teeth of single individuals. On the basis of the analyses of lithic materials, faunal remains, and radiometric data we can suggest that the Kraków Spadzista site was frequently re‐occupied area by groups of Gravettian hunters within periods of few weeks or months. This short‐term camp site was related to mammoth hunting. Most of the animals were probably killed by hunters directly at the site or in close vicinity, and then dismembered. The analysis allows the identification of three possible activity zones: a camp area, a lithic workshop, and an animal‐processing area, besides the well‐known accumulation of mammoth bones.
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The Preboreal is a period that is still relatively poorly known as regards its archeological cultures. At the transition between the Pleistocene and the Holocene there are finds from Northern Germany indicating the presence of the Late Paleolithic Ahrensburg culture with a clear focus on reindeer hunting, but at the same time there are Danish finds reflecting an orientation to elk hunting, with an unclear cultural affiliation. Clear evidence of a material culture characteristic of the Maglemose culture does not appear until the middle part of the Preboreal. Dated finds suggest that reindeer existed throughout the chronozone, contemporary with other game such as horse and elk. Elk is observed through finds of deposits of parts of elk bodies which differ from later ways of treating game animals. These have been interpreted as being linked to ritual activities. A couple of finds of metapodials from Skåne may be a consequence of the same patterns of deposition. Finds of elk antler mattock heads and leister points have also been observed. The former in particular have a special position as characteristic of an early Maglemose culture. The leister points can be followed back to the Late Paleolithic, and it is still uncertain when elk antler mattock heads began to appear.
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The process of model building is one of the fundamental means of scientific reasoning and assessment of theoretical constructs. Most of the theoretical models in social sciences (specifically in archaeology) are formulated through the basic descriptive means of common language. Developments in IT during the last decades and its accessibility have made available various computing methods in archaeological research. The paper aims to outline basic features of the method called agent‐based modeling (ABM), which allows the building of digital models to simulate artificial societies or other studied complex phenomena of archaeological interest. Such models may reveal the behavior of featured systemic components and their influence on system dynamics (e.g. population dynamics or emergence of system properties of social structure). Generally the aim of the described method is the study of systemic micro‐level properties and their output in macro‐scale pattern generation (structural behavior). Finally, the paper outlines the most recent applications of this method to study society and its trajectories of development within the Roman Period in the Middle Danube region.
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In this paper, we present the most recent results of dating and anthropological findings related to the cranium from the site of Siemonia, near Będzin in Silesia (Poland). The Siemonia human skull was found accidentally by workers in 1955 in quarried sand. Until recently, the Siemonia skull was considered the oldest find of an anatomically modern human from Poland. Unfortunately, the results of the dating of the cranial bone using the AMS method indicated that the individual to whom the skull belonged derived from the Holocene epoch and not, as was previously assumed, from the Upper Paleolithic period. The calibration, showing the calendar age indicates that the skull belonged to a man from the twelfth or thirteenth century. The morphology of the Siemonia skull is typical for the Homo sapiens crania. However, this skull exhibits high grades of robusticity characters expression and thick bones of the cranial vaults, thus overall the skull is massive.
Article
Western Europe is often used as the basis from which to understand the Aurignacian of other regions. For some there is good inter-regional chronocultural agreement, whereas others see significant difference. One region frequently argued to differ is the Swabian Jura (southern Germany). In a recent contribution to this issue Bataille and Conard (2018) describe the Aurignacian assemblage from Layer IV of Hohle Fels. They convincingly outline important similarities with the Western European Late Aurignacian. However, they also argue that it is older than, and different from, the most comparable Western European assemblages, and therefore that it contradicts an Aurignacian chronocultural framework built on Western European evidence. Here we assess this claim, focusing on the sites used by Bataille and Conard in their comparison. Radiocarbon dates for Hohle Fels IV of 33–30,000 uncal bp are no older than dates for Western European Late Aurignacian assemblages. Most of the features of Hohle Fels IV argued to demonstrate its dissimilarity are, in fact, evident in the Western European Late Aurignacian. One potential difference is the reported absence from Hohle Fels IV of microblades with inverse/alternate retouch. However, due to the near absence of laterally retouched microblades and uncertainty over whether the fine fraction has been searched we doubt the significance of this observation. Other recent publications have similarly suggested that the Western European chronocultural model is incompatible with other regions. In light of this we consider Eastern Europe. Despite some difference, reliable data point to the pene-contemporaneity of characteristic bladelet/microblade technologies between the two regions, a pattern that stratigraphies from sites across Europe are also consistent with. The biggest complicating factor is radiocarbon dating, which has created a culturally complex picture that is inconsistent with all chronostratigraphic data. We therefore offer some thoughts as to the use of radiocarbon dates for this period. Despite ongoing problems dates are still frequently presented with an unwarranted confidence in their accuracy. Their presentation should instead explicitly acknowledge the method’s fallibility and its inferiority to more reliable evidence such as chronostratigraphic patterning and tephra. When radiocarbon dates contradict a consistent chronostratigraphic picture the burden of proof falls to those arguing the dates’ veracity. In these cases, the reasons for the discrepancy between the radiocarbon and chronostratigraphic records require exploration.
