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The importance of corporate brand identity in business management: An application to the UK banking sector

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Corporate brand identity management is a key issue for any organisation. Accordingly, its study is a research field of great interest. This paper seeks to broaden the understanding of this strategic activity and its effects. Specifically, it investigates the concept of corporate brand identity from the employees’ perspective in the UK financial banking sector and analyses the link between brand identity management and employees’ attitudes and behaviours. Results indicate that organisations should pay special attention to the corporate brand identity management, given its influence on employees’ commitment with their organisations, as well as their brand performance and satisfaction.
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Please
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article
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Buil,
I.,
et
al.,
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management:
An
application
to
the
UK
banking
sector.
BRQ
Bus.
Res.
Q.
(2015),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2014.11.001
ARTICLE IN PRESS
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BRQ-30;
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Pages
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BRQ
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Business
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www.elsevier.es/brq
ARTICLE
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management:
An
application
to
the
UK
banking
sector
Isabel
Buila,,
Sara
Catalánb,
Eva
Martínezb
aDepartamento
de
Dirección
de
Marketing
e
Investigación
de
Mercados,
Facultad
de
Economía
y
Empresa,
Universidad
de
Zaragoza,
Edificio
Lorenzo
Normante,
C/
María
de
Luna
s/n,
50018
Zaragoza,
Spain
bDepartamento
de
Dirección
de
Marketing
e
Investigación
de
Mercados,
Facultad
de
Economía
y
Empresa,
Universidad
de
Zaragoza,
Gran
Vía
2,
50005
Zaragoza,
Spain
Received
20
February
2014;
accepted
4
November
2014
JEL
CLASSIFICATION
M3
KEYWORDS
Corporate
brand
identity;
Commitment;
Performance;
Satisfaction;
Banking
Abstract
Corporate
brand
identity
management
is
a
key
issue
for
any
organisation.
Accord-
ingly,
its
study
is
a
research
field
of
great
interest.
This
paper
seeks
to
broaden
the
understanding
of
this
strategic
activity
and
its
effects.
Specifically,
it
investigates
the
concept
of
corporate
brand
identity
from
the
employees’
perspective
in
the
UK
financial
banking
sector
and
anal-
yses
the
link
between
brand
identity
management
and
employees’
attitudes
and
behaviours.
Results
indicate
that
organisations
should
pay
special
attention
to
the
corporate
brand
identity
management,
given
its
influence
on
employees’
commitment
with
their
organisations,
as
well
as
their
brand
performance
and
satisfaction.
©
2014
ACEDE.
Published
by
Elsevier
España,
S.L.U.
All
rights
reserved.
Introduction
Identity
is
the
cornerstone
of
one
of
the
most
important
areas
of
study
in
recent
years:
corporate
marketing
(Balmer,
2008).
This
term
provides
the
foundation
for
numerous
con-
cepts,
such
as
corporate
brand
identity
(Balmer,
2012).
This
identity
type
encompasses
specific
values
and
features
that,
Corresponding
author.
E-mail
addresses:
ibuil@unizar.es
(I.
Buil),
scatala@unizar.es
(S.
Catalán),
emartine@unizar.es
(E.
Martínez).
associated
to
the
corporate
brand,
represent
an
organisation
and
the
products
offered
to
the
market
(Balmer
and
Greyser,
2002).
Corporate
brand
identity
is
an
effective
strategic
tool
and
an
important
source
of
sustainable
competitive
advan-
tages,
which
provides
multiple
benefits
to
the
organisations
(Melewar,
2003).
Its
management,
understood
as
a
com-
prehensive
view
of
the
different
dimensions
that
need
to
be
internally
managed
and
controlled
by
the
organ-
isation
(Simões
et
al.,
2005),
is
essential
as
corporate
brand
identity
precedes
and
represents
the
basis
for
brand
image.
Overall,
due
to
its
growing
importance,
some
authors
have
incorporated
this
concept
as
a
key
element
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2014.11.001
2340-9436/©
2014
ACEDE.
Published
by
Elsevier
España,
S.L.U.
All
rights
reserved.
Please
cite
this
article
in
press
as:
Buil,
I.,
et
al.,
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management:
An
application
to
the
UK
banking
sector.
BRQ
Bus.
Res.
Q.
(2015),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2014.11.001
ARTICLE IN PRESS
+Model
BRQ-30;
No.
of
Pages
10
2
I.
Buil
et
al.
of
the
new
marketing
paradigm
(Alsem
and
Kostelijk,
2008).
Despite
the
relevance
of
corporate
identity
management
in
recent
years,
there
is
little
research
that
empirically
explores
this
strategic
resource
(Arendt
and
Brettel,
2010;
Simões
et
al.,
2005).
To
date,
previous
studies
have
mainly
focused
on
the
definition
and
conceptualisation
of
this
construct.
Therefore,
several
authors
advocate
further
exploration
of
the
empirical
impact
of
its
management
(Blombäck
and
Ramírez-Pasillas,
2012).
