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Abstract and Figures

Past research found that messages in popular television promote fame as a top value, while social media allow anyone to reach broad audiences (Uhls & Greenfield, 2011; Uhls & Greenfield, 2012). During a sensitive developmental phase, preteens are the largest users of media, consuming over seven-and-a-half hours a day, seven days a week, outside of school. A nationwide survey in the United States asked 315 youth (M = 12 years; range: 9 -15 years) about their media habits as well as their aspirations for the future. Participants’ answers about their future goals clustered around two factors, representing individualistic, self-focused and collectivistic, other-focused aspirations. Fame, image, money and status were items in the former; helping others in need, helping family, and living near family were items in the latter. Watching television and using a social networking site each predicted self-focused aspirations, above and beyond the influence of control variables of age and maternal education, while the two media activities together predicted a larger portion of the variance than either alone. Collectivistic, other-focused aspirations were associated with nontechnology activities, most of which had an important social component. The implication is that individualistic, self-focused aspirations are related to 21st century media, whereas more collectivistic, other-focused aspirations are related to nontechnology activities, particularly those with a social component. © 2008 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace.
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What do you
want to do?
How many
variables?
Describe Describe
MultivariateBivariateUnivariate
Multiple
regression
Concept
testing
Theory
testing
Structural
equation
modeling
Factor
analysis
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CHAPTER
Factor Analysis,
Path Analysis, and
Structural Equation
Modeling 14
325
Introduction
Up to this point in the discussion of multivariate statistics, we have focused on the
relationship of isolated independent variables on a single dependent variable at some
level of measurement. In criminological theory, theorists are often concerned a collec-
tion of variables, not with observable individual variables. In these cases, regression
analysis alone is often inadequate or in appropriate. As such, when testing theoretical
models and constructs, as well as when examining the interplay between independent
variables, other multivariate statistical analyses should be used.
This chapter explores three multivariate statistical techniques that are more effec-
tive and more appropriate for analyzing complex theoretical models. The statistical
applications examined here are factor analysis, path analysis, and structural equation
modeling.
Factor Analysis
Factor analysis is a multivariate analysis procedure that attempts to identify any
underlying “factors” that are responsible for the covariaton among a group independ-
ent variables. The goals of a factor analysis are typically to reduce the number of vari-
ables used to explain a relationship or to determine which variables show a
relationship. Like a regression model, a factor is a linear combination of a group of
variables (items) combined to represent a scale measure of a concept. To successfully
use a factor analysis, though, the variables must represent indicators of some common
underlying dimension or concept such that they can be grouped together theoretically
as well as mathematically. For example, the variables income, dollars in savings, and
home value might be grouped together to represent the concept of the economic status
of research subjects.
Factor analysis originated in psychological theory. Based on the work undertaken
by Pearson (1901) in which he proposed a “...method ofprincipal axes . . ., Spearman
(1904) began research on the general and specific factors of intelligence. Spearman’s
two factor model was enhanced in 1919 with the development by Garnett of a multi-
ple-factor approach. This multiple-factor model was officially coined “factor analysis”
by Thurstone in 1931.
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326 CHAPTER 14 Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling
There are two types of factor analyses: exploratory and confirmatory. The differ-
ence between these is much like the difference discussed in regression between testing a
model without changing it and attempting to build the best model based on the data
utilized.
Exploratory factor analysis is just that: exploring the loadings of variables to try to
achieve the best model. This usually entails putting variables in a model where it is
expected they will group together and then seeing how the factor analysis groups them.
At the lowest level of science, this is also commonly referred to as “hopper analysis,
where a large number of variables are dumped into the hopper (computer) to see what
might fit together; then a theory is built around what is found.
At the other end of the spectrum is the more rigorous confirmatory factor analysis.
This is confirming previously defined hypotheses concerning the relationships
between variables. In reality, probably the most common research is conducted using a
combination of these two where the researcher has an idea which variables are going to
load and how, uses a factor analysis to support these hypotheses, but will accept some
minor modifications in terms of the grouping.
It is common for factor analysis in general, and exploratory factor analysis specifi-
cally, to be considered a data reduction procedure. This entails placing a number of
variables in a model and determining which variables can be removed from the model;
making it more parsimonious. Factor analysis purists decry this procedure, holding
that factor analysis should only be confirmatory; confirming what has previously been
hypothesized in theory. Any reduction in the data/variables at this point would signal
weakness in the theoretical model.
There are other practical uses of factor analysis beyond what has been discussed
above. First, when using several variables to represent a single concept (theoretically),
factor analysis can confirm that concept by its identification as a factor. Factor analysis
can also be used to check for multicollinearity in variables to be used in a regression
analysis. Variables which group together and have high factor loadings are typically
multicollinear. This is not a common method of determining multicollinearity as it
adds another layer of analysis.
There are two key concepts to factor analysis as a multivariate analysis technique:
variance and factoral complexity. Variance is discussed in the four paragraphs below,
followed by a discussion of factoral complexity.
Variance comes into play because factor analysis attempts to identify factors that
explain as much of the common variance within a set of variables as possible. There are
three components to variance: communality,uniqueness and error variance.
Communality is the part of the variance shared with one or more other variables.
Communality is represented by the sum of the squared loadings for a variable (across
factors). Factor analysis attempts to determine the factor or factors that explain as
much of the communality of a set of variables as possible. All of the variance in a set of
variables can be explained if there are as many factors as variables. That is not the goal
of factor analysis, however. Factor analysis attempts to explain as much of the variance
as possible with the least amount of variables (parsimony). This will become impor-
tant in the interpretation of factor analysis.
Uniqueness, on the other hand, is the variance specific to a particular variable. Part
of the variance in any model can be attributed to variance in each of the component
variables (communality). Part of the variance, however, is unique to the specific factor
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Assumptions 327
and cannot be explained by the component variables. Uniqueness measures the vari-
ance that is reflected in a single variable alone. It is assumed to be uncorrelated with the
component factors or with other unique factors.
Error variance is the variance due to random or systematic error in the model. This
is in line with the error that was discussed in Chapter 11, and the error associated with
regression analysis discussed in the preceding chapters.
Factoral complexity is the number of variables loading on a given factor. Ideally a
variable should only load on one factor. This means, theoretically, that you have accu-
rately determined conceptually how the variables will group. The logical extension of
this is that you have a relatively accurate measure of the underlying dimension (con-
cept) that is the focus of the research. Variables that load (cross-load) on more than
one factor represent a much more complex model, and it is more difficult to determine
the true relationships between variables, factors, and the underlying dimensions.
Assumptions
As with the other statistical procedures discussed in this book, there are several
assumptions that must be met before factor analysis can be utilized in research. Many
of these are similar to assumptions discussed in previous chapters; but some are
unique to factor analysis.
Like regression, the most basic assumption of factor analysis is that the data is
interval level and normally distributed (linearity). Dichotomized data can be used with
a factor analysis; but it is not widely accepted. It is acceptable to use dichotomized,
nominal level data for the principle component analysis portion of the factor analysis.
There is debate among statisticians, however, whether dichotomized, nominal level
data is appropriate after the factors have been rotated because of the requirement of
the variables being a true linear combination of the underlying factors. It has been
argued, for example, that using dichotomized data yields two orthogonal (uncorre-
lated) factors such that the resulting factors are a statistical artifact and the model is
misspecified. Other than dichotomized nominal level data, nominal and ordinal level
data should not be used with a factor analysis. The essence of a factor analysis is that
the factor scores are dependent upon the data varying across cases. If it cannot be rea-
soned that nominal level data varies (high to low or some other method of ordering)
then the factors are uninterpretable. It is also not advised to use ordinal level data
because of the non-normal nature of the data. The possible exception to this require-
ment concerns fully ordered ordinal level data. If the data can be justified as approxi-
mating interval level (as some will do with Likert type data), then it is appropriate to
use it in a factor analysis.
