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An Empirical Study on the Role of Career Development Programs in Organizations and Organizational Commitment on Job Satisfaction of Employees

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In this study; the impact of career development programs in organizations, and organizational commitment on employees' job satisfaction, and their role in increasing job satisfaction are examined. A survey is applied in a sample group working in various industries. At this point, a questionnaire that consists of two sections of 43 questions rated on a 7-point Likert attitude scale is prepared. The survey was conducted on 204 employees that work in different sectors. In the study, the data obtained from the evaluation of the survey results was interpreted by using SPSS statistics software program. Results of the analysis indicate that career development programs and organizational commitment have a partial effect on employee’s job satisfaction, organizational commitment affects job satisfaction directly and positively, and career development programs in organizations do not affect the level of employee’s job satisfaction. In the light of the findings arose, the results of the study are discussed and recommendations for managers as well as academics are presented.
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American Journal of Business and Management
Vol. 3, No. 3, 2014, 178-191
DOI: 10.11634/216796061403551
ISSN 2167-9606 Print/ ISSN 2167-9614 Online/ World Scholars
http://www.worldscholars.org
An Empirical Study on the Role of Career Development Programs in
Organizations and Organizational Commitment on Job Satisfaction of
Employees
Çiğdem Kaya1 and Belgin Ceylan2
1Business Administration Department, Istanbul Arel University, İstanbul, Turkey
2Beykent University, İstanbul - Turkey
In this study; the impact of career development programs in organizations, and organizational commitment
on employees' job satisfaction, and their role in increasing job satisfaction are examined. A survey is applied
in a sample group working in various industries. At this point, a questionnaire that consists of two sections of
43 questions rated on a 7-point Likert attitude scale is prepared. The survey was conducted on 204 employees
that work in different sectors. In the study, the data obtained from the evaluation of the survey results was
interpreted by using SPSS statistics software program. Results of the analysis indicate that career
development programs and organizational commitment have a partial effect on employee’s job satisfaction,
organizational commitment affects job satisfaction directly and positively, and career development programs
in organizations do not affect the level of employee’s job satisfaction. In the light of the findings arose, the
results of the study are discussed and recommendations for managers as well as academics are presented.
Keywords: job satisfaction, career development programs, organizational commitment, career planning,
career management
Introduction
The rapid increase of global competition, day by
day renewed technology, growing demand towards
better customer service have made constant and
fast change an important issue in organizations.
Businesses in the present world are operating in a
highly competitive and borderless environment.
Survival has become a key focus for many of these
businesses, and they are constantly seeking for
ingredients that can help to establish their
competitive advantage (Jayasingam & Yong 2013,
3903). Nowadays, managers and employers
understand that they cannot obtain a good
performance from their employees in a platform
where both personal career management and
organizational career management practices are
absent. They realized that developing new methods
is necessary, and they have to make a fundamental
change in this matter. Otherwise, it is likely that
their competitors will discover the secret power of
workers and take action already. One of the roles of
the human resource department is to help
employees consider potential career routes (Agba,
et al., 2010, p. 106). Together with efficiently using
human resources that have a strategic importance
for organizations, the effects of career development
programs -that might provide a competitive
advantage- and organizational commitment on the
employee’s job satisfaction are chosen as the
subject of this study. With no doubt, participation
of managers and workers in the processes in the
workplace and the necessity of giving
responsibility and authority to workers in order to
make the decisions applicable have become very
crucial nowadays. Participation in decision-making
is related to autonomy or empowerment, which are
intrinsically motivating (Beehr, et al., 2009, p. 4).
Companies that still embrace their old ways of
operation, in other words, a centralized hierarchical
level in a changing business world will eventually
lose their workers and clients to the firms that
embrace and internalize the new management style.
Now, employees will desire to leave the companies
that embrace the old management style and be on
the side of employers who are willing to show
more respect, give more autonomy and authority.
One of the assumptions of the employees hold
about their careers is the match between their
aspirations and organization’s career system.
Organizations sometimes do not seek the match;
therefore, dissatisfaction and withdrawal may result
(Cartwright, 2005, p. 40). In the modern business
world nowadays, employers must find a way to not
only recompense for their employees’ labor and
effort, but also to draw their souls into the
workplace.
The goal of this study is to indicate the
importance of the mentioned issues and raise
awareness. Once we accept that the basis for the
successful organizations is qualified employees, the
main goal of the organizations must be to keep
American Journal of Business and Management 179
skilled and experienced employees in the
organization. In the basis of the achievement of
these main goals, it is very essential for the
organizations to provide training for the new
employees, and assist the development of the
present employees which are only possible by an
efficient career system. Lee & Bruvold (2003, p.
984) highlighted that previous statements for
appropriate employee development programs found
their grounds on the awareness that organizations
were gradually more dependent on their human
resources. Investments in human resource
development present the image of high
commitment strategy that influences employee
commitment and motivation (Lee & Bruvold 2003,
p. 984). What is more, providing the integration of
employees to the organization and while doing that,
feeding with dynamics such as motivation,
organizational commitment, and job satisfaction are
very crucial. Development of human resources is
associated with organizational success. The
prerequisite for making a difference in a
competitive environment lies in investing in people
and performing both individual and organizational
career processes. Lee & Bruvold (2003, p. 983)
states that Michael Porter’s research also affirms
that companies that spend the most on employee
training and development are the most competitive
in all developed countries in the world. According
to Granrose (1997, p. 29), the greater the match or
similarity between individual career goals and
plans and the organization’s plans for the
employee, the more positive the outcomes of
motivation and satisfaction. Qualified production is
achieved by qualified labor. In the business world
where competition, change, the value of intellectual
capital is continually increasing, organizations try
to survive and be successful. In order to achieve
this, the quality and the speed of production need to
be increased. To achieve the intended level in
factors such as creativity, change, quality and speed
which are the building blocks of an organization is
strongly related with good and proper use of human
resource. Moreover, Ko (2012, p. 1010) underlined
that career development includes growing
professional knowledge and independence to
improve creativity, job performance, and
innovation. Given that labor capital gives a great
advantage in competitive environments, it has
become urgent for organizations to use more
efficient human resources policies for hiring skilled
workers and retaining them in the workplace. They
invest in human resources development programs
such as offering permanent learning for employees
to improve present abilities and add new ones.