In
addition,
research
on
corporate
brand
identity
man-
agement
has
usually
focused
on
the
opinions
and
perceptions
of
brand
managers,
consultants
and
others
experts.
Despite
the
literature
has
largely
acknowledged
the
critical
role
of
employees
in
brand
success,
few
works
have
adopted
the
perspective
of
employees
in
their
studies
(Burmann
et
al.,
2009;
Malhotra
and
Mukherjee,
2004).
This
issue
is
specially
important
in
the
services
sector,
as
employees
embody
the
services
brands
and
their
performance
brings
brand
promises
to
life
(Punjaisri
and
Wilson,
2011;
Wallace
et
al.,
2013).
Within
the
services
sector,
the
study
of
corporate
brand
identity
management
is
specially
relevant
in
the
banking
sector,
which
has
been
notably
damaged
by
the
economic
and
financial
crisis.
In
addition
to
the
financial
problems,
the
banking
sector
has
recently
faced
diminishing
consumer
trust
and
confidence
(Colton
and
Oliveira,
2009).
In
this
sense,
a
survey
developed
in
the
UK
showed
that
a
high
per-
centage
of
customers,
around
40%,
were
totally
disengaged
with
their
banks,
whereas
a
69%
asserted
that
there
are
no
clear
differences
among
the
banks
(McEwen,
2010).
In
this
context,
it
is
critical
to
restore
customers’
trust
and
confi-
dence,
trying
to
convey
a
positive
and
coherent
image
with
the
essence
of
the
organisation.
It
is
in
this
complex
process
where
corporate
brand
identity
management
and
the
role
played
by
employees
are
crucial.
The
aim
of
this
research
is,
therefore,
to
gain
a
better
understanding
of
the
effects
of
corporate
brand
identity
management.
To
reach
this
objective,
corporate
brand
identity
management
is
explored
from
the
employees’
per-
spective
in
a
sector
of
great
interest,
the
UK
banking
sector.
In
addition,
the
research
analyses
the
relationship
between
corporate
brand
identity
management
and
employees’
atti-
tudes
and
behaviours.
Specifically,
it
assesses
the
effect
of
identity
management
on
employees’
commitment
to
the
organisation,
as
well
as
the
impact
that
such
commitment
has
on
their
brand
performance
and
satisfaction.
This
research
contributes
to
the
literature
in
several
ways.
First,
it
extends
previous
research
by
providing
empiri-
cal
evidences
on
the
study
of
corporate
brand
identity
man-
agement
and
adopting
the
perspective
of
employees.
Fur-
thermore,
the
findings
of
this
study
offer
useful
guidelines
on
how
to
manage
the
corporate
brand
identity
and
provide
helpful
implications
for
banks
and
other
organisations.
The
paper
is
organised
as
follows.
It
opens
with
a
brief,
general
discussion
of
the
corporate
brand
identity
concept.
The
next
section
develops
the
conceptual
framework
and
the
research
hypotheses.
This
is
followed
by
the
methodol-
ogy
and
the
analysis
of
empirical
findings.
The
paper
then
outlines
the
conclusions
and
implications
of
the
research.
Finally,
it
addresses
the
limitations
of
the
study
and
identi-
fies
directions
for
further
research.
Corporate
brand
identity
The
term
identity
is
the
basis
for
a
great
number
of
inter-
related
concepts,
such
as
brand
identity,
corporate
identity
or
organisational
identity,
among
others
(Currás,
2010).
The
present
research
focuses
on
the
concept
of
brand
identity,
and
more
specifically,
of
the
corporate
brand,
which
is
very
common
in
the
services
sector.
Brand
identity
has
been
studied
from
a
wide
range
of
disciplines.
This
multidisciplinary
nature
has
led
to
a
vari-
ety
of
definitions
and
conceptual
frameworks
that
reflect
the
complex
and
multidimensional
character
of
this
relevant
construct.
Overall,
brand
identity
includes
a
set
of
features
and
dimensions
that
determine
the
brand’s
way
of
being,
thinking
and
behaving.
It
is,
therefore,
a
key
concept
in
brand
management,
as
brand
identity
defines
not
only
the
purpose
and
meaning
of
the
brand,
but
also
the
directions
to
follow.
Table
1
shows
some
of
the
most
important
brand
identity
definitions.
Several
aspects
can
be
highlighted
from
these
definitions.
On
the
one
hand,
scholars
in
brand
management
define
brand
identity
as
a
unique
set
of
aspects
of
the
brand,
as
well
as
the
idea
or
essential
meaning
associated
to
it.
Similarly,
all
of
them
emphasise
the
internal
nature
of
this
construct,
which
emanates
from
the
organisation.
This
inter-
nal
vision
is,
however,
questioned
by
numerous
scholars.
In
this
sense,
although
emanating
from
brand
managers,
brand
identity
is
further
developed
by
other
actors,
such
as
employees
and
consumers
(da
Silveira
et
al.,
2013).
Branding
literature
has
also
discussed
the
stability
of
brand
identity
over
time.
In
this
sense,
although
brand
identity
definitions
mainly
emphasise
that
brands
should
maintain
their
identity,
others
reconceptualise
brand
identity
as
a
dynamic
concept.