Article
In this book, Jennifer French presents a new synthesis of the archaeological, palaeoanthropological, and palaeogenetic records of the European Palaeolithic, adopting a unique demographic perspective on these first two-million years of European prehistory. Unlike prevailing narratives of demographic stasis, she emphasises the dynamism of Palaeolithic populations of both our evolutionary ancestors and members of our own species across four demographic stages, within a context of substantial Pleistocene climatic changes. Integrating evolutionary theory with a socially oriented approach to the Palaeolithic, French bridges biological and cultural factors, with a focus on women and children as the drivers of population change. She shows how, within the physiological constraints on fertility and mortality, social relationships provide the key to enduring demographic success. Through its demographic focus, French combines a 'big picture' perspective on human evolution with careful analysis of the day-to-day realities of European Palaeolithic hunter-gatherer communities—their families, their children, and their lives.
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Après de nombreuses controverses concernant leur définition les burins du Raysse ou de Bassaler (outils spécifiques d'une phase moyenne du Gravettien français) furent caractérisés typologiquement par H.L. Movius et N.C. David à l'abri Pataud (Dordogne). Vers la fin des années 90, leur interprétation fonctionnelle comme burin a été mise en question par plusieurs auteurs qui ont alors envisagé un rôle de nucléus à lamelles. Le principal argument contre cette hypothèse résidait dans la très faible représentation des armatures microlithiques à dos (microgravettes et lamelles à dos) dans les séries à burins du Raysse. Aujourd'hui, la découverte d'un site de plein air (la Picardie, en Indre-et-Loire) localisé à proximité d'une source importante de silex permet d'apporter de nouveaux éléments de réflexion. Ce gisement a révélé l'existence d'armatures à retouches marginales, sans dos véritable, confectionnées sur des lamelles obtenues à partir de burins du Raysse. Ainsi, en l'absence d'autres nucléus à lamelles, la caractérisation des armatures et des derniers enlèvements sur les "burins" permet de confirmer que ces derniers ont assumé une fonction de nucléus. After much controversy, Raysse burins (specific tools of the second part of the Middle Gravettian in France) were characterised, from a typological point of view, at Abri Pataud (Dordogne) by H.L. Movius and N.C. David. At the end of the 1990s, the functional interpretation of such tools as burins was called into question by several authors. They proposed a new interpretation for these artefacts: bladelet-cores. The main argument against this hypothesis was the small number of microlithic points (microgravettes or backed-bladelets) in the series including Raysse burins. Today, the discovery of a new open-air site (la Picardie, Indre-et-Loire), situated near an important flint outcrop, provides some new elements for discussion. Several small retouched bladelets (which are not microgravettes or blacked-bladelets) knapped from Raysse burin forms were discovered during the excavation. Thus, with no evidence of other bladelet-cores, the characterisation of the retouched bladelets and the last flakes removed from the "burins" confirm that the Raysse burins played the role of bladelet-cores.
Article
A new calibration curve for the conversion of radiocarbon ages to calibrated (cal) ages has been constructed and internationally ratified to replace IntCal98, which extended from 0–24 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950). The new calibration data set for terrestrial samples extends from 0–26 cal kyr BP, but with much higher resolution beyond 11.4 cal kyr BP than IntCal98. Dendrochronologically-dated tree-ring samples cover the period from 0–12.4 cal kyr BP. Beyond the end of the tree rings, data from marine records (corals and foraminifera) are converted to the atmospheric equivalent with a site-specific marine reservoir correction to provide terrestrial calibration from 12.4–26.0 cal kyr B P. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a coherent statistical approach based on a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the 14 C age to calculate the underlying calibration curve (Buck and Blackwell, this issue). The tree-ring data sets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are discussed here. The marine data sets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed in brief, but details are presented in Hughen et al. (this issue a). We do not make a recommendation for calibration beyond 26 cal kyr BP at this time; however, potential calibration data sets are compared in another paper (van der Plicht et al., this issue).
