ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23%) leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52%) are already well established, 262 (35%) are casual records, while 98 species (13%) remain "questionable" records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca), which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are current or potential threats to the marine ecosystems, namely the Worst Invasive Alien Species providing their record across major groups.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 63
Abstract
This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated an-
notated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six
broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and
presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each
group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief.
A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218
of which have been classied as excluded (23%) leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of
these 385 (52%) are already well established, 262 (35%) are casual records, while 98 species (13%)
remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in par-
ticular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail
among alien biota in the Mediterranean.
The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the
three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca),
which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zoo-
plankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufciently covered in this study
are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera,
Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufciently covered. A

the worst invasive species
1, M.E.
INAR21
3451, N. STREFTARIS1
3
1 Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR), Institute of Oceanography,
Anavissos 19013, Attica, Greece
2 Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Hydrobiology,
35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey
3 Centre d’Océanologie de Marseille, UMR 6540 DIMAR, Station Marine d’Endoume,
13007 Marseille, France
4 Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Botanica,
Via A. Longo 19, 95125 Catania, Italy
5 Istituto Centrale per la Ricerca Scientica e Tecnologica Applicata al Mare (ICRAM),
Via E. Amari 124 90139 Palermo, Italy
e-mail: zenetos@ath.hcmr.gr
Mediterranean Marine Science
Volume 6/2, 2005, 63-118
64 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
Introduction
The signicance of alien species in ma-
rine ecosystems worldwide has been high-
lighted in recent years. International or-
ganisations (UNEP/MAP/RAC/SPA, FAO/
DIAS, IUCN, ICES, IMO, CIESM) and the
scientic community have addressed the is-
sue through articles, review papers, databas-
es and directories. The most representative
and recent work regarding the distribution,
impact and management of invasive aquatic
species in Europe can be found in a series of
papers compiled in one edition by LEPPA-
KOSKI et al. (2002).
STREFTARIS et al. (2005) have summa-
rised and compiled a list of alien species in Eu-
ropean Seas including 615 species in the Medi-
terranean up to the end of 2003 plus 23 addi-
tional species from litterature accessible within
2004. This led them to consider the Mediterra-
nean as a major recipient of alien species.
Following POR (1978) who focused on
introductions via the Suez Canal, the so-
called Lessepsian migrators, ZIBROWIUS
(1992) attempted a compilation of data on
alien species in the Mediterranean. He point-
ed out that while taxa with well-known tax-
onomy and established historical distribution
records (e.g. benthic organisms, sh) have
received more attention than other groups,
many of the small, less-conspicuous, less-
studied species are necessarily overlooked,
leading to an underestimation of the extent
of aliens’ presence.
The chaos in nomenclature and fragmen-
tary and sporadic information, based widely
on selective scientic interest, prompted
CIESM to issue a series of atlases (GOLANI
et al., 2002; GALIL et al., 2002; ZENETOS
et al., 2004). The list of STREFTARIS et al.
(2005) intended to include as many seem-
ingly valid records as possible and compared
trends between the various European Seas.
However, even in this work the effort has
been focused on certain taxonomic groups,
mainly sh and benthos (major “popular”
groups treated extensively in the recent
CIESM atlas series) while many pelagic
groups have not even been mentioned. Other
recent efforts to compile updating lists in
marine algae, phytoplankton and zooplank-
ton are those by ATHANASIADIS (2002);
CORMACI et al. (2004) ; VERLAQUE et
al. (2005); GÓMEZ, 2005; UYSAL et al.,
(2002); BOUILLON et al. (2004). However,
in spite of these efforts, one should remain
aware, that as stated by STREFTARIS et al.
(2005), there are arguments against the ac-
curacy and validity of registration of various
groups (these authors specially mentioned
bryozoans, entoprocts, hydroids, sponges,
polychaetes, oligochaetes, amphipods, at-
worms, nematodes, nemerteans).
As an important step in the ongoing re-
view of implementation of the European
Community Biodiversity Policy, a broad con-
sultative process culminating in a conference
in Malahide, Ireland (25-27 May, 2004), re-
conrmed Invasive Alien Species (IAS) as
gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine
systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of
funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in
the Mediterranean.
Emphasis is put on those species that are current or potential threats to the marine ecosystems,
namely the Worst Invasive Alien Species providing their record across major groups.
Keywords: Alien taxa; Establishment success; Worst IAS; Mediterranean.
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 65
a priority issue. The Environment Council,
on 28 June, 2004 asked the Commission to
come forward with a communication taking
the “Message from Malahide” into account.
Under the Sixth Framework Programme,
there are currently ongoing Community-
funded research projects and collaborative
partnerships which address marine IAS is-
sues, ALARM (Assessing Large-scale envi-
ronmental Risks for biodiversity with tested
Methods) and DAISIE (Delivering Alien
Invasive Species Inventories for Europe) be-
ing two of those. The latter aims to create
an inventory of IAS that threaten European
environments structured in such a way as to
provide the basis for prevention and control
of biological invasions.
In January 2005, the European Envi-
ronment Agency commenced a project on
“Streamlining European 2010 Biodiversity
Indicators” (SEBI2010). One of the expert
groups (Group 5) in this project is addressing
the indicator on number and cost of IAS”.
The cumulative increase in the number of al-
ien species in Europe over time, with 1900 as
a baseline, is one of the rst indicators to be
demonstrated at European level (http://biodi-
versity-chm.eea.eu.int/information/indicator).
The aim of the current work (a collabo-
rative effort by many specialists across the
Mediterranean) is to present an updated an-
notated list of alien marine species in the
Mediterranean Sea including information on
excluded species. Emphasis is put on those
species that are current or potential threats
to the marine ecosystems, namely the Worst
Invasive Alien Species.

The list is updated based on species
records up to December 2005. Alien species
have been grouped into six broad categories
namely established, casual, questionable,
cryptogenic, excluded and invasive.
Alien: Species, subspecies or lower taxa
occurring outside their historically known
range (occupied naturally) and beyond their
natural dispersal potential (minor climate
ocscillations) as a result of direct or indirect
introduction or care by humans. Synonyms
are non-native, non-indigenous, foreign, and
exotic.
Established: Introduced or feral population
of species established in the wild with free-
living, self-maintaining and self-perpetuating
populations unsupported by and independent
of humans (EUROPEAN COMMISSION,
2004). As established here are also classied
species with at least two records spread over
time and space in the sense of CIESM atlas
series. Synonym: Naturalized.
Casual: Casual species are identied those
having been recorded only once (no more
than twice for shes) in the scientic litera-
ture: they are presumed to be non-established
in the basin. In this paper casual is used in
the same sense as alien in the CIESM atlas
series.
Questionable: Species with insufcient
information - ‘suspects’. Also native/ new
entries not veried by experts. Species with
taxonomic status unresolved.
 Species with no denite evi-
dence of their native or introduced status
according to CARLTON (1996) and species
whose probable introduction has occurred
“in early times” and not been witnessed e.g.,
prior to 1800. Often these species are exclud-
ed from lists of aliens or included among the
established ones. In this review we consid-
ered it best to separate them.
Excluded: We have tabulated those species
fullling some of CIESM’s criteria for ex-
clusion such as:
o Misidentication
o Native species, falsely identied as alien
or exotic: species formerly considered ex-
otic and later revealed to be indigenous.
o Spurius records. This category reects a
66 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
problem which is specic to molluscs.
The shells of molluscs are liable to be
transported by man for food or ornament
and left in places where they do not live.
Invasive: Introduced species that have over-
come biotic and abiotic barriers, and are able
to disseminate away from their area of initial
introduction through the production of fertile
offspring with noticeable impact. An earlier
presentation by RICHARDSON et al. (2000)
did not refer to impact. In many denitions
the term invasive is also associated with es-
tablished species which are agents of change
and threaten native biological diversity
(IUCN, 2002) or species that threaten the di-
versity or abundance of native species, the
ecological stability of infested ecosystems,
economic activities dependent on these eco-
systems and/or human health (EPA, 2001). In
this paper we are adapting the denition that
encompasses impacts as an essential dimen-
sion for the categorisation of an alien species
as invasive.
Commented synonyms. In compiling the list,
for taxonomic groups other than those treat-
ed by CIESM atlas series, we came across
various records which needed further inves-
tigation. Thus we addressed experts in the
elds of phytoplankton, zooplankton, phy-
tobenthos, various invertebrate groups such
as amphipods, polychaetes etc. In addition,
the ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information
System), and the ALGAEBASE (Informa-
tion on the algae of the world, including ter-
restrial, marine, and freshwater forms) web-
sites were visited. The species removed from
the list as synonyms are presented in the list
of excluded.
The species lists are presented in 9 units
which are ecofunctional/taxonomic groups.
These are: 1: Fish, 2: Zoobenthos/Mollusca,
3: Zoobenthos/Polychaeta, 4: Zoobenthos/
Crustacea, 5: Zoobenthos /Miscellanea, 6:
Parasites, 7: Phytoplankton, 8: Zooplankton
and 9: Phytobenthos. The reasoning for ques-
tioning or excluding some species per group
is presented in detail only for the Bryozoa.
A full list of the experts who contributed in
various ways is provided in the ackowledge-
ments.
Results
A total of 963 species have been reported as
aliens from the Mediterranean until Decem-
ber 2005, 218 of which are classied as ex-
cluded and 745 as valid species among which
98 as questionable (Fig. 1). The species re-
tained as aliens in this study belong mostly
to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca,
while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two
groups rich in species. In the lists that fol-
low, the establishment success within each
group is provided with no further comments
for the species established and those with
casual records. In contrast, the questionable
and excluded records are commented in brief
(citation of source and reason for exclusion,
questioning the validity). No details are pro-
vided for the excluded species of Mollusca,
Fish and Decapoda treated extensively in the
CIESM atlas series and the reader is referred
for further details on those to (GOLANI et
al., 2002; GALIL et al., 2002; ZENETOS et
al., 2004). It should be pointed out that many
of the questionable records are expected to
be claried in the near future and most prob-
ably moved to the casual records.
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 67
Fig. 1: Establishment success of recorded alien species including non-valid records.
*Acanthurus monroviae
Alepes djedaba
Apogon pharaonis
Atherinomorus lacunosus
Callionymus lamentosus
Carcharhinus altimus
Carcharhinus falciformis
Chelon carinata
Crenidens crenidens
Cynoglossus sinusarabici
Diplodus bellottii
Dussumieria elopsoides
*Enchelycore anatina
Epinephelus coioides
Epinephelus malabaricus
Etrumeus teres
Fistularia commersonii
Gymnammodytes
semisquamatus
Hemiramphus far
Herklotsichthys punctatus
Himantura uarnak
*Lagocephalus sceleratus
Lagocephalus spadiceus
Lagocephalus suezensis
Leiognathus klunzingeri
Liza haematocheila
Microchirus hexophthalmus
Oxyurichthys petersi
Pagellus bellottii
Parexocoetus mento
Pelates quadrilineatus
Pempheris vanicolensis
*Petroscirtes ancylodon
Pisodonophis semicinctus
Platycephalus indicus
Plotosus lineatus
Pomadasys stridens
Psenes pellucidus
Pteragogus pelycus
Rhabdosargus haffara
Sargocentron rubrum
Saurida undosquamis
Scarus ghobban
Scomberomorus commerson
Seriola carpenteri
Seriola fasciata
Siganus luridus
Siganus rivulatus
Silhouetta aegyptia
Sillago sihama
Solea senegalensis
*Spratelloides delicatulus
Sphoeroides pachygaster
Sphyraena chrysotaenia
*Sphyraena avicauda
Stephanolepis diaspros
Synaptura lusitanica
Syngnathus rostellatus
Terapon puta
Tetrosomus gibbosus
Trachyscorpia cristulata
echinata
Upeneus moluccensis
Upeneus pori

1. Fish
Fish established
Note: * denotes species reported as casual in CIESM 2005 on line
68 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
Fish casual
Note: underlined species are new species post CIESM 2005 on line
Abudefduf vaigiensis
Anarhichas lupus
Arius parkii
Beryx splendens
Centrolabrus exoletus
Chaunax suttkusi
Cheilopogon furcatus
Chilomycterus spilostylus
Coryogalops ochetica
Diodon hystrix
Fistularia petimba
Galeocerdo cuvier
Gephyroberyx darwini
Halosaurus ovenii
Heniochus intermedius
Hippocampus fuscus
Hyporhamphus afnis
Iniistius pavo
Lutjanus argentimaculatus
Makaira indica
Microchirus boscanion
Muraenesox cinereus
Omobranchus punctatus
Papilloculiceps longiceps
Pinguipes brasilianus
Priacanthus hamrur
Pseudupeneus prayensis
Pterois miles
Rachycentron canadum
Rastrelliger kanagurta
Rhizoprionodon acutus
Rhynchoconger trewavasae
Scorpaena stephanica
Seriola rivoliana
Sorsogona prionota
Sphoeroides marmoratus
Sphyrna mokarran
Synagrops japonicus
Torquigener avimaculosus
Tylerius spinosissimus
Tylosurus choram
Tylosurus crocodilus
Species Cited by 
Alopias superciliosus SAAD et al., 2005 Insufcient data, origin uncertain
Torpedo
sinuspersici SAAD et al., 2004 Insufcient data
Dasyatis sp. cf.
tortonesei SAAD et al., 2005 Complex taxonomy
Gaidropsarus granti
ZACHARIOU-
MAMALINGA,
1999
Insuffcient data, origin uncertain
Pampus argenteus ŠOLJAN, 1975 See details
Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen, 1788). A specimen of silver pomfret captured in Rijeka
(northern Adriatic) in 1896, was initially identied as Stromateus atola. The specimen,
which is preserved in the collection of the Zoological Museum of Zagreb, was tentatively
identied as Pampus argenteus by ŠOLJAN (1975), but he doubted its identication. The
validity of the record was re-examined by DULČIĆ et al. (2004) who claim that the record
of 1896 represents the rst lessepsian migrant in the Mediterranean.
Fish excluded: for reasoning see GOLANI et al. (2002)
Ammodytes tobianus
Aphanius dispar
Apogon taeniatus
Arius thalassinus
Borostomia antarcticus
Bothus pantherinus
Caranx gallus
Caranx kiliche
Carcharhinus brevipinna
Carcharhinus melanopterus
Cataetyx laticeps
Clupea kowal
Coryphaenoides guentheri
Demichthys unicolor
Dussumieria acuta
Fish Questionable
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 69
Epinephelus
coromandelicus
Epinephelus morrhua
Epinephelus tauvina
Gobius couchi
Gobius roulei
Hemiramphus gamberur
Hemiramphus marginatus
Hemiramphus unifasciatus
Hyporhamphus dussumieri
Hyporhamphus
xanthopterus
Istiophorus gladius
Laemonema latifrons
Lepidion guentheri
Lipophrys pholis
Melanostigma atlanticum
Oxyurichthys papuensis
Parablennius pilicornis
Parexocoetus brachypterus
Pempheris molucca
Pempheris oualensis
Pristis pectinata
Remora australis
Rhinobatos halavi
Sardinella sirm
Sargus noct
Scarichthys
coerulopunctatus
Sebastapistes nuchalis
Serranus melanurus
Serranus morrhua
Sphoeroides spengleri
Sphyraena viridensis
Squalus megalops
Therapon jarbua
Trichiurus haumela
Upeneus asymmetricus
Upeneus barberinus
Upeneus tragula
Upeneus vittatus
Sphoeroides spengleri, originally reported by REINA-HERVÁS et al. (2004), has been add-
ed to the excluded list since it is regarded a misclassication of Sphoeroides marmoratus
(M. Vacchi pers. commun.)
2. Zoobenthos/Mollusca
Mollusca established
Notes: underlined are new species post CIESM 2005 on line
Bold indicates cryptogenic species
Acteocina mucronata
Adelactaeon amoenus
Adelactaeon fulvus
Afrocardium richardi
Alvania dorbignyi
Amathina tricarinata
Anadara demiri
Anadara inaequivalvis
Anadara natalensis
Aplysia dactylomela
Brachidontes pharaonis
Bulla ampulla
Bursatella leachi
Cellana rota
Cerithiopsis pulvis
Cerithiopsis tenthrenois
Cerithium scabridum
Chama pacica
Chelidonura fulvipunctata
Chrysallida scheri
Chrysallida maiae
Chrysallida pirintella
Cingulina isseli
Clathrofenella ferruginea
Clementia papyracea
Crassostrea gigas
Crepidula aculeata
Crepidula fornicata
Cycloscala hyalina
Cylichnina girardi
Dendrostrea frons
Diala varνa
Diodora funiculata
Diodora ruppellii
Discodoris lilacina
Divalinga arabica
Elysia grandifolia
Ergalatax contracta
Ergalatax obscura
Erosaria turdus
Favorinus ghanensis
Finella pupoides
Flabellina rubrolineata
Fulvia australis
Fulvia fragilis
Fusinus verrucosus
Gafrarium pectinatum
Gastrochaena cymbium
Gibborissoa virgata
Haminoea callidegenita
Haminoea cyanomarginata
Hiatula ruppelliana
Hypselodoris infucata
Laternula anatina
Littorina saxatilis
Mactra lilacea
Mactra olorina
Malvufundus regulus
Melibe mbriata
Mercenaria mercenaria
Metaxia bacillum
Murex forskoehlii
Musculista perfragilis
Musculista senhousia
Mya arenaria
Natica gualteriana
70 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
Octopus aegina
Paphia textile
Perna picta
Pinctada margaritifera
Pinctada radiata
Plocamopherus ocellatus
Polycerella emertoni
Pseudochama corbieri
Pseudominolia nedyma
Purpuradusta gracilis
notata
Pyrunculus fourierii
Rapana venosa
Rhinoclavis kochi
Rissoina bertholleti
Ruditapes philippinarum
Saccostrea commercialis
Saccostrea cucullata
Sepia pharaonis
Sepioeuthis lessoniana
Siphonaria crenata
Smaragdia souverbiana
Spondylus spinosus
Strombus persicus
Styloptygma beatrix
Syphonota geographica
Syrnola fasciata
Tellina valtonis
Teredo navalis
Thais lacera
Thais sacellum
Theora lubrica
Timoclea maurica
Trochus erythraeus
Turbonilla edgarii
Xenostrobus securis
Zafra savignyi
Zafra selasphora
Mollusca casual
Note: underlined species are new species post CIESM 2005 on line
Acar plicata
Aeolidiella indica
Anadara inata
Angiola punctostriata
Antigona lamellaris
Atactodea glabrata
Caloria indica
Cantharus tranquebaricus
Cardites akabana
Cerithium egenum
Cerithium nesioticum
Chama aspera
Chiton hululensis
Chlamys lischkei
Chromodoris annulata
Chromodoris quadricolor
Circenita callipyga
Clypeomorus bifasciatus
Conus fumigatus
Cuthona perca
Dendrodoris fumata
Diplodonta cf. subrotunda
Dosinia erythraea
Electroma vexillum
Elysia tomentosa
Engina mendicaria
Glycymeris arabicus
Haliotis pustulata cruenta
Hinemoa cylindrica
Iolaea neofelixoides
Leucotina cfr. eva
Lienardia mighelsi
Limopsis multistriata
Modiolus auriculatus
Murchisonella columna
Nassarius arcularius
plicatus=N. obvelatus?
Nerita sanguinolenta
Octopus cyanea
Odostomia lorioli
Oscilla jocosa
Oxynoe viridis
Palmadusta lentiginosa
lentiginosa
Petricola hemprichi
Petricola pholadiformis
Planaxis griseus
Pleurobranchus forskalii
Polycera hedgpethi
Psammotreta praerupta
Retusa desgenettii
Rissoina spirata
Semipallium coruscans
coruscans
Septifer forskali
Siphonaria belcheri
Sphenia rueppelli
Spondylus nicobarius
Sticteulima cf. lentiginosa
Stomatella impertusa
Syrnola cinctella
Trapezium oblongum
Tremoctopus gracilis
Vexillum depexum
Voorwindia tiberiana
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 71

