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What Makes It Green? The Role of Centrality of Green Attributes in Evaluations of the Greenness of Products

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Abstract

An increasing body of research addresses consumers' green product purchasing behavior, and yet little work has examined how consumers form perceptions of the greenness of products in the first place. Drawing on theories of attribute centrality (the degree to which an attribute is integral in defining an object), the authors argue that products with identical environmental benefits will be judged more or less green depending on whether the benefit stems from a central versus a peripheral attribute. They present four studies that support the hypotheses and explore factors that influence the effect of central attributes, including product category membership and integration of the green attribute with other elements of the product. They include controls for firm motivations and importance of the attribute to the individual consumer. The authors conclude the article with managerial and public policy implications, such as advice for firms on where to make green investments for maximum consumer impact and insight for public policy makers on the need for consumer assistance in objectively evaluating products with identical environmental benefits that achieve those benefits in different ways.

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... In addition, we extend our study concerning green attributes from scenarios with versus without green attributes converged in a device, to one with different levels of perceived green characteristics (Joshi & Rahman, 2015;Kautish et al., 2019). We seek to understand whether, if greenness is obvious but unimportant to consumers, individuals prefer a scenario in which green characteristics are integrated into the core of the product (i.e., are central), or one in which these characteristics are not a main part of the device (i.e., are peripheral) (Gershoff & Frels, 2015;Gong et al., 2020)? ...
... Following the above-presented discussion by Gill (2008) on using the base of the product as a condition to define what to expect from features related to hedonic or utilitarian characteristics, we turn to Gershoff and Frels' (2015) focus on the "centrality" of the product; that is, the main characteristic or important part of the product, which serves to define it even in the face of multiple kinds of convergences. Attributes that are integrated into the device must be connected to this centrality of the product, so this defining characteristic/feature is very important to foster consumers' understanding (Hoch, 2002) of the entire convergent product. ...
... The idea is to evaluate differences in the perceived level of greenness, or green benefit, that the product has when the added (green) attribute is located at the center versus the periphery of the product. Gershoff and Frels (2015) explained that even for brands consumers trust (utilitarian perspective), positive perceptions of green attributes are related to the centrality of the product, which is an immutable characteristic representing the object (Gong et al., 2020). ...
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This paper evaluates how the convergence (integration) of green characteristics in multifunctional technological products/services affects consumers’ decision making, evaluating intention to purchase convergent products in these specific scenarios with green attributes. Three studies were developed. The first two focused on when the inclusion or exclusion of green attributes changes consumers’ perspectives related to (1) utilitarian or hedonic characteristics in the convergence, and (2) selfish or altruistic characteristics of technology usage. The last study incorporated a change in the independent variable from the inclusion or exclusion of green attributes to the inclusion of green attributes as a benefit. Therein, both research scenarios included green characteristics, one related to the periphery and other to the centrality of the product, with a moderating effect of (3) high or low brand trust according to the green convergence design. The results demonstrate that green characteristics are better suited to scenarios in which most of the convergence relates to utilitarian attributes in products, but egoistic characteristics in services, the latter of which reflects a hedonic perspective. Concerning both scenarios of a product with green characteristics, the green benefit is better suited to the utilitarian context, in which the brand is perceived as important, leading to a high level of trust.
... Studies (e.g. Gershoff & Frels, 2015) established that perceived greenness of an environment friendly offering depends on the attribute that is made green and how central is the attribute to the product. ...
... While it has been established that the choice of component that is made green impacts the consumers' perception about its environment friendliness (Gershoff & Frels, 2015), research has not established the impact of attribute that is made green and how central is the attribute to the product on the perception of functional performance of the product and subsequent likelihood to purchase. In this study, we explore whether consumers perceive a functional compromise when a more central or important component is made environment friendly versus a peripheral component being made environment friendly. ...
... An attribute is central to the product if it is important and relevant in identification of that product category. The higher the centrality or importance of the attribute, the higher would be its diagnosticity in categorization of the object (Gershoff & Frels, 2015). ...
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The study aimed at exploring whether consumers perceive the functional performance of a green offering differently when a central component of the offering is made green versus when a peripheral component is made green. Following this, we explore the implication of this perception on consumer’s purchase intention. A 2x2 between subject factorial design was employed in the study. 150 participants from India responded to an online scenario-based survey. Hypotheses testing using ANOVA revealed that when a component that is important part of the offering is made environment friendly, respondents are likely to experience greater functional scepticism and have a reduced intention to purchase as compared to case where a peripheral part of the offering is made environment friendly. The scepticism is however allayed when a specific mention of performance guarantee is provided in each case. The study contributes to theory by providing insights into how consumers evaluate functional performance of the environment friendly products based on specific components that are made green. Study also reinforced the importance of allaying consumers' perception of functional compromise of green components by providing an explicit performance guarantee.
... Communication about raw material origin (includes origin label, fair trade, and country of origin) (Gershoff and Frels, 2015;Herbes et al., 2018;Maaya et al., 2018) Raw material origin can strengthen consumers' attitudes towards green products (Cerri et al., 2018). Consumers are willing to pay premium for products with country-of-origin labels and fair-trade labels (Maaya et al., 2018). ...
... Consumers are willing to pay premium for products with country-of-origin labels and fair-trade labels (Maaya et al., 2018). Eco labelling increases overall greeness perception (Gershoff and Frels, 2015), reducing perceived risks (Herbes et al., 2018). Ecolabel and environmental certification (Diego-Mas et al., 2016;Suki, 2013;Cerri et al., 2018;Grebitus et al., 2020;Maaya et al., 2018) Ecolabels strengthen consumers' attitudes towards green products (Cerri et al., 2018;Baier et al., 2020) and they can positively impact purchase for both green and non-green consumers (Suki, 2013;Biswas and Roy, 2015). ...
... In fact, by discussing the effect of different green product attributes on consumers' behaviour, this study helps to identify the most appreciated attributes by consumers. This can be particularly useful since firms and product developers face trade-offs when developing green products or adding green attributes to existing products (Gershoff and Frels, 2015). These trade-offs can arise from technological limitations, cost increase, consumer-imposed barriers, or even compatibility issues (Arruda Filho and Brito, 2017;Shao et al., 2016). ...
Article
Despite the growing scholars' attention towards green products, extant literature has so far lacked a systematic effort to analyse green product attributes (along different phase of the product life cycle) and link them to consumer preferences/behaviour. Indeed, the green product (and related processes) design and the consumer behaviour perspectives have been mostly treated separately to date. However, understanding consumer behaviour towards products as characterized by different green attributes, that may be related to different phases of product life cycle, is key for green products' market success. For these reasons, this study aims at linking the design and the consumer behaviour aspects of green product development. Specifically, through a systematic review, this study analyses extant research to provide a comprehensive list of green product attributes organized following a product lifecycle management perspective and a discussion of the effect of different green product attributes on consumers' behaviour. 82 articles were included in the review and analysed. We identified 73 individual green product attributes and categorized them into 18 attribute groups, which were associated with product life cycle management phases (production, use, and end-of-life). Our results show that, in the production lifecycle phase, there is high incidence of environmentally sustainable attributes, and they are mostly related to production efficiency. Consumers perceive less this type of attributes, probably because they are placed before consumption. In the use phase, environmentally sustainable attributes depend more on consumers' actions to realize their sustainable value and they focus on technologies to reduce consumption. Finally, end-of-life environmentally sustainable attributes are related to the after-consumption stage of products, and they depend more on external actors to realize their value. Findings from previous studies about the effect of product attributes (identified for each product lifecycle phase) on consumer behaviour (such as purchase intention or willingness to pay a premium price) are reported. Results show that, for many attributes, no study has addressed their effect on consumer behaviour and that attributes for which there is a greater amount of studies on consumer behaviour are those related to the production and use phase. A future research agenda is proposed to advance knowledge on the role of green product attributes and their effect on consumer behaviour.
... However, scholars know little regarding which of the current practices are effective. Gershoff and Frels (2015) found that products with identical environmental benefits will be considered green by consumers. The greenness will be determined by whether the benefits emanate from a central or a peripheral attribute. ...
... Therefore, marketing researchers resort to promote green consumption. The factors influencing green consumption include environmental social norms (Goldstein et al., 2008), environmental message assertiveness (Kronrod et al., 2012), green enhancement intention (Newman et al., 2014) and green brand design similarity (De Angelis et al., 2017). Despite their significance, the studies, as mentioned above, have ignored a fundamental issue: how consumers' green perception forms. ...