Article
After much controversy, Raysse burins (specific tools of the second part of the Middle Gravettian in France) were characterised, from a typological point of view, at Abri Pataud (Dordogne) by H.L. Movius and N.C. David. At the end of the 1990s, the functional interpretation of such tools as burins was called into question by several authors. They proposed a new interpretation for these artefacts: bladelet-cores. The main argument against this hypothesis was the small number of microlithic points (microgravettes or backed-bladelets) in the series including Raysse burins. Today, the discovery of a new open-air site (la Picardie, Indre-et-Loire), situated near an important flint outcrop, provides some new elements for discussion. Several small retouched bladelets (which are not microgravettes or backed-bladelets) knapped from Raysse burin forms were discovered during the excavation. Thus, with no evidence of other bladelet-cores, the characterisation of the retouched bladelets and the last flakes removed from the "burins" confirm that the Raysse burins played the role of bladelet-cores.
Article
The 2.5 m thick stratigraphy of the 'Les Peyrugues' site, a rockshelter located in the Célé valley (Lot, France), covers the last 25 millennia. Radiocarbone dates allow proposition of a detailed chronological framework for slope dynamics and palaeoenvironments during the Upper Pleniglacial in southwestern France. The ∼ 25 to ∼ 20 kyr BP interval is characterised by calcareous stratified slope deposits due to stone-banked solifluction lobe activity. These typify the modern high-altitude or high latitude periglacial semi-deserts and testify to mean annual air temperatures below -1 or -2°C. Two humus-rich levels, dating to ca. 25 and 19/21 kyr BP, correspond to paleosols that have been deformed and stretched on the slope by periglacial processes. They reflect wetter and/or warmer climatic events and may be correlated respectively to the Dansgaard-Oeschger interstades 3-4 and 2. During the 19-16 kyr BP interval, massive, slightly organic diamictic deposits indicate that solifluction was still active, and probably associated with a more continuous herbaceous vegetal cover. A catastrophic cliff fall occured during the interval 16-13 kyr BP, resulting in talus erosion and in the deposition of a thick boulder layer. A comparison with other sedimentary records in southwestern France shows that similar phenomena may have occurred in many talus deposits in rockshelters or at cave entrances.
Article
The industry of Plasenn-al-Lomm (a site that probably belongs to the Upper Perigordian) is defined by an abundance of burins. These burins show various methods of resharpening and contain some intermediate pieces between tools and cores. Despite a lack of backed-bladelet, a localised bladelet production exits and goes with a very significant deficit in burin-spalls. These facts are suggesting the assumption that a backed-bladelet production did exist, but has left only few traces. The blanks used for this production should have been bladelet as well as some burin-spalls from specific burins, which are designed as cores and not as tools.
Article
Cet article traite de l'homogeneite des ensembles lithiques de la base de la sequence aurignacienne a Caminade Est (Dordogne). II s'inscrit dans le cadre de l'analyse critique des donnees concernant l'"Aurignacien 0 " en Perigord. L'analyse technologique, l'analyse spatiale et les remontages montrent que l'outillage " archaique " qui a contribue a l'attribution a I'" Aurignacien 0 " de l'industrie du niveau G, provient en fait d'une contamination par le Mousterien sous-jacent. La recherche systematique des raccords d'interet stratigraphique, appliquee sur les fragments de lames du niveau G et du niveau F le surmontant (Aurignacien ancien ou I, a sagaie a base fendue), montre que la contamination mutuelle entre ces deux niveaux est trop importante pour que l'on puisse continuer a interpreter les differences qu'ils accusent comme culturellement significatives. En revanche, cette meme methode montre la pertinence de la distinction de cet ensemble F/G avec l'ensemble le surmontant D2i/D2s, attribue a l'aurignacien " evolue ", riche en burins busques. Les memes resultats ont ete obtenus par d'autres methodes utilisant les raccords et rapprochements lithiques. L'orientation preferentielle des raccords de deux pieces selon la direction de pendage des couches, conduit a soupconner l'effet de phenomenes post-depositionnels qui pourraient, en partie au moins, permettre d'expliquer les melanges entre niveaux. L'ensemble de ces resultats montre que l'on ne peut plus, sur la base des series de Caminade, caracteriser un episode aurignacien anterieur a celui de I' " Aurignacien I " a sagaie a base fendue. L'interet, pour ne pas dire la necessite, d'une approche " taphonomique " des industries lithiques, par les remontages est ainsi demontree.