The second assumption is that there should be no specification error in the model.
As discussed in previous chapters, specification error refers to the exclusion of relevant
variables from the analysis or the inclusion of irrelevant variables in the model. This is
a severe problem for factor analysis that can only be rectified in the conceptual stages
of research planning.
Another requirement of factor analysis is that there be a sufficient sample size so
there is enough information upon which to base analyses. Although there are many
different thoughts on how large the sample size should be for an adequate factor analy-
sis, the general guidelines follow those of Hatcher (1994) who argued for sample sizes
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TABLE 14-1Steps in the Factor Analysis Process
Step 1 Examine univariate analysis of the variables to be included in the factor analysis
Step 2 Preliminary analyses and diagnostic tests
Step 3 Extract factors
Step 4 Factor extraction
Step 5 Factor rotation
Step 6 Use of factors in other analyses
of at least 100, or 5 times the number of variables to be included in the principle com-
ponent analysis. Any of these kinds of cut-points are simply guides, however, and the
actual sample size required is more of a theoretical and methodological issue for indi-
vidual models. In fact, there are many who suggest that factor analysis is stable with
sample sizes as small as 50.
One major difference in the assumptions between regression and factor analysis is
multicollinearity. In regression, multicollinearity is problematic; in factor analysis,
multicollinearity is necessary because variables must be highly associated with some of
the other variables so they will load (“clump”) into factors. The only caveat here is that
all of the variables should not be highly correlated or only one factor will be present
(the only criminological theory that proposed one factor is Gottfredson and Hirschi’s
work on self-control theory). It is best for factor analysis to have groups of variables
highly associated with each other (which will result in those variables loading as a fac-
tor) and not correlated at all with other groups of variables.
Analysis and Interpretation
As with most multivariate analyses, factor analysis requires a number of steps to be fol-
lowed in a fairly specific order. The steps in this process are outlined in Table 14-1 and
discussed below.
Step 1—Univariate Analysis
As with other multivariate analysis procedures, proper univariate analysis is
important. It is particularly important to examine the nature of the data as discussed
in Chapter 10. The examination of the univariate measures of skewness and kurtosis
will be important in this analysis. If a distribution is skewed or kurtose, it may not be
normally distributed and/or non-linear. This is detrimental to factor analysis. Any
variables that are skewed or kurtose should be carefully examined before being used in
a factor analysis.
Step 2—Preliminary Analysis
Beyond examining skewness and kurtosis, there are a number of preliminary
analyses that can be used to ensure the data and variables are appropriate for a factor
analysis. These expand upon the univariate analyses and are more specific to factor
analysis.
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Assumptions 329
How Do You Do That?
Obtaining Factor Analysis Output in SPSS
1. Open a data set such as one provided on the CD in the back of this book.
a. Start SPSS
b. Select
File
, then
Open
, then
Data
c. Select the file you want to open, then select
Open
2. Once the data is visible, select
Analyze
,
Data Reduction
,
Factor . . .
3. Select the independent variables you wish to include in your factor analy-
sis your dependent variable and press the next to the
Variables
window.
4. Select the
Descriptives
button and click on the boxes next to
Anti-image
and
KMO and Bartlett’s Test of Spericity
and select
Continue
.
5. Select the
Extraction
button and click on the box next to
Scree Plot
and
select
Continue
.
6. Select
Rotation
and click on the box next to the type of
Rotation
you wish
to use and select
Continue
.
7. Click
OK
.
8. An output window should appear containing tables similar in format to the
tables below.
First, a Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity can be used to determine if the correlation
matrix in the factor analysis is an Identity Matrix. An identity matrix is a correlation
matrix where the diagonals are all 1 and the off-diagonals are all 0. This would mean
that none of the variables are correlated with each other. If the Bartlett’s Test is not sig-
nificant, do not use factor analysis to analyze the data because the variables will not
load together properly. In the example in Table 14-2, the Bartlett’s Test is significant, so
the data meets this assumption.
It is also necessary to examine the Anti-Image Correlation Matrix (Table 14-3).
This shows if there is a low degree of correlation between the variables when the other
variables are held constant. Anti-image means that low correlation values will produce
large numbers. The values to be examined for this analysis are the off diagonal values;
the diagonal values will be important for the KMO analysis below. In the anti-image
matrix in Table 14-3, the majority of the off-diagonal values are closer to zero. This is
TABLE 14-2 KMO and Bartlett’s Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .734
Bartleffs Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 622.459
df 91
Sig. .000
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330 CHAPTER 14 Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling
TABLE 14-3 Anti-image Correlation Matrix*
ARR CHU CUR GANG GRND_ GUN_ OUT_ OUT_ GRUP_ UCON U_GUN SKIP SCH_
ESTR RCH CLUBS FEW R DRG REG DRUG GUN GUN VICR _CM PEDR DRUG
ARRESTR .545(a)
CHURCH –.010 .648(a)
CLUBS –.0412 –.166 .734(a)
CURFEW –.055 –.215 –.059 .695(a)
GANGR –.141 –.054 .029 .017 .849(a)
GRND_DRG .000 .233 –.066 –.160 –.104 .598(a)
GUN_REG .076 .041 –.022 .051 –.250 –.125 .768(a)
OUT_DRUG .082 .092 –.021 –.024 –.154 .063 –.338 .733(a)
OUT_GUN .032 –.004 –.133 .152 –.243 .076 –.036 –.009 .819(a)
GRUP_GUN –.015 –.026 .015 .154 –.161 –.121 .063 .052 –.229 .787(a)
UCONVICR –.286 .022 .181 .175 –.070 –.252 .128 .087 –.051 .052 .667(a)
U_GUN_CM .196 –.116 .052 –.082 –.119 .166 –.316 –.049 –.153 –.022 –.514 .682(a)
SKIPPEDR .079 –.209 –.125 –.014 .106 .035 .043 –.023 –.012 .106 .047 –.011 .842(a)
SCH_DRUG –.208 –.022 .163 –.042 .038 –.081 –.039 –.323 –.153 –.034 –.062 .085 .03 .727(a)
*See the Appendix C for full description of the variables used in Table 14–2.
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Assumptions 331
what we want to see. If there are many large values in the off-diagonal, factor analysis
should not be used.
Additionally, this correlation matrix can be used to asses the adequacy of variables
for inclusion in the factor analysis. By definition, variables that are not associated with
at least some of the other variables will not contribute to the analysis. Those variables
identified as having low correlations with the other variables should be considered for
elimination from the analysis (dependent, of course, on theoretical and methodologi-
cal considerations).
In addition to determining if the data is appropriate for a factor analysis, you
should determine if the sampling is adequate for analysis. This is accomplished by
using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (Kaiser 1974a). The
KMO compares the observed correlation coefficients to the partial correlation coeffi-
cients. Small values for the KMO indicate problems with sampling. A KMO value of
0.90 is best; below 0.50 is unacceptable. A KMO value that is less than .50, means you
should look at the individual measures that are located on the diagonal in the anti-
image matrix. Variables with small values should be considered for elimination. In the
example in Table 14-2, the KMO value is .734. This is an acceptable KMO value,
although it may be useful to examine the anti-image correlation matrix to see what
variables might be bringing the KMO value down. For example, the two diagonal val-
ues that are between 0.50 and 0.60 are ARRESTR (Have you ever been arrested?) and
GRND_DRG (Have you ever been grounded for drugs or alcohol?). ARRESTR cannot
be deleted from the analysis because it is one of the dependent variables, but it might
be necessary to determine whether GRND_DRG should be retained in the analysis.
Step 3—Extract the Factors
The next step in the factor analysis is to extract the factors. The most popular
method of extracting factors is called a principle component analysis (developed by
Hotelling, 1933). There are other competing, and sometimes preferable, extraction
methods (such as maximum likelihood, developed by Lawley in 1940). These analyses
determine how well the factors explain the variation. The goal here is to identify the lin-
ear combination of variables that account for the greatest amount of common variance.