Note: * denotes species collected alive from biofouling on the pillars of a gas platform, which
had been towed from Australia to its current position off the coast of Ashqelon (Israel) (MI-
ENIS, 2004).
Species Cited by 
Acteocina crithodes MIENIS, 2004 Insufcient data
Alectryonella crenulifera SHARON et al.,
2005
One specimen epibiont on a spiny
oyster
Angulus acca MIENIS, 2004 Insufcient data
Aplysia parvula TERLIZZI et al.,
2003
Identication uncertain
See remark under table
Atys cylindricus MIENIS, 2004 Insufcient data
*Barbatia trapezina MIENIS, 2004 Offshore gas platform March 2003
Callista orida MIENIS, 2005 Old record (1927-32), shells in
museum collection
Cerithium columna MIENIS, 2003a Insufcient data
1 single shell from Caesarea 1966
Cerithium erythraeoense
/Cerithium nodulosum HAAS, 1937 Its record merits further investigation
(MIENIS, 2001b)
*Chama asperella MIENIS, 2004 Offshore gas platform March 2003
*Chama brassica
elatensis MIENIS, 2004 Offshore gas platform March 2003
Ethminolia hemprichi MIENIS, 2004 Insufcient data
*Hyotissa hyotis MIENIS, 2004 Offshore gas platform March 2003
*Isognomon ephippium MIENIS, 2004 Offshore gas platform March 2003
*Leiosolenus hanleyanus MIENIS, 2004 Offshore gas platform March 2003
*Malvufundus decurtatus MIENIS, 2004 Offshore gas platform March 2003
Nanostrea exigua LUBINEVSKY &
MIENIS, 2005 Record based on one specimen only
*Parahyotissa imbricata MIENIS, 2004 Offshore gas platform March 2003
Patelloida saccharina MIENIS, 2004 Insufcient data
Pedicirce sulcata MIENIS, 2004 Insufcient data
*Planostrea pestigris MIENIS, 2004 Offshore gas platform March 2003
*Plicatula chinensis MIENIS, 2004 Offshore gas platform March 2003
Pteria occa BEN-ELIAHU &
HOVE TEN, 1992 Insufcient data
Rapana rapiformis BARASH &
DANIN, 1977 Insufcient data
Rhinoclavis sinensis MIENIS, 2004 Insufcient data
Rissoina ambigua MIENIS, 2004 Insufcient data. Turkey
72 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
Sabia conica BARASH &
DANIN, 1986 Insufcient data (MIENIS, 2004)
*Septifer bilocularis MIENIS, 2004 Offshore gas platform March 2003
Spondylus groschi LAMPRELL, 1998 Complex taxonomy
Spondylus cf.
multisetosus
Ç
EVIKER, 2001 Complex taxonomy
Strombus mutabilis MIENIS, 2001a Common species in souvenir trade
Aplysia parvula Guilding in Mörch, 1863 was originally described from St. Thomas, Lesser
Antilles, in the Caribbean. It has been recorded worldwide between about 40° N and 40° S.
The species recorded as Aplysia parvula in the Indo-Pacic area is clearly different from the
Mediterranean specimens attributed to this species. So, two or more species may be involved
worldwide under this name. The Mediterranean specimens may be young specimens of Ap-
lysia punctata (J. Templado, pers. commun.)
Mollusca excluded (including very old records): For reasoning see ZENETOS et al. (2004)
Aglaja taila
Anadara notabilis
Aplysia juliana
Arctinula groenlandica
Aspella anceps
Atys blainvilliana
Berthellina citrina
Bittium proteum
Bursa marginata
Callostracum gracile
Cerithium caeruleum
Cerithium echinatum
Chromodoris clenchi
Clelandella infucata
Conus arenatus
Coralliobia madreporarum
Crassostrea virginica
Cybium rubiginosum
Cylichna cf. mongii
Cyprea pantherina
Dolabrifera holboelli
Erronea caurica
Galeomma polita
Gibbula cineraria
Hippopus hippopus
Hochstetteria munieri
Laevicardiumm avum
Latirus polygonus
Linga aurantia
Littorina abtusata
Littorina littorea
Lophiotoma indica
Mactrinula tryphera
Mazatlantica cosentini
Melanochlamys seurati
Mesalia opalina
Monetaria annulus
Monetaria moneta
Natica marochiensis
Notarchus indicus
Parvicardium hauniense
Penicillus vaginiferus
Petalifera gravieri
Placopecten magellanicus
Polynices lacteus
Potamides conicus
Pusionella nifat
Rissoina chesneli
Rissoina decussata
Saxidomus purpuratus
Scaliola elata
Sclerodoris cf. tuberculata
Spondylus limbatus
Spondylus spectrum
Staphylaea nucleus
Strigatella virgata
Strombus lentiginosus
Umbonium vestiarium
Vasum turbinellus
 post ZENETOS et al. (2004)
Species Cited by 
Octopus macropus BELLO et al., 2004 Known in the Mediterranean
Lefkaditou, pers. commun.
Trochus niloticus MIENIS, 2003b Only shells, old records
Tricornis tricornis MIENIS, 2004 Fragment of a shell only
Vexillum cadaverosum MIENIS, 2004 Incorrect locality data
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 73
3. Zoobenthos/Polychaeta

Note: bold indicates cryptogenic species
Branchiomma boholense
Branchiomma luctuosum
Ceratonereis mirabilis
Desdemona ornata
Eunice tubifex
Eusyllis kupfferi
Ficopomatus enigmaticus
Glycinde bonhourei
Hydroides cf.
branchyacanthus
Hydroides dianthus
Hydroides diramphus
Hydroides elegans
Hydroides heterocerus
Hydroides homoceros
Hydroides minax
Hydroides operculatus
Leonnates decipiens
Leonnates indicus
Leonnates persicus
Linopherus acarunculata
Metasychis gotoi
Nereis zonata persica
Notomastus aberans
Notomastus mossambicus
Pileolaria berkeleyana
Pista unibranchia
Polydora cornuta
Pomatoleios kraussii
Prionospio saccifera
Pseudonereis anomala
Spirobranchus tetraceros
Spirorbis marioni
Streblospio gynobranchiata

Amphicorina pectinata
Fabriciola ghardaqa
Hydroides albiceps
Hydroides steinitzi
Laonome elegans
Leiochrides australis
Lepidonotus tenuisetosus
Longibranchium atlanticum
Lumbrinereis neogesae
Lumbrineris inata
Neanthes willeyi
Nereis gilchristi
Oenone cf. fulgida
Ophyotrocha japonica
Paradyte cf. crinoidicola
Perinereis nuntia
Prionospio pulchra
Prionospio pygmaea
Sphaerosyllis longipapillata
Streblosoma hesslei

Species Cited by 
Cirriformia semicincta LAUBIER, 1966; BITAR
& KOULI-BITAR, 2001
Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Cossura coasta BOGDANOS & FREDJ,
1983
Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Epidiopatra hupferiana CANTONE & FASSARI,
1982
Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Eunice indica BEN-ELIAHU, 1976 Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Eurythoe complanata FAUVEL 1937; ERGEN
&
Ç
INAR, 1997
Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Isolda pulchella CANTONE, 2001 Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Lysidice collaris BEN ELIAHU, 1972a Probably confused with the
native species L. margaritacea
74 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
Lysidice natalensis BITAR & KOULI-BITAR,
2001
Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Naineris quadraticeps HARMELIN, 1969a Identication is not certain
Notopygos crinita
A. Castelli, pers. commun.
OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI,
2004
Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Mediomastus capensis
GRAVINA &
SOMASCHINI, 1990;
OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI,
2002a
Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Platynereis cf. australis
A. Castelli, pers. commun.
OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI,
2004
Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Protodorvillea egena
A. Castelli, pers. commun.
OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI,
2004
Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Streptosyllis arenae CASTELLI &
LARDICCI, 1986 Identication is not certain
Terebella ehrenbergi BEN ELIAHU 1972b;
Ç
INAR, 2005
Insufcient data, identication is
not certain
Timarete anchylochaeta LAUBIER, 1966; BITAR
& KOULI-BITAR, 2001
Insufcient data, identication is
not certain

Species Cited by 
Amphicorina eimeri GAMBI et al., 1983 Atlanto-Mediterranean
Bhawania goodei BITAR & KOULI-
BITAR, 2001
Circumtropical
Branchiosyllis exilis MONRO, 1937;
BEN ELIAHU 1972b
Widespread even in the eastern
Atlantic
Chrysopetalum debile LAUBIER, 1966 Native: type locality Villefranche
Dispio uncinata ICES, 2001 widespread in the Atlantic
Fabricia lamentosa GIANGRANDE &
CASTELLI, 1986;
SIMBOURA, 1990
Misidentication of Pseudofabriciola
analis and P. longipyga
Hydroides
novaepommeraniae
ZIBROWIUS &
BITAR, 1981 as H.
grubei
Undeterminable juvenile (HOVE TEN
& BEN ELIAHU, 2005)
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 75
Monticellina
dorsobranchialis
HARMELIN, 1969a;
BEN ELIAHU 1972b
Type locality Atlantic, widespread in
the Mediterranean and Atlantic
Neopseudocapitella
brasiliensis
GRAVINA &
SOMASCHINI, 1990
A circumtropical species
Opisthosyllis brunnea MONRO, 1937 Widespread even in the eastern
Atlantic
Paleonotus chrysolepis BITAR & KOULI-
BITAR, 2001
Cosmopolitan
Prionospio salzi LAUBIER, 1970 Endemic in the Mediterranean
Questa caudicirra SOMASCHINI &
GRAVINA 1993
Questa mediterranea sp. n.
GIERE & ERSEUS, 1998
Rhodine loveni FAUVEL, 1957;
BEN ELIAHU 1972a
Type locality north Atlantic,
widespread in Mediterranean and
Atlantic
Scoloplos (Leodomas)
chevalieri candiensis
HARMELIN, 1969a Type locality Crete, endemic species
for the eastern Mediterranean
Spirobranchus
giganteus
LAUBIER, 1966 Misidentication, the reports belong to
S. tetraceros
4. Zoobenthos/Crustacea
Crustacea established

Alpheus audouini
Alpheus inopinatus
Alpheus migrans
Alpheus rapacida
Atergatis roseus
Calappa pelii
Callinectes sapidus
Carupa tenuipes
Charybdis helleri
Charybdis longicollis
Dorippe quadridens
Dyspanopeus sayi
Erugosquilla massavensis
Eucrate crenata
Herbstia nitida
Ixa monodi
Leptochela pugnax
Leucosia signata
Libinia dubia
Marsupenaeus japonicus
Melicertus hathor
Metapenaeopsis aegyptia
Metapenaeopsis mogiensis
consobrina
Metapenaeus monoceros
Metapenaeus stebbingi
Micippa thalia
Myra subgranulata
Ogyrides mjoebergi
Palaemonella rotumana
Penaeus semisulcatus
Percnon gibbesi
Pilumnopeus vauquelini
Portunus pelagicus
Rhithropanopeus harrisii
Trachysalambria
palaestinensis
76 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
Crustacea (other than Decapoda)
Note: species in bold are ancient records, possibly cryptogenic
Amphipoda Caprella scaura, Elasmopus pectenicrus, Maera hamigera, Stenothoe
gallensis, Cymadusa losa
Cirripedia Balanus improvisus, Balanus eburneus, Balanus reticulatus, Balanus
trigonus, Elminius modestus, Megabalanus tintinnabulum
Cumacea Eocuma sarsii
Isopoda Paracerceis sculpta, Sphaeroma walkeri
Crustacea casual
Notes: * denotes species described as established in CIESM 2005 on line
underlined are new species post CIESM 2005 on line
Decapoda Actumnus globulus, Ashtoret lunaris, Calappa hepatica, Callinectes
danae, Cryptosoma cristatum, Daira perlata, Dromia spinirostris,
Eriocheir sinensis, Halimede tyche, Hemigrapsus sanguineus,
*Heteropanope laevis, *Hyastenus hilgendor, Leptochela
aculeocaudata, Lucifer hanseni, Macrophthalmus graeffei, Menaethius
monoceros, Merhippolyte ancistrota, Notopus dorsipes, Panulirus
ornatus, Periclimenes calmani, Pilumnus hirsutus, Plagusia squamosa,
Processa macrodactyla, Scyllarus caparti, Scyllarus posteli, Solenocera
crassicornis, Sphaerozius nitidus, Thalamita gloriensis
Amphipoda Bemlos leptocheirus, Gammaropsis togoensis, Photis lamelligera
Isopoda Apanthura sandalensis, Paradella dianae
Tanaidacea Leptochelia dubia

Note: * denotes species described as established in CIESM 2005 on line
Species Cited by 
Decapoda *Thalamita
poissonii
HOLTHUIS,
1956
Cosmopolitan: known from
E. Atlantic as T. africana (D’
UDEKEM D’ACOZ, 1999)
Cumacea Iphinoe crassipes
haifae
BACESCU,
1961a
Widely distributed
Crustacea excluded: for reasoning see GALIL et al. (2002)
Automate branchialis
Chaceon maritae
Charybdis sexdentata
Gonodactylaceaus falcatus
Gonodactylus chiragra
Hymenopenaeus debilis
Panulirus regius
Peneopsis serrata
Persephona mediterranea
Pethrolisthes boscii
Petrolisthes digitalis
Philyra globosa
Plagusia chabrus
Platymaia wyvillethomsoni
Portunus sanguinolentus
Synalpheus tumidomanus
Thalamita admete
Thenus orientalis
Uca coarctata
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 77
Additional excluded Crustacea post GALIL et al. (2002)
Species Cited by 
Lucifer typus
(Decapoda)
HENDRICKX
& ESTRADA-
NAVARRETE, 1994
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Urocaridella
antobrunii
(Decapoda)
YOKES & GALIL,
2004
Misidentication of Urocaridella n. sp.
(YOKES & GALIL, in press)
Echinogammarus
pungentoides
(Amphipoda)
COGNETTI, 1994 Native: type locality Po estuary
Unciolella lunata
(Amphipoda)
BELLAN–SANTINI
et al., 1998
Native: Described from Algeria
Kalliapseudes
omercooperi
(Tanaidacea)
BACESCU, 1961b Wide distribution: Atlantic, Indo-Pacic
Apseudes
intermedius
(Tanaidacea)
LARWOOD, 1940 Wide distribution: Atlantic, Indo-Pacic
5. Zoobenthos/Miscellanea
Miscellanea established
Group Species
Echinodermata Asterina burtoni, Ophiactis savignyi, Ophiactis
parva, Synaptula reciprocans
Foraminifera Amphisorus hemprichii, Astacolus insolithus,
Astacolus sublegumen, Heterostegina depressa,
Planogypsina acervalis, Planogypsina
squamiformis, Amphistegina lobifera
Cnidaria/Actinaria Haliplanella lineata
Cnidaria/Anthozoa Oculina patagonica, Acabaria erythraea
Cnidaria/Hydrozoa Bugainvillia niobe, Macrorhynchia philippina,
Garveia franciscana, Gonionemus vertens, Clytia
hummelinckii
Cnidaria/Scyphozoa Cassiopea andromeda
Tunicata/Ascidiacea Herdmania momus, Botryllus schlosseri,
Microcosmus squamifer, Phallusia nigra,
Polyandrocarpa zorritensis, Rhodosoma turcinum,
Symplegma brakenhielmi
Arthropoda/Pycnogonida Ammothea hilgendor, Anoplodactylus digitatus,
Anoplodactylus californicus
78 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
Miscellanea casual
Group Species
Echinodermata Amphioplus laevis
Sipuncula Apionsoma trichocephalus, Phascolosoma scolops
Cnidaria/Anthozoa Diadumene cincta
Cnidaria/Hydrozoa Diphasia margarita, Euphysora bigelowi
Ascidiacea Ascidia cannelata, Ascidia cf. savignyi, Eusynstyela hartmeyeri,
Microcosmus exasperatus, Symplegma viride

Group Species Cited by 
Enteropneusta Saccoglossus querneyi STEUER, 1939 Old record, insufcient
data
Sipuncula Aspidosiphon mexicanus MURINA &
ZAVODNIC,
1986
Wide distribution,
Atlantic, Indian Ocean
Aspidosiphon elegans WESENBERG-
LUND, 1957
Wide distribution, its
mode of introduction is
disputed by POR, 1978
Porifera Haliclona viridis BURTON, 1936 Unveried record,
J. Vacelet pers. commun.
Cinachyrella
australiensis
BURTON, 1936 Unveried record,
J. Vacelet pers. commun.
Lissodendoryx schmidti TSURNAMAL,
1969
Unveried record,
J. Vacelet pers. commun.
Geodia micropunctata TSURNAMAL,
1969
Unveried record,
J. Vacelet pers. commun.
Hyrtios erecta TSURNAMAL,
1969
Unveried record,
J. Vacelet pers. commun.
Mycale erythraeana BURTON, 1936 Unveried record,
J. Vacelet pers. commun.
Reniera spinosella BURTON, 1936 Unveried record,
J. Vacelet pers. commun.
Arthropoda/
Pycnogonida
Pigrogromitus timsanus ARNAUD,
1987
Old record, insufcient
data circum-tropical and
Mediterranean
R. Bamber pers. commun.
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 79
Miscellanea excluded
Group Species Cited by 
Porifera Haliclona loosanoffi SOEST, 1976 Absent from the
Mediterranean
Cnidaria/
Hydrozoa
Bugainvillia
platygaster
GOY et al.,
1988
According to BOUILLON et
al., 2004 all previous records
from E. Mediterranean are B.
niobe
Cnidaria/
Hydrozoa
Pennaria disticha
australis
BILLARD,
1926
BOUILLON et al., 2004
Ascidiacea Ecteinascidia turbinata HARANT, 1927 Old records circumtropical,
A. Ramos, pers.commun.
Botrylloides nigrum PÉRÈS, 1954 Old records circumtropical
A. Ramos, pers.commun.
Brachiopoda Frenulina
sanguinolenta
TADDEI
RUGGIERO,
2000
Confused origin: see
LOGAN et al., 2004
Other Miscellanea
The following list is partial as it only in-
cludes published records. A survey of bryo-
zoans in progress from Lebanon (J.G. Harme-
lin, in prep.) will show evidence of several
new Lessepsian immigrants well established
in the Levantine basin. Furthermore, it is most
likely that a thorough study of the bryozoan
assemblages from Mediterranean harbours
and sites of oyster culture will bring evidence
of introduced species. Among the species re-
corded by HASTINGS (1927) in the collec-
tion by the Cambridge Expedition in the Suez
Canal (1924), only those collected at Port
Said are considered here. Questionable and
excluded records are discussed below.
Species  
success
Cited by
Rhynchozoon lareyi RS, IO established ÜNSAL & D’HONDT, 1979
Scrupocellaria
jolloisii
RS, IO established HASTINGS, 1927
Smittina malleolus RS, IO established D’HONDT, 1988
Tricellaria inopinata IP established D’HONDT & OCCHIPINTI,
1985
Aeverrillia setigera PO, Atlantic casual HASTINGS, 1927
Celleporaria aperta circumtropical casual HASTINGS, 1927
Celleporella
carolinensis
W Atlantic casual/
established
OCCHIPINTI AMBOGI &
D’HONDT, 1996
Electra tenella W Atlantic casual ROSSO, 1994
80 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
Hippopodina
fegeensis
PO casual POWELL, 1969
Reteporella
jermanensis
RS casual D’HONDT, 1988
Pherusella brevituba PO casual CHIMENZ GUSSO &
D’HONDT, 2005
Crepidacantha
poissonii
circumtropical questionable OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI,
1986
Hippaliosina
acutirostris
IP questionable POWELL, 1969
Parasmittina
egyptiaca
RS, IP questionable HASTINGS, 1927
Arachnoidea protecta IP excluded CHIMENZ GUSSO et al.,
1998
Thalamoporella
gothica (Busk)
indica
IP excluded POWELL, 1969;
BITAR & KOULI-BITAR,
2001
Watersipora
subtorquata
?? excluded D’HONDT, 1988
*Origin: IO=Indian Ocean, IP=Indo-Pacic, RS=Red Sea, PO=Pacic Ocean
Aeverrillia setigera (Hincks, 1887)
This ctenostomate bryozoan widely distrib-
uted in warm waters, including Australia,
Indonesia and Brazil, has never been noticed
again in the Mediterranean since its nding
by HASTINGS (1927).
Celleporaria aperta (Hincks, 1882)
This species was fouling barges in the Suez Ca-
nal in 1924 (HASTINGS, 1927). It was collect-
ed in 1968 at Ashod Port and Acre by POWELL
(1969), who previously found it in the southern
Red Sea (POWELL, 1967). The alleged circum-
tropical (from Cape Verde to Philippines), eury-
bathic distribution of this species may indicate
the existence of a species group.
Crepidacantha poissonii (Audouin, 1826)
This ‘circumtropical’ species has not been re-
corded again in the Mediterranean since the
nding of OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI (1986)
on rhizomes of Posidonia oceanica from the
Apulian coast of Italy. Although presumably
considered as a lessepsian species by OC-
CHIPINTI AMBROGI (1986) considering
its occurrence in the Gulf of Suez (BALA-
VOINE, 1959), this species has also been
listed from Madeira and Canaries. The spe-
cic status of the Atlanto-Mediterranean ma-
terial should thus be re-examined.
Hippaliosina acutirostris Canu & Bassler,
1929
The record of this Indo-Pacic species in the
Levantine basin (POWELl, 1969) is ques-
tionable. Particularly diagnostic features of
the avicularium are not visible on the illustra-
tion by POWELL (1969), who curiously did
not compare his specimens with H. depressa
(Busk, 1854), a Mediterranean endemic
particularly abundant in the eastern basin
(HARMELIN, 1969b; HAYWARD, 1974).
Hippaliosina acutirostris is known from the
Philippines and various Indo-Pacic locali-
ties (HARMER, 1957).
Parasmittina egyptiaca (Waters, 1909)
Species recorded from the Red Sea and the
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 81
Indian Ocean, and only once from the Medi-
terranean (HASTINGS, 1927). However, the
identication of Parasmittina species is dif-
cult and the bryozoan fauna of the Eastern
Mediterranean is poorly documented.
Arachnoidea protecta Harmer, 1915
Arachnoidea protecta was only known from
the Celebes archipelago (Indonesia). As no-
ticed by CHIMENZ GUSSO et al. (1998),
the present knowledge of the geographic
distribution of A. protecta is probably very
partial because of the difculty to notice and
identify this inconspicuous ctenostomate
bryozoan. However, the morphological di-
vergence observed between the Celebes and
Mediterranean forms may justify the exist-
ence of a new species.
Thalamoporella gothica (Busk) indica
(Hincks, 1880)
Thalamoporella harmelini Soule, Soule
& Chaney, 1999
The intricate status of the form described by
Hincks was claried by SOULE et al. (1999),
who gave it a species rank, T. indica (Hincks,
1880). This species is presently known only
from the Indian Ocean. In the same paper
they described a new species, T. harmelini,
from a specimen collected at Beirut, Leba-
non. The differences between T. harmelini
and the Mediterranean specimens from Israel
gured by POWELL (1969) and D’HONDT
(1988) appear to be light and may fall within
the range of variation of this species. Pres-
ently known only from the Levantine basin,
Thalamoporella harmelini cannot be consid-
ered as an alien species.
Watersipora subtorquata (d’Orbigny, 1852)
D’HONDT (1988) recorded both W. sub-
torquata and W. cucullata (Busk, 1854) from
the same Israeli locality (Acre old harbour, 1-
2m) but did not comment the differences ob-
served between these specimens. Considering
that W. cucullata has been described from the
Aegean Sea and that the assessment of mor-
phological differences between Watersipora
species requires precise comparative studies
(SOULE & SOULE, 1975), it seems prefer-
able not to include W. subtorquata among the
alien bryozoans in the Mediterranean.
6. Parasites
Group 
success
Species
Monogenea casual Neothoracocotyle acanthocybii: accidental
parasite on sh
Digenea questionable Hysterolecitha sigani: accidental parasite on
wild Siganidae (DIAMANT, 1989). Never
observed again
Trematoda casual Hirudinella ventricosa: accidental parasite
on sh
Protozoa casual Bonamia ostrea: accidentally with
aquaculture
Crustacea/Copepoda established Mytilicola orientalis, Myicola ostreae: on
oyster beds
Crustacea/Cirripedia established Heterosaccus dollfusi: mostly on Charybdis
longicollis (GALIL & LÜTZEN, 1998)
Crustacea/Cirripedia casual Loxothylacus texanus: on Callinectes sapidus
82 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
7. Zooplankton