Employees, then, perform efficiently, and this leads
organizations to have a competitive advantage (Lee
& Bruvold, 2003, p. 983). Now, financial
possibilities are not enough for organizations to
keep their skilled employees, they also need to
provide non-financial possibilities (giving authority
or responsibility, appreciation, right to speak, etc.).
It is only possible if they try to achieve the goals
and values of the organization with their employees
based on the DNA of the organization. In this
point, organizational commitment and job
satisfaction gains importance.
This study that will offer a variety for and
direct the literature and practice, guide in the
detection and resolution of the problems consists of
three sections. In the literature review; concepts of
career, job satisfaction, and organizational
commitment are broadly addressed. In the
methodology part, statistics analysis and findings
of the research are presented. In Conclusion and
Discussion, the results are discussed based on
reliability, validity, correlation, regression and
factor analysis; various suggestions are made for
both managers and academicians.
For the study, the following assumptions are
developed:
Career development programs and
organizational commitment in organizations
have effect on the increase in the job
satisfaction of employees.
Organizational commitment directly and
positively affects job satisfaction.
Career development programs directly and
positively affect job satisfaction.
Literature Review
The Concept of Career and Career Development
Programs
Career can be described as a series of positions
occupied by an individual throughout his or her
lifespan (Robbins & Coulter, 2002). Career is the
constant progress, experience and skill acquisition
of a person in a specific work field. Even though
career, in the general sense, is defined as the total
of the jobs a person undertakes through his or her
entire life, it has a meaning beyond and wider than
this definition. The career of individuals is not only
the jobs they have, but their training for fulfilling
the expectation, goal, emotion, and desires related
to their job role, and, as a result, progressing in that
workplace with the knowledge, skill, quality and
desire to work (Yalçın, 1994). Career is
individuals’ usage of the positions related to their
job consecutively during their personal life
(Kaynak, 1996).
Career is the process that is directly related to
personal and organizational goals and creates an
accumulation of experiences emerging from the
tasks, jobs, positions of the person or from the
transitions such as promotions, transfers that the
person goes through in these positions (Yılmaz,
2006). According to this, most of the successes and
failures related to the job experiences gained over
180 Ç. Kaya and B. Ceylan
time constitute the career of the person and at the
same time provide the development in the career of
the person. All experiences gained during this
phase of development interact with each other.
Career generates the qualities of the person and the
relationship outside these qualities. It is a process
that indicated the relationship between a person’s
and the organization and rise and falls of this
relationship (Işık, 1993).
A detailed study conducted by Edgar Schein
emphasizes that certain behavioral patterns, values
and attitudes that manage the person’s career are
developed in his or her early years. These
behavioral patterns consist of the combination of
needs and instincts, and help the person to choose
between a few related careers (Bayram, 2008).
These sets of values consisted of needs and
instincts manage, balance and complete a person’s
work experiences. Therefore, it makes it easier for
a person to make a choice about his or her career.
This situation is defined as Career Balances or
Career Efforts (Aytaç, 2005). According to Schein,
if individuals integrate their set of personal values
such as skill, management skill, autonomy with the
environment they work in, they confidently have
found the right career. Sometimes the individuals
may not know which set of values they belong until
they make a decision about their career. In this
stage, the past work experience, hobbies, skills,
tendencies and personality of the person help them
to find their career value (Adıgüzel, 2009).
Another factor that affects career selection is
employees’ character. Some people may avoid
taking responsibilities and not be determined
enough. For this kind of people, it is enough to
advance to a particular position. However, some
people do not get satisfied easily and always want
to advance in their career, make large amounts of
money, be in the highest position or have a social
comfort. Even though there are different theories
relating career selection with the person’s
character, this study uses John Holland’s theory of
“career choice” that is the most known theory. John
Holland’s theory of career choice talks about three
main principles. These are (Holland, et al., 1967, p.
182):
People have different choices of professions
because of their genetics and particular
individual improvement.
Different professions necessitate different
kinds of people.
People who work in jobs coinciding with their
personalities are happier and more successful
than the ones work in jobs that are not suitable
for them.
Career planning is made while taking the
person’s personality traits, professional interests
and other factors mentioned above into
consideration. Therefore, goals in business life
which is accordance with these factors may be
determined. Career Planning may simply be
defined as the personal decision of a working
person during his or her career path. According to
another definition, it involves the process of
achieving one’s career goals and the activities
placed for obtaining these goals (Aytaç, 2005, 138).
From a broader perspective, it means the systematic
efforts spent by employees to identify the results of
the coherence and incoherence between what they
want to do and what they have done after
evaluating their education in the past, in the present
and intended for the future, and also their trainings,
personal traits, skills, experiences, choices and
expectations (Geylan, et al., 2013, p. 96).
Organizational Career Management has been
defined as sequences of formal and less formal
activities of an organization related to the career
development of its employees (Baruch & Peiperl,
2000, p. 349). Therefore, organizational career
management increases both employee effectiveness
and organizational effectiveness. Orpen (1994) has
studied organization career management’s distinct
and joint effects on the career success of employees
and hypothesized the relationship between
individual career management and career
effectiveness, and between joint responsibility and
career effectiveness. In this study, Orpen (1994, p.
28) emphasized that organizational career
management comprises a variety of policies and
practices that purposely built by organizations to
develop the career efficiency of their employees.
According to Yalçın (1994), career management is
expressed as a part of the career development
program of the business, and includes the actions
and plans that need to be conducted by the
organization career management, involving skill,
expectation and interest analysis and it is a process
that cannot be done by just the organization or just
a person. In this process, human resources play an
active role. Management determines career
planning program, provides information about the
available positions in the organization or the ones
to be opened, observes and evaluates the
performances of the workers, creates training
programs in line with the needs of employees and
concordantly, contributes to the development of the
workers in workflow. Pearson and Ananthram
(2008) state that better outcomes are to be expected
by matching individual and institutional needs.