As shown in the principal components analysis in Table 14-4, the first factor
accounts for the greatest amount of common variance (26.151%), representing an
Eigenvalue of 3.661. Each subsequent factor explains a portion of the remaining vari-
ance until a point is reached (an Eigenvalue of 1) where it can be said that the factors
no longer contribute to the model. At this point, those factors with an Eigenvalue
above 1 represent the number of factors needed to describe the underlying dimensions
of the data. For Table 14-4, this is factor 5, with an explained variance of 7.658 and an
Eigenvalue of 1.072. All of the factors below this do not contrinue an adequate amount
to the model to be included. Each of the factors at this point are not correlated with
each other (they are orthogonal as described below).
Note here that a principal components analysis is not the same thing as a factor
analysis (the rotation part of this procedure). They are similar, but the principal com-
ponents analysis is much closer to a regression analysis, where the variables themselves
are examined and their variance measured. Also note that this table lists numbers and
not variable names. These numbers represent the factors in the model. All of the vari-
ables represent a potential factor, so there are as many factors as variables in the left
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332 CHAPTER 14 Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling
TABLE 14-4 Total Variance Explained
Total Variance Explained
Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings
Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative %
1 3.661 26.151 26.151 3.661 26.151 26.151
2 1.655 11.823 37.973 1.655 11.823 37.973
3 1.246 8.903 46.877 1.246 8.903 46.877
4 1.158 8.271 55.148 1.158 8.271 55.148
5 1.072 7.658 62.806 1072 7.658 62.806
6 .961 6.868 69.674
7 .786 5.616 75.289
8 .744 5.316 80.606
9 .588 4.198 84.804
10 .552 3.944 88.748
11 .504 3.603 92.351
12 .414 2.960 95.311
13 .384 2.742 98.053
14 .273 1.947 100.000
Extraction Method: Princloal Comoonent Analysis.
columns of the table. In the right 3 columns of the table, only the factors that con-
tribute to the model are included (factors 1-5).
The factors in the principal component analysis show individual relationships,
much like the beta values in regression. In fact, the factor loadings here are the correla-
tions between the factors and their related variables. The Eigenvalue used to establish a
cutoff of factors is a value like R2in regression. As with regression, the Eigenvalue repre-
sents the “strength” of a factor. The Eigenvalue of the first factor is such that the sum of
the squared factor loadings is the most for the model. The reason the Eigenvalue is used
as a cutoff is because it is the sum of the squared factor loadings of all variables (the
sum divided by the number of variables in a factor equals the average percentage of
variance explained by that factor). Since the squared factor loadings are divided by the
number of variables, an Eigenvalue of 1 simply means that the variables explain at least
an average amount of the variance. A factor with an Eigenvalue of less than 1 means the
variable is not even contributing an average amount to explaining the variance.
It is also common to evaluate the scree plot to determine how many factors to
include in a model. The scree plot is a graphical representation of the incremental vari-
ance accounted for by each factor in the model.An example of a scree plot is shown in
Figure 14-1. To use the scree plot to determine the number of factors in the model,
look at where the scree plot begins to level off. Any factors that are in the level part of
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Assumptions 333
12
2
3
4
1
0
34567891011121314
Component number
Eigenvalue
Figure 14-1 Scree Plot
the scree plot may need to be excluded from the model. Excluding variables this way
should be thoroughly supported both theoretically and methodologically.
Figure 14- 1 is a good example of where a scree plot may be in conflict with the
eigenvalue cutoff, and where it may be appropriate to include factors that have an
Eigenvalue of less than 1. Here, the plot seems to level off about the eighth factor, even
though the Eigenvalue cutoff is reached after the fifth factor. This is somewhat sup-
ported by Table 14-5, which shows the initial Eigenvalues. This shows that the Eigen-
values keep dropping until the eighth factor and then essentially level off to
Eigenvalues in the 0.2 to 0.5 range. This shows where the leveling occurs in the model.
In this case, it may be beneficial to compare a factor model based on an Eigenvalue of 1
cutoff to a scree plot cutoff to see which model is more theoretically supportable.
It is also important in the extraction phase to examine the communality. The com-
munality is represented by the sum of the squared loadings for a variable across factors.
The communalities can range from 0 to 1. A communality of 1 means that all of the
variance in the model is explained by the factors (variables). This is shown in the “Ini-
tial” column of Table 14-6. The initial values are where all variables are included in the
model. They have a communality of 1 because there are as many variables as there are
factors. In the “Extraction” column, the communalities are different and less than 1.
This is because only the 5 factors used above (with Eigenvalues greater than 1) are
taken into account. Here the communality for each variable as it relates to one of the
five factors is taken into account. Although there are no 0 values; if there were, it would
mean that variable (factor) contributed nothing to explaining the common variance of
the model.
At this point and after rotation (see below), you should examine the factor matrix
(component matrix) to determine what variables could be combined (those that load
together) and if any variables should be dropped. This is accomplished through the
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334 CHAPTER 14 Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling
TABLE 14-5 Communalities
Initial Extraction
Recoded ARREST varible to represent yes or no 1.000 686
Do you ever go to church? 1.000 .693
Are you involved in any clubs or sports in school? 1 000 600
Do you have acurfew at home? 1.000 .583
Scale measure of gang activities 1.000 .627
Have you ever been grounded because of drugs or alcohol? 1.000 .405
Do you regularly carry a gun with you? 1.000 694
Have your parents ever threatened to throw you
out of the house because of drugs or alcohol? 1.000 .728
Have you ever carried a gun out with you when you 1.000 .636
went out at night?
Have you ever been in a group where someone
was carrying a gun? 1.000 .646
Recoded UCONVIC variable to represent yes or no 1.000 .774
Have any of your arrests involved a firearm? 1.000 .785
Recoded SKIPPED variable to yes and no 1.000 .410
Have you ever been in trouble at school because 1.000 .528
of drugs or alcohol?
Extraction Method: PrinciDal Comoonent Analysis.
TABLE 14-6 Component Matrix
Initial Extraction
ARRESTR 1.000 .686
CHURCH 1.000 .693
CLUBS 1.000 .600
CURFEW 1.000 .583
GANGR 1.000 .627
GRND_DRG 1.000 .405
GUN_REG 1.000 .694
OUT_DRUG 1.000 .728
OUT_GUN 1.000 .636
GRUP_GUN 1.000 .646
UCONVICR 1.000 .774
U_GUN_CM 1.000 .785
SKIPPEDR 1.000 .410
SCH_DRUG 1.000 .528
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
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Assumptions 335
Factor Loading Value. This is the correlation between a variable and a factor where
only a single factor is involved or multiple factors are orthogonal (in regression terms,
it is the standardized regression coefficient between the observed values and common
factors). Higher factor loadings indicate that a variable is closely associated with the
factor. Look for scores greater than 0.40 in the factor matrix. In fact, most statistical
programs allow you to block out factor loadings that are less than a particular value
(less than 0.40). This is not required, but it makes the factor matrix more readable, and
was done in Table 14-7.
Step 4—Factor Rotation
It is possible, and acceptable, to stop at this point and base analyses on the
extracted factors. Typically, however, the extraction in the previous step is subjected to
an additional procedure to facilitate a clearer understanding of the data. As shown in
Figure 14-7, the variables are related to factors seemingly at random. It is difficult to
determine clearly which variables load together. Making this interpretation easier can
be accomplished by rotating the factors. That is the next step in the factor analysis
process. Factor rotation simply rotates the ordinate plane so the geometric location of
the factors makes more sense (see Figure 14-2). As shown in this figure, some of the
factors (the dots) are in the positive, positive portion of the ordinate plane and some
are in the positive, negative portion. This makes the analysis somewhat difficult. By
rotating the plane, however, all of the factors can be placed in the same quadrant. This
TABLE 14-7 Component Matrix with Blocked Out Values
Component
1 2 3 4 5
GANGR .751
GUN_REG .643 .424
U_GUN_CM .637 –.429
UCONVICR .634 –.405
OUT_GUN .627
SCH_DRUG .494 .442
SKIPPEDR –.452 .413
CHURCH .525 .514
GRND_DRG –.403
OUT_DRUG .520 .534
ARRESTR –.473 .631
CURFEW .433 .463
CLUBS .527
GRUP_GUN .467 .523
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
a 5 components extracted.