Group Species
Copepoda Acartia (Acanthacartia) tonsa, Acartia centrura, Arietellus
pavoninus, Calanopia elliptica, Calanopia media, Centropages
furcatus, Labidocera madurae, Labidocera pavo, Paracartia
grani, Pontellina plumata, Pseudocalanus elongatus, Pteriacartia
josephinae
Ctenophora Mnemiopsis leidyi
Cnidaria/Scyphozoa Rhopilema nomadica
Siphonophora Forskalia formosa
Cnidaria/Hydrozoa Eucheilota paradoxica, Moerisia carine, Tetrorchis erythrogaster

Group Species
Copepoda Acartia (Acanthacartia) fossae, Calanopia biloba, Calanopia
minor, Corycaeus speciosus, Eucalanus crassus, Eucalanus
subcrassus, Euchaeta concinna, Labidocera agilis, Labidocera
detruncata, Labidocera orsinii, Oncaea rufa, Paracalanus
crassirostris, Parvocalanus elegans, Parvocalanus latus,
Scaphocalanus amplius, Scaphocalanus brevirostris, Scolecithrix
valens, Spinocalanus terranovae
Cnidaria/Hydrozoa Aequorea conica, Kantiella enigmatica, Laodicea jiana, Nubiella
mitra, Paracytaeis octona, Russellia mirabilis
Cnidaria/Scyphozoa Phyllorhiza punctata
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 83

Group Species Cited by 
Copepoda
Canuellina insignis POR, 1972 Old record. Only in Bardawil
lagoon
Enhydrosoma hopkinsi POR, 1972 Old record. Only in Bardawil
lagoon
Robertsonia salsa POR, 1972 Old record. Only in Bardawil
lagoon
Scottolana longipes POR, 1964 Possible pre-lessepsian element
(POR, 1978)
Stenhelia inopinata POR, 1972 Old record. Only in Bardawil
lagoon
Stenhelia minuta POR, 1964 Possible pre-lessepsian element
(POR, 1964)
excluded
Group Species Cited by 
Copepoda
Acartia hasanii ÜNAL et al.,
2002
Native: Described as new
species in the area
Paracartia ioannae ÜNAL et al.,
2002
Native: Described as new
species in the area
Paracartia janetae ÜNAL et al.,
2002
Native: Described as new
species in the area
Paramphiascella
sirbonica POR, 1972 Native: First described in
Mediterranean
Pseudodiaptomus salinus THOMPSON &
SCOTT, 1903
Not in Mediterranean:
WALTER, 1998
Scottolana bulbosa POR, 1967 Insufcient data
Chaetognatha Sagitta neglecta GUERGUESS &
HALIM, 1973
Insufcient data
(CASANOVA, 1985)
Ctenophora Coeloplana sp. HAAS, 1942 Insufcient data
Siphonophora Muggiaea atlantica GAMULIN &
KRŠINIĆ, 1999
According to BOUILLON
et al., (2004), it is a neritic
cosmopolitan species
Foraminifera
Globigerina bulloides LAKKIS et al.,
1996
circumtropical
Globigerinoides ruber LAKKIS et al.,
1996
cosmopolitan
Orbulina universa LAKKIS et al.,
1996
cosmopolitan
84 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
8. Phytoplankton

Note: bold indicates cryptogenic species
Additional established species cited in GÓ
Ceratoperidinium cf. yeye
Gonyaulax ligustica
Gymnodinium canus
Gymnodinium
sphaeroideum
Gyrodinium acutum
Leptodiscus medusoides
Oxytoxum areolatum
Alexandrium andersonii
Alexandrium catenella
Alexandrium taylori
Ceratium breve
Chaetoceros coarctatus
Coolia monotis
Gonyaulax grindley
Gymnodinium catenatum
Gymnodinium fusus
Ostreopsis ovata
Phaeocystis poucheti
Skeletonema tropicum

Asterodinium gracile
Chattonella antiqua
Lingulodinium polyedrum
Ostreopsis lenticularis
Ostreopsis cf. siamensis
Prorocentrum mexicanum
Protoceratium pepo
Trichodesmium erythreum

Alexandrium insuetum
Amphidinium inatum
Amphidinium lissae
Amphidinium vasculum
Amphidoma elongata
Amphisolenia complanata
Centrodinium elongatum
Cochlodinium turbineum
Craspedotella pileolus
Gonyaulax rugosum
Gymnodinium attenuatum
Gymnodinium lineatum
Gymnodinium lira
Gymnodinium multilineatum
Gymnodinium ovulum
Gymnodinium ravenescens
Gymnodinium sulcatum
Gymnodinium translucens
Gyrodinium biconicum
Gyrodinium rubricaudatum
Heterodinium crassipes
Heterodinium dubium
Histioneis detonii
Parahistioneis acutiformis
Petalodinium porcelio
Protoperidinium tregoubofi
Pyrodinium bahamense
Triposolenia longicornis
Warnowia pulchra

Species Cited by 
Ceratium egyptiacum DOWIDAR, 1972 Origin questionable. Dened
by HALIM (1990) near Suez
canal. Absent from the IP.
Gymnodinium breve SATSMADJIS &
FRILIGOS, 1983
Complex taxonomy
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 85
Gymnodinium mikimotoi ICES, 2001 Complex taxonomy
Gyrodinium aureolum MOSCATELLO et al., 2004. Complex taxonomy
Heterosigma cf.
akashiwo
BIZSEL & BIZSEL, 2002 Insufcient data

Species Cited by 
Alexandrium minutum HALIM, 1960 Native: type locality Alexandria
Alexandrium
pseudogoniaulax BIECHELER, 1952 Native: type locality France
Alexandrium tamarense WALLENTINUS, 2002 Cosmopolitan
Rhizosolenia alata KIMOR, 1973 Cosmopolitan
Scrippsiella precaria MONTRESOR &
ZINGONE, 1988
Native: type locality Naples
9. Phytobenthos

Acetabularia calyculus
Acrochaetium codicola
Acrothamnion preissii
Acrothrix gracilis
Agardhiella subulata
Aglaothamnion feldmanniae
Ahnfeltiopsis abelliformis
Antithamnion amphigeneum
Antithamnion pectinatum
Apoglossum gregarium
Asparagopsis armata
Bonnemaisonia hamifera
Botryocladia
madagascariensis
Caulerpa racemosa
Caulerpa scalpelliformis
Caulerpa taxifolia
Chondria collinsiana
Chondria curvilineata
Chondria polyrhiza
Chondria pygmaea
Chondrus giganteus f.
abellatus
Chordra lum
Chrysonephos lewisii
Chrysymenia wrightii
Cladophoropsis javanica
Codium fragile
tomentosoides
Codium taylorii
Colpomenia peregrina
Derbesia rhizophora
Fucus spiralis
Galaxaura rugosa
Grateloupia asiatica
Grateloupia lanceolata
Grateloupia patens
Grateloupia subpectinata
Grateloupia turuturu
Grifthsia corallinoides
Halophila stipulacea
Halothrix lumbricalis
Herposiphonia parca
Hypnea cornuta
Hypnea spinella
Hypnea valentiae
Laurencia okamurae
Leathesia difformis
Lithophyllum yessoense
Lomentaria hakodatensis
Lophocladia lallemandii
Monostroma obscurum
Neosiphonia harveyi
Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa
Padina boergesenii
Pleonosporium caribaeum
Polysiphonia morrowii
Pterosiphonia tanakae
Sarconema liforme
Sargassum muticum
Scytosiphon dotyi
Solieria dura
Stypopodium schimperi
Ulva pertusa
Undaria pinnatida
Womersleyella setacea
86 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118

Antithamnionella ternifolia
Audouinella robusta
Audouinella subseriata
Caulerpa mexicana
Ceramium strobiliforme
Dasya sessilis
Derbesia boergesenii
Heterosiphonia japonica
Hypnea spicifera
Neomeris annulata
Padina antillaru
Padina boryana
Plocamium secundatum
Porphyra yezoensis
Rhodymenia erythraea
Sarconema scinaioides
Solieria liformis
Sorocarpus sp.
Sphaerotrichia rma
Symphyocladia
marchantioides

Species Cited by 
Acanthophora muscoides ZEYBEK et al., 1986
Needs conrmation (ALGAEBASE).
According to PERRONE et al., 2006
it is a Taxon inquirendum
Antithamnionella
sublittoralis RIBERA SIGUAN, 2002
Taxonomy of species uncertain.
Synonymy with A. elegans
questioned
Batophora sp. ICES/IOC/IMO, 2003 Insufcient data
Cladophora cf.
patentiramea VERLAQUE, 1994 Identication uncertain
Goniotrichopsis
sublittoralis MAGNE, 1992 Probably confused with species
of Stylonema
Hypnea variabilis ZEYBEK et al., 1986 Not documented records
Laminaria japonica PEREZ et al., 1984 Insufcient data
Laurencia
caduciramulosa FURNARI et al., 2001 Taxonomic complexity
Laurencia intricata GODEH et al., 1992 Probably confused with other
species of Laurencia
Laurencia chondrioides BOISSET et al., 1998
Overlook deep water species.
Probably confused with
Chondria sp.
Laurencia majuscula CACCAMESE et al., 1986 Probably confused with L obtusa
Parvocaulis parvula ALEEM, 1948 Probably Tethyan relict
Polysiphonia atlantica BEN MAIZ et al., 1986
Probably confused with other
Mediterranean species of
Polysiphonia
Polysiphonia kampsaxiii AYSEL, 1984 Insufcient data
Polysiphonia paniculata LAURET, 1970 Insufcient data
Rhodophysema georgei VERLAQUE, 1981 Insufcient data
Sargassum latifolium ZEYBEK et al., 1986 Not documented records
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 87


Species Cited by 
Audouinella spatoglossi ALEEM, 1950 Old record based on cast ashore
thalli
Cystoseira myrica VERLAQUE, 1994 Doubtful old record
Gracilaria arcuata BOUDOURESQUE &
RIBERA, 1994
Doubtful record: GARGIULO
et al. (1992)
Gracilaria disticha VERLAQUE, 1994 Old record to be conrmed
Hypnea esperi LIPKIN, 1972 Nomenclatural and taxonomic
complexity ATHANASIADIS
(1987)
Hypnea nidica REINBOLD, 1898 Old record based on cast ashore
thalli
Mastocarpus stellatus FURNARI et al., 2003 Misidentication
Spatoglossum variabile ALEEM, 1950 Old record based on cast ashore
thalli
Spatoglossum asperum LUNDBERG, 1989 Misidentication

Species Cited by 
Acanthophora
nayadiformis
BOUDOURESQUE &
RIBERA, 1994
Tethyan relict
Antithamnion decipiens Various authors Native: type locality: Nice,
France
Antithamnionella
elegans
CORMACI & FURNARI,
1988
Native: type locality: Naples
Antithamnionella
spirographidis
RIBERA &
BOUDOURESQUE, 1995
Native: type locality: Trieste
Asparagopsis taxiformis VERLAQUE, 1994 Tethyan relict
Bryopsis plumosa GIACCONE, 1969 Not introduced/ cosmopolitan
Ceramium bisporum SARTONI & BODDI, 2002 Probably confused with C.
codii
Cladophora liebetruthii DURAL & AYSEL, 1996 Old record: present in the
Mediterranean Sea since 1854
Chondrophycus
papillosus
ZEYBEK, 1969 Tethyan relict
Cladosiphon zosterae BATTIATO & PONTE,
1975
Not introduced/ cosmopolitan
Desmarestia viridis VERLAQUE, 1981 KÜTZING, 1849: Adriatic
88 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
Dipterosiphonia
dendritica
VERLAQUE, 1981 Not introduced
Ectocarpus siliculosus BELLEMO et al., 1999 Not introduced
Ganonema farinosum VERLAQUE, 1994 Tethyan relict
Halymenia ulvoidea ALEEM, 1993 Endemic species of the
Mediterranean Sea
Hypnea musciformis GIACCONE, 1969 Not introduced/ cosmopolitan
Microdictyon tenuius ZEYBEK, 1969 Old record: present in the
Mediterranean Sea since 1860
Myrionema strangulans AYSEL, 1997 Cosmopolitan several ancient
reports of this species
Pilayella littoralis BEN MAIZ et al., 1986 Not introduced
Polysiphonia fucoides BOUDOURESQUE &
RIBERA, 1994
Known in ancient ora as P.
violacea
Polysiphonia elongata GIACCONE 1969 Not introduced
Punctaria tenuissima RIBERA et al., 1992 Not introduced
Radicilingua
thysanorhizans
CURIEL et al., 1994 Not introduced
Spyridia hypnoides FURNARI et al., 1999 Native: Type locality: Algeria
Sphacelaria rigidula ZEYBEK et al., 1986 Old record: Istria, 1901
Ulva fasciata DELILE, 1813 Not introduced
Ulva scandinavica BATTELLI & TAN, 1998 Not introduced.
Species classied among the potentially invasive ones in the Mediterranean by VER-
LAQUE et al. (2005).
 Species classied among the most invasive ones in the Mediterranean, by VERLAQUE
et al. (2005).

In the lists that follow, the rst name is the current name used in this paper. For full synonymity
of sh, decapods and molluscan the reader is referred to the CIESM atlas volumes 1 to 3.
Fish
Apogon pharaonis = Apogon nigripinnis
Chelon carinata = Liza carinata
Liza haematocheila = Mugil soiuy
Sphyraena pinguis = Sphyraena chrysotaenia
Sphyraena obtusata = Sphyraena avicauda
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 89

Group 
Mollusca/Cephalopoda Octopus aegina = Octopus kagoshimenis
 Branchiosyllis exilis = Branchiosyllis uncinigera = Syllis
exilis
Branchiomma boholene = Branchiomma cingulata =
Dasychone cingulata
Chrysopetalum debile =Chrysopetalum sp.
Hydroides diramphus = Hydroides lunulifera
Hydroides novaepommeraniae = Hydroides grubei
Hydroides operculatus = Hydroides inornata
Linopherus acarunculata = Pseudeurythoe acarunculata
Neanthes willeyi = Neanthes capensis
Nereis zonata persica = Nereis persica
Leonnates indicus = Leonnates jousseaumei
Spirobranchus tetraceros = Spirobranchus jousseaumei
Crustacea/Decapoda Erugosquilla massavensis = Squilla africana
Crustacea/Tanaidacea Kalliapseudes omercooperi = Cristapseudes omercooperi
 Maera hamigera=Linguimaera caesaris
Arthropoda/

Anoplodactylus californicus = Anoplodactylus portus
 Synaptula reciprocans = Synaptula nigra
 Haliclona viridis = Callyspongia viridis
Cinachyrella australiensis = Chrotella cavernosa
Lissodendoryx schmidt = Damiriana schmidti
Hyrtios erecta = Heteroneme erecta
Ascidiacea Botrylloides nigrum = Metrandrocarpa nigra
Ecteinascidia turbinata = Ecteinascidia moorei
Botryllus schlosseri = Botryllus violaceus
 Aeverrillia setigera = Buskia setigera
Celleporaria aperta = Holoporella aperta
Parasmittina egyptiaca = Smittia egyptiaca
Reteporella jermanensis = Sertella jermanensis
Cnidaria/Hydrozoa Macrorhynchia philippina = Lytocarpus philippinus

Enhydrosoma hopkinsi = Enhydrosoma vicinum
Spinocalanus terranovae = Ctenocalanus citer
Stenhelia inopinata = Sunaristes inopinata
Scottolana longipes = Canuella longipes
Sagitta neglecta = Aidanosagitta neglecta
90 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118

Alexandrium catenella=Gonyaulax catenella
Alexandrium minutum = Alexandrium lusitanicum
Alexandrium tamarense = Gonyaulax tamarensis
Ceratium egyptiacum= Ceratium pulchellum
Coolia monotis = Ostreopsis monotis = Glenodinium monotis
Gonyaulax grindleyi = Protoceratium reticulatum
Gymnodinium mikimotoi = Gymnodinium nagasakiense = Gyrodinium aureolum
Gymnodinium breve = Karenia brevis
Gymnodinium fusus = Pseliodinium vaubanii
Prorocentrum mexicanum = Prorocentrum maximum
Rhizosolenia alata = Rhizosolenia truncata = Rhizosolenia alata f. indica
Pyrodinium bahamense= Pyrodinium schilleri

Acrochaetium (Rhodothamniella) codicola = Audouinella codicola
Agardhiella subulata (also reported as Solieria chordalis)
Antithamnion amphigeneum = Antithamnion algeriense
Antithamnion pectinatum: quoted as Antithamnion nipponicum
Asparagopsis armata = Falkenbergia rufolanosa
Audouinella robusta = Acrochaetium sargassicola
Chondrophycus papillosus = Laurencia papillosa
Cladophoropsis javanica = Cladophora/Cladophoropsis zollingeri
Dasya sessilis = Dasya sp.
Galaxaura rugosa = Galaxaura lapidescens
Grateloupia asiatica = Grateloupia sp. and erroneously as Grateloupia licina
Grateloupia patens = Prionitis patens
Grateloupia subpectinata = Grateloupia licina var. luxurians= Grateloupia luxurians
Grateloupia turuturu: recorded as Grateloupia doryphora
Heterosiphonia japonica = Dasysiphonia sp.
Hypnea spicifera = Hypnea harveyi
Hypnea spinella = Hypnea cervicornis
Hypnea valentiae var. hamulosa = Fucus hamulosa
Mastocarpus stellatus: recorded as Gigartina stellata and Petrocelis cruenta
Microdictyon tenuius: quoted as Microdictyon agardhianum
Monostroma obscurum = Ulvaria obscura
Myrionema strangulans= Myrionema vulgare
Neosiphonia harveyi = Polysiphonia mottei = Polysiphonia harveyi
Padina antillarum= Padina tetrastromatica
Parvocaulis parvula =Acetabularia parvula= Acetabularia moebii
Porphyra yezoensis: recorded as P. tenera
Pterosiphonia tanakae = Pterosiphonia sp.
Sphacelaria rigidula= Sphacelaria furcigera
Sphaerotrichia divaricata is a misidentication of Sphaerotrichia rma
Spyridia hypnoides= Spyridia aculeata
Stypopodium schimperi = Stypopodium tubruqense = Stypopodium zonale
Womersleyella setacea =Polysiphonia setacea
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 91
imposed on it (SIMBERLOFF, 1989 ; RIB-
ERA, 1995; COHEN & CARLTON, 1998;
GOODWIN et al., 1999; OCCHIPINTI
AMBROGI, 2000; KEANE & CRAWLEY,
2002).
The adverse impacts of invasive species
on genetics, populations, ecosystems and
economics in the Mediterranean have been
discussed to some extent in synthetic studies
(BOUDOURESQUE, 1994 ; BOUDOUR-
ESQUE & RIBERA, 1994; VERLAQUE,
1994; RIBERA, 1995; GOLANI, 1998; OC-
CHIPINTI AMBROGI, 2000; 2001; 2002a;
2002b; GALIL, 2000a, and 2000b; ZI-
BROWIUS, 2002 ; BOUDOURESQUE &
VERLAQUE, 2002a and 2002b; GALIL &
ZENETOS, 2002; OCCHIPINTI AMBRO-
GI & SAVINI, 2003; GOFAS & ZENETOS,
2003).
In the Mediterranean, stressed environ-
ments (polluted or physically degraded)
appear to be more prone to invasion than
pristine sites (RIBERA & BOUDOUR-
ESQUE, 1995, GALIL, 2000b; OCCHIP-
INTI AMBROGI, 2000; RIBERA SIGUAN,
2002; OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI & SAVINI,
2003). The fact that mariculture introduc-
tions are mostly restricted to lagoonal or es-
tuarine habitats and vessel-transported aliens
to polluted harbours (ZIBROWIUS, 1992),
environments that are known for their low
biodiversity, support this theory. A recent
study of macrofouling organisms concluded
that many more species are found in a pollut-
ed than in a non-polluted marina (KO
Ç
AK
et al., 1999). However, there are suggestions
of the opposite. According to KLEIN et al.,
(2005) there is no relationship between the
number of introductions, diversity of the
host ecosystem and disturbance acting on
the community when examining the impact
of introduced macrophytes on the shallow
subtidal macrophytic assemblages along the
French Mediterranean coast.
Worst Invasive Alien Species in the Medi