Karakurum (2005, p. 83) points out greater levels
of value similarity between employee and the
organization is related with greater levels of job
satisfaction. Therefore, matching personal and
organizational goals might lead to increasing
satisfaction of employees; on the other hand,
differences between personal and organizational
goals might lead to increasing dissatisfaction of
employees.
Career development involves various
alternatives such as developing abilities, preserving
American Journal of Business and Management 181
current skills and getting ready for the future ahead
of just receiving promotion. Companies invest in
career development programs for several motives,
for example, developing employee performance,
increasing manager improvement, revealing
corporate culture for salespeople, strengthening
principal values, helping salespeople in career
improvement, and offering an extra to employees
(Ko, 2012, p. 1006). Career development programs
enable all the workers to make progress in the
organization from the beginning. It also helps to
determine career paths and remove all the obstacles
against the progress of the workers. What’s more, it
accelerates workflow in the organization by
providing training for the personnel that go through
a career stability and increasing work mobility.
Employees, especially the young ones wish to
develop their careers and be controlled. It is natural
for the employees to be in expectation of more job
satisfaction and more career opportunities. As a
result, they go into the effort of personal
development. Therefore, they chose the
organizations which support their careers and have
career development programs (Çalık & Ereş, 2006).
In the face of technology and consumer demands
that are changing rapidly, an update in the
employees’ knowledge and skills is necessary.
Career development programs enable to realize
these changes beforehand and provide the
achievement of new skills. If an organization has
an effective career development program in
accordance with the employees’ personal
expectations, the employees’ will eventually wish
to stay at the organization. This consistency will be
reflected in the employees’ performance through
time. Career management identifies the future
necessity of human resources better and provides
the forecast of better developmental stages for the
specialties and different professions in the company
(Bayram, 2008). Some of organizational career
development practices that are addressed in the
literature are job enrichment, career progression
ladders, employee workshops, and job rotation. For
instance, organizations that recognize good
performing employees and present them a
promising environment to take risks and achieve
will add to the improvement of career resilience.
Table 1 presents some of the organizational career
management practices.
Table 1. Organizational Career Management Practices
Source: Adapted from Baruch and Peiperl (2000, p. 350).
It is possible to define career development system
as a process emerging from the integration of
career planning and career management (Yalçın,
1994). The goal of the career development system
is to fulfill the expectations, desires and objectives
of the employees; at the same time, to develop
various strategies in accordance with the goals and
objectives that the organization wishes to achieve
and create an efficient career development system
in order to apply these. Career development system
is a key element that affects and gives an advantage
to the activities of both the person and the
organization. This situation is stated in Table 2.
1. Performance appraisal
2. Assessment centers
3. Peer appraisal
4. Upward (subordinate) appraisal
5. Career analysis by supervisor and HR Department
6. Formal mentoring
7. Career workshops
8. General career paths common
9. Written individual career planning
10. Succession planning
11. Retirement preparation programs
12. Brochures on career matters
13. Succession planning
14. Formal education as part of career development
15. Postings concerning internal job openings
16. Creative steps to provide and improve cross-functional skills
182 Ç. Kaya and B. Ceylan
Table 2. The Advantages of Career Development System
Advantages for Managers
Advantages for Employees
Advantages for the Organization
Better communication with
their inferiors
Setting right targets and
planning
Increase in organizational
commitment
Closely monitoring the
performances of the inferiors
and enable their development
Getting feedback about their
performances
Enabling the development in the
employees and raising awareness
Increasing the motivation of the
employees
Achieving job satisfaction and
increase in motivation
Creating a good public opinion
about the organization
Keeping the employees in the
organization
Taking personal responsibilities
Healthier communication between
the employees
Supporting career development
plans
Having information about the
organization and themselves
Workers in key positions do not
seek for another job
Increase in their own career
values
Benefitting from the
opportunities in the organization
such as promotion about career
opportunities
Enabling the employees to achieve
their goals and increase in the
effectiveness of human resources
Keeping highly qualifies
personnel in the business
Being aware of their skills and
qualifications
Easier fulfillment of the goals of the
organization
Enabling the embracement of
personal needs and wishes and
organization requirements and
opportunities
Increasing their value in the
organization
Foreseeing the future employment
necessities
Seeing career steps clearly
Providing right employment for the
right position
Source: Adapted from Aytaç (2005, p. 211).
Organizational Commitment
Organizational commitment has been described and
defined in varied ways (Somers 1995; Meyer &
Allen 1997). In general terms, organizational
commitment refers to the commitment of the
employees to the organization and their desire to
stay there (Doğan & Kılıç, 2007). Organizational
commitment is the degree to which an employee
identifies with a particular organization and its
goals and wishes to maintain membership in that
organization (Robbins & Coulter, 2009, p. 303).
Bartlett (2001, p. 336) defined organizational
commitment as employees’ level of attachment
toward the organization. Meyer & Allen (1997, p.
3) described organizational commitment as staying
at the organization, attending work regularly,
protecting company assets, and sharing company
goals. They also defined organizational
commitment as a psychological link between
employees and their organizations that makes less
likely to leave the organizations voluntarily for the
employees (Meyer & Allen, 1997, p. 252). Yousef
(2003, p. 1068) points out such differentiations in
the organizational commitment definitions ended
up diverse measures of the construct.
In their studies on organizational commitment,
Allen & Mayer (1990, p. 1) evaluated and
developed organizational commitment as having
three dimensions. Organizational commitment’s
affective component addresses employees' affection
feelings about, recognition with, and participation
in, the organization. The continuance component is
a component based on the costs that employees
relate with quitting the organization. Finally, the
normative component addresses employees'
emotions on compulsion to stay in the
organization.”