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336 CHAPTER 14 Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling
Figure 14-2 Factor Plot in Coordinate Planes
makes the interpretation much simpler, but the factors themselves have not been
altered at all.
This step involves, once again, examining the factor matrix. Values should be at
least .40 to be included in a particular factor. For those variables that reach this cutoff,
it is now possible to determine which variables load (group) with other variables. If
this is an exploratory factor analysis, this is where a determination can be made con-
cerning which variables to combine into scales or factors. If this is a confirmatory fac-
tor analysis, this step will determine how the theoretical model faired under testing.
There are two main categories of rotations: orthogonal and oblique. There are also
several types of rotations available within these categories. It should be noted that,
although rotation does not change the communalities or percentage of variation
explained, each of the different types of rotation strategies may produce different
mixes of variables within each factor.
The first type of rotation is an orthogonal rotation. There are several orthogonal
rotations that are available. Each performs a slightly different function, and each has its
advantages and disadvantages. Probably the most popular orthogonal procedure is
varimax (developed by Kaiser in his Ph.D. dissertation and published in Kaiser 1958).
This rotation procedure attempts to minimize the number of variables that have high
loadings on a factor (thus achieving the goal of parsimony discussed above). Another
rotation procedure, quartermax, attempts to minimize the number of factors in the
analysis. This often results in an easily interpretable set of variables, but where there are
a large number of variables with moderate factor loadings on a single factor. A combi-
nation or compromise of these two is found in the equamax rotation, which attempts
to simplify both the number of factors and the number of variables.
An example of a varimax rotation is shown in Table 14-8. As with the principal
component analysis, the values less than 0.40 have been blanked out. Here, the five fac-
tors identified in the extraction phase have been retained, along with the variables from
the component matrix in Table 14-7. The difference here is that the structure of the
model is clearer and more interpretable.
This table shows that the variables OUT_DRUG (respondent reported being out
with a group where someone was using drugs), GUN_REG (respondent carries a gun
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Assumptions 337
TABLE 14-8 Rotated Component Matrix
Component
1 2 3 4 5
OUT_DRUG .848
GUN_REG .778
GANGR .503
GRUP_GUN .776
OUT_GUN .687
UCONVICR .789
U_GUN_CM .741
CURFEW .447
CHURCH .819
SKIPPEDR .539
CLUBS .539
ARRESTR .783
SCH_DRUG .524
GRND_DRG .524
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
regularly) and GANGR (respondent reported being in a gang) are the variables that
load together to represent Factor 1; GRUP_GUN (respondent reported being out with
a group where someone was carrying a gun) and OUT_GUN (respondent has previ-
ously carried a gun out with them) load together to represent Factor 2; UCONVICR
(respondent had been convicted of a crime) and U_GUN_CM (respondent had been
convicted of a crime involving a gun) load together to represent Factor 3; CURFEW
(respondent has a curfew at home) CHURCH (respondent regularly attends church),
SKIPPEDR (respondent had skipped school because of drugs) and CLUBS (respon-
dent belongs to clubs or sports at school) load together to represent Factor 4; and
ARRESTR (respondent has been arrested before), SCH_DRUG (respondent has been
in trouble at school because of drugs)and GRND_DRG (respondent has been
grounded because of drugs) load together to represent Factor 5.
A second type of rotation is an oblique rotation. The oblique rotation used in SPSS
is oblimin. This rotation procedure was developed by Carroll in his 1953 work and
finalized in 1960 in a computer program written for IBM mainframe computers.
Oblique rotation does not require the axes of the plane to remain at right angles. For
an oblique rotation, the axes may be at almost any angle that sufficiently describes the
model (see Figure 14-3).
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338 CHAPTER 14 Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling
Figure 14-3 Graph of Oblique Rotation
Early in the development of factor analysis, oblique rotation was considered
unsound as it was a common perception that the factors should be uncorrelated with
each other. Thurstone began to change this perception in his 1947 work, in which he
argued that it is unlikely that factors as complicated as human behavior and in a world
of interrelationships such as our society could truly be unrelated such that orthogonal
rotations alone are required. It has since become more accepted to use oblique rota-
tions under some circumstances.
The way an oblique rotation treats the data is somewhat similar to creating a least-
squares line for regression. In this case, however, two lines will be drawn, representing
the ordinate axes discussed in the orthogonal rotation. The axes will be drawn so that
they create a least-squares line through groups of factors (as shown in Figure 14-3).
As shown in this graph, the axis lines are not at right angles as they are with an
orthogonal rotation. Additionally, the lines are oriented such that they run through the
groups of factors. This illustrates a situation where an oblique rotation is at maximum
effectiveness. The closer the factors are clustered, especially if there are only two clus-
ters of factors, the better an oblique rotation will identify the model. If the factors are
relatively spread out, or if there are three or more clusters of factors, an oblique rota-
tion may not be as strong a method of interpretation as an orthogonal rotation. That is
why it is often useful to examine the factor plots, especially if planning to use an
oblique rotation.
Although there are similarities between oblique and orthogonal rotations (i.e. they
both maintain the communalities and variance explained for the factors), there are
some distinct differences. One of the greatest differences is that, with an oblique rota-
tion, the factor loadings are no longer the same as a correlation between the variable
and the factor because the factors are not independent of each other. This means that
the variable/factor loadings may span more than one factor. This makes interpretation
of what variables load on which factors more difficult because the factoral complexity
is materially increased. As a result, most statistical programs, including SPSS, incorpo-
rate both a factor loading matrix (pattern matrix) and a factor structure matrix for an
oblique rotation.
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Assumptions 339
The interpretation of an oblique rotation is also different than with an orthogonal
rotation. It should be stressed, however, that all of the procedures up to the rotation
phase are the same for both oblique and orthogonal rotations. It should also be noted
that an orthogonal rotation can be obtained using an oblique approach. If the best
angle of the axes happened to be at 90 degrees, the solution would be orthogonal even
though an oblique rotation was used.
The difference in the output between an orthogonal and an oblique rotation is that
the pattern matrix for an oblique rotation contains negative numbers. This is not the
same as a negative correlation (implying direction). The angle in which the axes are
oriented is measured by a value of delta (ƒ) in SPSS. The value of ƒ is at 0 when the fac-
tors are most oblique; and negative value of ƒ means the factors are less oblique. Gen-
erally, negative values of are preferred, and the more negative the better. This means
that, for positive values,the factors are highly correlated; for negative values, the factors
are less correlated (less oblique); and when the values are negative and large, the factors
are essentially uncorrelated (orthogonal).
Table 14-9 does not contain a lot of negative values. There are also a fairly large
number of values much greater than zero. These variables should be carefully exam-
ined to determine if they should be deleted from the model; and the value of using an
oblique rotation in this case may need to be reconsidered.
TABLE 14-9 Pattern Matrix
Component
1 2 3 4 5
GANGR .418 .048 .433 .144 –.253
GUN_REG .092 –.026 .760 –.141 –.164
U_GUN_CM .127 .210 .313 –.164 –.730
UCONVICR .101 –.031 –.078 .276 –.792
OUT_GUN .666 .143 .244 –.038 –.146
SCH_DRUG –.023 –.087 .480 .483 .008
SKIPPEDR –.152 .510 –.050 –.174 .101
CHURCH –.003 .836 –.090 .018 –.111
GRND_DRG .050 –.304 .123 .487 .075
OUT_DRUG –.046 –.070 .869 –.040 .077
ARRESTR .069 .084 –.229 .801 –.168
CURFEW –.516 .421 .152 .311 .149
CLUBS .281 .492 .016 –.005 .550
GRUP_GUN .800 –.080 –.059 .129 .112
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization.
a Rotation converged in 20 iterations.
