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Nutritional value of spirulina and its use in the preparation of some complementary baby food formulas

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In this study use the spirulina which is one of the blue-green algae rich in protein 62.84% and contains a high proportion of essential amino acids (38.46% of the protein) and a source of naturally rich in vitamins especially vitamin B complex such as vitamin B12 (175 μg / 10 g) and folic acid (9.92 mg / 100 g), which helps the growth and nutrition of the child brain, also rich in calcium and iron it containing (922.28 and 273.2 mg / 100 g, respectively) to protect against osteoporosis and blood diseases as well as a high percentage of natural fibers. So, the spirulina is useful and necessary for the growth of infants and very suitable for children, especially in the growth phase, the elderly and the visually appetite. It also, helps a lot in cases of general weakness, anemia and chronic constipation. Spirulina contain an selenium element (0.0393 mg/100 g) and many of the phytopigments such as chlorophyll and phycocyanin (1.56% and 14.647%), and those seen as a powerful antioxidant. Finally, spirulina called the ideal food for mankind and the World Health Organization considered its "super food" and the best food for the future because of its nutritional value is very high. The American space agency is working on a project to be grown in space and regards it as the main food for astronauts. All this and more is what makes the best food spirulina exists on the ground. It ensures the whole food and alkaline balance of the body. Sixteen food formulas were prepared for as complementary food babies (1-3 years age) by using spirulina at 0, 2.5 0.5 and 7.5% for the production of two types of baby food one of them is ready to eat by using some fruits and vegetables. Papaya fruits with good nutritional values and cheap price as an essential ingredient of 30% in the four formulas and banana fruit which rich in potassium in four formulas addition to potatoes purée and carrot purée by adding 10% for each and apple purée, guava puree and mango juice by adding 15% for each been mobilized mixes in jars glass and thermal treatment was carried out at 100 ºC for 40 minutes. The second type of baby foods formulas was production by using cereals, legumes and some dried green vegetables, where it was manufactured 8 dried formulas four of them by 30% wheat flour 72% and four others by 30% milled rice in addition to the 30% crushed pearl barley and dryer lentils and dried spinach dried cauliflower by adding 10% for each formulas. After produced formulass were packaged in bottles court lock. Then, evaluated all formulas microbiologically to study its safety before sensory evaluation and found to be microbiology safe. Sensory evaluation of produced formulas were acceptable sensory significantly. After that, chosen 4 formulas containing 5% spirulina based on the results of sensory evaluation was conducted analysis chemotherapy and natural for these selected formulas. The chemical composition indicated that these formulas were suitable as a food supplement for children aged 1-3 years. On the other hand, these formulas were economic cost and can produced on the scale of domestic and industrial scale, as well as can be exported to the outside.
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Available online at http://journal-of-agroalimentary.ro
Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and
Technologies 2014, 20(4), 330-350
Journal of
Agroalimentary Processes and
Technologies
_________________________________________________
Corresponding author: e-mail: ashraf_sharoba@yahoo.com
Nutritional value of spirulina and its use in the preparation of
some complementary baby food formulas
Ashraf M. Sharoba
Food Sci. Dept., Fac. of Agric., Moshtohor, Benha Univ., Egypt
Received: 26 September 2014; Accepted:03 Octomber 2014
.____________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract
In this study use the spirulina which is one of the blue-green algae rich in protein 62.84% and contains a
high proportion of essential amino acids (38.46% of the protein) and a source of naturally rich in vitamins
especially vitamin B complex such as vitamin B12 (175 µg / 10 g) and folic acid (9.92 mg / 100 g), which
helps the growth and nutrition of the child brain, also rich in calcium and iron it containing (922.28 and
273.2 mg / 100 g, respectively) to protect against osteoporosis and blood diseases as well as a high
percentage of natural fibers. So, the spirulina is useful and necessary for the growth of infants and very
suitable for children, especially in the growth phase, the elderly and the visually appetite. It also, helps a
lot in cases of general weakness, anemia and chronic constipation. Spirulina contain an selenium element
(0.0393 mg/100 g) and many of the phytopigments such as chlorophyll and phycocyanin (1.56% and
14.647%), and those seen as a powerful antioxidant. Finally, spirulina called the ideal food for mankind
and the World Health Organization considered its "super food" and the best food for the future because of
its nutritional value is very high. The American space agency is working on a project to be grown in
space and regards it as the main food for astronauts. All this and more is what makes the best food
spirulina exists on the ground. It ensures the whole food and alkaline balance of the body. Sixteen food
formulas were prepared for as complementary food babies (1-3 years age) by using spirulina at 0, 2.5 0.5
and 7.5% for the production of two types of baby food one of them is ready to eat by using some fruits
and vegetables. Papaya fruits with good nutritional values and cheap price as an essential ingredient of
30% in the four formulas and banana fruit which rich in potassium in four formulas addition to potatoes
purée and carrot purée by adding 10% for each and apple purée, guava puree and mango juice by adding
15% for each been mobilized mixes in jars glass and thermal treatment was carried out at 100 ºC for 40
minutes. The second type of baby foods formulas was production by using cereals, legumes and some
dried green vegetables, where it was manufactured 8 dried formulas four of them by 30% wheat flour
72% and four others by 30% milled rice in addition to the 30% crushed pearl barley and dryer lentils and
dried spinach dried cauliflower by adding 10% for each formulas. After produced formulass were
packaged in bottles court lock. Then, evaluated all formulas microbiologically to study its safety before
sensory evaluation and found to be microbiology safe. Sensory evaluation of produced formulas were
acceptable sensory significantly. After that, chosen 4 formulas containing 5% spirulina based on the
results of sensory evaluation was conducted analysis chemotherapy and natural for these selected
formulas. The chemical composition indicated that these formulas were suitable as a food supplement for
children aged 1-3 years. On the other hand, these formulas were economic cost and can produced on the
scale of domestic and industrial scale, as well as can be exported to the outside.
Keywords: Spirulina; nutritional value; chemical composition; amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins,
phytopigments, minerals; microbiological examination; food formulas; baby foods.
______________________________________________________________________________________
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
331
1. Introduction
Spirulina is the dried biomass of the
cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, it has been
widely used in several countries, it is considered
GRAS (generally recognized as safe), without
toxicological effects, and it is approved by the
FDA (U.S.A.) and ANVISA [32]. Rich in protein
(up to 65%), spirulina is considered safe for
consumption by humans and animals, and it has
been cultivated and used as a food source
worldwide. The U.S. Food and Drug
Administration [18] has not questioned the basis
for the Generally Recognized as Safe designation
to spirulina under the conditions of its intended use,
thus restricting it as a food additive in amounts that
range from 0.5 to 3.0 grams per serving.
Formulators use spirulina in specialty food bars,
powdered nutritional drinks, popcorn, beverages,
fruit and fruit juices, frozen desserts and
condiments.
Microalgae have received increasing attention due
to the fact that they represent one of the most
promising sources of compounds with biological
activity that could be used as functional
ingredients. Their balanced chemical composition
(good quality proteins, balanced fatty acid profiles,
vitamins, antioxidants and minerals) and their
interesting attributes can be applied in the
formulation of novel food products [51].
Spirulina, filamentous blue-green microalgae or
cyanobacteria, is well known as a source of protein
(60-70 g/100 g) of high biological value, since it is
a rich source of vitamins, mainly vitamin B12 and
pro-vitamin A, minerals, especially iron, and g-
linolenic acid, essential fatty acids precursor for
prostaglandins [21]. Furthermore, spirulina
contains such molecules as phycocyanin, β-
carotene and xanthophyll pigments,α-tocopherol
and phenolic compounds, which are responsible
for the antioxidant activities of these microalgae,
as shown by several authors for in vitro and in vivo
experiments [35]. Moreover, most research has
focused on the health effects of spirulina as a
dietary supplement for humans and animals. Many
studies have shown the effects of these microalgae
that may result in significant therapeutic
applications: an anti-cancer effect [29], a
hypolipidemic effect [31], and a protective effect
against diabetes and obesity [3]. These advantages
make spirulina a good raw material for the healthy
food.
Spirulina has no cellulose in its cell walls, being
composed of soft mucopolysaccharides. This makes
it easily digested and assimilated. It is 85 to 95%
digestible. This easy digestibility is especially
important for people suffering from intestinal
malabsorption. Typically, many older people have
difficulty digesting complex proteins, and are on
restricted diets. They find spirulina’s protein easy to
digest. Spirulina is effective for victims of
malnutrition diseases like kwashiorkor, where the
ability of intestinal absorption has been damaged.