Article
The extant research mainly focuses on the factors and outcomes of green consumption, but few examined the design of green brand logos. Based on the theories of embodied cognition, we examined the effect of the shape (angular or rounded) of brand logos on consumers’ green perception and the functional mechanism underlying this association via two studies. The results indicated that rounded logos are considered to be more appropriate for green brands than angular logos. The shape of brand logos influences consumers’ green perception through the multiple mediations of gender perception and warm perception.
... Third, the current findings extend research on the attribute that leads to green perceptions of a product (Gershoff and Frels 2015). Gershoff and Frels (2015) find that consumers evaluate products to be more green when the central (vs. ...
... Third, the current findings extend research on the attribute that leads to green perceptions of a product (Gershoff and Frels 2015). Gershoff and Frels (2015) find that consumers evaluate products to be more green when the central (vs. peripheral) attribute is the source of the product's greenness. ...
Article
In many situations, consumers use green products without a deliberate choice to use or purchase the product. This research explores how using a green product (e.g., a pair of headphones made from recycled materials) influences the enjoyment of the accompanying consumption experience (e.g., listening to music), even if consumers have not deliberately chosen or purchased the product. Five experiments in actual consumption settings revealed that using a green (vs. conventional) product enhances the enjoyment of the accompanying consumption experience, referred to as the greenconsumption effect. Merely using a green product makes consumers perceive an increase in the extent to which they are valued as individuals by society, which leads to warm glow feelings, and consequently enhances the enjoyment of the accompanying consumption experience. When consumers experience low social worth, the positive effect of using green products on the accompanying consumption experience is amplified. The greenconsumption effect disappears when the negative environmental impact of the green product attribute is low. From a managerial standpoint, the current research identifies instances where brands can benefit from going green and encourages marketers, especially service providers, to promote green products that are instrumental in consumption experiences.
... Companies are constantly improving their sustainability strategies moving toward sustainable practices (Wang et al., 2019) and promoting their social or environmental credentials e even engaging in misleading communications (Pizzetti et al., 2019). Similarly, consumers are becoming more and more aware of the ethical implications of the products they buy; as a consequence, they are adapting their purchasing behaviors (De Angelis et al., 2017;Gershoff and Frels, 2015). ...
... The way consumers make purchasing decisions about fashion products positioned as eco-friendly or sustainable is of paramount importance, in that consumers seem to be concerned about sustainability issues (Lundblad and . In this respect, fashion companies are introducing products with components made by materials that reduce their environmental impact (Gershoff and Frels, 2015). ...
Article
The fashion industry has been recognized as one of the major industries that contribute to environmental damage. Although fashion companies have started to take some actions aimed at protecting the environment, how consumers make purchasing decisions about sustainable fashion products is a lingering question. This research thus investigates the effect of sustainable product attributes (i.e., recycled materials) on consumers’ purchase intention toward luxury and fast fashion products. Drawing from the social judgment theory, we propose that sustainability leads to higher consumers’ purchase intentions and that this effect is explained by the activation of perceived warmth. Three studies provide support for this assertation. Specifically, sustainable product attributes (i.e., recycled materials) affect positively the purchase intentions and this effect is magnified in the case of fast fashion products (Study 1). Consumers show more positive implicit attitudes when sustainability is paired with luxury than with fast fashion (Study 2). Finally, sustainability activates higher levels of perceived warmth which, in turn, affects consumers’ purchase intentions towards fast fashion products (Study 3). This research provides insightful theoretical implications by enclosing the psychological mechanism (i.e., perceived warmth) behind the relationship between sustainability and consumers’ purchase intentions. The paper also offers actionable levers on how to communicate sustainable initiatives to strengthen the consumer-brand relationship.
... Specifically, credence service has higher uncertainty and risk and is more nonstandardized than experience service [24,31,32], thus requiring higher service capabilities for service agents. Further, in credence service, the core component is more diagnostic and representative of the service classification, involves higher risk [53,54,59,60], and requires higher service capability than the peripheral component. As a result of customers' stereotypes about service robots, robots are considered to have lower capabilities. ...
... To our knowledge, no previous research has investigated the effect of service components on customer response. Building on previous research that has shown the effects of classification on customer response [59], we innovatively classified the service scenarios to answer why consumers react differently to the same new technology under different service scenarios. Our classification will contribute to a better understanding of the matching effects of new technologies and service scenarios and provide theoretical guidance for the diffusion of service technology innovation. ...
Article
In the future, service robots are expected to become an integral part of people's experience in the service field. However, customer adoption of service robots is still low due to factors such as mismatched service scenarios and customer perception barriers. Through three experiments, this study explored the effect of different service scenarios on service robot adoption and the underlying mechanisms. For credence service, customers had a significantly lower service robot adoption intention in the core component than in the peripheral component; however, customers' service robot adoption intentions in both the core and peripheral components for experience service were relatively high. Further, perceived uncertainty mediated the interaction effect between the service type and service component on service robot adoption intention. This study deepens our understanding of customer responses to service robots and provides actionable strategic support for service providers to implement service robots.
... The past two decades have seen an increase in consumer research addressing green products and green consumer behaviour ( Gershoff and Frels, 2015 ). Nevertheless, Thøgersen (2017) and Hoek et al. (2017b) claim that demographic characteristics are insufficient to explain the differences in consumer buying behaviour. ...
... However, consumer willingness to accept compensations through other attributes such as quality and price still remain unknown. In turn, Gershoff and Frels (2015) analysed whether consumers perceive a product to be more sustainable depending on how central an attribute is. The authors found that even when a central and a peripheral attribute present the same environmental friendliness, consumers will perceive a product to be overall greener if this attribute is more central. ...
Article
Young consumers are known to value environmentally sustainable features in products. In this regard, understanding the determinant green attributes and whether these attributes are able to compensate for the lack or low level of regular attributes can contribute to deepening the understanding of how young consumers decide. Hence, this paper aims to identify the determinant attributes for the behaviour of young consumer environmentally sustainable food purchases and to investigate the compensatory rules applied during pre-purchase evaluation processes. To that end, we employed a quantitative study of both descriptive and causal objectives through a questionnaire. To identify the determinant attributes, descriptive statistics techniques were used, with attributes divided into instrumental and expressive. Whereas for the compensatory rules, a factorial experiment was conducted to test purchase scenarios. We analyzed the effect of environmentally sustainable product attributes on purchase intention using the analysis of variance. And, given the additive characteristic of compensatory models, a linear regression model was used to test the hypothesis of the application of compensatory rules for environmentally sustainable food purchase. Results showed that product quality, cleaner production and price are the determinant instrumental attributes valued by young consumers. Health concern, a healthy lifestyle and environmental concern are the determinant expressive attributes. Our inferential results support the hypothesis that young consumers judge environmentally sustainable food attributes under compensatory rules. Thus, high levels of attributes compensate for the low level or absence of others. The implications of such findings in light of consumer behaviour theory are then discussed.
... were measured as the dependent variables. Perceived greenness of the product was measured on a scale adapted from Gershoff and Frels (2015). Perceived credibility of green claims was measured on a scale adapted from Tucker et al. (2012). ...
Article
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The increasing consumer demand for shopping eco-friendly products online leads brands and marketers to offer more products that are claimed to be eco-friendly on online stores. However, it is very difficult for consumers to evaluate the credibility of such claims, and marketers usually do not offer resources to help consumers make the evaluation. Hence, consumers must utilize limited information cues (e.g. country-of-origin, price, etc.) that are available to them to evaluate the credibility of green claims and the greenness of products. Two online experiments were conducted to examine how product COO, product price, and product types affect consumer perception of product greenness and green claim credibility. The findings suggest that product COO is a powerful factor that influences consumer perception. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.
... There has been a recent surge of research on understanding how to encourage PEBs (Chernev and Blair, 2015;Gershoff and Frels, 2015;Brick et al., 2017;Walton and Jones, 2017;Brick and Lai, 2018). Specifically, a meta-analysis showed that research in this field was largely based on four dominant psychological theories (Klöckner, 2013, see also Van Den Broek and Walker, 2019), namely the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991), the norm-activation theory (Schwartz, 1992), the value-belief-norm theory (Stern, 2000), and habits (Verplanken and Aarts, 1999;Verplanken and Ryan, 2018). ...