As
such,
it
is
possible
to
distinguish
a
core
identity,
compris-
ing
the
central
and
timeless
essence
of
the
brand
and
an
extended
identity,
which
includes
other
dynamic
dimensions
that
may
change
in
light
of
different
contexts
(Aaker,
1996;
da
Silveira
et
al.,
2013).
A
strong
brand
identity
has
several
benefits.
Brand
identity
is
an
essential
construct
to
gain
sustainable
compet-
itive
advantages,
and
effectively
differentiate
and
manage
brands
(Aaker,
1996;
Kapferer,
2004).
Brand
identity
pre-
cedes
and
represents
the
basis
for
its
image
and
reputation.
A
well
managed
brand
identity
may
result
in
positive
percep-
tions,
attitudes
and
behaviours
of
different
stakeholders.
For
instance,
from
the
point
of
view
of
consumers,
the
cre-
ation
of
a
unique,
coherent
and
distinctive
identity
can
add
value
to
the
company’s
products
(Coleman
et
al.,
2011)
and
increase
their
preference
and
loyalty
(Johnson
and
Zinkhan,
1990;
Simões
et
al.,
2005).
Likewise,
brand
iden-
tity
can
influence
the
attractiveness
of
the
organisation
as
an
employer.
As
such,
brand
identity
can
help
companies
to
increase
the
motivation
of
the
employees
and
attract
bet-
ter
and
more
qualified
applicants
(Melewar,
2003),
as
well
as
greater
investments
(Arendt
and
Brettel,
2010;
Van
Riel,
1995).
Over
the
last
decades,
scholars
and
practitioners
have
proposed
several
brand
identity
frameworks
(Aaker,
1996;
Aaker
and
Joachisthaler,
2000;
de
Chernatony,
2010;
Kapferer,
2004).
Without
being
exhaustive,
some
of
these
frameworks
are
briefly
described
next
(see
Table
1).
Please
cite
this
article
in
press
as:
Buil,
I.,
et
al.,
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management:
An
application
to
the
UK
banking
sector.
BRQ
Bus.
Res.
Q.
(2015),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2014.11.001
ARTICLE IN PRESS
+Model
BRQ-30;
No.
of
Pages
10
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management
3
Table
1
Brand
identity
definitions
and
dimensions
of
the
main
conceptual
frameworks.
Author
Definition
Dimensions
Aaker
(1996)
A
unique
set
of
brand
associations
that
the
brand
strategist
aspires
to
create
or
maintain
Twelve
dimensions
organised
around
four
perspectives:
-
Brand
as
a
product
(product
scope,
product
attributes,
quality/value,
uses,
user,
country
of
origin)
-
Brand
as
a
person
(brand
personality,
brand---customer
relationships)
-
Brand
as
an
organisation
(organisational
attributes,
local
vs.
global)
-
Brand
as
a
symbol
(visual
imagery/metaphors,
brand
heritage)
Kapferer
(2004)
A
brand’s
meaning
as
put
forward
by
the
firm
Brand
identity
prism:
-
Physique:
set
of
the
brand’s
physical
features
evoked
in
people’s
minds
-
Relationship:
between
the
consumer
and
the
brand
-
Reflection:
it
makes
reference
to
the
stereotypical
user
of
the
brand
-
Self
image:
the
way
consumers
see
themselves
when
they
buy
or
use
a
brand
-
Culture:
system
of
values,
source
of
inspiration
and
brand
energy
-
Personality:
reflects
the
set
of
human
characteristics
associated
with
a
brand
de
Chernatony
(2010)
The
distinctive
or
central
idea
of
a
brand
and
how
the
brand
communicates
this
idea
to
different
stakeholders
Five
components:
-
Vision:
provides
a
clear
sense
of
direction
-
Culture:
determinant
factor
to
achieve
the
vision
-
Positioning:
manifestation
of
the
brand’s
functional
values
-
Personality:
it
brings
the
brand’s
emotional
values
to
life
-
Relationships
with
different
stakeholders:
staff,
customers
and
other
stakeholders
According
to
Aaker’s
framework
(1996),
one
of
the
most
referenced
in
the
academic
literature,
brand
identity
consists
of
twelve
dimensions
organised
around
four
per-
spectives:
the
brand
as
a
product,
the
brand
as
a
person,
the
brand
as
an
organisation
and
the
bran
as
a
symbol.
Kapferer
(2004),
on
the
other
hand,
offers
an
alternative
proposal.
Specifically,
this
author
develops
a
brand
iden-
tity
prism
with
six
interrelated
facets.
These
six
facets
are:
physique,
relationship,
reflection,
self-image,
culture
and
personality.
Another
interesting
brand
identity
framework
has
been
developed
by
de
Chernatony
(2010),
who
conceives
brand
identity
in
terms
of
five
components:
vision,
culture,
positioning,
personality
and
relationships
with
different
stakeholders.
Despite
their
interest,
these
brand
identity
frame-
works
are
now
without
limitations.