Article
En plus de la technique, particulière aux burins de Noailles, utilisée pour obtenir des biseaux étroits, les artisans de la Couche 4 (Périgordien Vc ou Noaillien) de l'abri Pataud avaient l'habitude de réduire la largeur du biseau en le modifiant après l'enlèvement du coup de burin. Sous sa forme la plus simple une telle modification est constituée par une petite retouche partant de l'enlèvement du coup de burin et affectant la face dorsale de la pièce. Cet aménagement du biseau est appelé modification tertiaire, parce qu'elle est postérieure aux deux phases majeures de la fabrication des burins, définition Movius, David, et al., 1968, p. 20. Outre son utilisation pour réduire la largeur du biseau, cette technique a été employée pour créer deux formes spéciales et plus complexes qui sont appelées burin-pointe et burin du Raysse et qui sont définis dans cet article. In addition to the Noailles technique, employed for the production of narrow burin cutting edges, the Level 4 (Perigordian Vc, or Noaillian) artificers at the Abri Pataud were accustomed to reduce the width of the burin cutting edge by modifying it subsequent to the removal of the burin spall. In its simplest expression, such modification takes the form of a series of small removals struck from the burin spall scar onto the dorsal surface of the piece. This thinning of the burin edge is termed tertiary modification, because it is subsequent to the two major processes of burin manufacture, defined by Movius, David, et al., 1968 p. 20. In addition to having been employed to reduce the thickness of the cutting edge, this technique was used to create two specialized and more complex forms which are called Burin-Points and Raysse Burins, each of which is defined in this paper.
Article
The intensity of the disturbance of paleolithic living floors due to natural sedimentary processes is discussed through some french examples, using 3 complementary methods the study of the macroscopic sedimentary features in the light of recent developments in penglacial geomorphology, the analysis of the sediments at a microscopic scale and the study of the strike and dip (fabric) of the artefacts All the examples presen tedher e reveal strong transformations related to penglacial mass-movements on the slope Subsequent implications to archaeological interpretations of the levels are discussed.
Article
Recent excavations have provided more exact evidence about the relationship between different fades of the Perigordian V complex in south‐western France. Various previous classifications and interpretations are discussed and the contrast is now pointed out between assemblages where the emphasis is placed on either Gravettes and microgravettes, or Noailles burins or flat burins (burins plans). These three aspects are shown by excavations, especially at Le Flageolet, to be broadly contemporary and not necessarily mutually exclusive.
Article
Like a number of other Upper Palaeolithic stone tools (carinate pieces, “pièces esquillées”), the possibility that the Raysse burins may have functionned as cores has lately been raised. With this technological study of the Raysse burins from the level V of Le Flageolet I, the objective of this article is to contribute to the clarification of this question, important in terms of functional interpretation of the assemblage.