Given to malnourished children, it is more effective
than milk powders because milk’s lactic acid can be
difficult to absorb Kelly et al. (2011), Parry (2014)
and Robert (2010) [25, 34, 39].
Spirulina can be used at any age (from infancy to
pregnancy and adulthood), but its value is
particularly evident in the young growing child:
during weaning and during the pre-school period
(from 1 to 6 years), Dillon (2014) [12].
Spirulina offers remarkable health benefits to an
undernourished children. It is rich in beta-carotene
that can overcome eye problems caused by vitamin A
deficiency, it provides the daily dietary requirement
of beta-carotene which can help prevent blindness
and eye diseases Seshadri (1993) [42].The protein
and B-vitamin complex makes a major nutritional
improvement in an infant’s diet. It is the only food
source other than breast milk containing substantial
amounts of essential fatty acid, essential amino acids
and GLA that helps to regulate the entire hormone
system Ramesh et al. (2013) [37].
Simpore et al. (2005 and 2006) [44,45] suggested
that spirulina may be a good food supplement for
undernourished children. In particular, spirulina also
seems to correct anemia and weight loss in HIV-
infected children, and even more quickly in HIV-
negative undernourished children.
Spirulina's concentrated nutrition makes it an ideal
food supplement for people of all ages and lifestyles.
Spirulina is about sixty percent complete, highly
digestible protein. Spirulina contains every essential
amino acids. It contains more beta-carotene than any
other whole food; it is the best whole food source of
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
332
gamma linolenic acid (GLA); it is rich in B
vitamins, minerals, trace elements, chlorophyll,
and enzymes; and it is abundant in other valuable
nutrients about which scientists are learning more
each year, such as carotenoids, sulfolipids,
glycolipids, phycocyanin, superoxide dismutase,
RNA and DNA [34].
The weaning period is the most critical phase of
infant’s life. During this period mother’s milk is
not generally adequate to cover the nutritional
requirements and support body growth. With
increasing the numbers of working mothers in the
developing countries, the market of baby foods has
been increased tremendously [2]. Breast milk
alone cannot support the nutrition and other needs
of the growing infant [15]. There comes a time
when complementary weaning foods must be
introduced into the diet to fill the gap between
what is provided by milk and what the infant
requires to cover his nutritional requirements [11].
In the case of baby food products, mothers often
try the product first and decide whether to give it
to their children or not [17,19].
In most developing countries commercial weaning
foods of excellent quality either imported or
locally produced are presently available, but due to
sophisticate processing, expensive packing,
extensive promotion and solid profit margins, the
price of these commercial products are generally in
the order of 10-15 times the cost of the common
staple foods. While these products are generally
highly appreciated and their use and value are well
understood, they are priced beyond the purchasing
power of the majority of population in the lower
income groups, Who spent already about 50-75%
of their income in common foods [56].
Spirulina platensis is used in the food, medicine,
and cosmetic industries, and as an additive for
chips, fruit juices, sauces, spice mixtures,
vegetables, soups, and other products. This
investigation contributes to the determination of
nutrients in spirulina platensis microalgae used in
the food and aquaculture feed industries.
Three to ten grams a day delivers impressive
amounts of beta carotene, vitamin B-12 and B
complex, iron, essential trace minerals, and
gammalinolenic acid. Beyond vitamins and
minerals, spirulina is rich in phytonutrients and
functional nutrients that demonstrate a positive effect
on health Robert (2010) [39].
It is legally approved as a food or food supplement in
Europe, Japan and many other countries around the
globe. The United States Food and Drug
Administration confirmed in 1981 that spirulina is a
source of protein and contains various vitamins and
minerals and may be legally marketed as a food
supplement. Many countries have set up food quality
and safety standards for spirulina, FDA (1981) [18].
Therefore, owing to all these advantages, the present
work aims to study the physicochemical and nutrition
values of spirulina, and formulate different babies
food formulas to use as a complementary for baby
food formulas with lower cost. Also, to evaluate the
formulas from standpoint of organolyptically,
physicochemical properties of the best formulas were
evaluated.
2. Materials and methods
Spirulina was obtained from Aquaculture Research
Center at Arab Academy for Scince, Technology &
Maritime Transport, Arab League.
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) was obtained from the
farm of Horticulture department, Fac. of Agric.
Moshtohor. Banana (Musa sapientum L.), Potato
(Solanum tuberosumm L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.),
Anna apple (Malus sylvestris L.), guava (Psidium
guajava L.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.), were
purchased from certain farmers at Kaha city area,
Qaliuobia Governorate, Egypt and immediately
transported to the laboratory. Sugar was purchased
from local market in Qaliuobia Governorate, Egypt.
Wheat (Triticum species) Wheat flour (72% ext.)
was obtained from El- Mokhtar Mill, Cairo
governorate, Egypt. Rice (Oryza sativa), Barley
(Hordeum vulgare vulgare L.) lentil (Lens culinaris),
chickpea (Cicer arietinum), peas (Pisum sativum),
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and cauliflower
(Brassica oleracea botrytis) were purchased from
local market in Qaliuobia Governorate, Egypt.
Preparation of raw materials:
Preparation of raw materials used in formulation
of spirulina with some fruits and vegetables-based
baby food formulas: banana, papaya, apple, mango,
guava and potato, carrot, were washed with tap water,
to remove dirt, adhering latex and other foreign
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
333
matters, as well as to reduce the initial
contamination with microorganisms, then papaya
and banana fruits were hand peeled, papaya seeds
was carefully removed and the fruits were cut into
small parts. While, carrot was peeled using
stainless steel peeler, the stones of mango were
removed after cutting the fruits to two halfs.
After that, all fruits and vegetables were blanched
by using a pressure cooker where the blanching
time was adjusted to be proper for each material.
Potato was peeled by hand after blanching. The
blanched materials were transferred to Moulinex
blender (Blender Mixer, type: 741) equipped with
cutters and stirrer which crushed and homogenized
each of above mentioned materials into a mixture
of pulp, then the mixture was passed through fine
strainer to separate the pulp from any skin or seeds
and then it was packed in plastic bags, sealed and
frozen [20].
Preparation of raw materials used in
formulation of dried spirulina with cereals-
based baby food formulas: dry cereals and
legumes were cleaned from impurities and then
washed thoroughly with tap water, the washed
cereals and legumes were separately soaked in tap
water overnight, except rice was soaked for 30
minutes, according to Soliman et al. (1996) [50].
- The peeled chickpea, lentil, dry pea, rice
and wheat were cooked separately in a
pressure cooker for 5 to 10 minutes. After
cooking, the remaining water was
eliminated. After that, the cooked
materials were dried in solar dryer at 45-
60ºC. Dried cereals and legumes were
milled in an electrical mill, then sieved
through a silk sieve (60 mesh) according to
Soliman et al. (1996) [50].
- Spinach and cauliflower were sorted and
prepared (green leaves of cauliflower were
removed then edible part was cut), the
prepared vegetables were washed and
blanched for appropriate time (4 to 5 min)
using live steam blancher then cooled
down using cold water and were dried at
60 ºC for 12 hrs. in an electric oven drier
and ground to a particle size of 500–600
µm. to pass through 60 mesh sieve.
- All prepared materials were bottled in glass
jars and stored at room temperature until
using in preparation baby food formulas.
Preparation of formulated baby food formulas:
Sixteen baby food formulas were prepared as shown
in Tables (A and B). The spirulina was added to the
components by 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% to the different
formulas.
To calculate those formulas, we took into account the
needs of children between 1 to 3 years as defined by
WHO. We also chose ingredients that are available in
Egypt. We also, included results from sensory tests
preliminary experiments we did with mothers,
children and adults, these tests showed that formulas
containing materials were accepted also indicated
that those parts of materials were the best ratios.
Table (A) shows 8 prepared spirulina with some
fruits and vegtables-based baby food formulas. After
mixing the ingredients of the formulas, they were
bottled in tight jars, and then thermally processed at
100º C for 40 min according to Soliman et al., (2003)
[50], Bahlol et al. (2007) [7] and Satter et al. (2013)
[41]. Table (B) shows 8 prepared dried spirulina with
cereals-based baby food formulas. After mixing the
ingredients of the formulas were botteled in tight jars.
Methods:
Physicochemical analysis:
Moisture content, total solids, ash, fat, protein,
ascorbic acid and starch were determined according
to AOAC (2000) [4]. The pH value was measured
with a pH meter model Consort pH meter P107.