As
such,
although
widely
referenced
in
the
academic
literature,
these
pro-
posals
are
conceptual
in
nature
and
have
not
been
subject
to
empirical
investigation
(Coleman
et
al.,
2011).
Conceptual
framework
and
hypotheses
As
mentioned
before,
most
of
the
operationalisations
and
conceptual
frameworks
of
corporate
brand
identity
pro-
posed
in
the
literature
are
of
a
conceptual
nature.
Thus,
in
the
last
few
years
some
researchers
have
tried
to
fill
this
gap
by
developing
and
validating
measurement
scales.
The
present
research
adopts
the
proposal
developed
by
Coleman
et
al.
(2011).
After
an
extensive
literature
review,
these
authors
conceptualise
brand
identity
as
a
multidimensional
construct
comprised
of
five
dimensions.
The
first
dimen-
sion,
employee
and
client
focus,
highlights
the
importance
of
understanding
and
attending
the
customers’
needs,
but
also
of
appreciating
the
critical
role
played
by
employ-
ees
within
the
organisation.
Corporate
visual
identity
is
the
second
dimension.
It
refers
to
the
set
of
visual
cues
such
as
the
brand
name,
logo
and
slogan
that
make
the
organisation
recognisable.
These
features
also
allow
the
transfer
of
meanings
to
the
different
stakeholders.
The
third
dimension,
brand
personality,
is
a
salient
facet
of
Please
cite
this
article
in
press
as:
Buil,
I.,
et
al.,
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management:
An
application
to
the
UK
banking
sector.
BRQ
Bus.
Res.
Q.
(2015),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2014.11.001
ARTICLE IN PRESS
+Model
BRQ-30;
No.
of
Pages
10
4
I.
Buil
et
al.
different
brand
identity
frameworks.
It
represents
the
set
of
human
personality
traits
that
are
applicable
to
a
brand.
The
fourth
dimension
refers
to
consistent
communications,
that
is,
the
need
for
coordination
and
consistency
in
mar-
keting
communications.
Finally,
the
fifth
dimension,
human
resource
initiatives,
emphasises
the
central
role
played
by
employees
as
well
as
the
training
programmes
designed
for
them.
The
present
research
focuses
on
three
relevant
con-
sequences
of
corporate
brand
identity
management
on
employees’
attitudes
and
behaviours.
Specifically,
the
con-
structs
explored
are:
employees’
commitment
to
the
organisation,
employees’
brand
performance
and
employ-
ees’
satisfaction.
Commitment
to
the
organisation
is
an
important
vari-
able
from
a
managerial
perspective,
given
its
influence
on
employees’
attitudes
and
behaviours.
Therefore,
one
of
the
central
questions
that
guide
this
research
is
to
analyse
to
what
extent
a
well
managed
corporate
brand
identity
can
increase
employees’
commitment.
A
lack
of
consensus
exists
on
the
definition
of
com-
mitment.
This
is
mainly
due
to
the
different
theoretical
approaches,
as
well
as
the
numerous
ways
to
conceptu-
alise
and
measure
this
concept.
From
a
general
perspective,
Meyer
et
al.
(2006)
define
commitment
as
a
force
that
binds
an
individual
to
a
target
(e.g.
an
organisation),
and
to
a
course
of
action
of
relevance
to
that
target.
Most
definitions
of
this
term
consider
it
as
a
link
or
bond
between
the
individ-
ual
and
the
organisation
(Mathieu
and
Zajac,
1990).
As
such,
they
mainly
refer
to
the
affective
dimension
of
commitment,
which
is
the
focus
of
this
study.
This
emotional
attach-
ment
is
considered
as
the
main
determinant
of
employees’
attitudes
and
behaviours
(Bloemer
and
Odekerken-Schröder,
2006).
Extant
research
on
internal
brand
management
posits
that
an
appropriate
management
can
increase
employees’
brand
knowledge.
This,
in
turn,
can
enhance
the
under-
standing
of
the
brand
strategies
and
decisions,
as
well
as
the
values
and
promises
associated
to
the
brand
(King
and
Grace,
2010).
This
mutual
understanding
of
the
brand,
as
a
consequence
of
an
internal
brand
management
approach,
can
enhance
the
intellectual
and
emotional
commitment
to
the
organisation
(Aurand
et
al.,
2005;
Thomson
et
al.,
1999).
In
addition,
employees
who
have
a
positive
perception
of
the
corporate
brand
identity
and
its
management
are
more
likely
to
develop
a
strong
link
or
bond
with
the
organisation,
as
well
as
a
sense
of
pride
and
belonging
to
the
company
(Dukerich
et
al.,
2002).
The
different
dimensions
that
underlie
the
brand
iden-
tity
construct
can
influence
on
employees’
commitment
to
the
organisation.
For
instance,
Punjaisri
and
Wilson
(2011)
emphasise
the
positive
effect
that
the
initiatives
related
to
the
human
resources
or
the
communications
have
on
employees’
commitment.
Other
authors,
such
as
Arendt
and
Brettel
(2010),
find
that
dimensions
such
as
visual
identity
help
employees
internalise
the
brand,
fostering
the
identifi-
cation
and
commitment
to
it.