Article
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Prolific research suggests identity associates with pro-environmental behaviours (PEBs) that are individual and/or group focused. Individual PEB is personally driven, self-reliant, and are conducted on one’s own (e.g., home recycling). Group focused PEB is other people-reliant and completed as part of a group (e.g., attending meetings of an environmental organisation). A wide range of identities have been related to PEBs. For example, a recent systematic qualitative review revealed 99 different types of identities studied in a PEB context. Most studies were correlational, few had an experimental design. However, the relationships between all these identities and PEBs have so far not been tested quantitatively with meta-analytical techniques. As such, a clear overview of this field is currently lacking. Due to the diverse nature of the field, a priori hypotheses were not possible and relatively broad definitions of identity had to be used to encompass all types of identities and the diverse meanings of identity that have been included in PEB research. What prior theory did allow for was to assess the distinction between two main types of identity, namely how people label, describe, and recognise oneself individually (individual identity), or as part of a group (group identity). Our overall goal was thus to assess the current state of knowledge on identities and PEBs. In 104 studies using a meta-regression following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines, our random-effects meta-analysis showed that the overall concept of identity associated with PEB with a medium Pearson’s r (Aim 1). Furthermore, we found that individual identities associated more strongly with PEBs than group identities (Aim 2). The associations between individual and group identities were stronger when the identity and PEB were from the same category (e.g., when both were group-focused; Aim 3). Methodologically, the findings revealed that group identities and group PEBs were most strongly associated for self-reported rather than observed PEBs (Aim 4). Overall identity associated most strongly with group PEBs in the field rather than in the lab (Aim 5) and in student- rather than non-student samples (Aim 6). We discuss the theoretical and practical implications.
... Others have studied specific behaviours (e.g., Antonetti and Maklan, 2014;Giebelhausen et al., 2016;Gleim et al., 2013;Grinstein and Riefler, 2015;Mejri et al., 2012;Phipps et al., 2013;Tangari et al., 2015;Yan and She, 2011) or sustainable products (Farmer, Breazeale, Stevens, & Waites, 2017;Gershoff & Frels, 2015;Iniesta-Bonillo, Sánchez-Fernández, & Jiménez-Castillo, 2016;Y.-C. Lin & Chang, 2012;Luchs, Naylor, Irwin, & Raghunathan, 2010;Olsen, Slotegraaf, & Chandukala, 2014). ...
Article
The concept of sustainability has become popular in today’s business environment as consumers’ environmental concerns remain a top priority for consumers. With the US consumer market projected to spend over USD 150 billion by 2021 in the sustainability segment, the importance of offering sustainable products has taken a renewed interest. Today, the agenda for sustainability has gained more traction among small and medium-sized businesses. However, such resource constrained companies do not typically have access to sophisticated tools to discern the drivers of consumer’s willingness to pay (WTP) for sustainable products. In this paper we study the factors that influence consumer’s WTP for sustainable products in the grocery industry. We show how traditional techniques of analysis such as regression analysis failed to bring out deeper insights that can be gained by using no-code machine learning. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed in detail.
... Others have studied specific behaviours (e.g., Antonetti and Maklan, 2014;Giebelhausen et al., 2016;Gleim et al., 2013;Grinstein and Riefler, 2015;Mejri et al., 2012;Phipps et al., 2013;Tangari et al., 2015;Yan and She, 2011) or sustainable products (Farmer, Breazeale, Stevens, & Waites, 2017;Gershoff & Frels, 2015;Iniesta-Bonillo, Sánchez-Fernández, & Jiménez-Castillo, 2016;Y.-C. Lin & Chang, 2012;Luchs, Naylor, Irwin, & Raghunathan, 2010;Olsen, Slotegraaf, & Chandukala, 2014). ...
... Surprising and interestingly, the past decade had witnessed the resurgence of interest in matters related to sustainability (Mittelstaedt et al., 2014), partly due to the full support offered by companies, consumers, institutions, and society (Gershoff & Frels, 2015). A number of multinational corporations have also taken part by constructing global positioning strategies to understand the global cultural identity across nations (Strizhakova & Coulter, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The past decade witnessed the resurgence of sustainable consumption due to the strong support offered by companies, consumers, institutions, and society. Nevertheless, examination of sustainable consumption via bibliometric and network analyses is absent from the vast literature. In order to bridge this gap, a bibliometric analysis was performed on all publications related to sustainable consumption in the Scopus database for the period of 1974-2019. Upon analyzing 2352 articles, several parameters were determined, namely the trends in publications, the most popular journals, the productive countries of the most important countries, most of the studies cited and the list of keywords for further description (psychosocial factors).From the selected 160 journals, articles were most-frequently published in Sustainability Switzerland, while the Journal of Consumer Marketing ranked first for total citation. The emergence of sustainable consumption topic was spread across 120 countries and 159 academic institutions. This present study discovered that the United States dominated publication production, whereas Universität Göttingen in Germany was the most productive institution. Upon further systematic analysis using VOS viewer, 5333 keywords were listed. The top four clusters of psychosocial determinants were discussed in light of social norm, attitude, environmental concern, and perceived value. Building on the outcomes retrieved from this analysis, researchers may better plan their studies and contribute better insights of their empirical investigations.
... Therefore, future research should also examine the effects of potential moderators. For example, Gershoff and Frels (2015) found that consumers perceived a product to be greener when important parts of the product (e.g., CPU of a notebook) were manufactured with green materials than when peripheral parts (e.g., soundcard of the notebook) were. Those results suggest that the effect of entity theories may be attenuated depending upon which parts (e.g., peripheral vs. central) of products are made with recycled materials. ...
Article
Full-text available
With increased awareness of environmental concerns, companies across industries have begun using recycled materials to manufacture their products. Evidence shows, however, that not all consumers react positively to companies’ efforts to produce recycled content products. To understand that phenomenon, current research focuses on how consumers’ implicit theories (i.e., entity vs. incremental theories) affect their reactions to such products. Because recycled materials are made from waste, entity theorists, who believe that traits are immutable, are expected to be more likely than incremental theorists, who believe that traits are flexible, to perceive that recycled materials cannot have the same quality as non-recycled materials and thus react more negatively to recycled content products. Three experiments provided evidence that holding an entity (vs. incremental) theory of personal traits deters the consumption of recycled content products, in a relationship mediated by differences in the perceived quality of such products.
... While recycling is the conversion of waste into reusable material by downgrading it into raw inputs and then using these raw factors in a new industrial process, upcycling implies the reuse of discarded objects or material without downgrading, in such a way as to create a product of a higher quality or value than the original (Kamleitner, Thürridl, & Martin, 2019;Park & Lin, 2020). Most of the previous studies indicate the potential downsides for companies using recycled materials in their products (e.g., Achabou & Dekhili, 2013;Gershoff & Frels, 2015;Luchs, Naylor, Irwin, & Raghunathan, 2010); however, upcycling production processes are very recent (Wilson, 2016) and have not yet received enough attention from researchers. ...
Article
This study explores consumers’ responses to upcycled and recycled luxury products. The authors advocate that luxury brands producing upcycled goods might lead to higher consumer willingness to buy compared to luxury brands producing recycled goods. The reason for this is that consumers might attribute higher feelings of pride and greater novelty to an upcycled good than to a recycled good. When consumers’ environmental concern increases, upcycled goods are better for new luxury brands than for existing ones due to their increased fit with the former, wherein the effect is higher for upcycled goods. Based on findings from three experiments, this research enriches the theoretical understanding of consumer responses to upcycled and recycled luxury products and can help companies to develop strategies to launch such products effectively.
... It should also be factored in that the distinction between high-and low-knowledge consumers may potentially vary by product category, as identified in this study where it was greater in relation to electrical goods/electronics (against cosmetics and apparel). Other studies have also indicated that different levels of consumer knowledge are particularly important for more expensive goods or where environmental features (e. g. energy usage) are more salient (Gershoff and Frels, 2015). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine the effects of three green information quality dimensions – persuasiveness, completeness and credibility – on green brand evaluation and whether this is mediated by green brand credibility. It also examines the moderating effects of eco-label credibility and consumer knowledge on green information quality dimensions and green brand credibility relationships. Design/methodology/approach Using a structured questionnaire on environmentally-friendly electrical goods/electronics, cosmetic and apparel product advertisements, involving an elaboration task, this study collected usable data from 1,282 Indian consumers across 50 cities. It also undertook an assessment for three different product groups using structural equation modelling to examine proposed hypotheses and assessed moderated mediation using the Hays process model. Findings The study indicates that: green brand credibility mediates the effects of green information quality dimensions on green brand evaluation; consumer knowledge moderates the effects of persuasiveness and completeness on green brand credibility and eco-label credibility moderates the effects of persuasiveness and credibility on green brand credibility. Research limitations/implications In green information processing, this study supports the relevance of the elaboration likelihood model and the mediation effect of green brand credibility. It also presents evidence that credible eco-labels enhance green information processing. While the results are broadly consistent across the three product categories, the results may only generalizable to the environmentally-aware urban populations. Practical implications Help brand managers to design advertisements that add brand credibility in environmentally-aware urban markets. Originality/value It helps to define green information quality and the interacting effects of eco-label credibility and consumer knowledge in green information processing.