Employees working in an organization where
organizational commitment is high are the ones
who internalized the goals and values of the
organization, making efforts for the organization to
be successful and at the same time; wish to stay in
the organization. All these qualifications
emphasized form a basis for the desire to be a part
of the organization, embracement of the
organizational values, identity integration amongst
the employees and promoting the achievement of
organizational goals and strengthening the
organizational commitment even for the new
employees (Yüceler, 2009).
Another early study done about organizational
commitment belongs to Etzioni. Etzioni examined
organizational commitment in three groups; “moral
commitment” that states the positive and deep bond
with the organization through internalization of the
American Journal of Business and Management 183
goals, values and norms of the organization and
integration with organizational power (Gülova &
Demirsoy, 2012), calculative commitment” that
expresses the bond formed through the prizes the
employee gets as a result of what they bring into
the organization (Doğan & Kılıç, 2007) and
alienative commitment” that indicates the negative
attitude taken against the situation in which the job
freedom of the employee is restricted (Gülova &
Demirsoy, 2012).
The factors affecting organizational
commitment are personal factors, role related
factors, work experiences, and cultural factors
(Aydoğdu & Aşıkgil, 2011, p. 46). In addition to
these, there are other factors that have an effect on
the commitment. The variables affecting the
commitment of the employees to the organization
are age, gender, experiences, organizational justice,
trust, job satisfaction, the importance of the job,
assistance, participation in the decision process,
taking part in the job, occupational safety,
recognition, alienation, marital status, nonwage
rights, desperation, working hours, prizes, stability,
promotion opportunities, wage, colleagues,
leadership behavior, job opportunities in other
organizations, interest shown in employees, etc.
(Boylu, et al., 2007).
Job Satisfaction
In the business world, the main purpose of the
organization is profit and efficiency. Rapid
development and increasingly intense competitive
conditions in this business world have led to focus
on the factors that provide job satisfaction and
motivation, and these two concepts have been the
subject of various studies. Therefore, job
satisfaction and motivation has become inseparable
since increase in job satisfaction brings motivation.
Lumley, et al. (2011, p. 102) underline that
there are nine facets of job satisfaction: pay,
promotion, benefits, contingent rewards, operating
procedures, supervision, co-workers, nature of the
work and communication. Job satisfaction is
employees’ feelings concerning their jobs. Job
satisfaction is hence a function of the perceived
relationship between employees’ anticipations in
relation to the job and what they in fact gain from
that job, as well as the meaning or value that
employees attribute to their jobs (Ko, 2012, p.
1005). Job satisfaction commonly expresses
employees’ emotional (both positive and negative)
reactions towards their job (Köroğlu, 2011, p. 248).
It is possible to find different definitions of job
satisfaction. However, job satisfaction can be
related to two factors in a general perspective. First
one is about a person’s personality, emotions,
thoughts, desires and needs and their intensity. It
may be referred to as their physical, psychological
and security requirements and primary situations.
The second factor affecting the satisfaction is the
conditions towards the job; the physical and
psychological conditions towards the job and the
extent to which these conditions meet the person’s
expectations. Certainly, parallel to the size of the
extent to which the conditions meet the
expectations, satisfaction also increases (Kök,
2006).
According to Maslow, motivation is “behaving
with one’s own desire and eagerness and making
efforts for the purpose of achieving a specific
goal.” (Koçel, 2011). Motivation is defined by
Robbins and Coulter (2009, p. 357) as the process
by which an employee’s efforts are strengthened
for, oriented to, and sustained toward attaining a
goal. Robbins and Coulter’s definition of
motivation has three elements: energy, direction,
and persistence. The common ground of the
definitions of motivation in the literature is its
meaning of affecting human behavior and in the
light on this effect, guiding the person towards
certain actions (Şimşek, et al., 2011).
Motivation fulfills the financial opportunities
of the workers and regulates their social needs
(working hours, social security, etc.). What’s more,
it responds to workers’ need of self-realization
(making decisions, taking initiatives, having the
right to speak in management). Similarly, it
enables to make plans that enhance the skills of the
workers, increase the efficiency of the
organizations and workers and, therefore, creates
conditions of competition towards working in
better conditions. Also, it enables the employees to
display their creative thoughts and leadership skills
and to benefit more from the present motivational
opportunities and increases the positive
competition amongst the employees. Motivation
includes the increase in organization’s productivity
during the harmonization of the goals of the
workers and the organization while conducting
various methods to increase the job satisfaction that
workers expect to get from the organization
(Şimşek, et al., 2011).
Methodology
The goal of this study is to measure the effect of
career development programs that have an
increasing importance in recent years and
organizational commitment on employees’ job
satisfaction. In the scope of the study, the effect of
career development programs and organizational
commitment on job satisfaction will be analyzed.
Survey technique was chosen for the
methodology of the study. The questionnaire
consists of 43 questions except the ones that
include demographic characteristics. In the scope
of the study, as a result of a detailed examination in
the literature related to career, job satisfaction and
organizational commitment, it was observed that
184 Ç. Kaya and B. Ceylan
there have been many studies made on this issue.
The content of the questions was not modified
since their original meanings were not intended to
lose their original meaning while taking the success
in their previous usage into account; one survey
was prepared using three different scales which
were thought to give the best results. For all the
propositions except the questions for detecting
demographic characteristics (13 questions), 7 point
Likert-Type Scale was used.
Table 3. Factorial Components to Emerge and Amount of Questions Asked
Factor Groups
Amount of Questions
Included
Career Development Programs
17
Organizational Commitment
20
Job Satisfaction
5
Total Number of Questions
42
The research population consists of the employees
from various sectors operating in Istanbul province
and Turkey. A total of 204 people participated in
the survey. The survey application was created
online through drive.google.com the link for the
survey prepared on the website was formed and
sent to the participants via e-mail while giving
information about the survey and kindly asking
them to participate. Technical assumptions valid in
doing the research are stated as follows.
Figure 1. Research Model
Main Hypothesis (HA): Career development
programs in organizations and organizational
commitment have an effect on the increase in job
satisfaction.
H1: Organizational commitment directly and
positively affects job satisfaction.
H2: Career development programs directly and
positively affect job satisfaction.