Therefore,
we
can
expect
that
in
the
search
for
greater
trust
and
employee
engagement,
internal
brand
management
and
corporate
brand
identity
are
crucial
elements
to
leverage
employees’
commitment
(Burmann
and
Zeplin,
2005;
Punjaisri
and
Wilson,
2011).
Consequently,
the
following
hypothesis
is
postulated:
Hypothesis
1.
Corporate
brand
identity
management
has
a
positive
effect
on
employees’
commitment
to
the
organi-
sation.
The
following
hypotheses
refer
to
the
effect
of
employ-
ees’
commitment
on
brand
performance
and
employees’
satisfaction.
Brand
performance
has
been
operationalised
in
a
variety
of
ways,
such
as
the
brand
market
share
or
sales
growth.
In
this
research,
this
variable
refers
to
the
extent
to
which
an
employee
performs
his/her
role,
including
the
brand
promise
delivery,
based
on
the
brand
standards
(Punjaisri
et
al.,
2009).
Results
of
previous
research
show
a
positive
but
moderate
correlation
between
these
two
constructs
(Riketta,
2002).
Punjaisri
and
Wilson’s
(2011)
work
is
one
of
the
few
studies
that
have
empirically
analysed
the
influence
of
commitment
on
brand
performance.
However,
they
could
not
find
support
for
this
relationship.
Thus,
more
research
is
needed
to
shed
additional
light
on
this
issue.
Contextual
factors,
such
as
the
lack
of
access
to
some
resources,
and
personal
factors,
such
as
employees’
skills
and
abilities,
could
explain
the
weaknesses
of
this
relation-
ship.
In
this
sense,
these
factors
can
reduce
employee’s
performance,
thus
preventing
the
effect
of
commitment
on
brand
performance
(Porter
et
al.,
2005).
Despite
of
this,
according
to
previous
research,
it
is
expected
that
the
greater
the
employees’
commitment
to
the
organisation,
the
greater
the
efforts
made
by
employees
to
perform
their
functions
and
deliver
the
brand
promise
(de
Chernatony
and
Segal-Horn,
2003).
As
such,
it
is
traditionally
assumed
that
employees
who
feel
attached
to
their
organisation
and
highly
identify
with
their
companies
will
have
a
higher
per-
formance.
Committed
employees
are
more
likely
to
live
the
brand,
reinforcing
their
sense
of
belonging
the
brand
message
(Boyd
and
Sutherland,
2006).
Likewise,
previous
research
has
shown
that
high
levels
of
affective
commitment
result
in
numerous
benefits
related
to
employees’
perfor-
mance.
For
instance,
employees’
commitment
can
increase
the
willingness
to
develop
behaviours
that
benefit
to
the
organisation
(Strauss
et
al.,
2009).
Similarly
commitment
positively
relates
with
service
quality
and
service
recovery
performance
(Malhotra
and
Mukherjee,
2004).
Therefore,
it
is
hypothised
that:
Hypothesis
2.
Employees’
commitment
to
the
organisation
has
a
positive
effect
on
their
brand
performance.
The
last
relationship
analysed
in
the
model
refers
to
the
influence
of
employees’
commitment
on
their
satisfaction.
Job
satisfaction
is
defined
as
‘‘the
pleasurable
emotional
state
resulting
from
the
appraisal
of
one’s
job
as
achieving
or
facilitating
the
achievement
of
one’s
job
values’’
(Locke,
1969,
p.
316).
Its
measurement
and
analysis
is
particularly
interesting,
as
it
can
serve
as
a
diagnostic
tool
to
explore
the
situation
of
the
employees
in
the
organisation
and
identify
problems
or
causes
of
dissatisfaction.
From
the
field
of
organisational
psychology,
it
is
pos-
tulated
that
the
links
and
bonds
developed
by
employees
towards
the
organisation
influence
the
way
they
think,
feel
and
behave
in
the
workplace
(Ashforth
and
Mael,
1989;
Haslam
et
al.,
2003).
In
this
sense,
several
works
have
found
Please
cite
this
article
in
press
as:
Buil,
I.,
et
al.,
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management:
An
application
to
the
UK
banking
sector.
BRQ
Bus.
Res.
Q.
(2015),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2014.11.001
ARTICLE IN PRESS
+Model
BRQ-30;
No.
of
Pages
10
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management
5
H1
H2
H3
Corporate
brand
Identity manag
ement
Employees’ attitudes and
behaviours
Employee
and
client focus
Corpo
rate visual i
dentity
Brand
person
ali
ty
Consistent communications
Human resource initiatives
Commit
ment
Brand
performance
Satisfaction
Figure
1
Conceptual
model.
a
positive
relationship
between
employees
commitment
to
the
organisation
and
their
level
of
satisfaction
(Jones
et
al.,
2003;
King
and
Grace,
2010).
When
employees
identify
themselves
with
an
organisa-
tion,
and
are
committed
to
the
company,
they
tend
to
feel
better
about
both
themselves
and
their
work.