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340 CHAPTER 14 Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling
The structure matrix for an oblique rotation displays the correlations between fac-
tors. An orthogonal rotation does not have a structure matrix because the factors are
assumed to have a correlation of 0 between them (actually the pattern matrix and the
structure matrix are the same for an orthogonal rotation). With an oblique rotation, it
is possible for factors to be correlated with each other and variables to be correlated
with more than one factor. This increases the factoral complexity, as discussed above,
but it does allow for more complex relationships that are certainly a part of the intri-
cate world of human behavior.
As Table 14-10 shows, GANGR loads fairly high on Factors 1 and 3. This is some-
what supported by the direct relation between GANGR and these factors shown in the
pattern matrix; but the values in the structure matrix are higher. This is a result of
GANGR being related to both factors; thus part of the high value between GANGR and
Factor 3 is being channeled through Factor 1 (which essentially serves as an interven-
ing variable).
Step 5—Use of Factors in Other Analyses
After completing a factor analysis, the factors can be used in other analyses, such as
including the factors in a multiple regression. The way to do this is to save the factors as
variables; therefore the factor values become the values for that variable. This creates a
kind of scale measure of the underlying dimension that can be used as a measure of the
concept in further analyses. Be careful of using factors in regression, however. Not that
TABLE 14-10Structure Matrix
Component
1 2 3 4 5
GANGR .568 –.088 .576 .229 –.441
GUN_REG .274 –.089 .798 –.041 –.329
U_GUN_CM .326 .088 .451 –.099 –.777
UCONVICR .296 –.199 .128 .340 –.826
OUT_GUN .732 .030 .395 .061 –.330
SCH_DRUG .114 –.185 .528 .542 –.131
SKIPPEDR –.256 .572 –.151 –.273 .238
CHURCH –.089 .822 –.121 –.107 .034
GRND_DRG .126 –.378 .187 .542 –.045
OUT_DRUG .112 –.103 .845 .050 –.091
ARRESTR .110 –.053 –.107 .783 –.187
CURFEW –.547 .447 .026 .216 .282
CLUBS .098 .543 –.069 –.098 .556
GRUP_GUN .780 –.170 .095 .183 –.087
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization.
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Structural Equation Modeling 341
it is wrong, but factored variables often have a higher R2than might be expected in the
model. This is because each of the factors is a scale measure of the underlying dimen-
sion. A factor with three variables known to be highly correlated will naturally have a
higher R2than separate variables that may or may not be correlated.
Another problem with factors being utilized in multiple regression analysis, is the
interpretation of a factor that contains two variables, if not more. In this case, the b-
coefficient is rendered useless. Because of the mathematical symbiosis of the variables,
the only coefficient that can adequately interpret the relationship is the standardized
coefficient (beta).
Factor analysis is often a great deal of work and analysis. Because of this, and the
advancement of other statistical techniques, factor analysis has fallen largely into dis-
use. While originally factor analysis’ main competition was path analysis, now struc-
tural equation modeling (SEM) has taken advantage on both statistical approaches.
Structural Equation Modeling
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a multi-equation technique in which there
can be multiple dependent variables. Recall that in all forms of multiple regression, we
used a single formula (y= a+ bx + e) with one dependent variable. Multiple equation
systems allow for multiple indicators for concepts.This requires the use of matrix alge-
bra, however, which greatly increases the complexity of the calculations and analysis.
Fortunately, there are statistical program such as AMOS or LISREL that will perform
the calculations, so we will not address those here. Byrne (2001) explores SEM using
AMOS and Hayduk (1987) examines SEM through usingLISREL. While the full SEM
analysis is beyond the scope of this book, We will address how to set up a SEM model
and understand some of the key elements.
Structural equation models consist of two primary models: Measurement (null)
and structural models. The measurement model pertains to how observed variables
relate to unobserved variables. This is important in the social sciences as every study is
going to be missing information and variables. As discussed in Chapter 2, there are
often confounding variables in research that are not included in the model or
accounted for in the analysis, but which have an influence on the outcome (generally
through variables that are included in the model). Structural Equation Models deal
with how concepts relate to one another and attempts to account for these confound-
ing variables. An example of this is the relationship between socioeconomic status
(SES) and happiness. In theory, the more SES you have, the happier you should be;
however, it is not the SES that make you happy but the confounding variables like lux-
ury items, satisfactory job, etc. that may be making this relationship.
SEM addresses this kind of complex relationship by creating a theoretical model of
the relationship that is then tested to see if the theory matches the data. As such,SEM is
a confirmatory procedure; a model is proposed, a theoretical diagram is generated, and
an examination of how close the data is to the model is completed. The first step in cre-
ating a SEM is putting the theoretical model into a path diagram. It may be beneficial
to review the discussion of path models presented in Chapter 3 as these will be integral
to the discussion of SEM that follows. In SEM, we create a path diagram based on the-
ory and then place the data into an SEM analysis to see how close the analysis is to what
was expected in the theoretical model. We want the two models to not be statistically
significantly different.
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342 CHAPTER 14 Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling
Variables in Structural Equation Modeling
Like many of the analysis procedures discussed throughout this book,SEM has a specific
set of terms that must be learned. Most importantly in SEM, we no longer use the terms
dependent and independent variables since there can be more than one dependent vari-
able in an analysis. For the purposes of SEM, there are two forms of variables: Exogenous
and endogenous. Exogenous variables are always analogous to independent variables.
Endogenous variables, on the other hand, are variables that are at some point in the
model a dependent variable; while at other points they may independent variables.
SEM Assumptions
Five assumptions must be met for structural equation modeling to be appropriate.
Most of these are similar to the assumptions of other multivariate analyses. First, the
relationship between the coefficients and the error term must be linear. Second, the
residuals must have a mean of zero, be independent, be normally distributed, and have
variances that are uniform across the variable. Third, variables in SEM should be con-
tinuous, interval level data. This means SEM is often not appropriate for censored data.
The fourth assumption of SEM is no specification error. As noted above, if necessary
variables are omitted or unnecessary variables are included in the model, there will be
measurement error and the measurement model will not be accurate. Finally, variables
included in the model must have acceptable levels of kurtosis. This final assumption
bears remembering. An examination of the univariate statistics of variables will be key
when completing a SEM. Any variables with kurtosis values outside the acceptable
range will produce inaccurate calculations. This often limits the kinds of data often
used in criminal justice and criminology research. While scaled ordinal data is some-
times still used in SEM (continuity can be faked by adding values), dichotomous vari-
ables often have to be excluded from SEM as binary variables have a tendency to suffer
from unacceptable kurtosis and non-normality.
Advantages of SEM
There are three primary advantages to SEM. These relate to the ability of SEM to address
both direct and indirect effects, the ability to include multi-variable concepts in the
analysis, and inclusion of measurement error in the analysis. These are addressed below.
First, SEM allows researcher to identify direct and indirect effects. Direct effects are
principally what we look for in research—the relationship between a dependent vari-
able we are interest in explaining (often crime/delinquency) and an independent vari-
able we think is causing or related to the dependent variable. This links directly from a
cause to an effect. For example:
The hallmark of a direct effect is that an arrow goes from one variable only into
another variable. In this example, delinquent peers are hypothesized to have a direct
influence on an individual engaging in crime.
ART TO COME
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Structural Equation Modeling 343
Multi-family
housing
Boarded up
housing
Vacant
housing
Avg. rental
value
Renter
occupied
Median
house value
Crime
Figure 14-4 Path Model of Regression Analysis on the Effect of Social Disorganization on Crime at the
Block Level
An indirect effect occurs when one variable goes through another variable on the
way to some dependent or independent variable. For example:
A path diagram of indirect effects indicates that age has an indirect influence on crime
by contributing the type of peers one would associate with on a regular basis.