On the data obtained from the surveys
benefited in the study, first reliability, and then
validity analysis were conducted. Later, in order to
examine the relationship between the factors a
factor analysis, and then correlation analysis, and
finally, regression analysis was performed. For the
purpose of evaluating the measurements, Cronbach
Alpha (α) values were examined, and their
reliability was tested. It was observed that the
values measured higher than 0.70 expressed
significance. It was controlled whether the values
obtained were all higher than 0,500 through
corrected inter- item correlation parameter. It is
observed by looking at alpha values, that all
variables are higher than the accepted 0.700
standard in the literature even without extracting
from any variable.
In the reliability analysis made on the research
scale consisting of a total of 42 questions through
SPSS package program, Cronbach’s Alpha value
was determined as .970. The Alpha value which
was detected as higher than the threshold value of
.700 proves that the research scale was clearly
understood by the participant and the questions in
the scale were not inaccurate. Therefore, without a
doubt, we passed on to the next analysis stage- the
factor analysis.
Career
Development
Programs
Organizational
Commitment
Job
Satisfaction
American Journal of Business and Management 185
Table 4. Reliability Analysis
Cronbach's Alpha
Number of Variables
,970
42
In a measurement medium, clarifying if there is any
order between the ones applying it is one of the
results that the researcher wants to find. Factor
analysis is a set of methods employed to investigate
how fundamental constructs affect the answers on a
number of measured variables. There are mainly
two categories of factor analysis (DeCoster, 1998,
p. 1):
Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) efforts to
investigate the nature of the constructs
affecting a set of answers.
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) examines
whether a particular set of constructs is
affecting answers in an expected way.
Table 5. KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Sampling Scale
,923
In this scope, for testing the structural validity of
the scale and determining the number of sub-
factors, SPSS package program and factor analysis
program that is an analysis of size reduction were
used. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) value which
measures the validity of the scale in the sharpest
way was determined as .923. As seen in Table 5,
KMO value is in the perfect ratio for validity.
In the factor analysis following the reliability
analysis, each of the two upper factors determined
in the scope of the research was observed to divide
into 3 sub-factors thanks to the size reduction
analysis done by SPSS program. As seen in the
tables below, during the assignment of the
questions to the factors, variables that got 0,500,
and higher factor load was included in the analysis.
In this process, 5th question in the job satisfaction
subtitle was excluded from the scope of the
research.
Correlation analysis is an analysis examining
the correlation between two random variables
(factor), and it was conducted before the
Regression analysis. Different correlation
coefficients were developed according to the
situation analyzed. Most known and used one
amongst these coefficients is Pearson product
moment correlation coefficient. It is calculated
through dividing the covariance of the two
variables to the multiplication of the standard
deviations of the same variables. Correlation
coefficient is the parameter that indicated the
direction and size of the correlation between the
variables. This coefficient is placed between (-1)
and (+1). Positive values represent the direct-
oriented linear correlation. Negative values
represent opposite-oriented linear correlation. If the
coefficient has a value (0), it indicates that there is
not any linear correlation between the variables
included in the research (Altındağ, 2011).
In the correlation analysis in this study, the
extent of the effect of the career development
programs and organizational commitment variables
on job satisfaction that is the dependent variable of
the study was evaluated. One of the key points that
need attention is that the career development
programs and organizational commitment are both
divided into three. For this reason, each
independent variable is evaluated with their sub-
factors in the correlation table and regression
analysis.
186 Ç. Kaya and B. Ceylan
Table 6. Results of the Correlation Analysis
Career
factor 1
Career factor 2
Career factor 3
Commitment
factor 1
Commitment
factor 2
Commitment
factor 3
Stat mini factor
Career factor 1
Pearson Correlation
1
,752**
,123
,825**
,728**
,206**
,684**
Significance (Two- Tailed)
,000
,108
,000
,000
,007
,000
N (Number of Observations)
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
Career factor 2
Pearson Correlation
,752**
1
,193*
,711**
,503**
,001
,502**
Significance (Two- Tailed)
,000
,011
,000
,000
,989
,000
N (Number of Observations)
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
Career factor 3
Pearson Correlation
,123
,193*
1
,033
,089
,071
-,056
Significance (Two- Tailed)
,108
,011
,671
,246
,356
,466
N (Number of Observations)
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
Commitment factor
1
Pearson Correlation
,825**
,711**
,033
1
,835**
,203**
,836**
Significance (Two- Tailed)
,000
,000
,671
,000
,008
,000
N (Number of Observations)
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
Commitment factor
2
Pearson Correlation
,728**
,503**
,089
,835**
1
,359**
,839**
Significance (Two- Tailed)
,000
,000
,246
,000
,000
,000
N (Number of Observations)
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
Commitment factor
3
Pearson Correlation
,206**
,001
,071
,203**
,359**
1
,292**
Significance (Two- Tailed)
,007
,989
,356
,008
,000
,000
N (Number of Observations)
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
Stat mini factor
Pearson Correlation
,684**
,502**
-,056
,836**
,839**
,292**
1
Significance (Two- Tailed)
,000
,000
,466
,000
,000
,000
N (Number of Observations)
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
American Journal of Business and Management 187
In the scope of the study, it was observed that the
first two factors about commitment have a direct
and positive effect on job satisfactions with their
correlation values of 0,836 and 0,839. These values
are almost the highest correlation values that two
variables can have. Employees feelings about
being a part of the organization, thoughts about
their organization is a perfect place, beliefs about
they will rise to the positions they deserve in the
future and alignments with their future and the
organization’s future directly affect their job
satisfaction and organizational commitment.
What’s more, the expectation of becoming equal of
the values of the organization with the values of the
employee is a key point in the increase in
commitment. Similarly, it is observed that the
employees with a commitment to the organization
and high level of job satisfaction are eager to and
act with responsibility in performing assigned
tasks. Employees who think that their working
conditions are good are examined to have higher
performances and commitment to the organization.