Consequently,
it
is
more
likely
that
committed
employees
feel
more
sat-
isfied
and
motivated
to
perform
their
work
(Harris
and
de
Chernatony,
2001;
Wheeler
et
al.,
2006).
Therefore,
the
following
hypothesis
is
proposed:
Hypothesis
3.
Employees’
commitment
to
the
organisation
has
a
positive
effect
on
their
satisfaction.
Fig.
1
presents
the
relationships
proposed
in
this
study.
As
can
be
seen
in
the
figure,
corporate
brand
identity
is
a
multidimensional
construct
comprised
of
five
dimensions
influencing
employees’
attitudes
and
behaviours.
Method
Sample
and
procedure
To
test
the
hypotheses,
a
study
was
undertaken
during
Jan-
uary
and
February
2013
with
employees
of
the
main
banks
in
the
United
Kingdom.
Data
was
collected
by
an
international
market
research
company
using
an
online
questionnaire.
In
total,
297
valid
questionnaires
were
obtained.
Males
represent
46.8%
of
the
sample
and
females
53.2%.
7.1%
of
respondents
are
between
18
and
24
years
old;
35%
between
25
and
24
years
old;
34%
between
35
and
44
years
old,
and
23.9%
between
44
and
67
years
old.
Finally,
in
terms
of
employment
history,
41%
of
respondents
have
been
work-
ing
in
the
bank
between
1
and
5
years,
21%
6---10
years,
20%
11---20
years,
and
18%
more
than
20
years.
Measures
A
literature
review
was
undertaken
to
select
the
most
appro-
priate
way
to
measure
each
variable.
In
all
cases,
7-point
Likert-type
questions
were
used
with
1
=
strongly
disagree
and
7
=
strongly
agree.
Items
proposed
by
Coleman
et
al.
(2011)
were
used
to
measure
corporate
brand
identity.
According
to
these
authors,
brand
identity
is
a
multidimen-
sional
construct
comprised
of
five
dimensions:
employee
and
client
focus,
visual
identity,
brand
personality,
consistent
communications,
and
human
resource
initiatives.
Organisa-
tional
commitment
was
measured
using
the
items
proposed
by
King
and
Grace
(2010).
Brand
performance
was
assessed
following
Punjaisri
and
Wilson
(2011).
Finally,
based
on
King
and
Grace
(2010),
four
items
were
used
to
measure
employee
satisfaction.
A
list
of
the
items
used
to
measure
each
construct
is
provided
in
Table
2.
Analyses
and
results
Hypotheses
were
tested
using
structural
equation
mod-
elling
(SEM).
The
data
was
analysed
using
EQS
6.2
and
the
robust
maximum-likelihood
estimation.
First,
the
psycho-
metric
properties
of
the
scales
were
examined.
Then,
the
structural
model
was
evaluated
by
testing
the
hypotheses.
Table
3
presents
the
descriptive
statistics
for
all
the
variables
included
in
the
study.
Scales
validation
To
assess
the
initial
reliability
of
the
measures,
Cronbach’s
alpha
and
the
item-total
correlation
for
all
scales
were
used.
Cronbach’s
alpha
for
all
the
constructs
was
above
0.70
(Nunnally,
1978).
Furthermore,
the
item-to-total
correla-
tions
were
all
above
the
threshold
of
0.30
(Nurosis,
1993).
There
was
only
one
exception.
The
Cronbach’s
alpha
for
the
human
resource
initiatives
scale
(alpha
=
0.672).
We
then
performed
exploratory
factor
analyses
using
principal
com-
ponents
analysis
with
varimax
rotation.
Results
suggested
that
the
corresponding
items
of
each
scale
clustered
into
a
single
factor
with
significant
factor
loadings.
The
explained
variance
exceeded
60%
in
each
case.
To
attempt
to
identify
potential
problems
with
common
method
variance,
basing
on
the
procedure
recommended
by
Podsakoff
et
al.
(2003),
Harman’s
one-factor
test
was
used.
The
results
of
the
factor
analyses
revealed
that
more
than
a
single
factor
emerged
with
no
single
factor
account-
ing
for
the
majority
of
variance.
Thus,
there
is
no
evidence
to
suggest
the
presence
of
common
method
bias.
Scales
were
then
evaluated
using
confirmatory
tech-
niques
to
assess
reliability,
dimensionality
and
validity.
Results
suggested
the
deletion
of
item
HR2,
as
its
R2was
below
0.5.
After
this
deletion,
fit
indices
were
above
the
suggested
0.90
cutoff
point,
thus
providing
evidence
that
the
final
measurement
model
fit
the
data
appropriately.
Fur-
ther,
the
RMSEA
index
was
below
the
0.05
cutoff
point
(Hair
et
al.,
2006)
(see
Table
4).
All
factor
loadings
were
above
0.5
and
statistically
signif-
icant
which
suggested
the
convergent
validity
of
the
scales
(Steenkamp
and
Van
Trijp,
1991).
Likewise,
the
coefficients
had
a
clear
relation
with
their
underlying
factors
(R2>
0.5).