Titratable acidity was determined by titration with
NaOH 0.1 N solution using phenolphthalein as
indicator according to AOAC (2000) [4]. Total and
reducing sugars were determined by Shaffer and
Hartman method as described in the AOAC (2000)
[4]. Total pectin content and fractional pectin
components were determined by the method of
Robertson (1979) [40]. Crude fiber was determined
by Weende method in which VELP Scientifica
extraction unit was used. The method is based on the
solubilization of non-cellulosic compounds by
sulfuric acid and hydroxide solutions as described in
AOAC (2000) [4].
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
334
Total carotenoids were determined according to
Harvey and Catherine (1982) [23]. Total
anthocyanins was measured according to the
method of Skalaki and Sistrunk (1973) [46]. Three
replications of all these determinations were
carried out. Carbohydrates were determined by
difference from the total of dietary fibre, lipids,
protein and ash contents [43].
Determination of total energy: The total energy
value of the food formulation was calculated
according to Sharoba et al. (2013) [43] using the
formula as shown in the following equation:
Total energy (kcal/100 g) = [(% available
carbohydrates × 4) + (% protein × 4)
+ (% fat × 9)]
Amino acid analysis: The protein quantification
was done with micro-Kjeldahl method. Amino
acid analysis procedure involves acid/alkaline
hydrolysis, separation by cation exchange column,
post-column derivatization with Ninhydrin and
detection using UV/Vis detector at 570 nm as
described in the Korean Food Code (KFDA, 2003)
[26]. These procedures in the Korean Food Code
were established based on AOAC Official Method
960.52 [4] for micro-chemical determination of
nitrogen (micro-Kjeldahl), AOAC Official Method
988.15 [4] for tryptophan, AOAC Official Method
985.28 [4] for sulfur amino acids, and AOAC
Official Method 994.12 [4] for acid-stable amino
acids. Acid (HCl) hydrolysis method was used for
aspartic acid (Asp), threonine (Thr), serine (Ser),
glutamic acid (Glu), proline (Pro), glycine (Gly),
alanine (Ala), valine (Val), isoleucine (Ile), leucine
(Leu), tyrosine (Tyr), phenylalanine (Phe),
histidine (His), lysine (Lys), and arginine (Arg).
And, performic acid hydrolysis method was used
for sulfur-containing amino acid such as cystine
(Cys) and methionine (Met), while alkaline (NaOH)
hydrolysis method was used for tryptophan (Trp).
After hydrolysis, amino acid analyzer (Sykam
Gmbh, Germany) with an integrator (Axxiom
Chromatography Inc.) was used for quantification
of amino acids. All results are expressed on the
basis of 100 g edible portion. HPLC analysis was
performed on the same day as extractions.
Total lipid and fatty acids composition analysis:
The fatty acid profile was analyzed using a Gas–
Chromatographic model GC-17A according to
AOAC (2000) [4].Three samples of the oils which
extracted from spirulina sample was converted to
their corresponding methyl ester using boron
trifluoride methanol complex (14% w/v). The
mixture was maintained at 100 ºC for 1 h.
The reaction was stopped with 0.5 ml of distilled
water. Then, the extracted fatty acid methyl esters
(FAMEs) were dissolved in heptane for GC analyses.
GC analyses were performed on a Hewlett–Packard
5890 Series II gas chromatograph (H.P. Co.,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands) equipped with a
hydrogen flame ionization detector and a capillary
column: HP Inovax cross-linked PEG (30 m x 0.32
mm x 0.25 lm film). The column temperature was
programmed from 180 to 240 ºC at 5 ºC/min and the
injector and detector temperature was set at 250 ºC.
Nitrogen was the carrier gas. FAMEs were identified
by comparison of their retention time with respect to
pure standard FAMEs purchased from Sigma and
analyzed under the same conditions. Date seed
FAMEs were quantified according to their percentage
area, obtained by integration of the peaks. The results
were expressed as a percentage of individual fatty
acids in the lipid fraction.
Minerals content: Minerals content were determined
according to AOAC (2000) [4] using Perkin-elmer,
2380 Atomic absorption spectroscopy apparatus in
central laboratory of Veterinary Faculty, Moshtohor
according to AOAC (2000) [4] official method
985.01. Meanwhile phosphorus was determined by
the official spectrophotometric method of the AOAC
(2000) [4] using UV/visible automatic scanning
spectrophotometer.
Vitamins Assay: Vitamin C was determined in all
samples by dichlorophenol Indophenol dye reduction
method [4].
Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pyridoxine, Analogue,
folic acid, inositol, vitamin E, vitamin K,
Pantothenate and biotin were determined by the
HPLC system method according to AOAC (2000) [4].
Determination of vitamin A: About 10 g of sample
was homo-genized, weighed and transferred into a
ground bottom flask, 30 ml of extraction solution,
0.1% antioxidant and few drops of KOH were added
and reflux for 30 min at 70°C. The sample was cool
down, vitamin A was extracted into hexane, and the
combined hexane extract was washed with water and
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
335
then dried the hexane layer to about 2 ml on a
water bath or rotary evaporator. The final volume
was made up to 50 ml with the mobile phase. The
mobile phase, standard and sample were filtered
through 0.45µ membrane filter and were degassed
before injection.
Calibration curve was made by a standard in
mobile phase with five point calibrations and
analyzed independently by HPLC. A standard
curve was plotted between the concentration of
vitamin A and peak area obtained. For HPLC
analysis, an Eelipse × BD – C18 column (4.6 ×
250 mm 5 µm) was used with a linear gradient of
methanol: water (95:5) at constant flow rate of 1
ml /min by using a binary pump with column
tempera-ture 40°C. A multiple wavelength
detector was employed for the detection of pecks
using a wavelength of 325 nm and a bandwidth of
8 nm.
Phytopigments Assay: Some phytopigments
content were determined according to AOAC
(2000) [4] by using HPLC.
All other chemicals were obtained from Merck
(Darmstadt, Germany) or Riedel-de Haen (Seelze,
Germany) as HPLC-grade. All standers materials
were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany)
or Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals Co.(Steinheim,
Germany).
Microbiological examination: Total viable
bacterial count, mesophilic sporeformers bacteria,
yeasts and moulds, coliform group were
enumerated and the presence of (Salmonella spp.
and Staphylococcus aureus) was detected
according to the methods established by APHA
(1992) [5] and Kang et al. (2003) [24]. Results
were expressed as CFU g-1.
Rodent hairs and Insect fragments in spirulina:
Rodent hairs and insect fragments in spirulina
were determined according Thind (2000) [52].
Analytical methods for heavy metals in
spirulina: The determination of arsenic, cadmium
and lead in spirulina sample were performed
according to the methods described in the Korean
Food Code (KFDA [26]) which described by
Haeng-Shin et al. (2006) [22] by inductively
coupled plasma–emission spectrometry (Model JY
38 S; Horiba, Jobin Yvon Cedex, France).
Duplicate samples were run in triplicates for the
analysis of each heavy metal.
Bulk density of spirulina: Bulk density (Kg/lit) was
determined by gently pouring 2 g of spirulina into an
empty 10 ml graduated cylinder and holding the
cylinder and tapping 10 times on a rubber mat from a
height of 15 cm. The ratio of the mass of the powder
and the volume occupied in the cylinder was
determines the bulk density.
Sensory evaluation: Sensory evaluation was carried
out by a properly well trained panel of 12 testers.
They were selected if their individual scores in 10
different tests showed a reproducibility of 90%. The
12 member internal panel evaluated the different
baby food formulas for color, taste, odor, texture,
mouthfeel (smoothness, consistency, spreadability)
and overall acceptability. Mineral water was used by
the panellists to rinse the mouth between samples.
Scoring was based on a 100 point scale (10-100)
where (90-100) = excellent, (70-80) = very good,
(50-60) = good, (30-40) = fair and (10-20) = poor.
Statistical analysis: Data of chemical composition of
ingredients and formulas were expressed as mean of
three replicates ± standard error (SE). Data for the
sensory evaluation of all baby food formulas were
subjected to the analysis of variance followed by
multiple comparison using LSD [48].
3.Results and discussion
Chemical composition and nutrition values of
Spirulina: The Chemical and nutritional composition
of spirulina may vary according to the growing
conditions. For example, the iodine content will vary
as a function when the spirulina is grown in sea water
vs. fresh water. The Chemical and nutritional
composition of dried powdered spirulina grown in
fresh water is summarized in Tables (1, 2 and 3). It
should be noted that, the cell wall of spirulina is
composed of protein, carbohydrates and fat.
Therefore, the bioavailability of nutrients from
spirulina might be more than from other food sources,
especially plant food sources.