Among invasive alien species, a list of
the worst invasive species threatening biodi-
versity in Europe has been endorsed by the
SEBI2010 Working Group 5. The list is not
an indicator by it self. However, it can be
developed into an indicator and it will serve
as a basis for more specic indicators focus-
ing on impacts and economic cost of inva-
sive alien species. Further, and perhaps most
importantly, it is a very powerful awareness
tool.
As worst IAS threatening biodiversity
have been dened species that:
a. have a serious impact on biological di-
versity e.g. severe impacts on ecosystem
structure and function (alteration of habi-
tat, competing with native species, enter-
ing food chain, altering energy and nutri-
ent ow etc.); replacement of native spe-
cies throughout a signicant proportion
of its range; hybridization with native
species; and threats to unique biodiver-
sity (e.g. habitats in need of conservation
measures, isolated ecosystems, endemic
species).
b. may have negative consequences for hu-
man activities, health and/or economic
interests (e.g. are pests, pathogens or vec-
tors of disease)
Documenting impacts of marine invaders
is a subject of hot debate. The evidence and
nature of the impact of invasive species on
particular ecosystems and habitats are often
unclear and it appears that it is the interaction
between invaders and other anthropogenic
stresses that inuence the impact (RUIZ et
al., 1999). Invasion success depends not
only on the invader’s advantage over poten-
tial native enemies/competitors but also on
the environmental characteristics of the host
ecosystem (primarily species richness and
disturbance) and the level of stress already
92 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
Invasive records
A number of alien species have been
described as invasive or locally invasive
by different authors in different parts of the
Mediterranean. The qualication as invasive
is based on their proliferation, and/or their
geographical spread and/or impact on na-
tive populations. The Worst Invasive Species
among them are presented below per eco-
functional/ taxonomic group.
1. Fish
The term invasive is debatable if used for
describing the present situation in the Le-
vantine Sea given the lack of reliable infor-
mation on distribution and abundance prior
to the opening of Suez Canal (GOLANI,
1998). Notwithstanding, denite changes in
sh assemblages in the Levantine ecosystem
have been attributed to Lessepsian migrants
(GOLANI et al., 2002; GOREN & GALIL,
2005; HARMELIN-VIVIEN et al., 2005;
SAAD, 2005).
Eighteen of the alien sh species were
already considered as very common and of
positive economic importance by GOLANI
et al. (2002). These are: Alepes djedaba, Ath-
erinomorus lacunosus, Dussumieria elop-
soides, Etrumeus teres, Gymnammodytes
semisquamatus, Hemiramphus far, Herklot-
sichthys punctatus, Liza carinata, Sargocen-
tron rubrum, Saurida undosquamis, Scomb-
eromorus commerson, Siganus luridus, S.
rivulatus, Sillago sihama, Sphyraena chryso-
taenia, Solea senegalensis, Upeneus moluc-
censis and Upeneus pori. Seriola fasciata
and Fistularia commersonii now have to be
added to that list, following recent records of
their spread across the Mediterraenan.
Abundant populations of alien sh with-
out direct economic use are also included
in the worst IAS since they are considered
as pests, an economic burden to shermen
who have to discard them from their gear
(GOLANI et al., 2002: Sphoeroides pach-
ygaster, Cynoglossus sinusarabici, Stepha-
nolepis diaspros, Lagocephalus spadiceus,
Lagocephalus suezensis and Callionymus
lamentosus).
2. Zoobenthos/Mollusca
Ten species of molluscs have been de-
scribed as locally invasive: the gastropods
Cerithium scabridum, Rhinoclavis kochi,
Strombus persicus and Bursatella leachi
and the bivalves Pinctada radiata and Bra-
chidontes pharaonis in the eastern Mediter-
ranean, the gastropod Rapana venosa and the
bivalves Anadara inaequivalvis, Musculista
senhousia, and Xenostrobus securis in the
northern Adriatic and the western Mediterra-
nean lagoons (GOFAS & ZENETOS, 2003).
In addition, the bivalves Chama pacica and
Spondylus spinosus have been regarded as
invasive in the Levantine (ZENETOS et al.,
2004) and in the western Mediterranean la-
goons Crepidula fornicata has been found to
compete with commercial shellsh (BLAN-
CHARD, 1996).
When assessing the scale and impact of
ship transported alien fauna in the Mediterra-
nean ZIBROWIUS (2002) regarded the fol-
lowing molluscan species as invasive, prima-
rily based on their spread: Crepidula aculea-
ta (Alicante harbour Spain), Anadara demiri
(in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas along with
the aforementioned A. inaequivalvis) and
Mya arenaria (with mass proliferation in the
Berre lagoon near Marseilles). More recently
the bivalve Musculista senhousia also prolif-
erated in Berre lagoon.
Bivalves originally imported for aqua-
culture purposes such as the venus clam
Ruditapes philippinarum, the Pacic oyster
Crassostrea gigas and Anadara inaequiv-
alvis are well known examples of nega-
tive impact caused by alien species in the
Mediterranean, as it has been demonstrated
in the case of the Venice lagoon. They are
out-competing native species (OCCHIPINTI
AMBROGI, 2000) and their harvesting has
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 93
caused heavy stress on bottom communities
and the whole lagoon ecosystem (OCCHIP-
INTI AMBROGI, 2002b; PRANOVI et al.,
2003; 2004).
The cryptogenic shipworm Teredo na-
valis can be included here, being one of the
most effective and harmful marine invaders
(HOPPE, 2002).
3. Zoobenthos/Polychaeta
Various species have been considered as
invasive in various parts of the Mediterra-
nean. Pomatoleios kraussii has been highly
successful in the Levantine basin (Leba-
non, G. Bitar & H. Zibrowius, unpublished;
Iskenderun Bay, M.E.
Ç
inar, unpublished),
Hydroides elegans, H. dianthus and Spiror-
bis marioni in harbour environments all over
the Mediterranean. In addition to P. kraussii,
various other lessepsian serpulids spread over
the Levantine area. Among these, Hydroides
minax now seems to be omnipresent and may
locally have particular dense populations. Of
the soft bottom species Branchiomma luctu-
osum, Polydora cornuta, Streblospio gyno-
branchiata, Leonnates persicus and Pseudo-
nereis anomala have to be added to the worst
IAS (
Ç
INAR et al., 2002; 2005;
Ç
INAR
& ERGEN, 2005; KAMBOUROGLOU &
NICOLAIDOU, 2006).
4. Zoobenthos/Crustacea
A number of alien decapod crustaceans
have been described as abundant in the Med-
iterranean. More common are: Charybdis
helleri and Charybdis longicollis (the lat-
ter constituting 70 % of the benthic biomass
on sandy-silt bottoms off the Israeli coast
(GALIL, 1986). Further species have been
described as either abundant or very abun-
dant and have an impact on the environment
and/or the economy (GALIL et al., 2002):
Dyspanopeus sayi (very abundant in the Ven-
ice lagoon), Marsupenaeus japonicus (very
abundant in the Levantine and southern Tur-
key), Metapenaeus monoceros, M. stebbingi,
and Penaeus semisulcatus (abundant along
the Levantine coast), Callinectes sapidus
(common in Greece), Portunus pelagicus
(abundant along the Levantine since the
1920’s, presently rare), Melicertus hathor
(locally common and of some commercial
importance in Iskenderun Bay), and Erugos-
quilla massavensis (abundant in the eastern
Levantine and southeastern Turkey).
In addition, the decapods Libinia dubia
(in Tunisia), Rithropanopaeus harrissi (es-
tablished in North Adriatic lagoons along
with Dispanopeus sayi), and the amphipod
Elasmopus pectenicrus (Levantine Sea and
Venice lagoon) have been regarded as in-
vasive (ZIBROWIUS, 2002). The shrimps
Alpheus lobidens and A. edwardsii have also
been reported as invasive in the Eastern Med-
iterranean (GALIL & ZENETOS, 2002). The
Atlantic crab Percnon gibessi, rst recorded
in the central Mediterranean (RELINI et
al, 2000) has rapidly spread to the western
and eastern Mediterranean (THESSALOU-
LEGAKI et al., 2006).
5. Zoobenthos/Miscellanea
ZIBROWIUS (2002) regarded the fol-
lowing species as invasive primarily based
on their spread: Oculina patagonica (Scle-
ractinian coral reported in Spain, Ligurian
coast of Italy, Alexandria, Lebanon, Israel
and recently in Turkey and Greece); the
ascidian Microcosmus exasperatus (dense
populations in Mediterranean harbours). The
echinoderm Asterina burtoni has been re-
garded as invasive in the Eastern Mediterra-
nean (GALIL & ZENETOS, 2002). In addi-
tion, the bryozoan Tricellaria inopinata was
discovered to have a profound impact on the
bryozoan community by colonizing all pos-
sible hard substrata in the Lagoon of Venice
and out competing the native species (OC-
CHIPINTI AMBROGI, 2000; OCCHIPINTI
AMBROGI & SAVINI, 2003). However, the
synergy between the invader and the stress
already imposed in the ecosystem is not clear
94 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
(OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI, 2000).
Two foraminiferan species, namely, Am-
phistegina lobifera and Amphisorus hemp-
richii show invasive characteristics. A. lobif-
era populations have been expanded to such
an extent that the dead tests locally accumu-
lated as a 30-60cm thick layer on the sea bed
[Antalya, Kaş, Kekova, Beş Adalar and Üç
Adalar] (MERIÇ et al., 2002 ; 2004; YOKES
& MERIC, 2004). Amphistegina lobifera has
been reported on the Eastern Mediterrane-
an coasts as far as Cyprus (HYAMS et al.,
2002) and Amphisorus hemprichii has been
reported in Southwestern Turkey and Israel
(B. Yokes, pers. commun.)
6. Parasites
Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in
marine systems, yet their role in marine inva-
sions is relatively unexplored. Although data
on parasites of marine organisms exist, the
extent to which parasites can mediate marine
invasions, or the extent to which invasive
parasites and pathogens are responsible for
infecting or potentially decimating native
marine species have not been examined.
Parasitic copepods that infect shellsh
have been widely introduced with the trans-
port and culture of bivalves. Mytilicola ori-
entalis and Myicola ostrae are both parasitic
copepods of the Pacic oyster, Crassostrea
gigas, in Asia, where they are native. Both
species infect native bivalves and M. orien-
talis is considered a serious pest (HOLMES
& MINCHIN, 1995).
7. Zooplankton
The zooplanktonic jellysh Rhopilema
nomadica have been reported as invasive
in the Levantine (Eastern Mediterranean)
(GALIL et al., 1990). The jellysh has en-
tered the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal
in the 1970s, and since the mid 1980s forms
large swarms annually along the Levantine
coast. When the jellysh swarms draw nearer
shore they adversely affect tourism, sheries
and coastal installations.
8. Phytoplankton
Algal species responsible for the occur-
rence of Harmful Algal Blooms have been
regarded as invasive. The toxics Alexandri-
um catenella, Ostreopsis ovata and Coolia
monotis and the non toxic dinoagellate Al-
exandrium taylori have been detected in the
western Mediterranean (PENNA et. al., 2005;
GIACOBBE & YANG, 1999; GARCÉS et
al., 1999; GARCÉS et al., 2000; SIMONI
et al., 2003, 2004; BASTERREXTEA et
al., 2005), and also in Greece (STRAT-
EGY Workshop, 2004). Alexandrium cat-
enella toxic blooms have been reported in
the western Mediterranean (GARCÉS et al.,
2000; VILA et al., 2001) and concern has
been raised about the eastern Mediterranean
(MIKHAIL, 2001) for the same species. The
presence of Gymnodinium catenatum in the
western Mediterranean has also been per-
ceived as a probable ‘protagonist of future
red tides events’ (GÓMEZ & CLAUSTRE,
2001) but has not been included in the worst
IAS as it is regarded a potentially invasive
species.
9. Phytobenthos
Many authors have provided lists of inva-
sive macrophytes in Mediterranean. WAL-
LENTINUS (2002) for example has provid-
ed a different aspect where 25 macroalgae
are considered as invasive and nine as highly
invasive. A more accurate account has been
provided by Mediterranean experts.
Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemo-
sa aff. var. cylindracea are perhaps the most
notorious invaders in the Mediterranean. In
many cases their invasive spread has radical-
ly altered the structure and function of native
ecosystems causing a decrease in macrofau-
nal and macroalgal biodiversity (RUITTON
& BOUDOURESQUE, 1994 ; BOUDOUR-
ESQUE et al., 1995; HARMELIN-VIVIEN
et al., 1996 ; CECCHERELLI & CAMPO,
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 95
2002; BALATA et al., 2004; PIAZZI et al.,
2005; RUITTON et al., 2005). In fact the in-
vasive proliferation of Caulerpa taxifolia, the
‘killer algae’ (MEINESZ, 1999), consists
the most infamous example of the impact of
invasive species in the Mediterranean.
According to BOUDOURESQUE &
VERLAQUE (2002a), and references there-
in, at least eight phytobenthic species can be
described as invasive organisms in the Medi-
terranean as “they play a conspicuous role
in the recipient ecosystems, becoming the
dominant species and/or taking the place of
keystone species”. These are: Acrothamnion
preissii in western Italy, Asparagopsis arma-
ta in the north-western basin, Lophocladia
lallemandii in the Balearic Islands, Womers-
leyella setacea in western Italy, Corsica and
the Aegean Sea, Sargassum muticum in Thau
lagoon, France, Stypopodium schimperi in
the eastern Mediterranean, especially along
the Levantine coasts, Caulerpa racemosa
aff. var. cylindracea in various localities
throughout the Mediterranean and Caulerpa
taxifolia along the French and Italian Rivi-
eras. An additional species, Halophila stipu-
lacea in the Eastern Mediterranean, can be
tentatively added to this list.
A specic study on algal introductions
to European waters (ALIENS project: VER-
LAQUE et al., 2005) considered as generally
invasive the following species: Asparagopsis
armata, Heterosiphonia japonica, Aspara-
gopsis taxiformis, Bonnemaisonia hamif-
era, Colpomenia peregrina, Codium fragile,
Grateloupia turuturu, Antithamnion pectina-
tum and Undaria pinnatida.
Discussion
Of the examined records about 23% are
excluded. A total of 745 alien species are re-
ported, 98 of which (13%) are questionable
records. The available information depends
greatly on the taxonomic group examined.
The establishment success per ecofunctional/
taxonomic group is shown in Figure 2. In the
sections that follow the state of art in species
Fig. 2: Establishment success per ecofunctional Pycnogonida/taxonomic group. Miscellanea (zoob-
enthos) include Foraminifera, Echinodermata, Ascidiacea, Cnidaria, Sipuncula, Pycnogonida, Enter-
opneusta, Porifera and Bryozoa.
96 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
diversity and distribution and in alien moni-
toring per ecofunctional/taxonomic group is
discussed.
1. Fish
Fish is a well studied group in the Medi-
terranean. The paper version of the CIESM
atlas (GOLANI et al., 2002) enumerated 90
alien species. By December 2005 the updated
CIESM checklist of alien species included
8 more species (CIESM on line, 2005). As
with all groups, more intensive observations
and modications of the status of the already
reported species, have increased the number
of aliens which is now 110 species. Species
of uncertain origin, reported in latest publi-
cations such as that of SAAD (2005) are ten-
tatively classied as questionable.
Nomenclature composes the major concern
for monitoring alien sh species. Considering
that Ofcial Lists and Indexes of Names and
Works in Zoology is not updated, we normally
use the FISHBASE names that are generally
used by ichthyologists. The FISHBASE is
not a perfect instrument; for example, Mugil
soiuy Basilewsky, 1855 and Chelon haema-
tocheilus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845) are
both listed as valid names in FISHBASE as
separated species. However, there is presently
no other common reference point for ichthy-
ologists world-wide and it is the reference list
for “Species 2000 catalogue of life.
2. Zoobenthos/Mollusca
Mollusca are also well studied in the
Mediterranean. By the end of 2002, 139
alien species were recorded and 62 species
were excluded as spurious records (GOFAS
& ZENETOS, 2003). As suggested by GO-
FAS & ZENETOS (2003), there is still a
pool of about 90 species reported from the
Suez Canal, which are likely to be found in
the Mediterranean in the near future. Indeed,
the number of molluscan alien species has
increased to 196, of which 31 are recorded
as questionable. The rate of increase is due
to the increased interest of malacologists and
the relatively easy collection/identication
of mollusca.
3. Zoobenthos/Polychaeta
Absence of an updated monograph of
polychaetes covering all families is an ob-
stacle for determining changes in polychaete
diversity in the Mediterranean. FAUVEL’s
outdated fauna (1923; 1927) is still widely
used for identifying polychaetes, leading to
erroneous lists and confusions as a number
of species have been synonymized or proved
to be absent in the Mediterranean while many
additional species were discovered. However,
promising attempts have been recently made
in the understanding of the superfamily Aph-
roditoidea (BARNICH & FIEGE, 2003), and
the families Glyceridae (BÖGGEMANN,
2002), Goniadidae (BÖGGEMANN, 2005)
and Syllidae (SAN MARTÍN, 2003).
Within Polychaeta, more reliable evi-
dence of Lessepsian migration is only known
in Nereidae and Serpulidae. Records of alien
species within the families Syllidae, Cirratu-
lidae, Maldanidae, Terebellidae seem to be
speculative. Another possibility, that should
not be neglected, is that the seemingly Indo-
Pacic species recognized in the Mediterra-
nean might be Miocene relicts. Currently 69
species are described as valid records.
4. Zoobenthos/Crustacea 
4.1. Decapoda
A well studied group with a recent inven-
tory (D’ UDEKEM D’ACOZ, 1999), a pho-
tographic website of the Eastern Atlantic, the
Mediterranean Sea, and the adjacent conti-
nental waters decapoda (CRUSTIKON) and
the CIESM atlas with regular updates online

There are few alien species documented
even on a worldwide scale. Although there
are a lot of carcinological studies in the Med-
iterranean, very few have been identied as
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 97
aliens which represent 1.7% of the total am-
phipod fauna of the region (KOCATet
al., 2002). The recent inventories of BEL-
LAN-SANTINI et al., (1998), BELLAN-
SANTINI & COSTELLO (2001), BEL-
LAN-SANTINI & RUFFO (2003) and the
AMPHIPODA homepage, accurately list the
species’ distribution. However, as BELLAN-
SANTINI & RUFFO (2003) report “….we
have no conrmation on the true origin of
these species…”.
4.3. Isopoda
One of the least studied groups; not even
an inventory exists for the whole Mediterra-
nean. Effort is increasing, but at a regional
scale: covering Spain only (JUNOY & CAS-
TELLÓ, 2003) and Italy (ARGANO et al,
1995). Collections from Lebanon are un-
der current study by J. Castelló (Barcelona,
Spain) and it is assumed that some Indo-Pa-
cic species not yet reported will be ‘discov-
ered’. A new species known from tropical
areas was recorded in Salerno harbour (Tyr-
rhenian Sea, southern Italy): it is probably
Mesanthura romulea (LORENTI et al., in
press).
4.4. Tanaidacea
Relatively few comprehensive faunal lists
of Tanaidacea exist. The only recent compre-
hensive study of this group in the Mediter-
ranean by S. Riggio tends to cover the fauna
observed in Italy (ARGANO et al., 1995).
The collection from the Lebanon studied by
R. Bamber (pers. commun.) bears no evi-
dence of newcomers from the Red Sea.
5. Zoobenthos/Miscellanea

Four species have been recorded so far,
three of which are established. The taxon is
well studied in Italy and France and in addi-
tion to a review in 1987 (ARNAUD, 1987)
there are regular updates on the distribution
of the species in Italy including alien ones
(CHIMENZ GUSSO & LATTANZI, 2003).