Employees believing they will rise to the
positions they deserve which is an important
dynamic and motivation source in organizational
commitment and job satisfaction is observed to
have a positive effect on organizational
commitment and job satisfaction. Employees
thinking they are able to perform their professions
and tasks in the organization they work for is
another important element which increases both
professional contribution and personal satisfaction.
The values of the other two independent variables
that have an effect on job satisfaction vary between
0,502 and 0,684. In this case, we may talk about the
correlation with intermediate- high level.
Regression Analysis is a method used for
measuring the correlation between two or more
variables. The analysis conducted by using one
variable is called univariate regression analysis; the
analysis conducted by using more variables is
called multivariate regression analysis. With this
analysis method, the correlation between the
variables is revealed, and its degree can also be
determined. An important point to be taken into
consideration during the analysis is that the method
does not give information about the cause and
effect relationship between the variables, if there is
any, when revealing the variation of the two
variables (Altındağ, 2011).
All models examined in regression analysis
title were analyzed with SPSS 17 application.
Models and results are indicated in depth in the
following sections. Coefficient of determination is
referred to as R2 in the table and simply is the
characteristic of explicability of the variation in the
dependent variable with the variation in
independent variables. The criterion indicating the
statistical significance of the generated models are
stated as F in the tables (p<,001, p<,01 or p<,05)
(Altındağ, 2011).
Table 1. Regression Analysis (Model Summary)
Model
R
(a)
R Square
Adjusted R Square
Estimated Standard Error
1
,884
,781
,773
,74974
Independent Variables:(Fixed), commitment factor 1, commitment factor 2, commitment factor 3, career factor 1, career factor 2, career
factor 3.
Table 8. Coefficients
Model
Non Standardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
B
Std. Error
Beta
t
Sig.
(Fixed)
,510
,318
1,604
,111
career factor 1
-,021
,078
-,020
-,264
,792
career factor 2
-,054
,065
-,052
-,819
,414
career factor 3
-,114
,042
-,103
-2,689
,008
commitment factor 1
,535
,095
,509
5,609
,000
commitment factor 2
,486
,081
,449
6,026
,000
commitment factor 3
,057
,059
,039
,962
,337
Dependent Variable: Job Satisfaction
188 Ç. Kaya and B. Ceylan
In multiple causation (regression) analysis
conducted after the correlation analysis, the effect
on the job satisfaction that is the dependent variable
in the study was examined. In correlation analysis,
each of the independent variable had a direct effect
with different levels on job satisfaction, but in
regression analysis, this was no longer the case.
Career factor 3, commitment factor 1 and 2
overshadowed other independent variables and
explained 78.1% of the variations in job
satisfaction. Given that career factor 3 has a
negative meaning in the scale, employees’ thinking
about career obstacles or problems in the
workplace and assessments of job opportunities in
and out of the organization have negative effect on
job satisfaction. What’s more, first two factors of
organizational commitment having such high levels
of effect on job satisfaction is one of the most
significant results of the study. Employees feeling
as a part of the organization, making effort for the
success of the organization, being proud of the
organization, believing they will be promoted to
higher positions, trying to solve the problems in the
organization have a direct and positive effect on job
satisfaction. The factors that had significance in the
correlation analysis which was conducted
previously were observed to lose their efficiency
next to organizational commitment.
Commitment factor 3 which was placed in the
model as a way of proofing of this analysis was
insignificant in regression analysis. The
measurements of the surveys made by employees
who do not like to work in the organization and
think about changing jobs constantly did not have
any positive effect on job satisfaction. Employees
being happy with their jobs and being loyal to their
organization are inseparable and interconnected
with organizational commitment. The idea that
employees with high levels of organizational
citizenship do not have any problems in job
satisfaction is supported by the findings of this
study. This result also supports the general opinion
found in the literature. In the conclusion section,
some evaluations will be presented for
academicians and managers about career
development programs, job satisfaction and
organizational commitment and proposals will be
offered.
Table 2. Research Hypothesis Acceptance Table
Independent Variables
Employee Performance
Hypothesis
Result
Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction
H1
Supported
Career Development Programs and Job Satisfaction
H2
Not Supported
The Effect of Career Development Programs and Organizational
Commitment on Satisfaction of the Worker
HA
Partially
Supported
Conclusion and Discussion
In the study, the effect of career development
programs in various sectors and employees’
organizational commitment on job satisfaction was
examined. Career development programs are very
essential for employees as well as organizations. It
is considered as a current and important issue and
significant studies have been made about it through
time. In the experimental research, career
development programs and organizational
commitment were used as independent variables
while job satisfaction was used as the dependent
variable.
With the changes in the business world,
personal desires are also changing. Employees start
to give importance not only to financial
satisfaction, but also to moral satisfaction. Given
these issues, organizations that apply career
management efficiently such as promotion and
transfer opportunities, education and development
opportunities, working conditions have become
very essential for workers. Nowadays, people do
not content with only promotion and wage
increases, they also seek for psychological
satisfaction and personal awareness in the
organizational structure. It is usual for every person
to wish to be successful and energetic in his or her
career and demand more power, respect and
income. However, if the organization fails or
becomes unable to fulfill the workers’ desires,
organizational climate may be disrupted, and stress
may increase. Especially in the employees’ first
years in business, their eagerness and enthusiasm to
work decrease through time and they may wish to
continue their career in a different sector or
workplace if they realize that their goals about the
job will not be achieved. On the other hand, the
employees try to gain experience by creating a
balance between their expected performance and
their present performance. Beyond all that, if the
employees experience career obstacles and think
that they will not be able to progress, their stress is
triggered and this results in alienation from the job,
loss of motivation, boredom and loss in
performance. As Lee & Bruvold (2003, p. 982)
underlined, employee development is crucial in
keeping and improving the abilities of both
employees and the organization. An essential basis
in perceived investment in employee development
American Journal of Business and Management 189
is that it produces situations where employees think
that their organizations appreciate their
contribution and mind their employability.
Results of the analysis indicate that career
development programs and organizational
commitment have a partial effect on employee’s
job satisfaction. Application of career development
programs in organizations, enabling an increase in
the contribution of the employees to the
organization by supporting the personal
development of them and ensuring organizational
commitment has partial effects on satisfaction.