Spirulina is the richest nutrient and complete food
source found in the world. It contains over 100
nutrients, more than any other plants, grains or herbs.
Today Spirulina is widely used as a food supplement
to maintain health, boost energy and reduce weight.
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
336
Spirulina contains 62.84 % protein, higher than
any other natural food. Spirulina contains all the
essential amino acids in fairly high amounts,
Spirulina is just that, a complete protein, other
protein sources have very negative properties as
well, such as animal fat and cholesterol. Spirulina
contains essence minerals like calcium,
magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc
as well as complete vitamin B groups and many
important anti-oxidants (which protect cells). The
anti-oxidant phycocyanin can only be found in
spirulina. It is the richest natural source of vitamin
E and beta-carotene. The results of chemical
composition of spirulina are in agreement with
those obtained by Branger et al. (2003) [10];
Habib et al. (2008) [21]; Vijayarani et al. (2012)
[53] and Dolly (2014) [13]. The protein and B-
vitamin complex in spirulina makes a major
nutritional improvement in an infant’s diet.
It is the only food source other than breast milk
containing substantial amounts of essential fatty
acids, essential amino acids and GLA that helps to
regulate the entire hormone system.
Physical properties of spirulina:Spirulina offers
a convenient solution to the pH problems of most
diets as it is very alkaline. Because spirulina is an
alkaline food (pH 6.84) that counter the acidic
foods and help raise the pH level towards the
alkaline side of the scale. This, in turn, promotes
increased bone mass (since your body doesn’t have
to sacrifice calcium to balances its pH), and vastly
improved metabolic functions. Consuming more
alkaline foods has been strongly linked with
improved immune system function, mental
function, kidney function, and higher levels of
energy, among other important benefits. Acidic
body condition may cause many modern diseases
like hypertension, cancer, diabetes, heart disease,
gout and rheumatism.
Adjust the body's pH value: The ideal healthy
human body's pH level should remain on low
alkaline about pH 7.35~7.45. Modern day people
indulge in too much acidic food like soft drinks,
meat, cheese, eggs, and ham. These cause our body
to become acidic (pH< 7).
Many medical research reports have proven that
acidic bodies will have more chance of getting
diseases or cancer.
Regular use of Spirulina can help keep your body
alkaline will help you reduce this risk and is the ideal
food supplement for the weight reducer.
Data in Table (1) also showed the bulk density of
spirulina (0.82 Kg/lit), the bulk density of the product
is affected by particle size distribution, type of
agglomeration, particle porosity, and to a certain
extent the moisture content. Particle size distribution
is affected by the initial size of the trichomes as they
are fed to the dryer and the pore diameter of the
atomizer. The final quality of the product with
respect to bulk density is therefore dependent on
culturing, harvesting and drying conditions. To a
certain extent, all these factors are harnessed in order
to obtain a product that meets the requirements of
formulated babies food formulas. The color of
spirulina in the powder form appears a blue green to
green color.
Finally Spirulina called a superfood because its
nutrient profile is more potent than any other food,
such as plants, grains or herbs. These nutrients and
phytonutrients make spirulina a whole food
alternative to isolated vitamin supplements. Protein
and amino acids, vitamins and minerals, essential
fatty acids and phytonutrients, comparing with other
foods. Spirulina can renourish our bodies and renew
our health. Spirulina has been used in preparation
baby foods because of its therapeutic properties and
the presence of antioxidant compounds. Babies can
eat spirulina in complete safety and assimilate its
nutrients without difficulty. Even malnourished
babies with diminished capacity for nutrient
absorption could assimilate spirulina and recover
from malnutrition.
Microbiological quality and contaminant
specifications of Spirulina: Microbiological quality
of Spirulina: The total viable bacterial count is
widely used as an indicator microbiological quality
of food. Data in Table (4) indicated that, the total
viable bacterial count and mesophilic spore formers
bacteria were cannot be detected. This is more
acceptable for prepared food product especially baby
foods. Yeast and moulds cannot be detected, this may
that yeast and moulds cannot resist for drying. Count
of pathogenic bacteria took the same trend of total
viable bacterial count. Coliform group, salmonella
and staphylococcus were not detected.
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
337
Table (A). Formulated of prepared spirulina with some fruits and vegetablesbased baby food formulas.
Table (B): Formulated of prepared dried spirulina with cereals-based baby food formulas.
Table 1. Chemical composition and physical properties of Spirulina (g/100 g sample, on dry weight basis)
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
338
Table 2. Amino acids and fatty acids content of Spirulina (mg/100 g).
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
339
Table 3.Vitamins, phytopigments and minerals in Spirulina.
Table 4. Microbiological quality of Spirulina (CFU/g)
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
340
Table 5. Contaminant specifications of spirulina
Table 6. Chemical composition of fruits and vegetables (g/100g on wet weight basis)
Each value is the average of three replicates ± S.E. *as anhydrous citric acid.
Table 7.Chemical composition of dried raw materials (g/100g on wet weight basis).
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
341
Table 8. Microbiological quality of formulated baby food formulas (CFU/g).
Table 9. Sensory evaluation scores of formulated baby foods formulas perpered from
*Values represent of 12 panellists (Mean ±S.E.);
* a, b,…: There is no significant difference (p 0.05) between any two means have the same superscripts, within the
same acceptaptability attribute.
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
342
Table 10. Some physicochemical properties and nutritional value of prepared spirulina, fruits and vegetables-based
baby food formulas.
Each value is the average of three replicates ± S.E. *as anhydrous citric acid
Chemical composition on wet weight basis.
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
343
Table 11. Some chemical composition and nutritional value of prepared dried spirulina with cereals-based baby food
formulas.
Each value is the average of three replicates ± S.E.; Chemical composition on wet weight basis.
Table 12. Amino acids content of formulated baby food formulas (mg/100g formulas).
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
344
Contaminant specifications of Spirulina: Data in
Table (5) indicated that, the spirulina free from
pesticides, rodent hairs and insect fragments. On
the other hand, the level of heavy metals in line
with the specifications of the global food this
results are in agreement with those obtained by
Haeng-Shin et al. (2006) [22] and Llobet et al.
(2003) [27].
Use spirulina in production of some food formulas
as complementary food for babies: In Egypt, most
of the time, the formulas given to babies are of
poor nutritional quality: they are mainly cereal
flours with sugar, sometimes some fruits, and
rarely, when the mothers can afford it, powdered
milk. Those formulas do not cover the babies’
needs in proteins, lipids and micro-nutrients.
Babies need to have enough calories and fat in
order to grow normally. As babies move from a
liquid diet to a more solid diet, using some higher
calorie foods can help to meet their needs.
Nutritious foods for older vegetarian babies
include mashed tofu, bean spreads, avocado, and
cooked dried fruits. Fat intake should not be
limited. Fat sources for older infants include
avocado, vegetable oils and soft margarine.
Nutrition plays an important role for fundamental
vital functions. Many nutritionists have focused on
naturally occurring components (e.g. vitamins,
fatty acids, proteins, amino acids, phenolic
compounds and dietary fibre) in foods that have a
positive effect on target functions beyond nutritive
value and provide health benefits, as well as
possibly reducing the risk of diseases. The term
functional food originates from Japan and
generally represents the category of foods that
contain biologically active compounds with
potential to enhance health or reduce risk of
serious diseases and finally, may improve the
quality of life. Furthermore, foods identified as
“Food for specified health use (FOSHU)”should be
in the form of naturally occurring food or drink
products, but not pills or capsules.
In recent years, different healthy ingredients have
been used in the production of baby foods to
enhance its nutritional profile or to confer
functional properties.
However, the amount of raw material that can be
used as a substitute or can be added to baby foods
represents a compromise between nutritional
improvement and satisfactory sensorial properties of
baby foods, from the previous results in Tables (1 to
5) we can be certain that spirulina of the best raw
materials that can be used in the manufacture of baby
food.
Chemical properties of ingredients used in baby
food formulas:
Chemical composition of ingredients used to
prepared spirulina, fruits and vegetables-based
baby food formulas: Chemical properties of
ingredients used for the preparation of the baby food
formulas are presented in Table (6). The results
demonstrated that the moisture content of ingredients
varied from 76.23% to 88.34% in banana puree and
carrot puree, respectively. Potato puree had the
highest level of ash being about 1.154% while, the
lowest level of ash was found in apple puree being
about 0.394%. Also, potato puree had the highest
level of protein (1.55%). So, spirulina and potato
puree were the main source of protein in formulated
baby food formulas. Potato puree was the main
source for starch. The pH value for papaya puree was
5.39. The pH value of ingredients ranged from 3.83
to 6.11 for apple puree and carrot puree, respectively.