Studies on Porifera in general in the Medi-
terranean and Red Seas are poor. To the very
experienced J. Vacelet, the identications
and interpretations, by BURTON (1936) and
TSURNAMAL (1969) do not seem reliable
(J. Vacelet, pers. commun.). It is therefore
difcult to compare the species new to the
Mediterranean with the Red Sea fauna since
the Red Sea sponge fauna is not well known.
Hence, the presence of Red Sea species in
the SE Mediterranean cannot be excluded. A
recent collection from the Lebanon included
two new species which cannot be aliens from
the Red Sea (PEREZ et al., 2004). But in-
certitudes prevail concerning other species
under study.
5.3. Ascidiacea
Ascidians have a great invasive potential,
and their expansion in the Mediterranean
harbours and marinas since the seventies is
well documented. Interest has revived and
Italian (MASTROTOTARO & DAPPIANO,
2005), and Spanish (RAMOS et al., 1992)
experts are examining material from Medi-
terranean ports. To ascertain the spread of
Microcosmus squamiger and M. exasperatus
in the Mediterranean, the material in the col-
lection of the Museum National d’Histoire
Naturelle, Paris, was re-examined and the
identicatiion of specimens previously clas-
sied as M. exasperatus revised. The re-
sults show that specimens unambiguously
attributable to M. squamiger are common in
Spain, France, Italy and Morocco (TURON
& NISHIKAWA, 2005; A. Ramos pers. com-
mun). This instance illustrates the crucial im-
portance of taxonomy in studies of invasive
species.
5.4. Cnidaria/Anthozoa
The Mediterranean is the rst area in the
world where the invasion by an alien scler-
actinian coral has been reported. The coral in
98 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
question is now commonly known as Ocu-
lina patagonica and is considered to be of
temperate Atlantic-South American origin.
This invasive coral in the Mediterranean was
hypothesised (ZIBROWIUS, 1974) to be the
same species as a coral described from the
Holocene beach deposit from Argentina. The
invasive Mediterranean form still needs to be
compaired with live samples from the pre-
sumed area of origin. It is exceptional that
a scleractinian coral invades a distant area.
The second case recognized is the spreading
of Tubastraea over the tropical American At-
lantic.
Cnidaria/Hydrozoa
The knowledge of the biogeography of
the Mediterranean Hydrozoa is far from be-
ing complete not only due to the continuous
recording of new species in the basin, but
also due to insufcient or geographically too
concentrated research efforts, so leading to
inefcient coverage of distribution areas. All
presently known Mediterranean hydrozoan
species including hydroids, hydromedusae
and siphonophores are well covered in the
recent book of BOUILLON et al. (2004).
Species newly entered the Mediterranean
basin via the Suez canal were rst compiled
by POR (1978). According to BOUILLON
et al 2004, not many of Por’s records were
noticed until recent times. A modest collec-
tion from Lebanon is under study. The study
of the Hydrozoa of the Alboran Sea has led
to many new records of Atlantic origin which
are however not treated in this study.

Bryozoans are common components of
fouling communities and can disperse over
long distances on rafting substrates. Despite
these capacities, the number of non-indig-
enous species recorded in the Mediterra-
nean is relatively modest (ROSSO, 2003;
D’HONDT, in press). The latest record
presented as an alien was Pherusella brevi-
tuba, which was collected from Ustica Is-
land in 1996 growing on Posidonia leaves
(CHIMENZ GUSSO & D’HONDT, 2005).
Together with other species of Bryozoa pre-
viously recorded in Italian waters, it should
better be considered a cryptogenic species,
being inconspicuous and belonging to a dif-
cult taxonomic group.

It is far more difcult to document the
invasion of alien meiofaunal elements into
the Mediterranean Sea, as early records are
signicantly scarce. However, benthic fo-
raminifera have a good preservation potential
and may be present in large numbers, tend-
ing to leave behind a superior record of their
presence over time, in comparison with mac-
rofaunal elements. A recent, extensive study
on benthic foraminifera from the shallow
continental shelf along the SE Mediterranean
(HYAMS, 2001) indicates that nearly 20% of
the local Foraminifera species are suspected
to be of an exotic origin. The ability to make
this estimation may in part be attributed to
the recent publication of the Atlas of Recent
Foraminiferida of the Gulf of Aqaba (HOT-
TINGER et al., 1993) and modern compila-
tions of Mediterranean species (YANKO et
al., 1998), which enable comparison of the
benthic Foraminifera assemblages in both
regions. According to B. Yokes (pers. com-
mun.) in Turkish waters there are more than
30 alien lessepsian Foraminifera species.
The new ndings are to be published by the
local scientists.
6. Parasites
Parasites of Mediterranean lessepsian
immigrants have been investigated very lit-
tle over the years pioneered by Ilan Paperna
in the early 70s. Only few scientists have
been looking for parasitological aspects in
the wild. Alien monogeneans have been re-
ported more commonly from freshwater sh
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 99
species than from marine shes. In an early
parasitological study of Lessepsian Sigani-
dae, the digenean Hysterolecitha sigani was
mentioned from the rabbitsh Siganus lurid-
us and S. rivulatus (DIAMANT, 1989). Later
studies concluded that there is no serious
data on potentially Lessepsian trematodes
(DIAMANT, 1998). Cymothoids (Isopoda)
are a group of crustaceans typically parasitic
of teleost shes. However, they are poorly
studied animals and some groups remain
completey undescribed. Studies of parasitic
isopods on Lessepsian sh are in progress in
the Levantine.
The best known parasites in the Mediter-
ranean are the benthic copepods Mytilicola
orientalis and Myicola ostreae on oyster
beds. They were likely introduced with in-
fected oysters imported for culture.
A rhizocephalan barnacle, Heterosac-
cus dollfusi, followed its portunid host crab,
Charybdis longicollis, from the Red Sea
through the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean
Sea (GALIL & LÜTZEN, 1998). Other re-
ports of rhizocephalans introduced with their
hosts are anecdotal and lack conrmation
(TORCHIN et al., 2002).
7. Zooplankton
Only 18 zooplanktonic alien species
seem to be well established in the Mediter-
ranean, while 32 are considered casual or
questionable records. The continuity of the
marine pelagic environment, as well as the
seasonality of species appearance have to be
considered as the most important causes of
this lack of information (VAN DER SPOEL,
1994). The eastern Mediterranean zooplank-
ton have been distinctly understudied until
the second half of the 20th century while a
large number of species of Atlantic origin
found in the Western Basin during the past
century have been reported without any at-
tempt to discriminate if their presence was
due to natural water exchange or human
mediation. Moreover, the huge increase of
aquaculture and commercial and tourism ac-
tivities during the last century have obviously
enhanced the transport of planktonic species
in ballast waters. Relatively few seem to be
planktonic lessepsian migrants, even though
it is believed that their contribution will in-
crease with time, due to the decreasing of
the Nile fresh water inow into the Mediter-
ranean and lower salinity in the Bitter lakes
(HALIM, 1990).
8. Phytoplankton
The list of Mediterranean Indo-Pacic
taxa is full of dubious or poorly known spe-
cies. As an example of a recent Erythrean
invader Ceratium egyptiacum was reported
by HALIM (1990). The taxon shows vari-
able morphology associated with the stress
of environmental changes (salinity > 47psu)
in the Suez Canal (DOWIDAR, 1972). It was
reported only from the proximity of the Suez
Canal, with no records in the Indian or Pa-
cic Oceans. The absence of information on
several groups such as the dinoagellates be-
fore the opening of the Suez Canal hinders at-
tempts to determine biogeographical origins
of present Mediterranean species (GÓMEZ,
2005). HALIM (1990) reported a tentative
list of 17 Mediterranean Indo-Pacic spe-
cies. Most of these dinoagellates have been
also reported in the Tyrrhenian Sea. How-
ever, the Indo-Pacic origin of these species
is questionable due to the fact they were also
reported in the Atlantic. Furthermore, as with
many other groups, several of the species are
dubious or invalid taxa. Results of recent EU
funded research projects such as STRAT-
EGY as well as compiled works for a few
countries have been considered in this update
i.e. LAKKIS (1984; 1990), LAKKIS & ZEI-
DANE (1988; 2004), LAKKIS et al. (1990;
1996; 2002), MALT et al. (1989) (Lebanon);
SIMONI et al. (2003) (Italy), VILLA et al.
(2001) (Spain), KORAY (2002) (Turkey).
One of the latest ndings is the planktonic
diatom Skeletonema tropicum which was
100 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
found for the rst time in the Gulf of Naples,
in the autumn of 2002 (SARNO et al., 2005)
and seems to be established in the Gulf.
9. Phytobenthos
A well studied group with many repre-
sentatives. Easy access to alien plants and
high level of expertise at Mediterranean
scale has resulted in the recognition of a high
number of aliens especially in transitional
waters (west Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea
lagoons). However, many species considered
as introduced in literature are under criticism.
To a great extend this was due to the chaos
in nomenclature and literature. The issue is
partly resolved in a recent review (CORMA-
CI et al., 2004) which is further updated in
the current work. The establishment success
still remains unclear for some records. Dis-
crepancies were brought forward among spe-
cialists and the results of the ALIENS project
(VERLAQUE et al., 2005). However, genet-
ics along with mophological studies are ex-
pected to further clarify the situation. For
example, Asparagopsis taxiformis is a red
alga, originally described from an Egyptian
specimen (DELILE, 1813), but considered
a cosmopolitan member of subtropical and
tropical communities worldwide. A debate
has risen whether the species is introduced,
or native. In this work, Asparagopsis taxi-
formis is proposed to be excluded (tethyan
relict), along with Acanthophora naydafor-
mis although they are considered as invasive
by some Mediterranean specialists. Genetic
studies in A. taxiformis have demonstrated
that several strains co-occur in the Mediterra-
nean and one of them is denitely introduced
(ANDREAKIS et al., 2004). The same situa-
tion applies for Desmarestia viridis; it is be-
lieved that the strains reported in the coastal
lagoons have been introduced with oysters
imported from NE Atlantic or NW Pacic
(M. Verlaque pers. commun.).
Conclusions
The number of alien biota in the Mediter-
ranean appears to be underestimated. Some
hot spot areas for possible species intro-
ductions such as the coast of the Levantine
basin, North Africa coasts, big commercial
harbours and estuarine areas are not well
studied. The biased scientic interest to-
wards taxa with well-known taxonomy and
established historical distribution records
(e.g. benthic organisms, sh) coupled with
the chaos in nomenclature and fragmentary
and sporadic information have lead to a pos-
sible underestimation of the extent of aliens’
presence particularly of the small, less-con-
spicuous, less-studied species. Thus, despite
the collective effort, the information present-
ed in these annotated lists depends greatly on
the taxonomic group examined.
On-going monitoring studies along the
coasts of the Mediterranean reveal continu-
ous changes in the biodiversity of the region
and evidence new alien species. At the same
time genetics becomes an increasingly pow-
erful tool in further investigating the identity
and origin of many species that, constitute
complexes of what may be cryptogenic or
sibling (closely related) species. Most stud-
ies focus on ecological problems and omit
the precise identication of species collected.
This is mainly due to the lack of funding for
supporting essentially systematic studies and
concomitantly the extinction of taxonomists.
Over the last 5 years the scientic inter-
est on alien species in the Mediterranean has
revived and many new aliens are recorded
each year. Within 2006, at least ten new al-
ien species have been recorded, nine of them
in the eastern Mediterranean. Services like
the new on-line journal Aquatic Invasions
(http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru), ensure a
rapid publication and communication of new
ndings.
In order to maintain a valid list of the al-
ien species in the Mediterranean, it becomes
necessary to ensure its continuous updating
and revision and promote more systematic
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 101
efforts supported by modern taxonomical
tools such as genetics.

After the original deadline of December
2005, additional alien species have been rec-
ognized. The following 10 species are just
those that came to our attention. These are:
a. the Indo-Pacic crab Charybdis feriata
caught in a gillnet off Barcelona (ABEL-
LÓ & HISPANO, 2006)
b. the isopod Cymothoa indica parasitizing
mainly barracudas (Sphyraenidae) from
Lebanon (TRILLES & BARICHE, 2006)
c. the parasitic cymothoid isopod Ani-
locra pilchardi n. sp., from off Lebanon
(BARICHE & TRILLES, 2006)
d. the western Atlantic ascidian Distaplia
bermudensis, found for the rst time in
2000 at Taranto (Ionian Sea, southern Ita-
ly), where an abundant population of colo-
nies is now present (MASTROTOTARO
& BRUNETTI, 2006);
e. the Indo-Pacic mantis shrimp Clorida al-
bolitura from Ashdod, Israel (AHYONG
& GALIL, 2006);
f. the needle-spined urchin Diadema setosum
from off Kaş peninsula, Turkey (YOKES
& GALIL, 2006);
g. the sh Platax teira captured off Bo-
drum (S. Turkey), possibly a speci-
men escaped from aquaculture facilities
(BILECENOĞLU & KAYA, 2006);
h. the sh Parupeneus forsskali, from Tasuηu
(Levantine coast of Turkey) (ÇINAR et al.,
2006);
i. the sh Nemipterus japonicus from Haifa
Bay (GOLANI & SONIN, 2006) and
j. the sh Decapterus russelli from Haifa
Bay (GOLANI, 2006)