Complicating SEM models, it is also possible for variables in structural equation
modeling to have both direct and indirect effects at the same time. For example:
In this case, age is hypothesized to have a direct effect on crime (age-crime curve), but
it also has an indirect effect on crime through the number of delinquent peers with
which a juvenile may keep company. These are the types of effects that are key in SEM
analysis.
The second advantage of SEM is that it is possible to have multiple indicators of a
concept. The path model for a multivariate analysis based on regression might look
like Figure 14-4.
With multiple regression analysis we only evaluate the effect of individual inde-
pendent variables on the dependent variable. While this creates a fairly simple path
ART TO COME
ART TO COME
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344 CHAPTER 14 Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling
Multi-family
housing
Boarded up
housing
Vacant
housing
Avg. rental
value
Renter
occupied
Median
house value
Crime
Physical
characteristics
Economic
characteristics
Figure 14-5 Path Model Oof SEM Analysis on the Effect of Social Disorganization on Crime at the
Block Level
model, it is not necessarily the way human behavior works. SEM allow for the estima-
tion of the combined effects of independent variables into concepts/constructs. Figure
14-5 illustrates the same model as Figure 14-4 but with the addition of theoretical con-
structs linking the independent variable to the dependent variable.
As shown in Figure 14-5, the variables are no longer acting alone, but in concert
with like variables that are expected conceptually to add to the prediction of the
dependent variable. In the case of social disorganization, physical and economic char-
acteristics of a neighborhood are predicted to contribute to high levels of crime.
The final advantage of SEM is that it includes measurement error into the model.
As discussed above, path analyses often use regression equations to test a theoretical
causal model. A problem for path analyses using regression as its underlying analysis
method is that, while these path analyses include error terms for prediction, they do
not adequately control for measurement error. SEM analyses do account for measure-
ment error, therefore providing a better understanding of how good the theoretical
model predicts actual behavior. For example, unlike the path analysis in Figure 14-4,
Figure 14-6 indicates the measurement error in the model.
The e represents the error associated with the measurement error of each meas-
ured variable in the structural equation model. Notice there are no error terms associ-
ated with the constructs of physical and economic characteristics. This is because these
concepts are a combination of measured variables and not measures themselves.
SEM Analysis
There are six steps in conducting a structural equation model analysis. These are listed
in Table 14-11.
The first part of any SEM is specifying the theoretical/statistical model. This part of
the process should begin even prior to collecting data. Proper conceptualization, oper-
ationalization, and sampling are all key parts of Step 1.
Once conceptualization and model building are complete, the second step is to
develop measures expected to be representative of the theoretical model and to collect
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Structural Equation Modeling 345
Trailer
housing
Boarded up
housing
Vacant
housing
e
Avg. rental
value
Renter
occupied
Median
house value
Crime
Physical
characteristics
Economic
characteristics
e
e
e
e
e
e
Figure 14-6 The Inclusion of Error Terms
TABLE 14-11 Steps in SEM Analysis Process
Step 1 Specify the model
Step 2 Select measures of the theoretical model and collect the data
Step 3 Determine whether the model is identified
Step 4 Analyze the model (something missing here)
Step 5 Evaluate the model fit (How well does the model account for your data?)
Step 6 If the original model does not work, respecify the model and start again
data. This is more of an issue for research methods than statistics, so you should con-
sult a methodology book for guidance here.
The third step in structural equation modeling is determining if the model is iden-
tified. Identification is a key idea in SEM. Identification deals with issues of whether
there is enough information (variables) and if that information is distributed across
the equations in such a way to estimate coefficients and matrices that are not known
(Bollen, 1989). If a model is not identified in the beginning of the analysis, the theoret-
ical must be changed or the analysis abandoned. There are three types of identified
models: Overidentified, just identified, and underidentified. Overidentified models
permit tests of theory. This is the desired type of model identification. Just identified
models are considered not interesting. These are the types of models researchers deal
with when using multiple regression analyses. Underidentified models suggest that we
can not do anything with the model until it has been re-specified or additional infor-
mation has been gathered.
There are several ways to test identification. First, is the t-Rule. This test provides
necessary, but not sufficient conditions for identification. If test is not passed, the
model is not identified. If the test is passed, the model still may not be identified. The
Null B Rule applies to models in which there is no relationship between the endoge-
nous variables, which is rare. The Null B Rule provides sufficient, but not necessary
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346 CHAPTER 14 Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling
conditions for identification. This test is not used often, with the exception of no rela-
tionships existing between endogenous variables. The Recursive Rule is sufficient but
not necessary for identification. To be recursive, there must not be any feedback loops
among endogenous variables. An OLS regression is an example of a non-recursive
model as long as there are no interaction terms involved. The Recursiv rule does not
help establish identification for models with correlated errors. The Order Condition
Test suggests that the number of variables excluded from each equation must be at least
P-1, where P is the number of equations. If equations are related, then the model is
underidentified. This is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition to claim identifica-
tion. The final test of identification is the Rank Condition test. This test is both neces-
sary and sufficient, making it one of the better tests of identification. Passing this test
means the model is appropriate for further analyses.
The fourth step in SEM analysis is analyzing the model. Unlike multiple regression
analyses, SEM utilizes more than one coefficient for each variable. SEM is therefore
based on matrix algebra with multiple equations. The primary matrices used in SEM
are the covariance matrix and variance-covariance matrix. These are divided into four
matrices of coefficients and four matrices of covariance. The four matrices of coeffi-
cients are: 1) a matrix that relates the endogenous concepts to each other (b); 2) a
matrix that relates exogenous concepts to endogenous concepts (g); 3) a matrix that
relates endogenous concepts to endogenous indicators (ly); and, 4) a matrix that
relates exogenous concepts to exogenous indicators (lx). Once these relationships have
been examined for the endogenous and exogenous variables, the covariance among the
variables must be examined. This is accomplished through the four matrices of covari-
ance, which are: 1) covariance among exogenous concepts (F); 2) covariance among
errors for endogenous concepts (C); 3) covariance among error for exogenous indica-
tors (Ud) and, 4) covariance among error for endogenous indicators (UP). Within
these models, we are interested in three statistics, the mean, variance, and covariance.
While much of SEM analysis output is similar to regression output (R2, b-coeffi-
cients, standard errors, and standardized coefficients), it is much more complicated. In
SEM, researchers have to contend with, potentially, four different types of coefficients
and four different types of covariances. This typically means having to examine up to
twenty pages of output. As discussed below, due to space limitations and the complex-
ity of the interpretation, a full discussion of SEM output is not discussed in this book.
Anyone seeking to understand how to conduct an SEM should take a class strictly on
this method. As was indicated above, however, the most important element of SEM is
its ability to evaluate an overall theoretical model. This portion of the anlaysis is briefly
discussed below.
The key equation in SEM is the basis for the structural model. This equation is
used in each of the eight matrices. The formula to examine the structural model is:
Where his the endogenous (latent) variable(s), jis the exogenous (latent) variable(s),
bare coefficients of endogenous variables, gare coefficients of exogenous variables,
and zis any error among endogenous variables. This is the model that underlies struc-
tural equation model analysis.
h5bh1gj1z
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Structural Equation Modeling 347
TABLE 14-12SEM Indices of Fit
Shorthand Index of Fit
GFI Goodness of Fit
AGFI Adjusted Goodness of Fit
RMR Root Mean Square Residual
RMSEA Root Mean Square Error of Approximation
NFI Normal Fit Index
NNFI Non-Normal Fit
IFI Incremental Fit
CFI Comparative Fit
ECVI Expected Cross Validation
RFI Relative Fit
The other two equations that need to be calculated are the exogenous measure-
ment model and the endogenous measurement model. The formula for the exogenous
measurement model is:
Where Xis an exogenous indicator, lx is thecoefficient from exogenous variables to
exogenous indicators, jis the exogenous latent variable(s), and dis error associated
with the exogenous indicators. The endogenous measurement model is:
Where Yis an endogenous indicator, ly is the coefficient from endogenous variables to
endogenous indicators, his the endogenous latent variable(s), and Pis error associated
with the endogenous indicators.