... Environmental protection represents one of the most critical issues for most of today's companies, governments and institutions, resulting in a vast array of initiatives to ensure environmental sustainability (Amatulli et al., 2018;Gershoff and Frels, 2015;Mura et al., 2018;Wagner, 2015): a set of actions aimed at considering the environmental needs of future generations (Huang and Rust, 2011). Such actions are needed because "at our current levels of consumption the planet cannot sustain us or its carrying capacity for humanity ad infinitum" (McDonagh andProthero, 2014, p. 1186). ...
Article
Purpose This paper investigates why and when messages regarding unsustainable luxury products lead to negative word-of-mouth (NWOM) through a focus on the role of guilt, need to warn others and consumers' cultural orientation. Design/methodology/approach Three experiments test whether messages describing unsustainable versus sustainable luxury manufacturing processes elicit guilt and a need to warn others and whether and how the need to warn others affects consumers' NWOM depending on their cultural orientation. Findings Consumers experience guilt in response to messages emphasizing the unsustainable (vs sustainable) nature of luxury products. In turn, guilt triggers a need to warn other consumers, which leads to NWOM about the luxury company. Furthermore, the results suggest that two dimensions of Hofstede's model of national culture – namely individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity – moderate the effect of the need to warn others on NWOM. Practical implications Luxury managers should design appropriate strategies to cope with consumers' different reactions to information regarding luxury brands' unsustainability. Managers should be aware that the risk of NWOM diffusion may be higher in countries characterized by a collectivistic and feminine orientation rather than an individualistic and masculine orientation. Originality/value Consumer reaction to unsustainable luxury, especially across different cultural groups, is a neglected area of investigation. This work contributes to this novel area of research by investigating NWOM stemming from unsustainable luxury manufacturing practices in different cultural contexts.
... The variable convenience is related to the perceived effectiveness by the consumer. It is the perception of consumers of how much their consumption will positively favor, or less harm, the environment (Roberts, 1996;Akehurst et al., 2012;Straughan & Roberts, 1999;Chen & Chang, 2013;Gershoff & Frels, 2015;White, Habib, & Hardisty, 2019). ...
Article
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Objetivo: Este estudo buscou identificar as variáveis que podem influenciar consumidores a pagarem um preço premium pela compra de produtos verdes na indústria do vestuário. Assume-se que a adoção de práticas sustentáveis, por parte de organizações, implica em um preço premium a ser aceito pelo consumidor decorrente dos custos associados.Método: Com base em variáveis que consideram o binômio marketing e meio ambiente, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa quantitativa e descritiva. Um modelo conceitual foi testado a partir de questionário aplicado a 269 respondentes. Dados foram analisados por meio da regressão linear por Mínimos Quadrados Ordinários.Originalidade / Relevância: Discute-se questões como consumo excessivo e responsabilidade do consumidor, inovando ao introduzir a variável avaliação de terceiros, não comumente utilizada.Resultados: Os resultados sugerem que a avaliação de terceiros e o envolvimento do consumidor como parte da solução do problema ambiental são os principais elementos que podem influenciar positivamente os consumidores a aceitarem pagar um preço premium pelo produto.Contribuições teóricas / metodológicas: A importância da avaliação de terceiros não tem sido adotada para explicar o comportamento do consumidor em relação a produtos sustentáveis. Esta pesquisa não apenas inova ao considerar tal variável, mas também explora a importância dessa prática.Contribuições sociais / práticas para a gestão: Para o profissional de marketing este estudo destaca a importância da legitimidade e do envolvimento dos consumidores na solução dos desafios ambientais.
... This is because a sentimental longing for the past will make people choose older and usually more regular products that they grew up with, rather than newer and usually greener product options. Compared with regular products, green products tend to cause less pollution, cost fewer natural resources, and benefit the environment overall (Gershoff & Frels, 2015;Luchs et al., 2010). Thus, feeling nostalgic will lower the propensity for green consumption. ...
Article
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one’s past, can influence consumption behavior. The present research investigates how nostalgia affects green consumption. Specifically, we propose that high nostalgia, chronic or primed, can lower consumers’ preference for green (vs regular) products. Results across four studies show that high-nostalgia consumers have lower preference for green products compared with low-nostalgia consumers. This effect is mediated by past orientation, such that high-nostalgia consumers tend to dwell on the past, which brings preference to the older products, usually regular rather than green ones that have future connotations, they grew up with. In addition, we find that mortality salience (MS) moderates the effect of nostalgia on green product preference, such that the negative effect of nostalgia on the preference for green products would be enhanced (vs mitigated) when MS is high (vs low). Implications for research and practice are discussed. JEL CLASSIFICATION M3
... Green evaluations refer to the extent to which consumers perceive a company or brand to be environmentally friendly or green (Gershoff and Frels, 2015). When green evaluations are based on a company's communications, they can be influenced both by the manner in which green claims are structured as well as beliefs about the underlying motives for the claims (Lunde, 2018). ...
Article
Companies are going green, both to benefit the planet and to make their brands more appealing. But some green initiatives have a twofold nature: they require cooperative behaviors by consumers, but save costs for the company. In such situations, companies advertising green initiatives have to overcome a message credibility problem, because people suspect the initiatives are primarily designed to save company costs. This research examines different approaches for making green advertising more credible. Study 1 shows that a narrative (vs. non-narrative) message style is more credible and yields better green evaluations; further, these effects are amplified when the message has two-sided (vs. one-sided) claims. Study 2 confirms the positive effects of narrative (vs. non-narrative) messages and demonstrates the advantage of using messages with specific (vs. general) information about the green initiatives. Results also support the theorizing that the effects of the message variables on green evaluations are mediated by message credibility.
... O CPA é gerado em uma perspectiva alarmante de efeitos ambientais como falta de recursos, aquecimento global e outros, levando o consumidor a uma melhor análise de seus consumos frente essas situações e focando seu consumo em produtos que causem menor efeitos danosos ao ambiente (Gershoff & Frels, 2015;Stleg & Vlek, 2009). Uma segunda perspectiva que emerge é o altruísmo impuro (Andreoni, 1989;Giebelhausen, Chun, Cronin & Hult, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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: O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar o papel mediador do comportamento pró-ambiental entre a relação da percepção de eficácia do consumidor e bem-estar subjetivo. O estudo emprega um modelo de mediação construído através da técnica CB-SEM bootstrap, em uma amostra de 218 consumidores. A construção das hipóteses utiliza três perspectivas. Maior preocupação ambiental dos consumidores, que gera percepções e atitudes mais ambientais. A estrutura comportamental percepção – atitude – saída do consumidor e o altruísmo impuro, o qual defende que as boas ações são realizadas em função de benefício emocional. Os resultados contribuem para que o conhecimento avance para a explicação do bem-estar subjetivo do consumidor em relação ao consumo consciente. Demostrando, que a maior percepção de eficácia do consumidor irá gerar um comportamento pró-ambiental, que por sua vez levará a um maior bem-estar subjetivo do consumidor em relação ao consumo consciente.
... Moreover, environmentally conscious companies implement overt communication campaigns that provide signals of environmental responsibility (Kirmani & Rao, 2000). This comes, in part, from increasing public pressure for companies to care about the environment (Gershoff & Frels, 2015;Kotler, 2011;Nielsen, 2018aNielsen, , 2018bRivera-Camino, 2007). Though consumers do not always consistently make socially or environmentally sustainable choices (i.e., attitude-behavior gap; Luchs et al., 2010;Gleim & Lawson, 2014;Carrington, Neville, & Whitwell, 2014), research suggests that environmental sustainability initiatives are evaluated positively by consumers. ...
Article
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Prior research has established the positive effect of green marketing on purchase intentions. Less well known is why. Two empirical studies were conducted to investigate trust as an important mediator explaining the relationship between green marketing and purchase intentions. In study one, we successfully replicate prior research, again finding higher purchase intentions for companies that engage in green marketing. Additionally, trust in the company was found to mediate this relationship. Study two then examines the underlying mechanisms of expertise and prosocial orientation on the relationship between green marketing and trust, and then serially to purchase intentions. Demographic boundary conditions of age and gender were also investigated. Despite previous research indicating that gender affects perceptions of sustainable marketing, gender was not found to influence trust through perceptions of expertise and prosocial orientation. Interestingly, consumer age was found to influence perceptions of the company's expertise but not prosocial orientation. Younger consumers, specifically those about 38 and younger, believe that companies using green marketing display more expertise compared to those that do not, ultimately increasing perceptions of trust in the company.