Titratable acidity for all ingredients was less than
1% . With regard to total sugars the data showed that
the banana puree had the highest amount of total
sugars, (15.208%). Pectin ranged from 0.714 to
2.331% in carrot puree and mango puree,
respectively. The pectin can hold the water in baby
stomach. So, pectin is very important for children
especially when they have diarrhea. On the other
hand, guava puree had the highest level of fiber
(2.015%) followed by banana puree (1.952%), while
potato puree had the lowest level of fiber being
(0.902%). Papaya puree contained amount of
carotenoids less than carrot puree. So, adding of
carrot puree will increase the percentage of
carotenoids in all formulas. As known that, the
carotenoids help the baby as color to attract any
foods. Carrot puree had high percentage of
anthocyanin more than other fruits or vegetables
ingredients. Results appeared that ascorbic acid
content was ranged from 9.97 to 91.38 mg/100g in
carrot and papaya puree, respectively.
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
345
These results of chemical composition for
ingredients used for the preparation of baby food
formulas were in agreement with those obtained by
MaCance and Widdowson’s (1992) [28]; Ramulu
and Rao (2003) [38]; El-Mansy et al. (2005) [14];
Wall (2006) [55] and Bahlol et al., (2007) [7].
Chemical composition of ingredients used to
prepared dried spirulina with cereals-based
baby food formulas:
The proximate chemical analysis were carried out
on the original raw materials used in this research
i.e. cereals (wheat, rice and Barley), legumes
(dried peas, hulled chickpea and lentil), vegetable
(Spinach and Cauliflower). The results are
illustrated in Table (7). It noticed that, lentil and
rice had the higher moisture content being 10.18
and 9.76%, respectively. Meanwhile, dried
cauliflower had the lower moisture content. From
the results in the same table, it could be noticed
that dried cauliflower had higher protein content
(26.95%). Dried cauliflower and dried spinach had
higher protein and ash contents. Total
carbohydrate were calculated for raw materials,
total carbohydrate content ranged from 53.86% in
dried cauliflower to 79.40 in rice. These results are
in agreement with Soliman et al. (1996) [49];
Atwa (2003) [6]; Abd El-Salam (2005) [1] and
Baik and Ullrich (2008) [8].
Microbiological quality of the formulated baby
foods formulas:
The overall bacteriological status of the formulated
prepared spirulina with some fruits and vegetables-
based baby food formulas was observed to be
satisfactory. The microbiological quality attributes
of different prepared formulas calculated as CFU
g
-1
are shown in Table (8). The obtained results
revealed that the total viable bacterial count was
ranged from 5.8 x10
2
to 9.8 x10
2
CFU/g for
formulas No. (4SFV) and (5SFV), respectively as
indicated in Table (8).
The low counts of the examined formulas for total
viable bacterial, yeasts & moulds indicated
adequate thermal process, good quality of raw
materials and as a result of the good different
processing conditions under which the production
of formulas was carried out. Mesophilic
sporeformers bacterial count was 1.8 x10
1
and 3.6
x10
1
CFU/g for formulas No. (4SFV) and (1SFV),
respectively. However, coliform group, Salmonella
and Staphylococcus aureus were found to be absent
in all formulas. The microbiological results are in
agreement with many authors such as Wadud et al.
(2004) [54]; Soliman (2003) [50] and Bahlol et al.
(2007) [7]. The formulated of prepared dried
spirulina with cereals-based baby food formulas were
tested for the same microbiological tests. The
obtained results in Table (8) reveal that the total
bacterial count ranged from 2.7 x 10
1
to 7.3 x 10
1
cfu/g. The low total bacterial counts of the examined
baby food formulated might be due to their low
moisture content. The current results were within the
advisable standards reported by Skovgaard (1989)
[47], who recommended that a total bacterial count
up to 104 per gram for dried baby foods might be
save enough to be used by babies.The current results
were less than those allowable in many international
standards in other foods.The obtained results are also
agree with those obtained by Radi et al. (2003) [36]
who produced new production from siwi date for
young children. These results are in agreement with
those reported by Soliman et al. (1996) [49]. The
yeast & molds, coliform group, Salmonella and
Staphylococcus aureus did not appear in any dried
baby food formulas, this may be related to low
moisture content of all mixtures. This may be due to
the effect of good processing and good ingredients to
decrease the total bacterial count. Otherwise, the
drying steps in prepared dried formulas this may be
reduce its number under the detection limit. Also,
spirulina was also reported to present antimicrobial
activity as well as to inhibit the replication of total
bacterial count. The microbiological results
suggested that, the formulas are suitable to be
submitted for sensory evaluation by babies, these
results are in agreement with those obtained by
Ozdemir et al. (2004) [33]. Who studied the
antimicrobial activity of spirulina against various
gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and fungal
species. The methanol extract showed maximum
antimicrobial potency, and Bhowmik et al. (2009) [9]
who found that Spirulina was had probiotic efficacy
and inhibitory effect against several pathogens.
Sensory evaluation:
Cereals in the form of paps prepared with milk are
usually one of the first foods added in the
diversification of the infant diet from the 5th/6th
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
346
months. Milk and cereal based ready-to-eat infant
foods are presently available on the market. These
products have a long shelf-life and can be
consumed for up to one year after manufacture.
Due to their composition. When cereals are well
accepted, we add fruit and vegetables. One new
food can be started every 3-4 days. This way we
can see if baby has a reaction to a new food. Mash
or puree fruits and vegetables. As our baby gets
better at chewing.
For this reason, experiments were in this research
concentrated on the production of two types of
baby food and one dependent on grains and other
certified on fruits and vegetables and using a
variety of materials in order to give some kind of
change in the diet of infants and children. Sensory
tests were conducted for them and the results were
good where they were prepared to accept all the
formulas.
Data in Table (9) show the analysis of variance for
data of sensory evaluation between the 16 prepared
baby food formulas. The averages of the overall
acceptability obtained scores were in the range
from 82.72 to 96.37. These means that all the
prepared baby food formulas were accepted with
significant differences. On the other hand, analysis
of variance for obtained scores for overall
acceptability indicated significant differences (P>
0.05) between the different formulas (Table 9). So,
LSD test was applied to carry out the multiple
comparisons which indicated that, the different
formulas could be divided into some significant
groups (P> 0.05) (LSD = 2.51, 2.38 for fruits and
vegetablesbased baby food formulas and cereals-
based baby food formulas, respectively), where
there are no significant differences (P> 0.05)
between the different formulas inside every group.
The high scores in both types of baby foods groups
included formulas No. (3 SFV, 7 SFV, 3 SCP and7
SCP) which had the 5% of spirulina.
This four baby food formulas were selected which
obtained high scores in both types of baby foods
groups. The study was continued on the selected
formulas that their physicochemical properties
were determined.
Physicochemical properties and nutritional value
of formulated baby food formulas:
Moisture, crude protein, fat, crude fiber, ash,
carbohydrate, some vitamins and minerals which
were thought to be great importance in infant feeding
from 6 – 36 months where determined. The food
formulas were prepared to produce as
complementary baby food using some fruits,
vegetables, cereals and legumes with spirulina. But
the visibility of chemical composition is too
important. Therefore some chemical analyses were
carried out. Data in Tables (10 and 11) indicated that
moisture and total solids content in food formulas
nearly varied in type 1 and type 2 prepared formulas.
This is due to the adding kind of fruits, vegetables,
cereals and legumes. It is clear that the total solids in
cereals and legumes formulas was the highest among
other fruits and vegetables formulas. cereals and
legumes formulas had the highest level of ash content,
while fruits and vegetables formulas had the lowest
level of ash. The same results were obtained with fat,
protein and carbohydrates, on the contrary, it was the
titratable acidity and phytopigments which are
important as it affected on the taste and flavor. The
obtained data indicated that the total sugars and total
carbohydrates were the major components in total
solids in all formulas and the main source of energy
value.
The percentages of total pectic substances and fiber
were acceptable and suitable for babies related to the
important of those for excertion. Energy values for
formulate baby food formulas were estimated from
the percentage of total carbohydrate, protein and fat
contents and were higher in cereals and legumes
formulas.
The mineral composition of fruits and others plants
ingredients can reflect the trace mineral of soil in a
geographic region and varies with climate, maturity,
cultivars, and agricultural practices. Some minerals
content of the babies food formulas are shown in
Tables (10 and 11). The obtained data revealed that
the highest potassium and calcium are particularly
essential for infant and young children. The variation
of the minerals content in all formulas, may be due to
the different content of these elements in raw
ingredients.