These matrices and equations will generate the coefficients associated with the
structural equation model analysis. After all of these have been calculated, it is neces-
sary to examine which model can better predict the endogenous variables, the struc-
tural model, or the measurement model. This is accomplished by using either
Chi-Square or an Index of Fit. Remember that when using Chi-Square as the method
to determine the validity of the model, you want a value associated less than 0.05. If the
Chi-Square is significant, it means that the hypothesized model is better than if it had
been “just identified.”
Besides Chi-Square, there are ten different Indices of Fit to choose from to deter-
mine how well the theoretical model is at predicting endogenous variables. Table 14-12
provides the list of Indices of Fit used in SEM.
A full discussion of these is beyond this book. Suffice it to say that, GFI and the
AGFI produces a score between 0 and 1. A score of 0 implies poor model fit; a score of 1
implies perfect model fit. These measures are comparable to R2values in regression. The
Y5l
y h1P
X5l
X j1d
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348 CHAPTER 14 Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling
NFI, NNFI, IFI,and the CFI all indicate the proportion in improvement of the proposed
model relative to the null model.A high value here indicates better fit of the model.
The sixth step in the SEM analysis is a decision of the contribution of the model. If
the model has been shown to be adequate, the theoretical model is supported and you
have “success.” If the model was not adequate (underspecified), you must either aban-
don the research or go back and re-conceptualize the model and begin again.
There is not enough room in this chapter to provide a full example of SEM output.
Even in a simplistic example, the amount of output is almost twenty pages in length. This
discussion is meant to give you a working knowledge of structural equation modeling such
that you can understand its foundation when reading journal articles or other publications.
Conclusion
This chapter introduced you to multivariate techniques beyond multiple regres-
sion analysis, principally factor analysis and structural equation modeling. This short
review does not represent a full understanding of these multivariate statistical analyses.
These procedures are complicated and require a great deal of time and effort to master.
You should expect to take a course on each of these and complete several research proj-
ects of your own before you begin to truly understand them.
This chapter brings to an end the discussion of multivariate statistical techniques.
Although other analytic strategies are available, such as hierarchal linear modeling
(HLM) and various time-series analyses, this book is not the proper platform for a
description of these techniques. In the next chapters of the book, we address how to
analyze data when you do not have a population and must instead work with a sample.
This is inferential statistical analysis.
Key Terms
Anti-image correlation matrix
Bartlett’s test of sphericity
Beta
Communality
Component matrix
Confirmatory factor analysis
Covariance
Eigenvalue
Endogenous variables
Error variance
Exogenous variables
Exploratory factor analysis
Factor analysis
Factor loading value
Factor matrix
Factor rotation
Factorial complexity
Identification
Identity matrix
Indices of Fit
Matrix
Matrix algebra
Oblimin
Oblique
Orthogonal
Path analysis
Pattern matrix
Principal components analysis
Scree plot
Structural equation modeling
Structure matrix
Uniqueness
Varimax
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References 349
Key Equations
Slope-Intercept/Multiple Regression Equation
y = a + bx + e
The Structural Model
The Exogenous Measurement Model
The Endogenous Measurement Model
Questions and Exercises
1. Select journal articles in criminal justice and criminology that have as their pri-
mary analysis factor analysis, path analysis, or structural equation modeling (it
will probably require three separate articles). For each of the articles:
a. discuss the type of procedure employed (for example, an oblique factor
analysis).
b. trace the development of the concepts and variables to determine if they are
appropriate for the analysis (why or why not?).
c. before looking at the results of the analysis, attempt to analyze the output
and see if you can come to the same conclusion(s) as the article.
d. discuss the limitations of the analysis and how it differed from that outlined
in this chapter.
2. Design a research project as you did in Chapter 1 and discuss which of the sta-
tistical procedures in this chapter would be best to use to analyze the data. Dis-
cuss what limitations or problems you would expect to encounter.
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... Past research has looked at gender norm attitudes in relationship to everyday life gender norms, media gender norms, or future life expectations [3,25,31,38,39]. However, research has not concurrently assessed the interrelationships between these constructs. ...
... While research in this area is not extensive, multiple studies' findings [31,39] lend support to this study's final hypothesis: ...
... A handful of studies have explored media's connection to future expectation development; however, no known studies have specifically examined media gender norm perceptions in relationship to gender norm life expectations. For example, Uhls et al. [39] found that youth (9-15 years) who more frequently engaged with TV and social networking sites were more likely to report self-focused future aspirations such as fame, image, money, and status. Moreover, Paa and McWhirter [36] surveyed high school students to investigate perceived influences on career expectations finding that the top three perceived background influences were ability, role models, and media. ...
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As media’s (e.g., television, movies, news) presence becomes increasingly prominent in individuals’ everyday lives, it is critical to consider how emerging adult men and women acquire gender norm information. Accordingly, this study explores how emerging adults’ everyday life gender norm experiences and media gender norm perceptions contribute to gender norm attitude formation and future gender norm expectations in family and career. Research has examined gender norm attitudes in relationship to everyday life, media, or future life expectations. Extending past research, this survey (n = 663) concurrently assesses the interrelationships between these constructs, employing social cognitive theory as a theoretical guide to frame hypotheses and interpret findings. Structural equation models (SEMs) illustrated emerging adults’ (M age = 20.32 years) traditional gender norm attitudes were positively correlated with traditional everyday life experiences and negatively correlated with traditional media perceptions. In each SEM, traditional gender norm attitudes positively correlated with traditional family division of labor expectations. Unexpectedly, male traditional gender norm attitudes negatively correlated with traditional career role allocation expectations. Finally, in both SEMs, only traditional everyday life experiences predicted traditional future expectations. Discussion focuses on the interplay between everyday life and media by considering the ways emerging adults may use each realm to shape gender norm attitudes and future expectations.
... Due to its nature, social media has been implicated in facilitating the rise of individualism through its encouragement of self-display and fameseeking. Indeed, research has demonstrated that social media is directly tied to self-focused aspirations such as fame, image, money and status (Uhls, Zgourou & Greenfield, 2014). ...
... As mentioned, one possible reason is the rise of electronic communication, especially social media which has been linked to poor wellbeing (e.g., Augner & Hacker, 2012;Huang, 2017;Shakya & Christakis, 2017;Tromholt, 2016). The mechanisms behind which social media lead to poor wellbeing is that it replaces in-person communication resulting in increasing loneliness (Uhls et al., 2014), it facilitates social comparisons and peer envy (Steers et al., 2014) and disrupts sleep quality (Twenge et al., 2017). Besides social media, other possible factors that may explain declining wellbeing, self-control and emotionality include increasing academic pressure (Galloway, Connor & Pope, 2013), greater family instability (Brown, Stykes & Manning, 2016) and rising obesity levels (Hales et al., 2018). ...
Preprint
Objective: Over the last two decades, Western society has undergone a marked cultural transformation characterised by rising individualism. Concurrently, the digital landscape has transformed through the rise of social media and smartphones. These factors have previously been implicated in changing individuals’ attitudes, behaviour and interpersonal interactions. We investigated whether these societal changes have coincided with changes in trait emotional intelligence (EI) over the last 17 years in Western university students. Method: We examined this question using a cross-temporal meta-analysis (k = 70; N = 16,917). Results: There was no change in overall trait EI; however, the trait EI domains “wellbeing,” “self-control” and “emotionality” demonstrated significant decreases with time, after controlling for gender composition and between-country differences. Conclusion: We discuss these findings in relation to how they contribute to our understanding of trait EI, and how they add to the literature on how Western society is changing with time.