Taxonomic expertise for identifying or-
ganisms was provided by the following in-
dividuals, whose generous efforts and con-
tributions to this project are gratefully ac-
knowledged.
Fish: Daniel Golani (Israel); Adib Saad (Syr-
ia), Maria Corsini-Foka (Greece)
Mollusca: Baki Yokes (Turkey); Serhat Al-
bayrak (Turkey); Jose Templado (Spain)
: Denise Bellan-Santini (France);
Sandro Ruffo (Italy)
: Baki Yokes (Turkey); Ahuva
Almogi-Labin (Israel)
: Eleni Voultsiadou (Greece); Jean
Vacelet (France)
: Valerio Bartolino (Italy);
Roger Bamber (U.K.)
Ascidia: Alfonso Ramos (Spain)
 Sami Lakkis (Lebanon); Ah-
met Kideys (Turkey); Ioanna Siokou-Frangou
(Greece); Jean Paul Casanova (France)
Fernando GómezFrance),
Sami Lakkis (Lebanon); Kalliopi Pagou, Ol-
ympia Gotsis-Skretas (Greece)
 Inger Wallentinus (Sweden),
Athanasios Athanasiadis (Sweden); Jose
Rico (Spain); Marc Verlaque (France).
References
ABELLÓ, P. & HISPANO, C., 2006. The
capture of the Indo-Pacic crab Charyb-
dis feriata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Brachyura:
Portunidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.
Aquatic Invasions, 1 (1): 13-16. http://
www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2006/AI_
2006_1_1_Abello_Hispano.pdf
AHYONG, S.T. & GALIL, B.S., 2006. First
Mediterranean record of the Indo-West
Pacic mantis shrimp, Clorida albolitura
Ahyong & Naiyanetr, 2000 (Stomatopo-
da, Squillidae). Aquatic Invasions, 1(3):
191-193.
ALEEM, A.A., 1948. The recent migration
of certain Indopacic algae from the Red
Sea into the Mediterranean. New Phytol-
ogist, 47: 88–94.
ALEEM, A.A., 1950. Some new records of
marine algae from the Mediterranean Sea
102 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
with reference to their geographical dis-
tribution. Acta Horti Gothoburgensis, 18:
276-288.
ALEEM, A.A., 1993. Marine algae of Alex-
andria. Privately published, Alexandria,
135p.
ALGAEBASE HOMEPAGE: http://www.
algaebase.org
AMPHIPODA HOMEPAGE. http://web.
odu.edu/sci/biology/jrh/whatis.html
ANDREAKIS, N., PROCACCINI, G. &
KOOISTRA, W.H.C.F, 2004. Aspara-
gopsis taxiformis and Asparagopsis ar-
mata (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta):
genetic and morphological identication
of Mediterranean population. European
Journal of Phycologie 39: 273–283.
ARGANO, R., FERRARA, F., GUGLIEL-
MO, L., RIGGIO, S. & RUFFO, S., 1995.
Crustacea Malacostraca II. (Tanaidacea,
Isopoda, Amphipoda, Euphausiacea). In:
Minelli A., Ruffo S., lA PoStA S. (eds.),
Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana,
30. Edizioni Calderini, Bologna, 50 pp.
ARNAUD, F., 1987. Les Pycnogonides
(Chelicerata) de la Méditerranée: distri-
bution écologique, bathymétrique et bi-
ogéographie. Mésogée, 47: 37-58.
ATHANASIADIS, A., 1987. A survey of
the seaweeds of the Aegean Sea with
taxonomic studies on species of the tribe
Antithamnieae (Rhodophyta). Thesis,
Goterna, Kunga 1v, 174 pp.
ATHANASIADIS, A., 2002. Taxonomy and
systematics of Rhodophyta with refer-
ence to the Mediterranean taxa. Flora
Mediterranea, 12: 93-166.
AYSEL, V., 1984. Türkiye’nin Ege
Denizi’ndeki Polysiphonia Greville
(Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales) türleri 1-
Bölüm Oligosiphonia. Doga Bilim Der-
gisi, 8: 29-42 (in Turkish).
AYSEL, V., 1997. Marine ora of Turk-
ish Mediterranean coast 2. Brown algae
(Fucophyceae = Phaeophyceae). Turkish
Journal of Botany, 21: 329-334.
BACESCU, M., 1961a. Contribution a
l’étude des Cumacés de la Méditerranée
et particulièrement des côtes d’Israel.
Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réun-
ions. Commission Internationale pour
l’Exploration Scientique de la Mer
Méditerranée 16: 496-502.
BACESCU, M., 1961b. Contribution à la
connaissance des Tanaidaces de la Médi-
terranée Orientale -1. Les Apseudidae et
Kalliapseudidae des côtes d’Israel. Bul-
letin of the Research Council of Israel (B)
10 (4): 137-170.
BALATA, D., PIAZZI, L., & CINELLI, F.,
2004. A comparison among assemblages
in areas invaded by Caulerpa taxifolia
and C. racemosa on a subtidal Mediter-
ranean rocky bottom. Marine Ecology
25(1): 1–13.
BALAVOINE, P., 1959. Bryozoaires. Mis-
sion Robert Ph. Dollfus en Egypte
(Décembre 1927 – Mars 1929). p.257-
282. In: Résultats Scientiques, 3e partie
(XXIII-XXXIV), edited by S.S.Al Sayad,
Paris, CNRS.
BARASH, A. & DANIN, Z., 1977. Additions
to the knowledge of Indo-Pacic Mollus-
ca in the Mediterranean. Conchiglie, 13
(5-6): 85-116.
BARASH, A. & DANIN, Z., 1986. Further
additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pa-
cic Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea.
Spixiana, 9 (2): 117-141.
BARICHE, M. & TRILLES, J.P., 2006. Ani-
locra pilchardi n.sp., a new parasitic cy-
mothoid isopod from off Lebanon (East-
ern Mediterranean). Systematic Parasi-
tology, 64: 203-214.
BARNICH, R. & FIEGE, D., 2003. The Aph-
roditoidea (Annelida: Polychaeta) of the
Mediterranean Sea. Abhandlungen der
Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden
Gesellschaft, 559: 1-167.
BASTERREXTEA, G., GARCÉS, E., JOR-
DI, A., MASO, M. & TINTORE, J., 2005.
Breeze conditions as a favouring mecha-
nism of Alexandrium taylori blooms at a
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 103
Mediterranean beach. Estuarine Coastal
and Shelf Science, 62 (1-2): 1-12.
BATTELLI, C. & TAN, I.H., 1998. Ulva
scandinavica Bliding, (Chlorophyta): a
new species for the Adriatic Sea. Annales
13: 121-124.
BATTIATO, A. & PONTE, A., 1975. Flora
sommersa della Baia di Brucoli (Siracusa).
Primo contributo. Atti Accademia Gioenia
Scienze Naturali, Catania, 7: 93-99.
BELLAN-SANTINI, D. & COSTELLO,
M.J., 2001. Amphipoda p. 295-308. In:
European register of marine species: a
check-list of the marine species in Europe
and a bibliography of guides to their iden-
tication, edited by M.J. Costello et al.
Collection Patrimoines Naturels.
BELLAN-SANTINI, D. & RUFFO S., 2003.
Biogeography of benthic marine am-
phipods in Mediterranean Sea. Biogeo-
graphia, 24: 273-292.
BELLAN-SANTINI, D., KARAMAN, G.S.,
LEDOYER, M., MYERS, A.A., RUFFO,
S. & VADER, W., 1998. The Amphipo-
da of the Mediterranean (S. Ruffo ed.),
Part 4, Memoires de l’ Institut Oceano-
graphique, Monaco, 13: 815-959.
BELLEMO, G.D., CURIEL, M., MARZOC-
CHI, M., IURI M., PAVAN, N., VEC-
CHIATO, M. & SCATTOLIN, M., 1999.
Aggiornamento di nuove specie algali
per la Laguna di Venezia. Lavori Società
Veneziana Scienze naturali, 24: 55–66.
BELLO, G., CASAVOLA, N. & RIZZI, E.,
2004. Aliens and visitors in the Southern
Adriatic Sea: effects of tropicalisation.
p.491. In: Abstracts of the 37th Congress
of the Mediterranean Science Commis-
sion, edited by J.Masscle et al., Monaco,
CIESM.
BEN-ELIAHU, M.N., 1972a. Littoral Poly-
chaeta from Cyprus. Téthys, 4: 85-94.
BEN-ELIAHU, M.N., 1972b. Some Poly-
chaeta Errantia from the Suez Canal. Is-
rael Journal of Zoology, 21: 189-203.
BEN-ELIAHU, M.N., 1976. Errant Polycha-
ete cryptofauna (excluding Syllidae and
Nereidae) from rims of similar intertidal
vermetid reefs of the Mediterranean coast
of Israel and in the Gulf of Elat. Israel
Journal of Zoology, 25: 156-177.
BEN-ELIAHU, M.N. & HOVE, H.A. TEN,
1992. Serpulid tubeworms (Annelida:
Polychaeta) - a recent expedition along
the Mediterranean coast of Israel nds
new population buildups of Lessepsian
migrant species. Israel Journal of Zool-
ogy, 38: 35-53.
BEN MAIZ, N., BOUDOURESQUE, C-F.
& GERBAL, M., 1986. Flore algale de
l’étang de Thau: Grateloupia doryphora
(Montagne) Howe et Grateloupia licina
(Wulfen) C. Agardh. Thalassographica
9: 39-49.
BIECHELER, B., 1952. Recherches sur les
Peridiniens. Bulletin Biologique de la
France et de la Belgique, 36: 1-149.
BILECENOĞLU, M. & KAYA, M., 2006. A
new alien sh in the Mediterranean Sea
Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775) (Osteich-
thyes: Ephippidae). Aquatic Invasions,
1: 80-83. http://www.aquaticinvasions.
ru/2006/AI_2006_1_2_Bilecenoglu_
Kaya.pdf
BILLARD, A., 1926. II. Rapport sur les Hy-
droides. Cambridge Expedition to the
Suez Canal, 1924. Transactions of the
Zoological Society, London, 22: 85-104.
BITAR, G. & KOULI-BITAR, S., 2001.
Nouvelles données sur la faune et la ore
benthiques de la côte Libanaise. Migra-
tion Lessepsienne. Thalassia Salentina,
25: 71-74.
BIZSEL, N. & BIZSEL, C., 2002. New
records of toxic algae Heterosigma cf.
akashiwo and Gymnodinium cf. miki-
motoi in the hypereutrophic Izmir Bay
(Aegean Sea): Coupling between organ-
isms and water quality parameters. Israel
Journal of Plant Sciences, 50: 33-44.
BLANCHARD, M. 1996. Spread of the slip-
per limpet Crepidula fornicata (L., 1758)
104 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
in Europe. Current state and consequenc-
es. Scientia Marina 61 (Suppl. 2): 109-
118.
BOGDANOS, C. & FREDJ, G., 1983. Sur
la présence de Cossura coasta Kitamori,
1960 (Polychaeta, Cossuridae) dans les
eaux côtières grecques (Mer Egée, Mer
Ionienne). Thalassographica, 6: 5-15.
BÖGGEMANN, M., 2002. Revision of the
Glyceridae Grube 1850 (Annelida: Poly-
chaeta). Abhandlungen der Senckenber-
gischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft,
555: 1-249.
BÖGGEMANN, M., 2005. Revision of the
Goniadidae (Annelida, Polychaeta). Ab-
handlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen
Vereins in Hamburg, 39: 354 p.
BOISSET, F., FURNARI, G., CORMACI,
M. & SERIO, D., 1998. First record of
Laurencia chondroides (Ceramiales,
Rhodophyta) from the Mediterranean
Sea. Botanica Marina, 41: 279-284.
BOUDOURESQUE, C.F., 1994. Les es-
pèces introduites dans les eaux côtières
d’Europe et de Méditerranée: état de la
question et conséquences. p. 8-24. In:
Introduced species in European coastal
waters, edited by C.F.Boudouresque,
F.Briand, C. Nolan, Bruxelles, European
Commission.
BOUDOURESQUE, C.-F. & RIBERA, M.A.,
1994. Les introductions d’espèces végé-
tales et animales en milieu marin - conse-
quences écologiques et économiques et
problèmes legislatifs. p.29-102. In: First
International Workshop on Caulerpa
taxifolia, edited by C.F.Boudouresque et
al., France, Groupement d’Intérêt Scien-
tique Posidonie Publishers.
BOUDOURESQUE, C.-F. & VERLAQUE,
M., 2002a. Biological pollution in the
Mediterranean Sea: invasive versus in-
troduced macrophytes. Marine Pollution
Bulletin, 44: 32-38.
BOUDOURESQUE, C.-F. & VERLAQUE,
M., 2002b. Assessing scale and impact
of ship transported alien macrophytes in
the Mediterranean Sea. p.53-61. In: Alien
marine organisms introduced by ships in
the Mediterranean and Black seas, edited
by F.Briand, Monaco, CIESM Workshop
Monographs No. 20.
BOUDOURESQUE, C.-F, MEINESZ, A.,
RIBERA, MA., & BALLESTEROS, E.
1995. Spread of the green alga Caulerpa
taxifolia (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) in
the Mediterranean: Possible consequenc-
es of a major ecological event. Scientia
Marina 59, Suppl. 1: 21-29.
BOUILLON, J., MEDEL, M.D., PAGÈS, F.,
GILI, J.M., BOERO, F. & GRAVILI, C.,
2004. Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydro-
zoa. Scientia Marina, 68 (2): 449 pp.
BURTON, M., 1936. The sheries grounds
near Alexandria. IX. Sponges. Notes and
Memoirs 17, Fisheries Research Directo-
rate, Cairo, 27 p.
CACCAMESE, S., COMPAGNINI, A. &
TOSCANO, R. M., 1986. Pacifenol from
the Mediterranean red alga Laurencia
majuscula. Journal of Natural Products,
49: 173-174.
CANTONE, G., 2001. Policheti nuovi o rari
in Mediterraneo presenti nel Golfo di
Noto (Sicilia Sud-Orientale). Biologia
Marina Mediterranea, 8 (1): 107-108.
CANTONE, G. & FASSARI, G., 1982. Poli-
cheti dei fondi mobili del Golfo di Cata-
nia. Animalia, 9: 226-237.
CARLTON, J.T., 1996. Biological invasions
and cryptogenic species. Ecology, 77:
1653-1655.
CASANOVA, J.-P., 1985. Les Chaetog-
nathes de la Mer Rouge. Remarques
morphologiques et biogιographiques.
Description de Sagitta erythraea sp.n.
Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réun-
ions. Commission Internationale pour
l’Exploration Scientique de la Mer
Méditerraneé, 29 (9): 269-274.
CASTELLI, A. & LARDICCI, C., 1986.
Streptosyllis arenae Webster & Benedict,
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 105
1884 (Polychaeta, Syllidae): prima seg-
nalazione nel Mediterraneo. Atti della
Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali,
Memorie, Serie B, 93: 145-148.
CECCHERELLI, A. G., & CAMPO, D.,
2002. Different effects of Caulerpa race-
mosa on two co-occurring seagrasses in
the Mediterranean. Botanica Marina 45:
71-76.
ÇEVIKER, D., 2001. Recent immigrant bi-
valves in the northeastern Mediterranean
off Iskenderun. La Conchiglia, 298: 39-
46.
CHIMENZ GUSSO, C. & D’HONDT, J.-L.,
2005. Finding of Pherusella brevituba
Soule, 1951 (Bryozoa Ctenostomatida,
Pherusellidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.
Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia
Naturale di Verona, 29: 85-88.
CHIMENZ GUSSO, C. & LATTANZI, L.,
2003. Mediterranean Pycnogonida: Fau-
nistic, taxonomical and zoogeographical
considerations. Biogeographia, 24: 251-
262.
CHIMENZ GUSSO, C., D’HONDT, J.-L.,
NICOLETTI, L. & GALLUZZO CUS-
CANI, G., 1998. Finding of Arachnoidea
(Arachnoidella) protecta (Harmer, 1915)
(Bryozoa Ctenostomatida, Arachnidii-
dae) in the Mediterranean Sea. Italian
Journal of Zoology, 65: 235-28.
CIESM on line : http://www.ciesm.org/on-
line/atlas/index.htm
ÇINAR, M.E., 2005. Polychaetes from the
coast of northern Cyprus (eastern Medi-
terranean Sea), with two new records for
the Mediterranean Sea. Cahiers de Biolo-
gie Marine, 46: 143-161.
ÇINAR, M.E. & ERGEN, Z. 2005. Lessep-
sian migrants expanding their distribu-
tional ranges; Pseudonereis anomala
(Polychaeta: Nereididae) in Izmir Bay
(Aegean Sea). Journal of the Marine Bi-
ological Association of the United King-
dom, 85: 313-321.
ÇINAR, M.E., ERGEN, Z. & DAGLI, E.
2002. Occurrence of the lessepsian spe-
cies Leonnates persicus (Polychaeta:
Nereididae) in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea.
Journal of the Marine Biological Asso-
ciation of the United Kingdom, 82: 811-
815.
ÇINAR, M.E., ERGEN, Z., DAGLI, E. &
PETERSEN, M. E., 2005. Alien species
of spionid polychaetes (Streblospio gyno-
branchiata and Polydora cornuta) in Iz-
mir Bay, eastern Mediterranean. Journal
of the Marine Biological Association of
the United Kingdom, 85: 821-827.
ÇINAR, M.E., BILECENOĞLU, M., ÖZ-
TÜRK, B. & CAN, A., 2006. New
records of alien species on the Levantine
coast of Turkey. Aquatic Invasions, 1: 84-
90. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2006/
AI_2006_1_2_Cinar_etal.pdf
COHEN, A.N. & CARLTON, J.T., 1998. Ac-
celerating invasion rate in a highly invad-
ed estuary. Science, 279: 555–558.
COGNETTI, G., 1994. Colonization of
brackish waters. Marine Pollution Bul-
letin, 28: 583-586.
CORMACI, M. & FURNARI, G., 1988. An-
tithamnionella elegans (Bethold) Corma-
ci et Furnari (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta)
and related species, with the description
of two new varieties. Phycologia, 27:
340-346.
CORMACI, M., FURNARI, G., GIAC-
CONE, G. & SERIO, D., 2004. Alien
Macrophytes in the Mediterranean Sea:
A review. Recent Research Development
Environmental Biology, 1: 153-202.
CRUSTIKON: http://www.imv.uit.no/crus-
tikon/Decapoda
CURIEL, D., BELLATO, A., SOLAZZI, A
& MARZOCCHI, M., 1994. Radicilin-
gua thysanorhizans (Holmes) Papenfuss
(Rhodophyta, Ceramiales): prima seg-
nalazione in laguna di Venezia. Informa-
tore Botanico Italiano, 26: 171-175.
DELILE, A.R., 1813. Florae Aegyptiacae
illustration. In: Description le l’Egypte,
ou recueil des observations et des re-
106 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
cherches qui été faits en Egypte pendant
l’expédition de l’armée Française [1798-
1801]... Historie Naturelle, Vol. 2. (Anon
Eds), pp. 49-82. Paris: France (Commis-
sion d’Egypte).
DIAMANT, A., 1989. Lessepsian migrants
as hosts: a parasitological assessment of
rabbitsh Siganus luridus and S. rivu-
latus (Siganidae) in their original and
new zoogeographical regions. pp 187-
194 In: Spanier E., Steinberger Y., Lu-
ria M., (ed.), Environmental quality and
ecosystem stability, Vol. IVB. Jerusalem,
ISEEQS Publications, Israel Society.
DIAMANT, A., 1998. Parasitological as-
pects of Red-Med sh migration. Actes
du Colloque Scientique, OCEANOS,
Montpellier, France, April 11-12, 1996,
p. 175-178.
DOWIDAR, N.M., 1972. Morphological
variations in Ceratium egyptiacum in dif-
ferent natural habitats. Marine Biology,
16: 138-49.
D’ HONDT, J.-L. & OCCHIPINTI AMBRO-
GI, A., 1985. Tricellaria inopinata, n.
sp., un nouveau Bryozoaire Cheilostome
de la faune Méditerranéenne. P.S.Z.N.I.:
Marine Ecology, 6 (1): 35-46.
D’HONDT, J.-L., 1988. Bryozoa from the
coast of Israel. Bollettino di Zoologia, 3:
191-203.
D’ HONDT, J.-L., in press. Les introductions
et transplantations de Bryozoaires exot-
iques. In: Plantes et Animaux Voyageurs,
edited by M.F.Diot and B.de Foucault,
Paris, Editions du CTHS, Ministère de la
Recherche.
DULČIĆ, J., LIPEJ, L., PALLAORO, A.
& SOLDO, A., 2004. The spreading of
lessepsian sh migrants into the Adriatic
Sea: a review. p. 349. In: Abstracts of the
37th Congress of the Mediterranean Sci-
ence Commission, edited by J.Masscle et
al., Monaco, CIESM.
DURAL, B. & AYSEL, V., 1996. A new
record for the algal ora of Mediterrane-
an 1.Cladophora boodleoides Börgesen.
Turkish Journal of Botany, 20: 465-468.
D’UDEKEM D’ACOZ, C., 1999. Inventaire
et distribution des crustacés décapodes de
l’Atlantique nord-oriental, de la Méditer-
ranée et des eaux continentales adjacentes
au nord de 25°N. Collection Patrimoines
Naturels (Muséum National d’Histoire
Naturelle/S.P.N.), 40: 1–383.
EPA-United States Environmental Protec-
tion Agency, 2001. http://www.epa.gov/
gmpo/nonindig.html Aquatic nuisance
species, Annual Report, 2001.
ERGEN, Z. & ÇINAR, M.E., 1997. Polycha-
eta of Antalya Bay (Mediterranean coast
of Turkey). Israel Journal of Zoology,
43: 229-241.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 2004. Envi-
ronment Directorate-General LIFE Focus
I Alien species and nature conservation in
the EU. The role of the LIFE program,
Luxembourg: Ofce for Ofcial Publica-
tions of the European Communities, 2004
(http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/
life/infoproducts/alienspecies_en.pdf)
FAO Database on Introductions of Aquatic
Species (DIAS). 1998. Database on
Introductions of Aquatic Species. On-
line. Available HTTP: http://www.fao.
org/waicent/faoinfo/shery/statist/soft/
dias/index.htm (accessed 15 December
2005).
FAUVEL, P., 1923. Faune de France. 5.
Polychètes Errantes. Ofce Central de
faunistique. Lechevalier, Paris, 488p.
FAUVEL, P., 1927. Faune de France. 16.
Polychètes Sédentaires. Addenda aux Er-
rantes, Archiannélides, Myzostomaires.
Ofce Central de faunistique. Lecheva-
lier, Paris, 494p.
FAUVEL, P., 1937. Les fonds de pêche près
d’Alexandrie. XI. Annélides Polychètes.
Ministère du Commerce et de l’Industrie,
Le Caire. Direction des Recherches des
Pêcheries. Notes and Mémoires, 19:
1-60.
FAUVEL, P., 1957. Contribution à la faune
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 107
des Annèlides Polychètes des côtes
d’Israel II. Bulletin of the Research Coun-
cil Israel, 6: 213-219.
FISHBASE website www.shbase.org