... • Gershoff and Frels (2015) ran several studies and showed that when a brand makes claims about being environmentally friendly, consumers will rate it more green if the eco-friendly attributes are central (important) to the product. ...
Article
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This chapter reviews marketing scholarship on environmental sustainability. The literature covers several themes of both consumer behavior and firm-level topics. Consumer issues include their assessment of efficacy and the extent to which they are aware and sensitive to environmental issues. Numerous interventions and marketing appeals for modifying attitudes and behaviors have been tested and are reported. Consumers and business managers have both been queried regarding attitudes of recycling and waste. Firm-level phenomena are reflected, including how brand managers can signal their green efforts to their customers, whether doing so is beneficial, all in conjunction with macro pressures or constraints from industry or governmental agencies. This chapter closes with a reflection on the research.
... 2003). These are reflected in surveys on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues, where consumers indicate that "companies should be actively shaping ESG best practices" and that "corporate actions matter more to them than words" (emphasis added). 1 Customers' overall awareness of and sensitivity towards CSR issues is on the rise for reasons that include the proliferation of information intermediaries that rate companies in terms of their ESG performance and media reporting that influences customers' perceptions of the authenticity of implementation of CSR objectives (Gershoff & Frels, 2015). ...
Article
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We investigate the impact of perceived greenwashing on customer satisfaction. Unlike prior research that largely examines customer perceptions associated with irresponsible behavior, we focus on cases where firms overcommit and/or do not deliver on promised socially responsible actions. We theorize that this type of greenwashing is associated with lower customer satisfaction because customers perceive greenwashing through the lens of corporate hypocrisy. Using data from the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) for U.S. companies during the period 2008–2016, we document a negative link between perceived greenwashing related to green product innovation (GPI) and the ACSI index. We demonstrate that this effect is primarily triggered by corporate policies exceeding the corresponding implementation actions and not by lower levels of implementation. We also show that a firm’s capability reputation mitigates the negative effect of greenwashing on customer satisfaction. Moreover, we conduct an experiment and provide evidence confirming that GPI greenwashing is in fact perceived by customers as corporate hypocrisy.
... Companies may also decide to follow Newman et al.'s (2014) framing recommendation by pointing out that effectiveness is the main focus of the product development, with green capabilities being a side effect. The effectiveness of similar framing strategies has been shown previously in the context of environmentally friendly products (Gershoff & Frels, 2015). ...
Article
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Previous research has emphasized the importance of product packaging to consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions, but empirical studies that explore the specific mechanisms by which packaging color influences marketing‐relevant downstream variables in relation to environmentally friendly products is scarce. The current research addresses this gap by building on insights from theories on consumption values, gender roles, and gendered products. In two studies, the current research shows (1) how color‐induced perceptions of masculinity can trigger perceived product effectiveness and purchase intentions, (2) how competing mediation through masculinity and perceived fit with the product category influences perceived product effectiveness and purchase intentions for green products, and (3) that the positive influence of masculinity on perceived product effectiveness holds for male but not female consumers. These effects occur independently of color saturation and product positioning for two different product categories where strength and durability are relevant: washing detergents (Study 1) and motor oil (Study 2). The results of this research add a novel and differentiated perspective on the effects of color and gender roles in the context of environmentally friendly consumption and provide marketing managers with suggestions on how to increase perceived product effectiveness and purchase intentions related to green products.
... B. Lin/Chang 2012;White et al. 2014). Angesichts der gesellschaftlichen Probleme, die mit dem Klimawandel einhergehen, steigt die Nachfrage nach nachhaltigen Produkten kontinuierlich(Gershoff/Frels 2014). Viele Konsumenten zeigen sich dementsprechend bereit, die zusätzlichen Kosten auf sich zu nehmen, die häufig mit nachhaltigem Konsum verbunden sind. ...
Chapter
The use of unmanned drones in passenger transport promises significant advantages compared to existing alternatives. However, the acceptance of Urban Air Mobility by potential users is still one of its central challenges. Currently, there is a lack of studies providing a thorough understanding of relevant drivers and barriers of usage intentions. This study addresses this apparent gap by conducting an exploratory qualitative study, thus providing a deeper understanding of the specific factors affecting the adoption of Urban Air Mobility services.
... 1990'lardan beri tüketici ürünleri endüstrisinde yeşil\çevresel pazarlama özellikleri örneğin, giyim, elektronik ve hatta hizmetler ve turizm gibi alanlarda yaygınlaşmıştır. Yeşil pazarlama kavramı hem ticari hem de çevresel sektör kazanımlarını sunma konusundaki eşsiz önerisi nedeniyle yönetsel odaklı çalışmalarda gittikçe yaygınlaşmaktadır (Fuentes, 2005;Gershoff ve Frels, 2015;Wells, Manika, Smith-Gregory, Taheri ve Mccowlen, 2015;Grant, 2010). ...
Book
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This is a chapter that explains different scientific philosophy approaches and their contribution to marketing research.
... In other words, food and agricultural education not only attaches importance to experiencing agricultural education activities, but also the need to understand environmental education. The public can better experience the production of nature, cultivate cherishment toward the environment, and transform the learned experience and knowledge into their own experience accumulation through their personal experience of agricultural activities and understanding of environmental resources, ecology, and pollution [34]. ...
Article
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Following the trend of green product consumption, farmers’ markets sell green products and have gradually developed the promotion of environmentally friendly knowledge of food and agricultural education. However, past research on farmers’ markets has rarely been combined with the function of food and agricultural education. Therefore, this study explores the relationship between product knowledge, green perceived value, and purchase intention from the perspective of farmers’ market food and agricultural education. Furthermore, research and investigation were conducted with trust and local attachment as multiplicative adjustment variables. This study adopted structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the structural relationship among local attachment, product knowledge, green perceived value, purchase intention, and model fit. We distributed 396 surveys at three large farmers’ markets in Taiwan, of which 88.6% were used in this study. The research results showed that product knowledge and green perceived value had a significant positive impact on purchase intention; trust positively affected product knowledge and purchase intention; the multiplication of local attachment and trust also positively impacted product knowledge and purchase intention. Based on the research results of this study, it is suggested that while transferring knowledge, the farmers’ markets can incorporate trust and emotional relationships, which will serve as stimulating factors that can increase consumers’ purchase intentions. Although the findings are local to Taiwan, its characteristics are typical of food and agricultural education, as well as farmers’ markets worldwide, especially in Asia.
... In order to capture participants' 'beliefs concerning the environmental, ethical and health implications of meat consumption' three constructs were measured (see Table 1). Participants' beliefs concerning the effects of meat consumption on the environment were measured with four statements which were based on Gershoff and Frels (2015). Participants' beliefs about the effects of animal products consumption on animals' wellbeing was measured on a 5-item scale based on Wuensch, Jenkins, and Poteak (2002). ...
Article
Background: Some meat eaters are faced with a dilemma: they like to eat meat, but they are also concerned about animal welfare, the environmental impact of meat production, and health risks associated with meat consumption. Aim We investigated the interrelationship between ‘meat attachment’ (people's affective connection towards meat) and the ‘4Ns’ (four defence arguments omnivores use to justify their meat consumption: eating meat is normal, necessary, nice, and natural), two constructs often used by researchers to measure omnivores justifications for meat consumption. Second, we compared the predictive power of both constructs on omnivores’ (willingness to reduce) meat consumption in a regression model that also included age, gender, educational level, financial status, and participants’ beliefs concerning environmental, ethical and health issues of eating meat. Methods: In total 203 Belgian omnivores (47.4% men) completed an online questionnaire in February 2020. Their ages ranged from 18 to 55 (M = 23.57, SD = 4.64). Results: Results indicate that the correlations between the different dimensions of ‘meat attachment’ and the 4Ns are significantly positive ( p < 0.001). A comparison of the predictive power of both constructs on omnivores’ (willingness to reduce) meat consumption showed that the ‘meat attachment’ construct performs statistically better than the 4Ns construct. In addition, omnivores’ beliefs concerning the ethical implications of eating meat are also an important predictor in their meat consumption, whereas environmental and health related aspects are not. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that national health campaigns warning about the health risks of excessive meat consumption might be less effective than health campaigns focussing on the ethical issues associated with meat eating.