Constructs
were
shown
to
possess
high
internal
validity.
As
such,
the
average
variance
extracted
(AVE)
and
composite
reliability
(CR)
values
were
greater
than
0.5
and
0.7
respec-
tively
(Hair
et
al.,
2006).
Discriminant
validity
was
also
supported.
As
such,
none
of
the
confidence
intervals
around
the
correlation
estimate
between
any
two
factors
contained
a
value
of
one
(Anderson
and
Gerbing,
1988).
In
addition,
as
can
be
seen
in
Table
3,
the
AVE
for
any
two
constructs
was
always
greater
than
the
square
of
the
correlation
estimate
(Fornell
and
Larcker,
1981).
Please
cite
this
article
in
press
as:
Buil,
I.,
et
al.,
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management:
An
application
to
the
UK
banking
sector.
BRQ
Bus.
Res.
Q.
(2015),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2014.11.001
ARTICLE IN PRESS
+Model
BRQ-30;
No.
of
Pages
10
6
I.
Buil
et
al.
Table
2
Scales
items
included
in
the
questionnaire.
Brand
corporate
identity
management
(Coleman
et
al.,
2011)
Employee
and
client
focus
ECF1.
Our
top
management
is
committed
to
providing
quality
service
ECF2.
Our
bank
treats
every
employee
as
an
essential
part
of
the
organisation
ECF
3.
Our
employees
will
help
clients
in
a
responsive
manner
ECF
4.
Our
bank
makes
an
effort
to
discover
our
clients,
needs
ECF
5.
Our
bank
responds
to
our
clients’
needs
Corporate
visual
identity
CVI1.
The
corporate
visual
identity
is
helpful
in
making
our
bank
recognisable
CVI2.
The
font
we
use
is
an
important
part
of
our
visual
identity
CVI3.
Our
logo
is
an
important
part
of
who
we
are
Brand
personality
BP1.
The
associations
making
up
our
brand
personality
are
extremely
positive
BP2.
Our
clients
have
no
difficulty
describing
our
brand
personality
BP3.
Our
brand
personality
has
favourable
associations
Consistent
communications
CC1.
The
people
managing
the
communications
programme
for
our
bank
have
a
good
understanding
of
the
strengths
and
weaknesses
of
all
major
marketing
communications
tools
CC2.
Our
bank’s
advertising,
PR
and
sales
promotion
all
present
the
same
clear
consistent
message
to
our
stakeholders
Human
resource
initiatives
HRI1.
Our
employee
training
programmes
are
designed
to
develop
skills
required
for
acquiring
and
deepening
client
relationships
HRI2.
Our
bank
regularly
monitors
employees’
performance
Commitment
(King
and
Grace,
2010)
COM1.
I
am
proud
to
be
part
of
this
bank
COM2.
I
really
care
about
the
fate
of
this
bank
COM3.
I
feel
like
I
really
fit
in
this
bank
Brand
performance
(Punjaisri
and
Wilson,
2011)
PER1.
I
can
successfully
fulfil
responsibilities
specified
in
my
job
descriptions
PER2.
The
quality
of
the
work
I
do
matches
brand
standards
of
my
bank
PER3.
I
deliver
the
promise
that
my
bank’s
brand
has
with
customers
PER4.
I
always
deliver
the
required
level
of
service
in
response
to
customers’
specific
requests
Satisfaction
(King
and
Grace,
2010)
SAT1.
I
feel
reasonably
satisfied
with
my
job
SAT2.
I
feel
a
great
sense
of
satisfaction
from
my
job
SAT3.
I
am
satisfied
with
my
overall
job
Table
3
Descriptive
statistics
and
correlations.
Mean
S.D.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1.
Employee
and
client
focus
5.37
1.34
0.764
2.
Corporate
visual
identity
5.58
1.24
0.496
0.697
3.
Brand
personality
5.22
1.33
0.587
0.498
0.755
4.
Consistent
communications
5.25
1.30
0.498
0.352
0.542
0.795
5.
Human
resource
initiatives
5.16
1.60
0.436
0.220
0.440
0.537
0.850
6.
Commitment
5.12
1.62
0.504
0.238
0.473
0.462
0.496
0.850
7.
Brand
performance
5.93
1.06
0.394
0.375
0.314
0.397
0.303
0.354
0.744
8.
Satisfaction
5.00
1.69
0.342
0.179
0.379
0.334
0.429
0.776
0.338
0.909
Note:
Means
and
standard
deviations
are
based
on
summated
scale
averages.
Items
deleted
in
the
validation
process
are
not
included.
Squared
correlations
are
below
the
diagonal
and
AVE
estimates
are
presented
on
the
diagonal.
Please
cite
this
article
in
press
as:
Buil,
I.,
et
al.,
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management:
An
application
to
the
UK
banking
sector.
BRQ
Bus.
Res.
Q.
(2015),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2014.11.001
ARTICLE IN PRESS
+Model
BRQ-30;
No.
of
Pages
10
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management
7
Table
4
Confirmatory
factor
analysis
results.
Factor
Items
R2CR
AVE
Employee
and
client
focus
ECF1.