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
347
From the results of minerals it could be concluded
that the formulas are considered as a source for
some minerals.These formulas are not totally
balanced in micronutrients but they are: balanced
in macro-nutrients, rich en micro-nutrients,
produced with foods available locally and rather
cheap, and they are a considerable improvement
compared to most local baby foods. The results of
physicochemical properties and nutritional value
of formulated baby food formulas were in
agreement with those obtained by Bahlol et al.
(2007) [7] and Mehder (2009) [30].
Amino acids content of formulated baby food
formulas:
Protein is the major functional and structural
component of all the cells of the body; for example,
all enzymes, membrane carriers, blood transport
molecules, the intracellular matrices, hair,
fingernails, serum albumin, keratin, and collagen
are proteins, as are many hormones and a large
part of membrans. Moreover, the constituent
amino acids of protein act as precursors of many
co-enzymes, hormones, nucleic acids, and other
molecules essential for life. Thus an adequate
supply of dietary protein is essential to maintain
cellular integrity and function, and for health and
reproduction. Data in Table (12) shows the amino
acids content of formulated baby food formulas.
From the obtained results; it could be observed that
the different baby food blends contained good
proportions of essential amino acids. Comparing
the essential amino acids pattern of the formulated
formulas with hen's egg protein as a standard, it
was found that the essential amino acids content of
the blends have a good percent from their
corresponding quantities in egg's protein. It may be
noted that the total essential amino acids of the
different baby food blends also suitable for babies
in the age 1 to 3 years. This could be explained
that although egg have much higher percentage of
protein, but the percentage of protein content in the
formulated baby food formulas was at in the range
of recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for
protein and amino acids for babies at age 1-3 years
according to FAO/WHO, 1991, [16].
Much has been written about the health benefits of
spirulina, of all the humans that can benefit from
taking Spirulina, children can benefit the most.
Children love spirulina and it is safe and highly
nutritious for them. Children of all ages can eat
spirulina in complete safety and assimilate its
nutrients without difficulty. Even malnourished
children with diminished capacity for nutrient
absorption could assimilate spirulina and recover
from malnutrition. Spirulina can builds up tissue
growth, improve vision, strengthens body's immune
system there by improves resistance to chronic
infections, ability to heal and ability to concentrate in
children. For baby, who are not able to swallow the
capsules, the baby can be used this spirulina formulas.
The powder spirulina formulas can also be mixed
with fruit juice, milk, salads and convenient soups.
The amount of spirulina needed depends on
metabolism degree to physical exertion, lifestyle, and
an individual baby's unique body needs. By starting
with a small amount and gradually increasing until
the optimal daily amount is found, babies can enjoy
the benefits of this super nutritious food from
babyhood throughout their lives. (Children of all ages,
including infants can be given 2 to 5 gms of
spirulina/day). Spirulina is not a drug, but a natural
food supplement, and is not habit forming. Its effects
can be sustained by taking it regularly at approx. 2 to
5 g/day. To see any benefits of spirulina, it should be
taken at least for 6-8 weeks.
4.Conclusions
A spirulina farm is an environmentally sound green
food machine. Cultivated in shallow ponds, this algae
can double its biomass every 2 to 5 days. This
productivity breakthrough yields over 20 times more
protein than soybeans on the same area, 40 times
corn and 400 times beef. Spirulina can flourish in
ponds of brackish or alkaline water built on already
unfertile land. In this way, it can augment the food
supply not by increase the agricultural area or
increasing agricultural intensification in Egypt, or
clearing the disappearing rainforests in the world, but
by cultivating the expanding deserts. Finally from
this research we can use as spirulina recommended
by the United Nations World Health Organization
(WHO) which confirmed that spirulina represents an
interesting food for multiple reasons, rich in iron and
protein, it can be safely administered to babies
without any risk.
Ashraf M. Sharoba / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2014, 20(4)
348
Compliance with Ethics Requirements. Authors
declare that they respect the journal’s ethics
requirements. Authors declare that they have no conflict
of interest and all procedures involving human / or
animal subjects (if exist) respect the specific regulation
and standards.
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... SP has 0.0393 mg/100 g selenium. It is also a powerful antioxidant because it contains high quantities of pigments such as chlorophyll (1.56%) and phycocyanin (14.647%) [1,16,17]. SP boosts the immune system and protects against viral infections [18]. SP algae powder can be an excellent alternative to artificial colors in the food industry while also producing useful and valued food products. ...
... AOAC method was used to measure the moisture, fat, ash, pH value and protein of the O and C, and the value of carbohydrates was calculated by the difference method [27]. The total energy of the samples was calculated according to Sharoba [17]. ...
... According to Table 3, the independent variables A, B and C and the interaction of BD, CD, ABC, ABD and ACD had a significant effect on the TAC response (p < 0.05). The effect of each parameter on TAC is shown in Figure 2. The amount of total anthocyanin increased with increasing the amount of SP, decreasing the amount of SWP, and decreasing the amount of oil in the snack coating, because this microalgae is rich in anthocyanins [17,20]. Oil along with SP did not have a favorable effect on the amount of TAC. ...
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In this work, the possibility of enriching snacks with Spirulina palatensis (SP) powder as a dragee was studied. In dragee formulation, the effects of various levels of SP, sunflower oil, NaCl and sour whey powder on sensory, physicochemical and nutritional properties were investigated. The dragee formulation was optimized and the characteristics of the optimal sample were compared with the control sample (containing dragee without SP). The results showed that adding SP increased the flavonoids, total anthocyanin content, vitamins, protein, minerals, essential and non-essential amino acids and fatty acids, including ω3 and ω6, while decreasing the energy intake. Based on the results, the optimal dragee sample was formulated and prepared with a desirability of 0.955. The correlation coefficient indicated that the effective optimization process and the performance of the model were carried out properly. The addition of SP had a significant impact on all color parameters considered by the panelists, and the enriched sample was given a very good taste score (75.10 ± 2.923) and an outstanding overall acceptance rate (91.20 ± 1.549) by the panelists. Although morphological data from scanning electron microscopy showed the distribution of non-uniform SP particles relative to the addition of SP in the extruded product formulation, the preservation of more nutritional properties and the good acceptance of sensory evaluators indicated the success of the application in dragee formulation. Therefore, instead of being utilized in an extruder, we discovered that SP may be used as a dragee for snack fortification.
... Microalgae have received increasing attention due to the fact that they represent one of the most promising sources of compounds with biological activity that could be used as functional ingredients. Their balanced chemical composition (good quality proteins, balanced fatty acid profiles, vitamins, antioxidants and minerals) and their interesting attributes can be applied in the formulation of novel food products (Ashraf, 2014). S. platensisis a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that derives its name from the spiral or helical nature of its filaments (Radha and Chandra, 2018), an oxygenic photosynthetic bacterium represents an important staple diet in humans and has been used as a source of protein and vitamin supplement in humans without any significant side-effects (Karkos et al., 2011). ...
... Spirulina is the dried biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, it has been widely used in several countries, it is considered GRAS (generally recognized as safe), without toxicological effects (Ashraf, 2014). Spirulina, has a unique blend of nutrients that no single source can provide and used as an important source of nutrients in the traditional diet of some populations of Africa and Mexico (Trung et al., 2017). ...
... Spirulina is a low-cost nutritional supplement and has not been established to have any significant side effects (DiNicolantonio et al., 2020) and dietary supplement, with an extremely wide range of alleged medical and health benefits (Ashraf, 2014). Spirulina has numerous medical advantages just as remedial significance, for example, insurance of the liver and kidneys, improvement of blood quality and anticipation of frailty, benefits for diabetes, decrease in circulatory strain, expulsion of substantial metals from the body, radioprotection, avoidance of liver and renal harmfulness, cancer prevention agent activity, safe security help in unfavorably susceptible responses (Kanojia et al., 2019). ...
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Article Info Spirulina (Arthrospira) is considered as generally recognized as safe as a richest sources of organic nutrients without toxicological effects and it has been widely used in several countries. Spirulina contains good quality proteins, vitamins and minerals in addition to a wide variety of natural carotene and xanthophyll phytopigments. Many researchers studied the beneficial effects of Spirulina and reported its enhancing potential on its health benefits by improving general health as well as lowering the problems of different diseases like infilammation, diabetes, anaemia, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders by possessing some promising biological activities such as antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, radio protective and metalloprotective effects. These pharmaceutical and medicinal properties of Spirulina could be attributed to some natural constituents such as phycocyanin, carotene, tocopherols, linolenic acid and phenolic compounds that had been shown to have strong antioxidant properties and powerful scavenging activities against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) like superoxide and H 2 O 2 radicals. This review illustrates the beneficial effects of Arthrospira on human health with its specific mechanisms on its ability to protect the body physiological system against oxidative damage and source of potential pharmaceuticals based mainly on the highest levels of evidence available in the literature.