... Value is interpreted by reference to cognitive and affective conditions that impact purchasing choices and brand selection (Gallarza et al., 2011). Both perspectives can be helpful in the identification of the product attributes that impact consumers' perceived value (Gershoff & Frels, 2015). Therefore: ...
Article
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Environmental issues and sustainability have attracted considerable attention. The public have been asked to change their conventional consumption patterns and purchase behaviours. This study expanded the theoretical base of green purchasing by extending the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and essays a comprehensive research framework to identify the antecedents and mediators of green purchase intention (GPI). Smart PLS version 3.2.8 was employed to test the theoretical framework against 314 observations of customers who had bought green products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The current study extended the framework of the TPB model, in which perceived moral obligation (PMO) is introduced as an antecedent of attitudes towards green products, subjective norms (SN), and perceived behavioural control (PBC) visa -vis GPI. The findings reveal that environmental awareness and environmental concerns have a significant and positive influence on SN, PMO, and PBC. They also show that consumers' PMO has a positive and significant impact on customers' perceived value, including perceived environmental value and perceived environmental image. Furthermore, SN, PMO, PBC, and customers' perceived value have a significant effect on attitudes towards green products. Both customers' attitudes and perceived value have a positive effect on GPI. Theoretical and managerial implications are provided.
... • Gershoff and Frels (2015) ran several studies and showed that when a brand makes claims about being environmentally friendly, consumers will rate it more green if the eco-friendly attributes are central (important) to the product. ...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter reviews marketing scholarship on environmental sustainability. The literature covers several themes of both consumer behavior and firm-level topics. Consumer issues include their assessment of efficacy and the extent to which they are aware and sensitive to environmental issues. Numerous interventions and marketing appeals for modifying attitudes and behaviors have been tested and are reported. Consumers and business managers have both been queried regarding attitudes of recycling and waste. Firm-level phenomena are reflected, including how brand managers can signal their green efforts to their customers, whether doing so is beneficial, all in conjunction with macro pressures or constraints from industry or governmental agencies. This chapter closes with a reflection on the research.
... Lastly, we advance the emerging literature in consumer response to sustainability and green marketing. Extant research has focused on consumers' motivation to buy sustainable products (Griskevicius, Tybur, and Van den Bergh 2010; Van Doorn and Verhoef 2011), consumers' judgment of greenness (Gershoff and Frels 2015), and how and why sustainable products influence consumer attitudes and preferences (e.g., Luchs et al. 2010;Olsen, Slotegraaf, and Chandukala 2014). Yet the link between sustainable products and sales has not been studied extensively. ...
Preprint
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After years of losses, the packaging industry became profitable in 2013 and is expected to be valued at US$1.05 trillion by 2024, with a 2.8% annual growth rate. This growth is fueled by frequent launch of new packages for established brands. Although a new package could enhance sales by offering novelty and benefits, it could also disrupt consumers who value routines and act out of habits. Given these opposing arguments, whether and to what extent repackaging affects sales becomes an empirical question of economic importance. We estimate a dynamic linear model by using a sample of new packages introduced in the U.S. CPG industry to answer this question. Results highlight risks and opportunities for managers. Specifically, we find that (1) minor improvements to existing packages are more effective than entirely new packaging approaches; (2) while a new package's experience-enhancing and sustainability benefits are effective to increase sales, giving a distinctive look via repackaging is ineffective; and (3) premium (vs. budget) brands and brands in less (vs. more) vertically differentiated categories benefit more from repackaging. The findings help inform brand managers regarding whether, why, and when packaging boosts sales and reinvigorate policy makers' calls for sustainable and convenient packaging solutions.
Article
In Taiwan, pork is a commonly consumed meat product. With the country’s economic development, the Council of Agriculture has promoted the traceability system since 2004 to comply with food safety regulations, environmental protection measures, and environmentally friendly breeding measures. This study examined the effect of consumer ethics, trust, and perceived quality as a result of the pork traceability system on consumption intention and willingness to pay for pork products. We also analyzed the effects of consumer demographics on consumption intention and willingness to pay. Consumers who have bought and eaten pork constitute the research target of this study. An online questionnaire was used to collect 643 valid samples for statistical analysis. The results reveal that positive factors influencing pork consumption intention, in order of importance, are perceived ability trust, perceived integrity trust, external attributes of perceived quality, and environmental protection of consumer ethics. By contrast, the intrinsic attributes of perceived quality and social responsibility of consumer ethics negatively affect pork consumption intention. In addition, the intrinsic attributes of perceived quality, environmental protection of consumer ethics, and monthly disposable income are positive factors affecting the willingness to pay for pork products. Finally, the higher the monthly disposable income is, the higher is the willingness to pay a higher price for high-quality pork products.
Article
Purpose Products that espouse environmental ethical principles have received increasing attention in recent years. However, one key barrier against sustainable consumption is that green attributes could result in consumer’s expectation of decreased product physical performance. This study aims to investigate how green attributes existing in different product categories affect consumer purchase intention. Design/methodology/approach Two experimental studies were conducted to test the hypotheses. Study 1 provides initial evidence of the interaction effects between green attributes and product category on consumer purchase intention. Study 2 replicates the findings of Study 1 and further tests a benefits-based mechanism in the relationship between green attributes and consumer purchase intention. Findings The findings show that in the utilitarian product category, products with green peripheral attributes result in a higher purchase intention than those with green core attributes, whereas, in the hedonic product category, products with green core attributes result in a higher purchase intention than those with green peripheral attributes. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that green attributes, as universal sustainability cues predominantly affect consumers’ perceptions of utilitarian environmental benefits and self-expression benefits, which further enhance their purchase intention towards utilitarian products and hedonic products, respectively. Originality/value This study responds to the calls for more empirical studies into discussing the role of green attributes in consumer purchase intention. Furthermore, it uncovers a benefits-based mechanism that explains how green attributes existing in utilitarian product categories and hedonic product categories trigger consumers’ analysis of benefits, leading to positive consumer purchase intention.
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This is a preliminary study, yet offers insightful findings and ideas. This study analyzes the impact of Amazon’s recently introduced ‘Climate Pledge Friendly’ (CPF) certification on reviews. By treating the introduction of CPF as an exogenous shock, a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences design is employed. Counterintuitively, the certification is associated with a negative impact on reviews. The negative effect is found to be more pronounced among strength-dependent products than among gentleness-dependent products. Implications for research and managers are discussed and limitations are highlighted
Article
Documented cases of sustainable initiatives of firms show that green efforts in one market often have spillover effects on other markets. The critical question is, how do firms harness and respond to such market spillovers. To answer this, the paper examines two settings where, a firm operates in two different markets with spillovers and secondly, where it faces marketplace competition. Spillovers can be positive or negative. Using an analytical approach, the paper examines pricing and greening strategies of a firm in these scenarios, conducts market comparisons, and examines specific conditions where the firm may not invest in greening. The findings show that under the threat of spillovers from competitor’s green efforts, a focal firm increases its greening efforts and prices. Further, the absence of consumer green sensitivity in the primary market does not deter a firm from greening, if spillovers exist. Under negative spillovers, a firm can still invest in positive green efforts if the negative spillover effect is below a threshold. However, under competitive threat, a firm may lose competitive advantage as its competitor (with positive green spillovers), increases its greening efforts to compete in both the markets.
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine the impact of five consumption values (i.e. ecological, functional, symbolic, experiential and epistemic) on consumers’ intentions to adopt green products. Using Thaler’s utility theory, the authors investigate the indirect effect of values on purchase intention through acquisition utility and transaction utility. Two moderators (materialism orientation and value consciousness) further influence the strength of the effect of consumption values on transaction utility. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a survey design (N = 437 Chinese customers recruited through a Chinese online panel provider) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to test six hypothesized relationships in the proposed model. Moderated SEM was used for moderation analysis. Findings Most hypothesized relationships in the model were confirmed, with the exception of the functional value–transaction utility link and the moderating effect of materialism on the experiential value–transaction utility relationship. Research limitations/implications Larger-scale research may help to determine whether there are more significant differences in consumer evaluations of different types of green products. Practical implications As the concept of green marketing in China evolves, firms should continue to stress the importance and value of green products regarding individuals’ care for the environment, status and self-image. Further, firms should conduct systematic utility analyses and address acquisition and price equity in a strategic process. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to adapt utility theory to green consumption and proposes a clearly defined and well-substantiated set of utility types by merging economic and green consumption literature.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide insights into mechanism by which environmentally friendly initiatives positively affect a service firm's revenue stream. First, it explores attributes consumers associate with green services. Second, it affirms the mediating role of warm emotions in connecting green services to satisfaction and customer loyalty. Third, it investigates a set of amplifiers of warm emotions. These are the green tendencies of the consumer and perceived motives for adopting environmentally friendly practices. Design/methodology/approach This research involved two studies. A critical incident study was used to tap into the consumer's perspective on green services. A total of 262 attributes of green services were categorized into overarching themes. A quantitative study addressed the mediating relationships and amplifiers of warm emotions. Pooled across three services, a total of 846 observations were analyzed. Findings The findings reveal that a consumer views a service as environmentally friendly if it exhibits green attributes in either the core service, service delivery process, service environment or peripheral service activities. The results of Study II affirm that warm emotions mediate the relationship between perceptions of the environmental friendliness of a service and customer satisfaction as well as customer loyalty. The study findings suggest that positive emotions are further strengthened by the level of greenness of the consumer and by a firm's money saving motives as well as environmental preservation motives the consumer attributes to the adoption of green practices. Originality/value This study advances the authors' understanding of what attributes consumers associate with service greenness. This research expands on the service greenness and positive emotions connection by including an initial set of amplifiers of positive emotions to include the greenness of the consumer and motives for adopting green practices.