0.800
0.641
0.941
0.764
ECF2.
0.779
0.606
ECF3.
0.896 0.803
ECF4.
0.939 0.882
ECF5.
0.942 0.887
Corporate
visual
identity
CVI1.
0.886
0.785
0.873
0.697
CVI2.
0.770
0.593
CVI3.
0.845
0.714
Brand
personality
BP1.
0.882
0.777
0.902
0.755
BP2.
0.868
0.753
BP3.
0.856
0.732
Consistent
communications
CC1.
0.861
0.741
0.886
0.795
CC2.
0.921
0.848
Human
resource
initiatives
HRI1.*0.922
0.850
0.850
0.850
Commitment
COM1.
0.930
0.865
0.944
0.850
COM2.
0.886
0.785
COM3.
0.949
0.901
Brand
performance
PER1.
0.835
0.697
0.921
0.744
PER2.
0.905
0.819
PER3.
0.896
0.803
PER4.
0.811
0.658
Satisfaction
SAT1. 0.946
0.895
0.968
0.909
SAT2. 0.956
0.915
SAT3. 0.958 0.917
Fit
indices
S-B2(df,
p)
=
360.78
(225,
p
<
0.001);
RMSEA
=
0.045
NNFI
=
0.942;
CFI
=
0.953;
IFI
=
0.954
Note:
,
standardised
factor
loadings;
R2,
regression
coefficients;
CR,
composite
reliability;
AVE,
average
variance
extracted;
S-B
2,
Satorra---Bentler
scaled
chi-square;
RMSEA,
root
mean
square
error
of
approximation;
NNFI,
non-normed
fit
index;
CFI,
comparative
fit
index;
IFI,
incremental
fit
index.
*Reliability
for
the
single
item
measure
was
fixed
at
85%
(Jöreskog
and
Sörbom,
1993).
Structural
model
Once
the
psychometric
properties
of
the
scales
were
exam-
ined,
the
structural
model
was
tested.
As
a
multidimensional
construct,
first
the
average
of
the
items
within
each
of
the
five
corporate
brand
identity
dimensions
was
calculated.
These
averaged
items
were
then
used
as
manifest
indicators
of
the
global
corporate
brand
identity
construct
(Baldauf
et
al.,
2009;
Santos
and
Álvarez,
2008).
The
analysis
yielded
a
good
overall
fit,
as
shown
in
Fig.
2.
As
proposed
in
Hypothesis
1,
corporate
brand
identity
management
proved
a
significant
predictor
for
employ-
ees’
commitment
(ˇ
=
0.822;
t-value
=
15.525).
Therefore,
employees’
commitment
will
increase
when
organisations
focus
their
efforts
on
the
management
of
its
corporate
brand
identity.
As
can
be
seen
in
Fig.
2,
Hypothesis
2,
testing
the
relationship
between
employees’
commitment
and
brand
performance,
received
statistical
support
(ˇ
=
0.624;
Corporat
e
brand identity
management
Commitment
Brand
performance
Satisfaction
0.822**
(15.525)
0.624**
(8.125)
0.882**
(24.012)
Fit indices
S-B χ2 (df, p) = 178.29 (87, p<0.001) RMSEA = 0.060
NNFI = 0.953 CFI = 0.961 IFI = 0.961
Figure
2
Structural
model
results.
Note:
**
P<0.05
Please
cite
this
article
in
press
as:
Buil,
I.,
et
al.,
The
importance
of
corporate
brand
identity
in
business
management:
An
application
to
the
UK
banking
sector.
BRQ
Bus.
Res.
Q.
(2015),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2014.11.001
ARTICLE IN PRESS
+Model
BRQ-30;
No.
of
Pages
10
8
I.
Buil
et
al.
t-value
=
8.125).
Therefore
Hypothesis
2
was
supported,
indicating
that
employees’
commitment
will
favour
employ-
ees’
performance
on
their
jobs
and
tasks.
In
addition,
results
show
that
employees’
commitment
was
positively
associated
with
their
level
of
satisfaction
on
the
job.
As
such,
commitment
had
a
positive
and
sig-
nificant
effect
on
satisfaction
(ˇ
=
0.882;
t-value
=
24.012).
Therefore,
the
last
hypothesis
was
also
supported.
Finally,
results
reveal
that
corporate
brand
identity
management
had
a
significant
indirect
positive
effect
on
employees’
brand
performance
(z
=
7.23,
p
<
0.001)
as
well
as
on
the
level
of
employees’
satisfaction
on
the
job
(z
=
12.98,
p
<
0.001),
according
to
Sobel’s
test
results.
Conclusions,
implications
and
directions
for
further
research
The
purpose
of
the
present
study
was
to
gain
a
deeper
understanding
of
the
corporate
brand
identity
concept
by
analysing
the
effect
that
its
management
has
on
employees’
attitudes
and
behaviours.
The
findings
confirm
the
relevance
of
this
construct,
given
its
ability
to
increase
employees’
commitment,
which
in
turn
influences
their
brand
perfor-
mance
and