Chen, et al. (2004) found a relationship between the
career development programs and job satisfaction,
and professional development and productivity. In
contrast, it is found that career development
programs in organizations do not affect the level of
employee’s job satisfaction in this study. This
result may be due to the failure of the surveyed
organizations to apply career development
programs effectively. It may also be resulted from
organizations’ career development programs that
might not match the employees’ career plans. In
this study, it is also found that organizational
commitment affects job satisfaction directly and
positively. Similarly, the employees with high
levels of job satisfaction and organizational
commitment are observed to have high levels of
trust and belonging to the organization they work
in; on the other hand, the ones who do not have a
sense of belonging and trust have weak
commitments, and they are in search of other jobs.
The result of this experimental study is that
employees being happy with their job are
interrelated and inseparable with their loyalty and
organizational commitment. The findings in the
study support that employees with high levels of
organizational citizenship do not have any
problems related to job satisfaction. The following
proposals are offered in the scope of the results of
this study:
Since organizational commitment directly
affects job satisfaction, it may be logical for
the managers to use tools that increase the
loyalty and organizational citizenship of the
employee in the system. For instance,
application of the rewarding methods that are
nonmaterial may have an effect firstly on the
organizational commitment and then the job
satisfaction. These methods include presenting
a plaque, appraisal in front of the community,
travel free of charge or promotion
opportunities.
Wage is the most important source of
motivation in satisfaction and commitment.
But it is not everything. Sometimes working
environment, employee’s relationship with his
or her superiors or management,
communication in the organization,
organizational trust may be more valuable than
money. Therefore, policies such as restoration
in working environment, chiefs or top
management not following a strict discipline,
giving voice to the employees, giving rights to
participate in the management, applications
that feed the communication amongst people,
etc. should be supported for it will increase the
organizational commitment.
In the literature review part, it is seen that
professional progress lines become clear, the
employees’ promotion possibilities increase,
and they may also benefit from the increase in
their status and income by career development
programs. The benefits of providing training
and assistance to employees about career
planning, conducting personal career planning,
creating a career path for the employee reflect
to employees’ job satisfaction. According to
the results, however, career development
programs in organizations do not affect the
level of employee’s job satisfaction. This result
may be due to the failure of the surveyed
organizations to apply career development
programs effectively. It may also be resulted
from the mismatch between organizations’
career development programs and the
employees’ career plans. Therefore, we
recommend managers to prepare their
organization’s career development programs in
the line with the employees’ future plans and
desires. It is also recommended that they
should receive help from a professional
consultant to implement the program
effectively when they decide to apply a career
development program.
Another issue to be taken into consideration is
performance and motivation. Performance and
motivation are important factors that concern
both the organization and the employee and
have an effect on job satisfaction. They shed
light for the employee to achieve his or her
intended goals. Since the goals of the
organizations are contributed, the organization
must act fair and with equity while evaluating
performances.
Pleasure from the work that is an important
issue for the employees is observed in our
study to have a positive effect on job
satisfaction and organizational commitment by
doing the job with love, professional
satisfaction, etc. Similarly, the employees who
have high levels of organizational commitment
and job satisfaction are observed to make less
absence and change work less often. Therefore,
it is very important for the organizations to
choose the right person for the right job.
First limitation of the study was the fact that
the survey was sent to a lot of people but a lot less
were sent back, and the study took a longer time
than estimated. Also, the low participation in the
190 Ç. Kaya and B. Ceylan
survey created an “additional finding” which is the
fact that scientific research is not valuable enough
for the companies and people in Turkey. In the
light of all proposals, the most important of all is to
quantitatively increase their sample group so that
the study may be more general, and if necessary, to
conduct the research in international organizations.
Although the results showed that career
development programs in organizations do not
affect the level of employee’s job satisfaction, it is
believed that the implementation of career
development programs will help employees to be
aware of themselves and what they actually want.
This study may also be benefited from during the
attempt to increase the productivity in
organizations taking the partial effect of career
development programs and organizational
commitment on job satisfaction into consideration.
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... Effective career development is based on a three tripod -the employee, the managers and the organisation itself. This is because it is the employee who decides what his/her career objective and outcome should be while the responsibility of the manager is to identify the right knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform a particular job/task in an organisation, and then train the employees according to the needs of the organisation by helping to identify both the short and long term goals of the organisation (Çiğdem& Belgin, 2014;Sobia et al., 2013). Organisations also provide employees time, benefits and funds as they may require through supporting them for their goals by using the knowledge, skills and abilities of each of the individual employees to achieve organisational goals (Anekwe et al., 2020;Duggan, 2011;Nameoff, 2009). ...
... The importance of personal development and career mentoring cannot be overemphasised given that such will usually improve the employees value to the organisation on the one hand and the overall organisational performance on the other (Iuga, 2014). Therefore, following several research findings (see for example: Anekwe et al., 2020;Iuga, 2014;Çiğdem& Belgin, 2014;Sobia et al., 2013), career development/management has been associated with employee satisfaction and organisational performance. However, it has been observed that there is a relatively poor service delivery and low productivity in Microfinance Banks in Nigeria especially in rural communities. ...
... The career of an individual does not refer only to the jobs the individual has presently or does, but it also includes his/her training for meeting the job expectation, the goal, emotion, and the desires related to the job role. An individual is said to have a career if s/he enjoys personal progression in the workplace as s/he exhibits his/her knowledge, skill, and quality, and the desire to work (Çiğdem& Belgin, 2014;Adıgüzel, 2009;Yılmaz, 2006;Phifer, 2003). However, career is said to be planned by an individual when there is a systematic efforts by that individual to identify the coherence and incoherence between what s/he wants to do and what s/he has done after evaluating his/her educational background whether in the past, in the present and with regard to his/her future intentions given the person's trainings, personal traits, skills, experiences, choices and expectations (Geylan et al., 2013;Aytaç, 2005). ...