Article
The objective of the current study is to assess research activities in green consumption behavior where the flow of information is helping consumers to mold their minds towards green consumption. Bibliometric analysis has been applied for the current study using 1447 research papers on green consumption behaviors from Scopus Indexed journals for the 2015 to 2020 period. The document with the maximum citation “Predicting green products consumption using the theory of planned behavior and reasoned action” is the article with the highest citation of 338. Further, the keywords co-occurrence analysis indicates that the maximum occurring keywords are “Green Consumption”, “Sustainability”, “Sustainable Development”, “Green Consumption Behavior”. This research adds to the current literature on the behavior of green consumption in the edge where information is floating in many ways. The current study will provide the first baseline data on this subject, which will be used for future comparisons and policymakers to develop green consumption plans.
Article
The importance of ethical behavior in consumers has never been so evident, and in recent years, researchers have generated a great deal of knowledge about ethical consumption. The search for happiness in consumption has been a recurrent line of research by academics of the management and, mainly, the marketing fields. Our study analyses the relationship between ethical and sustainable behavior in consumption and the achievement of consumer happiness. Employing structural equations, the findings of the study suggest that there is a positive relationship between consumers’ predisposition toward sustainable behavior and happiness. In addition, the findings indicate that, when there are reasons to justify unethical behavior in consumption, the consumer also manages to be happier. Important implications for theory and practice are derived from the results. Emphasizing the benefits of sustainable consumption for enhancing happiness might instigate sustainable consumption, especially in the case of those consumers who do not have a positive attitude toward sustainable consumption.
Article
The aim of this study was to identify whether there is a difference in the environmentally‐conscious consumer behavior (ECCB) of a region directly impacted by an environmental tragedy, as compared to the ECCB of non-impacted regions. We empirically tested the main argument of the protection motivation theory, through the design of a structural model, based on the literature, that was estimated with cross-sectional data, which allowed us to distinguish the effects of both green behavior and perceived consumer effectiveness on the ECCB from both regions. Our model also considers the antecedents of both green behavior and perceived consumer effectiveness, thereby attempting to accurately model the complex process of forming the ECCB in a context of environmental tragedy. Using a sample of 420 individuals from an impacted region, and 394 individuals from non-impacted regions, results show that perceived consumer effectiveness affects the ECCB only in the impacted region. In this region, perceived consumer effectiveness is strongly influenced by ecological attitudes compared to environmental concern and external motivators. Conversely, green behavior affects the ECCB more in the non-impacted regions. Our evidence suggests that, after experiencing an environmental tragedy, consumers began to reflect on the effects of their consumption, which in turn influenced the ECCB. However, the effect of their green actions on their consumption behavior seems to decrease in the impacted region relative to the non-impacted regions.
Article
Although marketers are increasingly developing strategies to promote environmentally‐friendly images for their brands, little is known about green brand architecture strategies. The current study examines two sub‐branding strategies and finds that when green products are dispersed across several sub‐brands (vs. concentrated within one sub‐brand), consumers are more likely to infer that the overall parent brand is environmentally friendly. The sincerity of the company’s sustainability efforts is found to mediate the effects of the sub‐branding strategy on consumers’ eco‐friendly beliefs of the parent brand. Specifically, consumers associate dispersed strategy (vs. concentrated strategy) with intrinsic motive (vs. extrinsic motive) of the company’s sustainability policy. As a result, dispersed strategy instead of concentrated strategy promotes spillover effects of sustainability to the parent brand, demonstrating the impact of brand structure on spillover to the parent brand equity. Managerial implications are discussed related to the automobile company’s sub‐branding strategy.
Article
Purpose Brands have increasingly used self-mockery in advertisements. Although previous insights from the social science literature assert that self-mockery is an effective strategy to boost brand closeness, the paper aims to show a more contigent view of self-mockery efficiency in an advertising context. Design/methodology/approach Two experiments were conducted. Findings This study shows that self-mockery helps build brand purchase intention through brand closeness only when self-mockery is based on a weak negative claim rather than a strong negative claim and that this influence occurs only for consumers with prior positive brand attitudes. Practical implications Marketing managers should consider self-mockery as a valuable brand-building strategy, especially if the main goal of the brand is to develop brand closeness among consumers with prior positive brand attitudes. Originality/value First, the current research is the first to provide empirical support for the mediating role of brand closeness to explain how self-mockery influences brand purchase intention. Second, this study qualify previous results and the popular idea that self-mockery may systematically help build brand closeness. This study demonstrates that this effect is conditional on the strength of the negative attribute claim disclosed and consumers’ prior brand attitudes.
Chapter
Durch die Verbreitung digitaler Technologien haben sich Konsumgewohnheiten grundlegend verändert. Zudem wird angesichts des Klimawandels ein Wandel zu einer wettbewerbsfähigen, umwelt- und sozialverträglichen Wirtschaft gefordert. Der Beitrag skizziert den aktuellen Stand der Forschung den Bereichen des nachhaltigen Marketings und des Digital Marketings. Es werden schließlich Implikationen für künftige Forschung sowie Anwendungspotentiale für Unternehmen mit dem Ziel diskutiert, digitale Technologien zur Transformation des Verbraucherverhaltens hin zu nachhaltigen Konsum- und Lebensstilen einzusetzen.
Article
Purpose The aim of this empirical study is to examine how religiosity, animosity and ethnocentrism interact to influence judgment about US products and purchase actions of young consumers in a conservative Islamic country like Pakistan. Many studies have been conducted before in progressive Islamic countries such as Malaysia, Jordan, Turkey and Tunisia but not in conservative Islamic countries like Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach A validated questionnaire derived from literature is used for data collection. Data were collected from 381 college students in four provincial capital cities of Pakistan (Karachi, Lahore, Quetta and Peshawar). Structural equation modeling is used to test the framework. Findings This study reveals key significant cause and effect relationships like consumers religiosity on foreign product judgment, consumers animosity on foreign product judgment, consumers religiosity on ethnocentric tendencies of consumers, consumers ethnocentric tendencies on foreign product judgment and foreign product judgment on purchase action of consumers. Originality/value This study attempts to add value to the existing literature on consumer behavior, especially the role of religiosity, animosity and ethnocentrism in young consumers. This study is the first of its kind on examining religiosity, animosity and ethnocentrism among young consumers in Pakistan. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study will guide the marketing managers to formulate appropriate strategies when targeting young consumers, especially when they decide to boycott US products.
Article
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Many companies offer products with social benefits that are orthogonal to performance (e. g., green products). The present studies demonstrate that information about a company's intentions in designing the product plays an import role in consumers' evaluations. In particular, consumers are less likely to purchase a green product when they perceive that the company intentionally made the product better for the environment compared to when the same environmental benefit occurred as an unintended side effect. This result is explained by consumers' lay theories about resource allocation: intended (vs. unintended) green enhancements lead consumers to assume that the company diverted resources away from product quality, which in turn drives a reduction in purchase interest. The present studies also identify an important boundary condition based on the type of enhancement and show that the basic intended (vs. unintended) effect generalizes to other types of perceived tradeoffs, such as healthfulness and taste.