... It was discovered that the total fatty acid concentration of A. platensis is 81.2 mg/g on a dry weight basis, which demonstrates that spirulina is an excellent source of fatty acids [52]. However, Sharoba [38] discovered that the proportion of total saturated fatty acids was 44.21 mg/100 g, but the proportion of total essential unsaturated fatty acids was 55.79 mg/100 g. When looking at the nutritional value of spirulina, researchers found that it has a significant amount of palmitic acid (16:0), which makes up more than 60% of the lipids in S. maxima and 25% in S. platensis, respectively. ...
... According to the research conducted by Liestianty et al. [52], the fatty acids contained in spirulina include myristic, heptadecanoic, stearic, oleic, palmitoleic, omega-3, omega-6, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. Omega-6 kinds, the most significant of which are palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, and γ-linolenic, and omega-3 types, including α-linoleic acid, are among the most essential types that may be found [38]. Linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid are found in high concentrations in it [23]. ...
... It was discovered that the total fatty acid concentration of A. platensis is 81.2 mg/g on a dry weight basis, which demonstrates that spirulina is an excellent source of fatty acids [52]. However, Sharoba [38] discovered that the proportion of total saturated fatty acids was 44.21 mg/100 g, but the proportion of total essential unsaturated fatty acids was 55.79 mg/100 g. When looking at the nutritional value of spirulina, researchers found that it has a significant amount of palmitic acid (16:0), which makes up more than 60% of the lipids in S. maxima and 25% in S. platensis, respectively. ...
... According to the research conducted by Liestianty et al. [52], the fatty acids contained in spirulina include myristic, heptadecanoic, stearic, oleic, palmitoleic, omega-3, omega-6, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. Omega-6 kinds, the most significant of which are palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, and γ-linolenic, and omega-3 types, including α-linoleic acid, are among the most essential types that may be found [38]. Linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid are found in high concentrations in it [23]. ...
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Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae (BGA) that is multicellular, filamentous, and prokaryotic. It is also known as a cyanobacterium. It is classified within the phylum known as blue-green algae. Despite the fact that it includes a high concentration of nutrients, such as proteins, vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids—in particular, the necessary omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids—the percentage of total fat and cholesterol that can be found in these algae is substantially lower when compared to other food sources. This is the case even if the percentage of total fat that can be found in these algae is also significantly lower. In addition to this, spirulina has a high concentration of bioactive compounds, such as phenols, phycocyanin pigment, and polysaccharides, which all take part in a number of biological activities, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. As a result of this, spirulina has found its way into the formulation of a great number of medicinal foods, functional foods, and nutritional supplements. Therefore, this article makes an effort to shed light on spirulina, its nutritional value as a result of its chemical composition, and its applications to some food product formulations, such as dairy products, snacks, cookies, and pasta, that are necessary at an industrial level in the food industry all over the world. In addition, this article supports the idea of incorporating it into the food sector, both from a nutritional and health perspective, as it offers numerous advantages.
... Sharoba (2014) (19) incorporated Spirulina in some complementary baby food formulas along with fruits (banana, papaya, apple, mango and guava), vegetables (potato, carrot, spinach and cauliflower) and dry cereals. Blanching was initiated after washing all the fruits and vegetables, followed by homogenization. ...
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Spirulina is a blue-green algae which is cultivated not only for its maximum protein content but also due to the presence of other essential nutrients such as carbohydrates and vitamins (A, C and E). It is also a storehouse of minerals including iron, calcium, chromium, copper, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and zinc. Simultaneously, γ- linolenic acid (an essential fatty acid), as well as pigments such as chlorophyll A and phycobiliproteins (C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and β-carotene), is also a major component of its rich nutritional profile. Spirulina is known to have various promising effects on the prevention of cancer, oxidative stress, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and anemia. Moreover, it also plays a positive role in treating muscular cramps. The safety recommended dosage of Spirulina is approximately 3-10 g/d for adults and it's biological value (BV) is 75 with a net protein utilization (NPU) of 62. Spirulina does not have pericardium due to which it does not hinder the absorption of iron by chelation with phytates or oxalates. On the contrasting note, it may have some adverse effects due to the toxins (microcystins, β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA)) produced by Spirulina which might contribute to acute poisoning, cancer, liver damage as well as gastrointestinal disturbances. Its long-term consumption may also lead to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The current review focuses on the various aspects of spirulina including its cultivation, nutritional composition, extraction techniques, health benefits, adverse effects, industrial scope and market value which could be beneficial for its utilization in the development of value-added products and supplementary foods due to its high content of protein and bioavailability of nutrients.
... The Spirulina incorporation resulted in an increment of ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in pasta [22]. Another research reported that nutritional value of baby food increased in different specimens containing spirulina biomass [32]. ...
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Both input resources and ecosystem stability are critical to the long-term viability and sustainability of the aquaculture business, which is booming while supporting global food security. Over the past few decades, technical advancements have been made to help achieve both economic and environmental goals. Among these, “algaquaculture,” which combines algae culture with aquaculture, is seen as a revolutionary concept with numerous advantages. The only difference between this system and aquaponics is that algae are used instead of leafy plants. In aquaponic systems, this integration is innovative because of algae’s superior ability to utilize waste-derived nutrients, such as nitrate, nitrite, and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). An additional benefit of algae is that they promote growth, stimulate the immune system, and even enhance the color of fish. Some algae with human health benefits and biodiesel sources have a high market price, which can be used to compensate for an integrated aquaculture-based system’s higher economic value. While aquaculture waste bioremediation can greatly improve environmental sustainability, it is important to note that algae can play a significant part in bioremediation because of their ability to minimize environmental disruptions. This review aims to highlight the new concept of algaquaculture, functional role of algae in aquaculture, and biotechnological advancements for the bioeconomy to establish microalgae-based food production systems, including aquaculture, by citing the role and benefits of such an integrated algal-aquaculture system. For this reason, the review intends to disseminate an idea like this over the globe, focusing on how to preserve the sector in the coming years.
Article
Promoting optimal nutrition, health, and sustainable food systems in an era of population explosion, dietary transformation, and climate change is a critical risk factor of our generation. Thus, the food sector is confronted with the issue of producing low-cost, nutrient-dense, and convenient foods. Therefore, it is critical to investigate food sources that are technologically feasible and have a positive environmental and economic impact. Spirulina is one of those sources that facilitate manufacturing, processing, and distribution together with a wide variety of nutrients that enhance human health. It is a marine alga that provides the possibility of improving food security while at the same time benefiting the environment by utilizing fewer soils to produce as much protein and energy as livestock thereby helping to reach SDG 14 which states the use of marine resources for sustainable development. Spirulina has been shown to have potential therapeutic roles. Moreover, Spirulina and its constituents have found widespread application in the food manufacturing industry. Thus, this paper aims to provide an overview of the beneficial applications of Spirulina, its role in maintaining food security, and its application to combat the global problem of malnutrition without affecting the sustainable food system.
Chapter
Spirulina is a great nutraceutical and has emerged widely due to its unique blend of good quality proteins, fatty acid profile, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. It is utilized as a booster and also functions as an antiviral agent due to the presence of specific pigments and secondary metabolites. Spirulina has been proven to be important enough to be commercialized and sold for therapeutic purposes in several animals and human experiments. In diabetic mice, a combination of spirulina and other plant extracts has been shown to lower blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and improve HDL cholesterol. The use of phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin derived from spirulina as a treatment for diabetic nephropathy is a unique therapeutic technique. Osteoporosis is one of the side effects of diabetes and Spirulina can help prevent osteoporosis in diabetic patients. This chapter summarizes the overall nutraceutical and therapeutic potential of Spirulina.
Chapter
Globally, the demand for natural nutritional products is increasing with the rising population and health cautiousness among people. Since ancient times, plants have served as a nutritional source for humans and animals; besides, the advent of technologies revealed the potential of other biomass as dietary sources such as algae. Algae are considered sustainable and economical sources of bioactive medicinal and nutritional products, which are increasingly being consumed. The high-valued products are produced from algal biomass with nutritional content and bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein, essential amino acids, vitamins, pigments, polysaccharides, and other secondary metabolites. Recent research investigations on several algal species reported their bioactive reserve with remarkable pharmacological and nutritional qualities. This chapter provides a glimpse into important algal species as a nutritional source for processing and product developments and its challenges in the area of algal science with an emphasis on nutritional products.