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method using the structured questionnaire strategy. Three factors were tested using the Spearman's Correlation statistical analysis aided with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 at 5% level of significance. A total population/sample size of 58 staff members of the Bank was purposively selected. The results of the study indicate that there is a high positive relationship between career counselling, employee training, and career mentoring with employee's job satisfaction respectively; and that there is a significant positive relationship between employee's job satisfaction and organisational performance. It was recommended, among others, that for Palmera Micro-Finance Bank Ltd, Uromi to achieve maximum productivity, it must design and implement an effectively pragmatic employee career development programmes that can meet its employees' expected needs. K E Y W O R D S
... In other words, career management increases the performance of the employees and enables them to move up the career ladder more actively and successfully. Looking at the literature, the same views are encountered (Orpen, 1994;Yahya, Othman & Meruda, 2004;Kaya & Ceylan, 2014;Küçük, 2012;. It has been revealed that the employees who have achieved career satisfaction play an important role in behaviors that contribute to the effectiveness of the organization, such as meeting their career goals, helping in the organization, solving or mitigating problems, putting the interests of the organization above their own interests, reducing tension and engaging in constructive behaviors (Rençber & Baş, 2020). ...
... By this way, faculty of the HEIs can achieve mental satisfaction (Ashraf, 2019b). Few studies investigate the effect of career development on employee job satisfaction in the field of banking sector (Saleem et al., 2013), mobile phone company (Joarder & Ashraf, 2012) and manufacturing industry (Kaya & Ceylan, 2014). Several empirical research papers delineate the positive relationship between promotion opportunity and teachers' academic job satisfaction such as Hee et al. (2019), Mustapha and Zakaria (2013) and Malik et al. (2012). ...
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The main intent of the present research is to explore the particular practices of human resource management (HRM) to impact on sustainable assurance in quality higher education. Specifically, how promotion opportunity, performance appraisal, work condition and payment package influence teachers' job satisfaction which, in consequence, impacts on education quality in the private universities. To attain this objective, this research applies the two factor theory of Herzberg as its theory background. Data (n = 517) were collected from 21 private universities' faculty following the technique of random sampling. The study analyzed the data utilizing structural equation modeling through the analysis of moment structure. Results demonstrate that all four HRM variables are statistically positively significant to influence faculty job satisfaction. It also indicates that faculty job satisfaction also influence positively quality education. The study also indicates that if proper HRM practices are nurtured in private higher education institutes (HEIs) that will enhance faculty satisfaction which will sustain the development of quality education.
... Career development has traditionally focused on acquiring work abilities and earning experience in a certain position (Akkermans et al., 2013). Career development encompasses a wide range of problems, including the growth of talents, the preservation of present skills, and the preparation for the future following promotion (Kaya and Ceylan, 2014). A sustainable career is dynamic and adaptable, with continual learning, periodic renewal, the security of employability, and a harmonic match with personal abilities, interests, and values (Newman, 2011). ...
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Employability is an important indicator of the competency of the employees. Employability model is a useful analytical framework for studying the ever-changing relationship between higher education and the job market. At present, the demand for business English graduates is increasing, however, there is a skill gap between their educational readiness and the recruitment requirements. In order to solve this problem, this study adopted mixed methods research and carried out the research design according to the exploratory sequence design to construct an employability model for business English graduates. A 46-item scale was developed to measure the employability of business English graduates’ employability. After assessment, it was found that the employability of business English graduates was multi-dimensional, with three dimensions—professional knowledge, generic competencies, and career management and 10 sub-dimensions—English language skills, foreign trade competencies, computer and internet application skills, social skills, learning and development, personal traits, thinking ability, work ethics, career identity and planning, and service awareness. This study verified that the employability of business English graduates reached the standard of talent training and met the requirements of employers. There were employability differences in gender, places of origin and educational institutions. From this study, it could be inferred that cultivation of business English majors should be multi-dimensional.
... According to Sheldon's definition, commitment is the identity's connection to the employee with a particular organization (Sheldon, 1971). In particular, organizational commitment commonly refers to an employee's acceptance of and commitment to the organization and the tendency to continually bond oneself with the organization's policies and activities (Kaya & Ceylan, 2014). ...
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The large size and function of the Lebanese civil service emphasize the significant value of civil service performance and equal employment opportunities. Generally, it is hard to attest to discrimination in recruitment because it is hidden in informal practices. Also, the selection process and the probable discrimination incident usually differ from one job seeker to another. This study investigates and analyzes the impact of confessional diversity on recruitment and selection, affective commitment, and career satisfaction in the Lebanese Ministry of Finance, where 195 questionnaires were distributed to different department employees. The proposed model is analyzed with partial least squares (PLS) path modeling in Smart PLS 3.0 software.
... Organisational development programmes have the capacity to contribute to employees' skills growth and to management and leadership development in numerous fields of work (Bell et al., 2017;Dachner et al., 2021;Pinnington, 2011;Tourish and Pinnington, 2009). Managers seeking to implement employee development programmes for new recruits as well as for developing existing employees need to have access to efficient human resource management (HRM) systems within their organisations (Bowen and Ostroff, 2004;Kaya and Ceylan, 2014;Shin et al., 2020). Meyer and Smith (2000) argued that perceptions of training tend to be related to organisational commitment when training programmes are tied to career development. ...
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... [21] Career development involves a variety of functions and roles in life, and this includes education, training, paid and unpaid work, family, voluntary work, recreational activities and many more. [22] Career development is a program of development and organizational commitment that has a partial effect on employee job satisfaction. According to [2], the indicators of career development are as the following: ...
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... The test results in the study prompted to look at the variable job satisfaction as a mediator between career development and turnover intention. Kaya and Ceylan (2014) in their study found that career development opportunities partially affect the job satisfaction. Various researchers found that Job Satisfaction has a positive relationship with the Career development opportunities (McCracken, 2002;Rutherford, 2005;Sujaat et al, 2013) in line with this study, where it was found that Job Satisfaction positively affects Career development and negatively affects Turnover intentions. ...
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Thesis
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