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It is common for brands to extend into additional product categories. The most successful extensions involve brands that are associated with benefits that are valued in the extension category. We propose that brand extension success also depends on the accessibility of these benefit associations and that accessibility, in turn, depends on the amount of interference by competing brand associations ( e. g., category associations). One implication of this proposition is that broad brands (i.e., brands offering a portfolio of diverse products) will tend to have more accessible benefit associations than narrow brands (i.e., brands offering a portfolio of similar products) and can therefore engage in more successful brand extensions than narrow brands, even when the narrow brands are more similar to the extension category. However, when benefit associations are equally accessible and diagnostic, the evaluation of brand extensions will instead be dictated by the similarity between brand and extension category associations.
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This study addresses two important global trends: protection of public goods, specifically the environment, and the emergence of multiethnic societies with influential minority groups. The study tests the effect of a government proenvironmental demarketing campaign on the deconsumption behavior of minority groups and the majority population. It suggests that minority consumers use consumption or deconsumption to manifest their social identity, beliefs, and goals as minorities in relation to the majority and that their motivation to respond positively to a government's demarketing campaign is shaped by their national attachment levels. The study was conducted in Jerusalem, Israel, and involved a large data set (N = 66,272) containing household-level data on actual behavior of consumers. The studied groups involved the majority of non-ultra-Orthodox Jews and three minority groups: Israeli Arabs, ultra-Orthodox Jews, and Jewish Russian immigrants. The findings show that in a proenvironmental context, government demarketing is more effective on the majority group than on any of the three minority groups. In addition, minority groups with lower national attachment levels respond more negatively to the demarketing effort. However, higher education levels lead to a more positive response across the majority and minority groups. A central implication of the findings is related to the benefits derived from demarketing for different consumer groups (majorities versus minorities based on religion, ethnicity, and immigration status). The findings also provide a benchmark for demarketing efforts in an environmental context. Finally, they suggest that policy makers and marketers should consider using demarketing more to complement regulatory and economic tools.
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is often used as a key criterion in gauging corporate reputation. This research examined the influence of consumers’ attributions on corporate outcomes in response to CSR. Researchers and managers have considered consumers’ beliefs about CSR initiatives to be simplistic, serving either economic ends or reflecting sincere social concerns. The results of two studies established that consumers’ attributions were more complex than traditionally viewed, mirroring many of the motives ascribed to companies by managers and researchers. Rather than viewing corporate efforts along a self- or other-centered continuum, consumers differentiated four types of motives: self-centered motives that are strategic and egoistic and other-centered motives that are values driven and stakeholder driven. Consumers responded most positively to CSR efforts they judged as values driven and strategic while responding negatively to efforts perceived as stakeholder driven or egoistic. Attributions were shown to affect purchase intent as well as mediate the structure of an offer.
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The modifier effect is the reduction in perceived likelihood of a generic property sentence, when the head noun is modified. We investigated the prediction that the modifier effect would be stronger for mutable than for central properties, without finding evidence for this predicted interaction over the course of five experiments. However Experiment 6, which provided a brief context for the modified concepts to lend them greater credibility, did reveal the predicted interaction. It is argued that the modifier effect arises primarily from a general lack of confidence in generic statements about the typical properties of unfamiliar concepts. Neither prototype nor classical models of concept combination receive support from the phenomenon.
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Conceptual features differ in how mentally tranformable they are. A robin that does not eat is harder to imagine than a robin that does not chirp. We argue that features are immutable to the extent that they are central in a network of dependency relations. The immutability of a feature reflects how much the internal structure of a concept depends on that feature; i.e., how much the feature contributes to the concept's coherence. Complementarily, mutability reflects the aspects in which a concept is flexible. We show that features can be reliably ordered according to their mutability using tasks that require people to conceive of objects missing a feature, and that mutability (conceptual centrality) can be distinguished from category centrality and from diagnosticity and salience. We test a model of mutability based on asymmetric, unlabeled, pairwise dependency relations. With no free parameters, the model provides reasonable fits to data. Qualitative tests of the model show that mutability judgments are unaffected by the type of dependency relation and that dependency structure influences judgments of variability.
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What do lay people believe about the psychology of advertising and persuasion? How similar are the beliefs of lay people to those of consumer researchers? In this study we explore the content of people's conceptions of how television advertising influences its audience. The findings suggest that lay people and researchers share many basic beliefs about the psychology of persuasion but also indicate some dissimilarities in these groups' persuasion knowledge. We discuss what the findings imply about the existence of cultural folk knowledge and its effect on persuasion. Copyright 1995 by the University of Chicago.
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This research identifies consumer expertise and the type of attribute information as moderating the effects of country of origin on product evaluations. When attribute information was unambiguous, experts based their evaluations on attribute strength, whereas novices relied on country of origin. When attribute information was ambiguous, both experts and novices used country of origin in evaluations. Also, experts and novices used county of origin differently in evaluations. Experts used country of origin to selectively process and recall attribute information, whereas novices used it to differentially interpret subsequent attribute information. The findings are discussed within the framework of stereotyping. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.
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A categorization approach to inference making was used to determine when the effects of comparative advertising would differ from those of noncomparative advertising. Comparative advertising led to different responses for experts relative to either product class or product type level noncomparative advertising, but for novices only when the noncomparative ad referred to a broad product class. These differences were for measures of similarity, distinctiveness, and ad informativeness. Mean values on brand attitudes were not differentially influenced by comparative versus noncomparative advertising, though comparative advertising resulted in more polarized attitudes. These results were interpreted within the categorization framework and point to the general usefulness of this conceptual framework.
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The study finds that framing, i.e., priming different decision criteria, influences evaluation outcomes for both expert and novice consumers when the alternatives are noncomparable and influences evaluation outcomes for novices when the alternatives are comparable. The ready availability of a decision criterion, as opposed to the lack of one, also alters consumers' cognitive responses for noncomparable sets to make these responses appear more like cognitive responses typical of comparable sets. One fundamental distinction between sets of noncomparable and comparable alternatives may be the ready availability of decision criteria versus the need to construct them, rather than any inherent differences in category types.
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Different from past research on country-of-origin effects that has focused on cognitive factors, this article examines the impact of incidental emotions and cognitive appraisals associated with these emotions on country-of-origin effects. Experiment 1 compared anger and sadness and demonstrated that country of origin influenced evaluations only in the angry (vs. sad) condition where human (vs. situation) control was high. Experiment 2 further identified the effects of agency control using a different emotion, frustration. Based on these observations, this article suggests that, like brands, countries also have equity associated with them, termed "nation equity," that has both performance and emotional components. (c) 2006 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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Hypotheses involving mediation are common in the behavioral sciences. Mediation exists when a predictor affects a dependent variable indirectly through at least one intervening variable, or mediator. Methods to assess mediation involving multiple simultaneous mediators have received little attention in the methodological literature despite a clear need. We provide an overview of simple and multiple mediation and explore three approaches that can be used to investigate indirect processes, as well as methods for contrasting two or more mediators within a single model. We present an illustrative example, assessing and contrasting potential mediators of the relationship between the helpfulness of socialization agents and job satisfaction. We also provide SAS and SPSS macros, as well as Mplus and LISREL syntax, to facilitate the use of these methods in applications.
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People construct ad hoc categories to achieve goals. For example, constructing the category of “things to sell at a garage sale” can be instrumental to achieving the goal of selling unwanted possessions. These categories differ from common categories (e.g., “fruit,” “furniture”) in that ad hoc categories violate the correlational structure of the environment and are not well established in memory. Regarding the latter property, the category concepts, concept-to-instance associations, and instance-to-concept associations structuring ad hoc categories are shown to be much less established in memory than those of common categories. Regardless of these differences, however, ad hoc categories possess graded structures (i.e., typicality gradients) as salient as those structuring common categories. This appears to be the result of a similarity comparison process that imposes graded structure on any category regardless of type.
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Many concepts have stereotypes. This leaves open the question of whether concepts are stereotypes. It has been argued elsewhere that theories that identify concepts with their stereotypes or with stereotypical properties of their instances (e.g., Rosch, E. (1978). Principles of categorization. In E. Rosch & B. B. Lloyd (Ed.), Cognition and Categorization. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; Smith, E. E., Medin, D. L. (1981). Categories and Concepts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.) fail to provide an adequate account of the compositionality of concepts (Fodor, J., Lepore, E. (1996). The red herring and the pet fish: Why concepts still cannot be prototypes. Cognition, 58, 253-270.; Fodor, J. (1998). Concepts: Where cognitive science went wrong. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.). This paper extends this argument and reports an experiment suggesting that participants do not assume, even as a default strategy, that complex concepts inherit the stereotypes of their constituents. Thus propositions such as "Baby ducks have webbed feet" were judged to be less likely to be true than propositions like "Ducks have webbed feet.&