FURNARI, G., CORMACI, M. & SERIO,
D., 1999. Catalogue of the benthic ma-
rine macroalgae of the Italian coast of the
Adriatic Sea. Bocconea, 12: 1-214.
FURNARI, G., CORMACI, M. & SERIO,
D., 2001. The Laurencia complex (Rho-
dophyta, Rhodomelaceae) in the Medi-
terranean Sea: an overview. Cryptogamie
Algologie, 22 (4): 331-373.
FURNARI G., GIACCONE G., CORMACI
M., ALONGI G. & SERIO D., 2003.
Biodiversità marina delle coste italiane:
catalogo del macrotobenthos. Biologia
Marina Mediterranea, 10: 3-483.
GALIL, B.S. 1986. Red Sea decapods along
the Mediterranean coast of Israel: ecol-
ogy and distribution. In: Dubinsky Z. and
Steinberger Y. (eds) Environmental Qual-
ity and Ecosystem Stability, Vol IIIA/B,
pp 179-183. Bar-Ilan University Press,
Ramat Gan.
GALIL, B.S., 2000a. The ‘Silver Lining’
— the economic impact of Red Sea spe-
cies in the Mediterranean. p.265-267. In:
Marine Bioinvasions: Proceedings of
the First National Conference, edited by
J.Peterson, Cambridge, Massachusetts,
MIT Press.
GALIL, B.S., 2000b. A sea under siege-alien
species in the Mediterranean. Biological
Invasions, 2: 177-186.
GALIL, B.S. & LÜTZEN, J., 1998. Jeop-
ardy: host and parasite lessepsian mi-
grants from the Mediterranean coast of
Israel. Journal of Natural History, 32:
1549-1551.
GALIL, B. & ZENETOS, A., 2002. A sea
change - exotics in the Eastern Medi-
terranean Sea. p.325-336. In: Invasive
aquatic species in Europe. Distribution,
impacts and management, edited by
E.Leppakoski, S.Gollash and S.Olenin,
Dordrecht, Boston, London. Kluwer Ac-
ademic Publishers.
GALIL, B., FROGLIA, C. & NOEL, P.Y.,
2002. CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species in
the Mediterranean. Vol.2. Crustaceans:
decapods and stomatopods. (F. Briand,
Ed.), Monaco, CIESM Publishers, 192p.
GALIL, B.S., SPANIER, E & FERGUSON,
W.W., 1990. The Scyphomedusae of the
Mediterranean coast of Israel, includ-
ing two Lessepsian migrants new to the
Mediterranean. Zoologische Mededelin-
gen, 64: 95-105.
GAMBI, M.C., GIANGRANDE, A. & FRE-
SI, E., 1983. Presence d’ Oriopsis eimeri
(Langerhans, 1880) (Polychaeta, Sabel-
lidae) en Méditerranée. Vie Milieu, 33:
213-217.
GAMULIN, T. & KRŠINIĆ, F., 1999. Calu-
cophores (Siphonophora, Calycophorae)
of the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas.
Natura Croatica, 9 (2): 1-198.
GARCÉS, E., MASÓ, M. & CAMP, J., 1999.
A recurrent and localized dinoagellate
bloom in a Mediterranean beach. Journal
of Plankton Research, 21: 2373-239.
GARCÉS, E., MASÓ, M., VILA, M. &
CAMP, J., 2000. Harmful algae events in
the Mediterranean: are they increasing?
Harmful Algae News, 20: 1.
GARGIULO, G.M., DE MASI, F. & TRIPO-
DI, G. , 1992. Morphology, reproduction
and taxonomy of the Mediterranean spe-
cies of Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodo-
phyta). Phycologia 31: 53-80.
GIACOBBE, M. & YANG, X., 1999. The
life history of Alexandrium taylori (Di-
nophyceae). Journal of Phycology, 35:
331-338.
GIACCONE, G., 1969. Phytobenthos from
Italian continental shelf. Giornale Bo-
tanico Italiano 103: 485-514.
GIANGRANDE, A. & CASTELLI, A., 1986.
Occurrence of Fabricia lamentosa Day,
1963 (Polychaeta, Sabellidae, Fabrici-
nae) in the Mediterranean Sea. Oebalia,
108 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
13: 119-122.
GIERE, O. & ERSEUS, C., 1998. A system-
atic account of the Questidae (Annelida,
Polychaeta), with description of new
taxa. Zoological Science, 27: 345-360.
GODEH, M., NIZAMUDDIN, M. & EL-
MENIFI, F., 1992. Marine algae from the
eastern coast of Lybia (Cyrenaica). Paki-
stan Journal of Botany, 24: 11-21.
GOFAS, S. & ZENETOS, A., 2003. Exotic
molluscs in the Mediterranean basin:
Current status and perspectives. Ocea-
nography and Marine Biology: An an-
nual Review, 41: 237-277.
GOLANI, D., 1998. Impact of Red Sea sh
migrants through the Suez Canal on the
aquatic environment of the Eastern Med-
iterranean. Bulletin Series Yale School
of Forestry and Environmental Studies,
103: 375-387.
GOLANI, D., 2006. The section of Fishes.
pp. 17-20 In: A Newsletter of the biologi-
cal collections of the Hebrew University.
Hasiana, 3, 91 pp.
GOLANI, D. & SONIN, O., 2006. The Japa-
nese threadn beam Nemopterus japoni-
cus, a new Indo-Pacic sh in the Medi-
terranean Sea. Journal of Fish Biology,
68: 940-943.
GOLANI, D., ORSI-RELINI, L., MASSUTI,
E & QUINGNARD, J.P., 2002. CIESM
Atlas of Exotic Species in the Mediter-
ranean. Vol.1 Fishes, CIESM Publishers,
Monaco, 254 p.
GÓMEZ, F. & CLAUSTRE, H., 2001.
Spreading of Gymnodinium catenatum
Graham in the western Mediterranean
Sea. Harmful Algae News, 22: 1-3.
GÓMEZ, F., 2005. Endemic and Indo-Pacic
plankton in the Mediterranean Sea: a study
based on dinoagellate records. Journal of
Biogeography, 33 (2): 261-270.
GOREN, M & GALIL, B.S., 2005. A review
of changes in the sh assemblages of Le-
vantine inland and marine ecosystems
following the introduction of non-native
shes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology,
21: 364-370.
GOODWIN, B.J., MCALLISTER, A.J. &
FAHRIG, L., 1999. Predicting invasive-
ness of plant species based on biological
information. Conservation Biology, 13:
22-426.
GOY, J., LAKKIS, S. & ZEIDANE, R.,
1988. Les Méduses de la Méditerranée
Orientale. Rapports et Procès -Verbaux
des Réunions. Commission Internation-
ale pour l’Exploration Scientique de la
Mer Méditerraneé, 31 (2): 299.
GRAVINA, M.F. & SOMASCHINI, A.,
1990. Censimento dei policheti dei mari
Italiani: Capitellidae Grube, 1862. Atti
della Societá Toscana di Scienze Natu-
rali, Serie B, 97: 259-285.
GUERGUESS, S. K. & HALIM, Y., 1973.
Chaetognathes du plancton d’ Alexan-
drie. II. Un spécimen mür de Sagitta ne-
glecta Aida en Méditerranée. Rapports et
Procés-Verbaux des Réunions. Commis-
sion Internationale pour l’Exploration
Scientique de la Mer Méditerranée,
21(8) : 497-498.
HAAS, G., 1937. Mollusca Marina. p. 275-
280. In: Prodromus faunae Palestinae,
edited by F.S.Bodenheimer, Memoires de
l’Institute d’Egypte.
HAAS, G., 1942. A Ctenophore from the
Palestinian coast. Nature (London), 149:
110-111.
HALIM, Y., 1960. Alexandrium minutum n.
gen. n. sp., dinoagelle provocant ‘des
eaux rouges’. Vie et Milieu 11: 102-105.
HALIM, Y., 1990. On the Potential Migra-
tion of Indo-Pacic Plankton through the
Suez Canal. Bulletin de l’Institut Océa-
nographique, Monaco, 7: 11-27.
HARANT, H., 1927. XXIV. Rapport sur les
Tuniciers. Cambridge Expedition to the
Suez Canal, 1924. Transactions of the
Zoological Society of London, 22: 365-
374.
HARMELIN, J.G., 1969a. Contribution à
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 109
l’étude de l’endofaune des prairies d
Halophila stipulacea de Méditerranée
Orientale. I.- Annélides Polychètes. Re-
cueil des Travaux de la Station Marine
d’Endoume, 45 (61): 305-316.
HARMELIN, J.G., 1969b. Bryozoaires ré-
coltés au cours de la campagne du Jean
Charcot en Méditerranée orientale (août-
septembre 1967). – II. Dragages. Bulle-
tin du Muséum National d’Histoire Na-
turelle, 2e, 40 (6): 1179-1208.
HARMELIN-VIVIEN, M., HARMELIN,
J.G., & FRANCOUR, P. 1996. A 3-year
study of the littoral sh fauna of sites
colonised by Caulerpa taxifolia in the
NW Mediterranan (Menton, France). In:
Ribera, M.A., Ballesteros, E., Boudour-
esque, C.F., Gómez, A., & Gravez, V.
(eds) Second International Workshop on
Caulerpa taxifolia. Publications Univer-
sity Barcelona, 391-397.
HARMELIN-VIVIEN, M.L., BITAR G.,
HARMELIN, J.G. & MONESTIEZ P.,
2005. The littoral sh community of the
Lebanese rocky coast (eastern Mediter-
ranean Sea) with emphasis on Red Sea
immigrants. Biological Invasions, 7:
625-637.
HARMER, S.F., 1957. The Polyzoa of the
Siboga Expedition. Pt. 4, Cheilostoma
Ascophora, II. Siboga-Expedite, 28d:
642-1147. E.J. Brill, Leiden.
HASTINGS, A.B., 1927. Cambridge Expe-
dition to the Suez Canal, 1924. Pt. 20.
Report on the Polyzoa. Transactions of
the Zoological Society of London, 22:
331-354.
HAYWARD, P.J., 1974. Studies on the
cheilostome bryozoan fauna of the
Aegean island of Chios. Journal of Natu-
ral History, 8: 369-402.
HENDRICKX, M.E. & ESTRADA-NAV-
ARRETE, F.D., 1994. Temperature relat-
ed distribution of Lucifer typus (Crusta-
cea: Decapoda) in the Gulf of California.
Revista de Biologia Tropical (San Jose),
42(3): 581-586.
HOLTHUIS, L.B., 1956. Notes on a col-
lection of Crustacea Decapoda from the
Great Bitter Lake, Egypt, with a list of
species of Decapoda known from the
Suez Canal. Zoologische Mededelingen
Leiden, 34 (22): 301-330.
HOLMES, J. M. C. & MINCHIN, D. ,
1995. Two exotic copepods imported
into Ireland with Pacic oyster Crassos-
trea gigas (Thunberg). Irish Naturalists
Journal, 25, 17-20.
HOPPE, K.N., 2002. Teredo navalis – The
cryptogenic shipworm. p.116-120. In:
Invasive aquatic species in Europe.
Distribution, impacts and management,
edited by E.Leppäkoski, S.Gollash and
S.Olenin, Dordrecht, Boston, London.,
Kluwer Academic publishers.
HOTTINGER, L., HALICZ, E. & REISS, Z.,
1993. Recent Foraminifera from the Gulf
of Aqaba, Red Sea. The Slovenian Acad-
emy of Sciences and Arts and the Swiss
Academy of Natural Sciences, Ljubljana,
179 p.
HOVE, H. A. TEN & BEN-ELIAHU, M. N.,
2005. On the identity of Hydroides pris-
cus Pillai 1971- Taxonomic confusion due
to ontogeny in some serpulid genera (An-
nelida: Polychaeta: Serpulidae). Senck-
enbergiana biologica, 85: 127-145.
HYAMS, O., 2001. Benthic foraminifera
from the Mediterranean inner shelf (to
40m) Israel. M.Sc. thesis, Ben-Gurion
University of the Negev, Israel, 228 p. (in
Hebrew, with an English abstract).
HYAMS, O., ALMOGI-LABIN, A. & BEN-
JAMINI, C., 2002. Larger foraminifera
of the southeastern Mediterranean shal-
low continental shelf off Israel. Israel
Journal of Earth Sciences, 51: 169-179.
ICES, 2001. Report of the Working Group
on Introductions and Transfers of Ma-
rine Organisms, Barcelona, Spain, 19-20
March 2001. 44 p.
ICES/IOC/IMO, 2003. Report of the Study
110 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
Group on Ballast water and Other Ship
Vectors (SGBOSV). Joint ICES/IOC/
IMO Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, 24–
25 March 2003.
ICES/IOC/IMO, 2004. Report of the Study
Group on Ballast water and Other Ship
Vectors. Joint ICES/IOC/IMO Meeting,
Cesenatico, Italy 22-24 March, 2004.
ICES: International Council for the Explora-
tion of the Sea: http://www.ices.dk
IMO: International Maritime Organisation:
www.imo.org
ITIS: Integrated Taxonomic Information
System: http://www.itis.usda.gov
IUCN : International Union for the Conser-
vation of Nature and Natural Resources
http://www.iucn.org
JUNOY, J. & CASTELLÓ, J., 2003. Catálo-
go de las especies ibéricas y baleares de
isópodos marinos (Crustacea: Isopoda).
Boletin del Instituto Español de Ocea-
nograa, 19 (1-4): 293-325.
KAMBOUROGLOU, V. & NICOLAIDOU,
A., 2006. A new alien species in Hel-
lenic waters: Pseudonereis anomala
(Polychaeta, Nereididae) invades harbors
in the Eastern Mediterranean. Aquatic
Invasions, 1 (2): 97-98 www.aquaticin-
vasions.ru/2006/AI_2006_1_2_Kam-
bouroglou_Nicolaidou.pdf.
KEANE, R.M. & CRAWLEY, M.J., 2002.
Exotic plant invasions and the enemy re-
lease hypothesis. Trends in Ecology and
Evolution, 17: 164-170.
KIMOR, B., 1973. Plankton relations of the
Red Sea, Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea.
p.221-232. In: The Biology of the Indian
Ocean, Ecological Studies, Vol III, edited
by B.Zeitschel, Berlin-Heidelberg-New
York, Springer.
KLEIN, J., RUITTON, S., VERLAQUE,
M. & BOUDOURESQUE, C.F., 2005.
Species introductions, diversity and dis-
turbances in marine macrophyte assem-
blages of the northwestern Mediterrane-
an Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series,
290: 79-88.
KOÇAK, F., ERGEN, Z. & ÇINAR, M.E.,
1999. Fouling organisms and their de-
velopments in a polluted and an unpol-
luted marine in the Aegean Sea (Turkey).
Ophelia, 50 (1): 1-20.
KOCATAŞ, A., T. KATAĞAN, & ATEŞ,
A.S., 2002. Lessepsian invasion decapod
crustaceans at Turkish seas. p.56-58. In:
Workshop on Lessepsian Migrations No
9, edited by B.Öztürk and N.Basusta.
Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Is-
tanbul, Turkey.
KORAY, T., 2002. Toxic and harmful phy-
toplanktonic species in the Aegean (in-
cluding Dardanelles) and northeaestern
Mediterranean coastline. p. 40-45, In:
Workshop on Lessepsian Migration Pro-
ceedings, No 9, edited by B.Öztürk and
N.Basusta. Turkish Marine Research
Foundation, Istanbul, Turkey.
LAKKIS, S., 1984. On the presence of some
rare copepods in the Levantine basin.
Crustaceana, 7: 286-304.
LAKKIS, S., 1990. Composition, diversité et
succession des copépodes planctoniques
des eaux libanaises (Méditerranée Ori-
entale). Oceanologica Acta, 13 (4): 489-
502.
LAKKIS, S. & ZEIDANE, R., 1988. L’ ich-
thyoplancton des eaux côtières marines
libanaises: oeufs et larves de Teleos-
teens. Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des
Réunions. Commission Internationale
pour l’Exploration Scientique de la Mer
Méditerranée, 31 (2): 320.
LAKKIS, S. & ZEIDANE, R., 2004. Ex-
otic species and Lessepsian migration
of Plankton in Lebanese waters, Levan-
tine basin, Eastern Mediterrranean. p.
384 In: Abstracts of the 37th Congress
of the Mediterranean Science Commis-
sion, edited by J.Masscle et al., Monaco,
CIESM.
LAKKIS, S., AVIAN, M., DEL NEGRO, P.
& ROTTINI- SANDRINI, L., 1990. Les
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 111
Scyphoméduses du Bassin Levantin (Bey-
routh) et de l’Adriatique du nord (golfe
de Trieste): Comparaison faunistique et
écologique. Rapports et Procès-Verbaux
des Réunions. Commission Internation-
ale pour l’Exploration Scientique de la
Mer Méditerranée, 32 (1): 20.
LAKKIS, S., BITAR, G., NOVEL-LAKKIS,
V. & ZEIDANE, R., 1996. Etude de la
Diversité Biologique du Liban. Flore et
Faune Marines. UNEP & Ministry of
Agriculture. Beyrouth, Liban, Publ.No 6,
123 p.
LAKKIS, S., KIDEYS, A.E., SHMELEVA,
A.A., KOVALEV, A.V., UNAL, E., &
ZEIDANE, R., 2002. Comparison of
zooplankton biodiversity among Eastern
Mediterranean Basins with particular ref-
erence to the alien species. p.135. In: 2nd
International Conference: Oceanography
of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black
Sea. 14-18 Oct 2002. METU Cultural and
Convention Center Ankara, Turkey.
LAMPRELL, K.L., 1998. Recent Spondylus
species from the Middle East and adja-
cent regions, with the description of two
new species. Vita Marina, 45 (1-2): 41-
60.
LARWOOD, H.J.C., 1940. The Fishery
grounds near Alexandria. XXI. Tanai-
dacea and Isopoda. Fouad I. Institute of
Hydrobiology and Fisheries: Notes and
Memoirs, 35: 1-72.
LAUBIER, L., 1966. Sur quelques Annélides
polychètes de la règion de Beyrouth.
Miscellaneous Papers in the Natural Sci-
ences, American University of Beirut, 5:
9-23.
LAUBIER, L., 1970. Prionospio salzi sp.
nov. un spionidien (Annélide Polychète)
des côtes Méditerranéennes d’Israel.
Israel Journal of Zoology, 19 (4): 183-
190.
LAURET, M., 1970. Morphologie, phénolo-
gie, répartition des Polysiphonia marins
du littoral languedocien. I- Section Oli-
gosiphonia. Naturalia Monspeliensia
(Bot), 21: 121-163.
LEPPAKOSKI, E., GOLLASCH, S. &
OLENIN, S., 2002. Invasive Aquatic
Species in Europe. Distribution, Impacts
and Management. Dordrecht, Boston,
London., Kluwer Academic Publishers.
LIPKIN, Y., 1972. Contribution to the knowl-
edge of Suez Canal migration. Marine al-
gal and sea-grass ora of the Suez Canal.
Israel Journal of Zoology, 21: 405-446.
LOGAN, A., BIANCHI, C.N., MORRI, C.
& ZIBROWIUS, H., 2004. The present-
day Mediterranean brachiopod fauna:
diversity, life habits, biogeography and
paleobiogeography. Scientia marina, 68
(Suppl. 1): 163-170.
LORENTI, M., DAPPIANO, M. & GAMBI,
M.C. (in press). Presence of the genus
Mesanthura (Crustacea, Isopoda, Anthu-
ridea) in the Mediterranean Sea: a prob-
able introduction to two Italian harbours.
Scientia Marina.
LUBINEVSKY, H. & MIENIS, H.K., 2005.
A rst record of Nanostrea exigua Har-
ry, 1985, another exotic mollusc species
from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Tri-
ton, 12: 5-6.
LUNDBERG, B., 1989. Food habits of Si-
ganus rivulatus, a lessepsian migrant, as
adapted to algal resources at the coast of
Israel. Environmental Quality and Eco-
system Stability. IVB Spanier, E., Stein-
berger Y. and Lauria M. (Eds), Environ-
mental Quality ISEEQS Publications,
Jerusalem, 113 pp.
MAGNE, F., 1992. Goniotrichopsis (Rho-
dophyceae, Porphyridiales) in Europe.
Cryptogamie Algologie, 13 (2): 109-112.
MALT, S.J., LAKKIS, S. & ZEIDANE, R.,
1989. The copepod genus Oncaea (Po-
ecilostomatoidea) from the Lebanon:
taxonomic and ecological observations,
Journal of Plankton Research, 11 (5):
949-969.
MASTROTOTARO, F. & DAPPIANO, M.,
112 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
2005. New record of the non-indigenous
species Microcosmus squamiger (Ascid-
iacea: Stolidobranchia) in the harbour of
Salerno (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Journal
of the Marine Biological Association,
JMBA2, Biodiversity records: http://
www.mba.ac.uk/pdf/5124.pdf
MASTROTOTARO, F. & BRUNETTI, R.,
2006. The non-indigenous aplosobranch
ascidian Distaplia bermudensis in the
Mediterranean: comparison with the na-
tive species Distaplia magnilarva and
Distaplia lucillae n. sp. Journal of the
Marine Biological Association of the
United Kingdom, 86: 181-185.
MEINESZ, A., 1999. Killer Algae. Univer-
sity of Chicago Press, Chicago, 376 pp.
MERIÇ, E., AVŞAR, N., BERGIN, F., &
YOKES, B., 2002. The Prolication of
Amphistegina (Lessepsian migrants) pop-
ulation at the Three-Islands (Üçadalar,
Antalya), a new observation from the
Turkish Coast. p.27-34. In: Workshop on
Lessepsian Migration Proceedings, No 9,
edited by B.Öztürk and N.Başusta. Turk-
ish Marine Research Foundation, Istan-
bul, Turkey.
MERIÇ, E., AVŞAR, N. & BERGIN, F.,
2004. Benthic foraminifera of Eastern
Aegean Sea (Turkey) systematics and
autoecology. Chamber of Geological
Engineers of Turkey and Turkish Marine
Research Foundation, Publication No 18:
306 p.
MIENIS, H.K., 2001a. Marine molluscs
from the Eastern Mediterranean: 5. A
rst record of Strombus mutabilis. Spir-
ula, 323: 118.
MIENIS, H.K., 2001b. A second nd of Ce-
rithium nodulosum adansonii. Spirula,
321: 66-67.
MIENIS, H.K., 2003a. Marine molluscs
from the Eastern Mediterranean: 11. A
rst nd of Cerithium columna Sowerby,
1834. Spirula, 331: 31-32.
MIENIS, H.K., 2003b. Trochus niloticus on
the beach of Tel-Aviv-Yafo: a reminder
of the pearl button industry in Israel. SPC
Trochus Information Bulletin, 10: 8.
MIENIS, H.K., 2004. New data concern-
ing the presence of Lessepsian and other
Indo-Pacic migrants among the mol-
luscs in the Mediterranean Sea with em-
phasis on the situation in Israel. Turkish
Journal of Aquatic Life, 2 (2): 117-131.
MIENIS, H.K., 2005. An overlooked record
of Callista orida from Port Said, Egypt
(Bivalvia, Veneridae). Triton, 11: 5.
MIKHAIL, S.K., 2001. Toxic red tide species
are on rise in Alexandria waters (Egypt).
Harmful Algae News, 22: 1.
MONRO, C.C.A., 1937. A note on a col-
lection of polychaetes from the eastern
Mediterranean with a description of a
new species. Annals and Magazine of
Natural History, 19: 82-86.