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Spirulina are multicellular and filamentous blue-green microalgae belonging to two separate genera Spirulina and Arthrospira and consists of about 15 species. Of these, Arthrospira platensis is the most common and widely available spirulina and most of the published research and public health decision refers to this specific species. It grows in water, can be harvested and processed easily and has significantly high macro- and micronutrient contents. In many countries of Africa, it is used as human food as an important source of protein and is collected from natural water, dried and eaten. It has gained considerable popularity in the human health food industry and in many countries of Asia it is used as protein supplement and as human health food. Spirulina has been used as a complementary dietary ingredient of feed for poultry and increasingly as a protein and vitamin supplement to aquafeeds. Spirulina appears to have considerable potential for development, especially as a small-scale crop for nutritional enhancement, livelihood development and environmental mitigation. FAO fisheries statistics (FishStat) hint at the growing importance of this product. Production in China was first recorded at 19 080 tonnes in 2003 and rose sharply to 41 570 tonnes in 2004, worth around US$7.6 millions and US$16.6 millions, respectively. However, there are no apparent figures for production in the rest of the world. This suggests that despite the widespread publicity about spirulina and its benefits, it has not yet received the serious consideration it deserves as a potentially key crop in coastal and alkaline areas where traditional agriculture struggles, especially under the increasing influence of salination and water shortages. There is therefore a role for both national governments – as well as intergovernmental organizations – to re-evaluate the potential of spirulina to fulfill both their own food security needs as well as a tool for their overseas development and emergency response efforts. International organization(s) working with spirulina should consider preparing a practical guide to small-scale spirulina production that could be used as a basis for extension and development methodologies. This small-scale production should be orientated towards: (i) providing nutritional supplements for widespread use in rural and urban communities where the staple diet is poor or inadequate; (ii) allowing diversification from traditional crops in cases where land or water resources are limited; (iii) an integrated solution for waste water treatment, small-scale aquaculture production and other livestock feed supplement; and (iv) as a short- and medium-term solution to emergency situations where a sustainable supply of high protein/high vitamin foodstuffs is required. A second need is a better monitoring of global spirulina production and product flows. The current FishStat entry which only includes China is obviously inadequate and the reason why other countries are not included investigated. Furthermore, it would be beneficial if production was disaggregated into different scales of development, e.g. intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. This would allow a better understanding of the different participants involved and assist efforts to combine experience and knowledge for both the further development of spirulina production technologies and their replication in the field. A third need is to develop clear guidelines on food safety aspects of spirulina so that human health risks can be managed during production and processing. Finally, it would be useful to have some form of web-based resource that allows the compilation of scientifically robust information and statistics for public access. There are already a number of spirulina-related websites (e.g. www.spirulina.com, www.spirulinasource.com) – whilst useful resources, they lack the independent scientific credibility that is required.
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The cassava cake was developed enriching it with a biomass of Spirulina platensis and a type of bran made out of its own starch. This biomass, a part from being rich in protein, also contains vitamins, essential fatty acids and minerals. Around Umuarama, in the State of Paraná, there is an agricultural/industrial complex annually producing and processing tons of cassava. Baked goods can be elaborated based in cassava as a way to expand the use of this raw material and to produce food free of gluten to celiac people. In this complex a solid byproduct is generated, which is rich in starch and fibres, and because of its low commercial value it is used for animal feed or discarded. The bran was dehydrated and analysed microbiologically as well as physically and chemically so as to be used in applied research. Developed energetic food based on cassava lacks protein, but this can be supplied by adding the biomass of Spirulina platensis. Different formulations of this cassava cake were developed varying the concentration of Spirulina platensis and cassava bran. The formulation that presented the best features received chocolate before being submitted to sensory tests by children in the public education system. The results show an excellent acceptance which made viable the development of this product because of aspects like nutrition, technology and sensorial.
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In this study, feasibility of using orange waste (OW), carrot pomace (CP), potato peels (PP) and green pea peels (GPP) by-products from food industry, as a starting raw material to produce dietary fiber powders and the feasibility of producing cakes intended for people suffering from obesity or over weight and diabetes. The physicochemical properties of dietary fiber powder were first evaluated. The results showed that the fiber contents, compositions and hydration properties (water and oil holding capacity and swelling capacity) of the fiber powder. Some food processing by-products {(OW), (CP), (PP) and (GPP)}, is a rich sources of fibres. The OW, CP, PP and GPP byproducts were replaced with wheat flour (72%) at 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels and studied for rheological characteristics. Water absorption increased significantly with increasing by-products from 0 to 20%. Dough stability and dough development were increased. Resistance to extension values significantly increased, whereas extensibility values decreased. The produced fiber substituted cakes achieved a reduction in calories. Cakes were prepared from blends of wheat flour (72%) with 5, 10, 15 and 20% fruits and vegetables by-products. The volume of cakes decreased with increase in fruits and vegetables by-products content from 0 to 20%. Cakes prepared from 20% of by-products OW, CP, PP and GPP had a higher ratio of dietary fibres. Sensory evaluation showed that all high fiber substituted cake samples were significantly lower than control cake sample in all sensory characteristics, except cake samples prepared with 5 and 10% of orange waste and carrot pomace had no significant differences (P>0.05) with control cake. However, there were significant differences between cake samples containing the same type of fiber source at 5, 10, 15 and 20% replacement levels. The highest and lowest scores in the same type of fiber source for all attributes were that achieved by cake samples with fiber source at 5 and 20% replacement levels, respectively. Texture properties of cake were affected by replacement levels of fiber source. The results indicated that OW, CP, PP and GPP by-products can serve as a good source of dietary fibres
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Malnutrition is persisting among children in Bangladesh due to lack of proper weaning foods. A highly nutritive instant weaning food was prepared in our laboratory by using locally available food resources with the aim to ensure the availability of low cost weaning food in Bangladesh. The developed food was evaluated for their nutritional characteristics and microbiological quality. The food contained the major nutrients like moisture, ash, fat, protein, fiber, carbohydrate and energy 2.43%, 2.26%, 11.32%, 15.98%, 1.06%, 75.35% and 456.6 kcal/ 100 g, respectively which were comparable to those of the three good quality imported commercial weaning foods F-1, F-2 and F-3. The vitamin A, iron and calcium contents were significantly different (p<0.05) than the commercial foods. The highest protein efficiency ratio and feed efficiency ratio were shown in the rats feed on the prepared weaning food than the imported commercial weaning foods. The overall bacteriological status of the prepared and the imported commercial weaning foods were observed to be satisfactory. The costs of the developed weaning food is considerably cheaper than the three imported commercial weaning foods of same quality and suitable for low income people of Bangladesh.
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Twenty one food formulas included control were prepared for as complementary food babies (1-3 year age). Control was formulated mainly from papaya puree, potato, carrot, sugar and skim milk powder. In addition to other fruit ingredients such as apple, apricot, strawberry, banana, mango and guava which were added in combinations for the different formulas. These formulas were bottled in jars and thermal proccesed. The formulas were microbiologically examined to assure the safety of these products. The microbiological results indicated that the formulas were safe. So, the formulas were sensory evaluated by adult panelists and babies (20 boys + 20 girls). Seven formulas which obtained high scores in both adult panelists and babies were selected. These formulas were the control sample and formulas No. 1, 6, 12, 13, 16 and 18. These formulas were selected to complete the study. They were evaluated for physicochemical and rheological characteristics. Also, the cost of formulas was roughly estimated. Physiochemical characteristics indicated that the formulas contained good amount of carbohydrates beside some carotenoids, anthocyanine, ascorbic acid and minerals. So, the formulas were suitable for babies aged from 1-3 years as complementary food. Rheological characteristics of baby food formulas were also studied at the temperatures ranged from 0-100 ºC. Bingham and Power law models were found to fit adequately over the entire temperature range. All baby food formulas exhibited yield stress, which decreased exponentially with the increase in temperature. All the formulas were found to behave as a pseudoplastic fluid. Arrhenius model gave a satisfactory description of the temperature dependence of apparent viscosity. The activation energy for apparent viscosity of all baby food formulas were found at range from 6.56 to 14.03 kJ/mol. From estimating the acceptability and costs it may be concluded that these products could be produced at home scale as well as on the commercial scale for babies gardens (kindergarten) and exportation.