Article
Le Gravettien est une culture qui s'est étendue sur toute l'Europe pendant près de huit millénaires. Les industries lithiques qui ont permis sa caractérisation présentent, en général, des traits culturels partagés qui étayent une vision paneuropéenne de cette civilisation. Pourtant, certaines séries ne présentent pas toujours ces mêmes traits culturels. Cela signifie-t-il qu'elles ne sont pas gravettiennes ? Dans ce cas, d'où proviennent-elles ? Peut-on les interpréter en terme humain et paléohistorique ? A partir de l'exemple des industries du Gravettien moyen (à « burins » du Raysse), ce travail tente d'apporter de nouveaux éléments de réflexion quant à ces questions. Le premier chapitre est consacré à la caractérisation technologique d'une série provenant d'un gisement de la région Centre : la Picardie (Indre-et-Loire). Les résultats sont ensuite comparés, dans le second chapitre, à ceux de l'analyse de l'industrie de la couche V de la Grotte du Renne (Yonne). Les différences mises en exergue sont alors envisagées à la lueur d'une évaluation taphonomique de la séquence gravettienne de la Grotte du Renne. Le troisième chapitre consiste en une recension de l'ensemble des gisements à « burins » du Raysse connus. L'objectif est de déterminer les sites qui disposent des conditions qualitatives requises pour participer aux discussions amorcées dans les parties précédentes. Le dernier chapitre permet une mise en perspective diachronique de la phase à Raysse. Les données rassemblées dans les chapitres antérieurs y sont confrontées à celles issues de l'analyse technologique d'une série du Gravettien moyen à burins de Noailles (Brassempouy, Landes) et d'une série du Gravettien (le Cirque de la Patrie, Seine-et-Marne). Les différences évoquées conduisent alors à envisager l'existence d'un épisode paléohistorique et de proposer que le Gravettien puisse aussi être envisagé comme une mosaïque de traditions techniques régionales.
Article
The 2.5 m thick stratigraphy of the ‘Les Peyrugues’ site, a rockshelter located in the Célé valley (Lot, France), covers the last 25 millennia. Radiocarbone dates allow proposition of a detailed chronological framework for slope dynamics and palaeoenvironments during the Upper Pleniglacial in southwestern France. The ~ 25 to ~ 20 kyr BP interval is characterised by calcareous stratified slope deposits due to stone-banked solifluction lobe activity. These typify the modern high-altitude or high latitude periglacial semi-deserts and testify to mean annual air temperatures below -1 or -2°C. Two humus-rich levels, dating to ca. 25 and 19/21 kyr BP, correspond to paleosols that have been deformed and stretched on the slope by periglacial processes. They reflect wetter and/or warmer climatic events and may be correlated respectively to the Dansgaard-Oeschger interstades 3-4 and 2. During the 19-16 kyr BP interval, massive, slightly organic diamictic deposits indicate that solifluction was still active, and probably associated with a more continuous herbaceous vegetal cover. A catastrophic cliff fall occured during the interval 16-13 kyr BP, resulting in talus erosion and in the deposition of a thick boulder layer. A comparison with other sedimentary records in southwestern France shows that similar phenomena may have occurred in many talus deposits in rockshelters or at cave entrances.
Article
The Middle Gravettian is characterized in south-western Europe by the appearance and the development of new lithic tools: Noailles burins and Raysse burins. The Abri Pataud (Dordogne, France) delivered a significant archaeological sequence of the Upper Palaeolithic resulting from the excavations directed per Hallam L Movius between 1958 and 1964. Our study relates to lithic industries of Middle Gravettian (Noaillien of Nicholas David or Périgordien Vc of Denis Peyrony) and takes into account, for the first time, the whole of the lithic material: nucleus, products of workings and maintenance of nuclei, crude products of cutting up, retouched products of cutting up and falls of burins. The study of the raw materials made it possible to characterize the modes of provisioning related to the production of products of cutting up and to define the limits of the economic territory during the period considered. After this study, we focused our research according to a technological and typological approach in order to supplement to the maximum the archaeological data and to establish a frame of reference usable for later comparative studies. This techno-typological study enabled us to highlight characteristics of the technical behaviour of the men of Middle Gravettian at the Abri Pataud, in particular through bladelet production specific to this period. These results encourage to question the grounds for principal models trying to account for the Gravettian culture and its palaeohistory, and in particular filiation between Noaillien and Rayssien.
Procédés d'analyse et questions de terminologie concernant l'étude des ensembles industriels du Paléolithique récent et de l’Épipaléolithique dans l'Afrique de Nord-ouest
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Des burins du Raysse pour quoi faire?, in XIVème Congrès de l'Union International des
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The Gravettian Peopling of Southwestern France, Taxonomic Problems
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Les industries lithiques du Flageolet (Dordogne), approche économique, technologique, fonctionnelle et analyse spatiale
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La Grotte de Bassaler-Nord près de Brive et la Question du Périgordien II en Corrèze
  • Couchard
Les interstratifications Châtelperronien/Aurignacien du Roc-de-Combe et du Piage (Lot)
  • J.-G Bordes
Note préliminaire sur la station de la Rochette: le Périgordien supérieur
  • Delporte
Données nouvelles sur le Périgordien supérieur en Périgord
  • Rigaud