MONTRESOR, M. & ZINGONE, A., 1988.
Scrippsiella precaria sp. nov. (Dinophyc-
eae), a marine dinoagellate from the
Gulf of Naples. Phycologia 27: 387-394.
MOSCATELLO, S., RUBINO, F. SARACI-
NO, O.D., FANELLI, G., BELMONTE,
G. & BOERO, F., 2004. Plankton bio-
diversity around the Salento Peninsula
(South East Italy): an integrated water/
sediment approach. Scientia Marina,
68(1): 85-102.
MURINA, G.V.V. & ZAVODNIK, D., 1986.
Sipuncula of the Adriatic Sea. Thalassia
Jugoslavica, 21-22: 23-73.
OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI, A., 1986. Os-
servazioni sul popolamento a Briozoi
in praterie di Posidonia oceanica del
litorale pugliese. Bollettino dei Musei e
degli Istituti Biologici dell’Università di
Genova, 52: 427-439.
OCCHIPINTI-AMBROGI, A., 2000. Biotic
invasions in a Mediterranean lagoon. Bi-
ological Invasions, 2 (2): 165-176.
OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI, A., 2001. Trans-
fer of marine organisms: a challenge to
the conservation of coastal biocoenoses.
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 113
Aquatic Conservation: Marine Freshwa-
ter Ecosystem, 11: 243-251.
OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI, A., 2002a. Cur-
rent status of aquatic introductions in It-
aly. p.311-324. In: Invasive Aquatic spe-
cies of Europe – distribution impacts and
management, edited by E.Leppakoski,
S.Gollasch and S.Olenin, Dordrecht,
Boston, London, Kluwer Academic Pub-
lishers.
OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI, A., 2002b. Sus-
ceptibility to invasion: assessing the
scale and impact of alien biota in North-
ern Adriatic. p.69-73. In: Alien Marine
Organisms Introduced by Ships in the
Mediterranean and Black Seas, edited
by F. Briand. Monaco, CIESM Workshop
Monographs No. 20.
OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI, A., 2004 in ICES/
IOC/IMO WGBOSV 2004
OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI, A. & D’HONDT,
J.L., 1996. Introduzione di specie alloc-
tone in laguna di Venezia: Cellepore-
lla carolinensis Ryland 1979 (Bryozoa:
Ascophora). Bollettino della Società
Veneziana di Storia Naturale e del Museo
Civico di Storia Naturale, 46: 53-61.
OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI, A. & SAVINI,
D., 2003. Biological invasions as a com-
ponent of global change in stressed ma-
rine ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bul-
letin, 46: 542–551.
PENNA, A., GARCÉS, E., VILA, M., GI-
ACOBBE, M., FRAGA, S., LUGLIE, A.,
BRAVO, I., BERTOZINNI, E. & VER-
NESI, C., 2005. Alexandrium catenella
(Dinophyceae), a toxic ribotype expand-
ing in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Ma-
rine Biology, 148: 13-23.
PÉRÈS, J.M., 1954. Contribution à l’étude
des ascidies de Tunisie. Bulletin de la
Station Océanographique de Salammbo,
49: 3-21.
PEREZ, R., KAAS, R. & BARBAROUX, O.,
1984. Experimental culture of the brown
seaweed Undaria pinnatida along the
coasts of France. Science et Peche, Bul-
letin Institut Peches maritime, 343: 3-15.
PEREZ, T., VACELET, J., BITAR, G. & ZI-
BROWIUS, H., 2004. Two new lithistids
(Porifera, Demospongiae) from a shallow
Eastern Mediterranean cave (Lebanon).
Journal of the Marine Biological Asso-
ciation of the United Kingdom, 84 (1):
15-24.
PERRONE, C., CECERE, E. & FURNARI,
G., 2006. Growth pattern assessment in
the genus Acanthophora (Rhodophyta,
Ceramiales). Phycologia, 45 (1) : 37-43.
PIAZZI, L., MEINESZ, A., VERLAQUE,
M., AKCΈALI, B., ANTOLIC΄, B., AR-
GYROU, M., BALATA, D., BALLES-
TEROS, E., CALVO, S., CINELLI, F.,
CIRIK, S., COSSU, A., D’ARCHINO,
R., DJELLOULI, A.S., JAVEL, J., LAN-
FRANCO, E., MIFSUD, C., PALA,
D., PANAYOTIDIS, P., PEIRANO,
A., PERGENT, G., PETROCELLI, A.,
RUITTON, S., ZULJEVIC΄, A., CEC-
CHERELLI, G., 2005. Invasion of Caul-
erpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Cauler-
pales, Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean
Sea: an assessment of the spread. Crypto-
gamie Algologie 26(2): 189-202.
POR, F.D., 1964. A study of the Levantine
and Pontic Harpacticoida (Crustacea,
Copepoda). Zoologische Verhandelingen,
64: 1-128.
POR, F. D., 1967. Level bottom Harpacti-
coida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from Elat
(Red Sea) Part I. Israel Journal of Zool-
ogy, 16: 101-165.
POR, F.D., 1972. Hydrobiological notes on
the high-salinity waters of the Sinai Pe-
ninsula. Marine Biology, 14: 111-119.
POR, F., 1978. Lessepsian Migration. The
inux of Red sea Biota into the Mediter-
ranean by way of the Suez Canal. Berlin,
Ecological Studies Springer-Verlag, 123p.
POWELL, N.A., 1967. Bryozoa (Polyzoa)
from the South Red Sea. Cahiers de Bi-
ologie Marine, 7: 161-182.
114 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
POWELL, N.A., 1969. Indo-Pacic Bryozoa
new to the Mediterranean coast of Israel.
Israel Journal of Zoology, 18: 157-168.
PRANOVI, F., DA PONTE, F., RAICEV-
ICH, S. & GIOVANARDI, O., 2004. A
synoptic-multidisciplinary study of the
immediate effects of mechanical clam-
harvesting in the Venice Lagoon. ICES
Journal of Marine Science, 61: 43-52.
PRANOVI, F., LIBRALATO, S., RAICEV-
ICH, S., GRANZOTTO, A., PASTRES,
R. & GIOVANARDI, O., 2003. Mechan-
ical clam dredging in Venice lagoon: eco-
system effects evaluated with a trophic
mass-balance model. Marine Biology,
143: 393-403.
RAMOS, A.A., BUENCUERPO, V.,
VΑZQUEZ, E. & LAFARGUE, F. 1992.
Some Biogeographical Remarks about
the Ascidian Littoral Fauna of the Straits
of Gibraltar (Iberian Sector). Bulletin de
l’ Institut Océanographique, Monaco 9:
125-132.
REINA-HERVÁS, J.A., GARCIA RACO,
J.E. & MANJON-CABEZA, M.E., 2004.
First record of Sphoeroides spengleri
(Osteichthyes: Tetraodontidae) in the
Mediterranean Sea. Journal of the Ma-
rine Biological Association of the United
Kingdom, 84: 1089-1090.
REINBOLD, T., 1898. Meeresalgen von der
Insel Rhodes. Heduigia, 37: 87.
RELINI, M., ORSI, L., PUCCIO, V. & AZ-
ZURRO, E., 2000. The exotic crab Perc-
non gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853)
(Decapoda, Grapsidae) in the central
Mediterranean. Scientia Marina, 64:
337-340.
RIBERA, M.A., 1995. Introduced ma-
rine plants, with special reference to
macroalgae: mechanisms and impact.
Progress in Phycological Research, 11:
217-268.
RIBERA SIGUAN, M.A., 2002. Review of
non-native marine plants in the Medi-
terranean Sea. p.291-310. In: Invasive
Aquatic species of Europe – distribu-
tion impacts and management, edited by
E.Leppakoski, S.Gollasch and S.Olenin,
Dordrecht, Boston, London, Kluwer Ac-
ademic Publishers.
RIBERA, M.A. & BOUDOURESQUE, C.F.,
1995. Introduced marine plants, with spe-
cial reference to macroalgae: mechanisms
and impact. Progress in Phycological Re-
search, 11: 217-268.
RIBERA, M. A., GÓMEZ GARRETA, A.,
GALLARDO, T., CORMACI, M., FUR-
NARI, G. & GIACCONE, G., 1992.
Check-list of Mediterranean Seaweeds. I.
Fucophyceae (Warming 1884). Botanica
Marina, 36(2): 109-130.
RICHARDSON, D.M., PYSEK, P., REJ-
MANEK, M., BARBOUR, M.G., PAN-
ETA, D.F & WEST, C.W., 2000. Natu-
ralization and invasion of alien plants:
concepts and denitions. Diversity and
Distributions, 6: 93-107.
ROSSO, A., 1994. Segnalazione di Electra
tenella (Hincks) (Bryozoa) lungo le coste
sud-orientali della Sicilia. Bollettino dell’
Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali,
27, 346: 241-251.
ROSSO, A., 2003. Bryozoan diversity in the
Mediterranean Sea. Biogeographia, 24:
227-250.
RUITTON, S., & BOUDOURESQUE, CF.,
1994. Impact de Caulerpa taxifolia sur
une population de l’oursin Paracentrotus
lividus a Roquebrune-Cap Martin (Alpes
Maritimes, France). In: Boudouresque
CF, Meinesz A & Gravez V (eds) First
International Workshop on Caulerpa
taxifolia, pp 371-378. GIS Posidonie,
Marseille.
RUITTON, S., JAVEL, F., CULIOLI, J.M.,
MEINESZ, A., PERGENT, G., & VER-
LAQUE, M., 2005. First assessment of
the Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpales,
Chlorophyta) invasion along the French
Mediterranean coast. Marine Pollution
Bulletin, 50: 1061-1068.
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 115
RUIZ, G.M., FOFONOFF, P., & HINES,
A.H., 1999. Non-indigenous species as
stressors in estuarine and marine com-
munities: assessing invasion impacts and
interactions. Limnology and Oceanogra-
phy, 44: 950-972.
SAAD, A., 2005. Check list of bony shes
collected from the coast of Syria. Turk-
ish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci-
ence, 5(2): 99-106.
SAAD, A., SÉRET, B. & ALI, M., 2004. Liste
commentιe des chondrichtyens de Syrie
(Méditerranée Orientale). p.240 In: Ab-
stracts of the 37th Congress of the Medi-
terranean Science Commission, edited by
J.Masscle et al., Monaco, CIESM.
SAAD, A., ALI, M., & SERET B., 2005.
Shark Exploitation and Conservation in
Syria. Workshop On Mediterranean Car-
tilaginous Fish, 14-16 September, 2005,
Istanbul, Turkey.
SAN MARTÍN, G., 2003. Annelida, Poly-
chaeta II: Syllidae. In: Fauna Iberica, Vol
21, edited by M.A. Ramos, et al. Museo
Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. CSIC.
Madrid. 554 pp.
SARNO, D., KOOISTRA, W.C.H.F., MED-
LIN, L.K., PERCOPO, I. & ZINGONE,
A. 2005. Diversity in the genus Skel-
etonema (Bacillariophyceae). II. An as-
sessment of the taxonomy S. costatum
like species, with the description of four
new species. Journal of Phycology, 41:
151-176.
SARTONI, G. & BODDI, S., 2002. Ce-
ramium bisporum (Ceramiaceae, Rho-
dophyta) a new record for the Mediterra-
nean algal ora. Botanica Marina, 45(6):
566-570.
SATSMADJIS, J., & FRILIGOS, N., 1983.
Red tide in Greek waters. Vie et Milieu,
33 (2): 111-117.
SEBI 2010. Streamlining European 2010
Biodiversity Indicators. http://biodiver-
sity-chm.eea.europa.eu/information/indi-
cator/F1090245995
SHARON, Y., BENAYAHU, Y. & MIENIS,
H.K., 2005. First record of an exotic oyster:
Alectryonella crenulifera, from the Medi-
terranean coast of Israel. Triton, 12: 5-6.
SIMBERLOFF, D., 1989. Which insect in-
troductions succeed and which fail?
p.61-75. In: Biological invasions: a glo-
bal perspective, edited by J.A. Drake and
H.A.Mooney. Chichester, John Wiley
and Sons, Ltd.
SIMBOURA, N., 1990. Fabricia lamen-
tosa Day, 1963 (Polychaeta, Sabellidae,
Fabricinae) a lessepsian migrant in Medi-
terranean Sea. Oebalia, 16: 129-133.
SIMONI, F., DI PAOLO, C., GORI, L &
LEPRI, L. 2004. Further investigation
on blooms of Ostreopsis ovata, Coolia
monotis, Prorocentrum lima on the mac-
roalgae of articial and natural reefs in
the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea. Harmful
Algae News, 26: 5-7.
SIMONI, F., GADDI, A., DI PAOLO, C.
& LEPRI, L., 2003. Harmful epiphytic
dinoagellate on Tyrrhenian Sea reefs.
Harmful Algae News, 24: 13-14.
SOEST VAN, R.W.M., 1976. First European
record of Haliclona loosanof, Hartman
1958 (Porifera, Haplosclerida) a species
hitherto known only from the New Eng-
land coast (USA). Beaufortia, 24: 177-
178.
ŠOLJAN, T., 1975. I pesci dell’ Adriatico.
A. Mondadori, Verona.
SOMASCHINI, A. & GRAVINA, M.F.,
1993. First report of Questidae (Anne-
lida, Polychaeta) in the Mediterranean
Sea. Vie et Milieu, 43(1): 59-61.
SOULE, D.F. & SOULE, J.D., 1975. Species
groups in Watersiporidae. p.299-309, 4
pls. In: Byozoa 1974. Proceedings of the
Third Conference, International Bryozo-
ology Association, edited by S. Pouyet,
Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie
de la Faculté des Sciences de Lyon, H.S.
3 (fasc. 2).
SOULE, D.F., SOULE, J.D. & CHANEY,
116 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
H.W., 1999. New species of Thalam-
oporella (Bryozoa) with acute or suba-
cute aviculariul mandibles and review of
known species worldwide. Allan Han-
cock Institute for Marine Studies, Irene
McCulloch Foundation Monograph Se-
ries, 4: 1-57.
STEUER, A., 1939. The shery grounds
near Alexandria. XVIII. Sipunculoidea,
Phoronoidea, Brachiopoda, Enteropneus-
ta and Acrania. Institute of Hydrobiology
and Fisheries, Notes and Memoirs 30:
1-15. (Cairo, Government press, Bulâq;
Ministry of Commerce and Industry,
Egypt).
STRATEGY WORKSHOP, 2004. Manage-
ment of recreational waters in relation-
ship with harmful microalgae blooms
(HAB) in the Mediterranean Sea 24-
26 October 2004, Calvia (Mallorca),
STRATEGY: http://www.icm.csic.es/bio/
projects/strategy
STREFTARIS, N., ZENETOS, A. & PAP-
ATHANASSIOU, E., 2005. Globalisa-
tion in marine ecosystems - The story
of non indigenous marine species across
European Seas. Oceanography and Ma-
rine Biology: An annual Review, 43: 419-
453.
TADDEI RUGGIERO, E., 2000. A sample of
Frenulina sanguinolenta in the Mediter-
ranean Sea. The Brachidium, 1 (1): 2-4.
TERLIZZI, A., SCUDERI, D., FRASCHET-
TI, S., GUIDETTI, P. & BOERO, F.,
2003. Molluscs on subtidal cliffs: pat-
terns of spatial distribution. Journal of
the Marine Biological Association of the
United Kingdom, 83: 165-172.
THESSALOU-LEGAKI, M, ZENETOS
A, KAMBOUROGLOU, V, CORSINI-
FOKA, M, KOURAKLIS, P, DOUNAS,
C & NICOLAIDOU, A ., 2006. The es-
tablishment of the invasive crab Percnon
gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) (Crus-
tacea: Decapoda:Grapsidae) in Greek
waters. Aquatic Invasions 1(3): 133-136.
THOMPSON, I.C. & SCOTT, A., 1903. Re-
port on the Copepoda collected by Pro-
fessor Herdman, at Ceylon, in 1902. In:
Herdman, W.A. (ed.). Report to the Gov-
ernment of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster
Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar 1, suppl.
7: 227-307.
TORCHIN, M.E., LAFFERTY, K. D. &
KURIS, A.M., 2002. Parasites and marine
invasions. Parasitology, 124, S137- S151.
DOI: 10.1017 S0031182002001506.
TRILLES J.P., BARICHE M., 2006. First
record of the Indo-Pacic Cymothoa in-
dica (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae),
a Lessepsian species in the Mediterranean
Sea. Acta Parasitologica, 51 (3): 223-230.
TSURNAMAL, M., 1969. Sponges of Red
Sea origin on the Mediterranean coast of
Israel. Israel Journal of Zoology, 18 (2-
3): 149-155.
TURON, X. & NISHIKAWA, T., 2005.
Spread of Microcosmus squamiger in the
Mediterranean Sea. Abstract of Interna-
tional Invasive Sea Squirt Conference,
April 21-22, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
ÜNAL, E., SHMELEVA, A.A. & KIDEYS,
A.E., 2002. Three new species of Acar-
tia (Copepoda, Calanoida) from the
northeastern Levantine Basin. p.35-39.
In: Proceedings of Workshop on Lessep-
sian Migration, 20-21 July 2002, Gök-
ceada, Turkey, edited by B.Öztürk and
N.Basusta. Turkish Marine Research
Foundation (TÜDAV), Vol. 9.
UNEP/MAP/RAC/SPA, 2005. Action Plan
concerning species introductions and in-
vasive. species in the Mediterranean Sea.
Ed. RAC/SPA Tunis, 30 pp.
ÜNSAL, I. & D’HONDT, J.L., 1979. Contri-
bution à la connaissance des bryozoaires
marins de Turquie (Eurystomata et Cy-
clostomata). Vie et Milieu, 28-29 (4), AB:
613-634.
UYSAL, Z., KIDEYS, A.E., SHMELEVA,
A.A., ZAGORODNYAYA, J.A. & GUB-
ANOVA, A.D., 2002. Checklist of cope-
pods (Calanoida and Podoplea) from the
Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118 117
northern Levantine basin shelf waters.
Hydrobiologia, 482: 15-21.
VAN DER SPOEL, S., 1994. The basis for
boundaries in pelagic biogeography.
Progress in Biogeography, 34: 121-133.
VERLAQUE, M., 1981. Contribution à la
ore des algues marines de Méditerranée:
espèces nouvelles pour la Méditerranée
Occidentale. Botanica Marina, 24: 559-
568.
VERLAQUE, M., 1994. Inventaire des plan-
tes introduites en Méditerranée: origines
et repercussions sur l’environnement et
les activités humaines. Oceanologica
Acta, 17: 1-23.
VERLAQUE, M., RUITTON, S. & BOU-
DOURESQUE, C.-F., 2005. Algal intro-
ductions to european shores. 5th PCRD
European Programm “ALIENS”. Final
Report – UMR CNRS 6540 DIMAR,
COM, Marseille. p.27.
VILA, M., CAMP, J., GARCÉS, E., MASÓ,
M. & DELGADO, M., 2001. High reso-
lution spatio-temporal detection of poten-
tially harmful dinoagellates in conned
waters of the NW Mediterranean. Journal
of Plankton Research, 23 (5): 497-514.
WALLENTINUS, I., 2002. Introduced ma-
rine algae and vascular plants in Euro-
pean aquatic environments. p.27-52.
In: Invasive Aquatic species of Europe
distribution impacts and management,
edited by E.Leppakoski, S.Gollasch and
S.Olenin, Dordrecht, Boston, London,
Kluwer Academic Publishers.
WALTER T.C., 1998. A redescription of
Pseudodiaptomus salinus (Giesbrecht,
1896) and a new species from the Arabi-
an Sea (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pseudodi-
aptomidae). Journal of Marine Systems,
15: 457-473.
WESENBERG-LUND, E., 1957. Sipuncu-
loidea and Echiuroidea from the Red Sea.
Bulletin of the Sea Fisheries Research
Station of Israel, 14: 1-15.
YANKO, V., AHMAD, M. & KAMINKSI,
M., 1998. Morphological deformities of
benthic foraminiferal tests in response to
pollution by heavy metals: implications
for pollution monitoring. Journal of Fo-
raminiferal Research, 28: 177-200.
YOKES, B. & GALIL, B.S., 2004. New
records of alien decapods from the south-
western coast of Turkey. p. 556 In: Ab-
stracts of the 37th Congress of the Medi-
terranean Science Commission, edited by
J.Masscle et al., Monaco, CIESM.
YOKES, B. & GALIL, B.S., 2006. The rst
record of the needle-spined urchin Dia-
dema setosum (Leske, 1778) (Echinoder-
mata: Echinoidea: Diadematidae) from
the Mediterranean Sea. Aquatic Inva-
sions, 1(3): 188-190.
YOKES, B. & GALIL, B.S. in press. New
records of alien decapods (Crustacea)
from the Lycian peninsula, Mediterrane-
an coast of Turkey, with a description of a
new palaemonid species. Zoosystema.
YOKES, B. & MERIC, E., 2004. Expanded
populations of Amphistegina lobifera
from the Southwestern coast of Turkey.
p.232-233. In: 4th International Con-
gress ‘Environmental Micropaleontol-
ogy, Microbiology and Meiobenthology,
edited by V.Yanko-Hombach, M.Gormus,
A.Ertunc, M.McGann, R.Martin, J.Jacob
and S.Ishman. Isparta, Turkey, Septem-
ber 13-18, 2004.
ZACHARIOU-MAMALINGA, H., 1999.
The occurrence of the Atlantic sh Gaid-
ropsarus granti in the Mediterranean Sea.
Annales Musei Goulandris, 10: 261-266.
ZENETOS, A., GOFAS, S., RUSSO, G. &
TEMPLADO, J., 2004. CIESM Atlas of
Exotic Species in the Mediterranean,
Vol.3, Molluscs. Monaco, CIESM Pub-
lishers, 376 p.
ZEYBEK, N., 1969. Türkiye’nin Akdeniz
algleri 1. Bodrum-Finike Körfezi sahil
boyu. 2. Ege Denizi-Edremit Saros Kör-
fezi-Sile. TBAG-124 nolu proje (in Turk-
ish).
ZEYBEK, N., GÜNER, H. & AYSEL, V.,
118 Medit. Mar. Sci, 6/2, 2005, 63-118
1986. The marine algae of Turkey. Pro-
ceeding of the 5th OPTIMA Meeting, Is-
tanbul, 169-197.
ZIBROWIUS, H., 1974. Oculina patagoni-
ca, scléractiniaire hermatypique introduit
en Méditerranée. Helgoländer wissen-
schaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 26
(2): 153-173.
ZIBROWIUS, H., 1992. Ongoing modica-
tion of the Mediterranean marine ora
and fauna by the establishment of exotic
species. Mésogée, 51: 83-107.
ZIBROWIUS, H., 2002. Assessing scale and
impact of ship transported alien fauna
in the Mediterranean CIESM Workshop
Monographs, 20: 62-68.
ZIBROWIUS, H. & BITAR, G., 1981. Ser-
pulidae (Annelida Polychaeta) indo-paci-
ques établis dans la région de Beyrouth,
Liban. Rapports et Procès -Verbaux des
Réunions. Commission Internationale
pour l’Exploration Scientique de la Mer
Méditerranée, 27: 159-160.