... Due to its nature, social media has been implicated in facilitating the rise of individualism through its encouragement of self-display and fameseeking. Indeed, research has demonstrated that social media is directly tied to self-focused aspirations such as fame, image, money and status (Uhls, Zgourou & Greenfield, 2014). ...
... As mentioned, one possible reason is the rise of electronic communication, especially social media which has been linked to poor wellbeing (e.g., Augner & Hacker, 2012;Huang, 2017;Shakya & Christakis, 2017;Tromholt, 2016). The mechanisms behind which social media lead to poor wellbeing is that it replaces in-person communication resulting in increasing loneliness (Uhls et al., 2014), it facilitates social comparisons and peer envy (Steers et al., 2014) and disrupts sleep quality (Twenge et al., 2017). Besides social media, other possible factors that may explain declining wellbeing, self-control and emotionality include increasing academic pressure (Galloway, Connor & Pope, 2013), greater family instability (Brown, Stykes & Manning, 2016) and rising obesity levels (Hales et al., 2018). ...
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Objective Over the last two decades, Western society has undergone a marked cultural transformation characterised by rising individualism. Concurrently, the digital landscape has transformed through the rise of social media and smartphones. These factors have previously been implicated in changing individuals’ attitudes, behaviour and interpersonal interactions. We investigated whether these societal changes have coincided with changes in trait emotional intelligence (EI) over the last 17 years in Western university students. Method We examined this question using a cross‐temporal meta‐analysis (k = 70; N = 16,917). Results There was no change in overall trait EI; however, the trait EI domains “wellbeing,” “self‐control” and “emotionality” demonstrated significant decreases with time, after controlling for gender composition and between‐country differences. Conclusion We discuss these findings in relation to how they contribute to our understanding of trait EI, and how they add to the literature on how Western society is changing with time.
... While the Internet and social media do provide an outlet for these adolescents, the dangers of the Internet cannot be discounted. Regulations on internet access, such as the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998, which determined that websites cannot collect any information on children under age 13, aim to protect young people from the potential dangers of the internet (Uhls et al., 2014). Even teens on the internet are vulnerable to cyberbullying, sexual solicitation, predators, and scams (The Most Common Threats Children Face Online, 2020; Internet Safety, n.d.). ...
... It may seem surprising that this sample included many 11-and-12-year-old commenters, while YouTube terms of service require a user to be at least 13 years of age. However, in 2014, 23% of children under 13 reported having a social media site (Uhls et al., 2014). The presence of 11-and 12-year-olds in this sample implies that feelings and concerns about possibly having a sexual or gender minority identity often start quite young. ...
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Sexual and gender minority youth are at risk for negative mental health outcomes, such as depression and suicide, due to stigma. Fortunately, sense of community, connection, and social support can ameliorate these deleterious effects. Youth express that most of their social support comes from peers and in-school organizations, but these sources require in-person interaction. Past research has identified social media sites as virtual and anonymous sources of support for these youth, but the role of YouTube specifically in this process has not been thoroughly explored. This study explores YouTube as a possible virtual source of support for sexual and gender minority youth by examining the ecological comments left on YouTube videos. A qualitative thematic analysis of YouTube comments resulted in six common themes in self-identified adolescents' YouTube comments: sharing, relating, information-seeking, gratitude, realization, and validation. Most commonly, adolescents shared feelings and experiences related to their identity, especially when they could relate to the experiences discussed in the videos. These young people also used their comments to ask for identity-related advice or information, treating the platform as a source of education. Results suggest that sexual minority youth's use of YouTube can be advantageous for social support and community, identity-related information, identity development, and overall well-being.
... Conversely, receiving negative feedback can diminish adolescents' self-esteem and feelings of belonging, lowering their likelihood of participating in exploration activities (Valkenburg et al., 2006). Today, online social media offers opportunities to engage in social interaction and promote group values based on what is desirable and what is not (Uhls et al., 2014). Via social media, adolescents can craft a self-image, present a true self, or reflect on their ideal self with supporting features such as comments, which provide a feedback mechanism for instant judgment from peers (Manago et al., 2010). ...
Poster
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to provide a systematic review of existing literature to answer the research question: How do adolescents’ social interactions on social media influences their identity exploration and development? Based on preliminary analyses, there are positive and negative effects of socializing online that have an influence on adolescents’ identity development. The literature presented positive outcomes of using social media that can help adolescents explore their identity such as: strengthening interpersonal relationships, having easy access to support, and benefits of self-expression and self-disclosure. Other studies examined the negative effects such as cyber bullying and peer pressure that can impact adolescents’ social interactions and perhaps reflect negatively on their identity development.
... The rise of supersystems (Kinder, 1991) extending across multiple online and offline media potentially enables anyone to become famous. For example, there is a growing desire for fame in TV programming for the tween audience of ages 9 to 11 (Uhls et al., 2014;Uhls & Greenfield, 2011). Yalda Uhls and Patricia Greenfield (2012) define fame as "the idea of being known by large numbers of people who are not perceptually present to any given individual" (p. ...
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The concept of fame has been associated with celebrities, wealth, attractiveness, and social recognition. Nevertheless, people have admiration for the famous who may not be celebrities. Admiration is regarded as one of the emotions of appreciation, or moral emotions, triggered by positive appraisals of excellence. It is present when seeing extraordinary displays of skills talent or achievement. However, theoretical and empirical research on admiration and its psychological effects on people are scarce. In this article, we discuss a qualitative study that explores a collection of experiences of admiration for the famous. Based on 26 in-depth interviews with residents in southern England, we explored why people admire famous individuals and how the experience may produce positive attitudes and behaviors. We found that through admiring famous individuals who are perceived to share similar interests and attributes, people may develop positive thinking about their own lives and may be more active in seeking new opportunities or engaging in self-growth. We also discuss the potential problems of admiration. This exploratory research contributes to the literature of positive psychology and has implications for furthering the understanding of people’s well-being.
... Research shows that the value preadolescents place on fame when setting goals is likely influenced by their absorption of media messages about the value of fame and public recognition (Uhls & Greenfield, 2012). Other research found that both watching television and using a social networking site was related to young adolescents' individualistic, self-focused aspirations of fame, image, money, and status (Uhls, Zgourou, & Greenfield, 2014). In turn, the influence of wanting to be like a famous role model has been shown to influence adolescents' purchase intentions (Martin & Bush, 2000). ...
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Kidfluencers comprise a relatively new form of advertising to which young adolescents are exposed. Therefore, this study explored the relation between exposure to kidfluencers and the purchase of products found in kidfluencer content among a sample of 300 U.S. young adolescents. Results of a survey revealed that tweens’ exposure to kidfluencers is associated with their purchase of kidfluencer-related products through a desire to emulate kidfluencers, and that materialism moderates this relationship. Findings suggest that kidfluencers may propagate a lifestyle to which tweens aspire that may manifest itself in changes to consumer behavior. Impact Summary Prior State of Knowledge Exposure to advertising, including sponsored content promoted by social media influencers on social networking sites, has the potential to alter youths‘ consumer behaviors and aspirations of fame, especially for youth high in materialism. Novel Contributions Tweenagers‘ exposure to social media influencers who are themselves kids (kidfluencers) is related to their desire to emulate kidfluencers, which is ultimately related to tweenagers‘ purchase of kidfluencer-sponsored products, but only for those at relatively higher levels of materialism. Practical Implications Parents should be aware of and monitor children‘s kidfluencer exposure. Educators should provide media literacy training that incorporates content related to social media influencers. As new media platforms are created/monetized, policymakers should adapt policies related to marketing to children.
... In a survey of 9 to 15 years olds, 33% indicated that being famous is either somewhat important, important, or very important (Jayson, 2013). Fame-valuation is a concern for scholars, educators, and parents as it has been linked with such characteristics as teen self-focused aspirations, narcissism -an "inflated sense of self-worth" (Greenwood, 2013, p. 224) -and materialism (e.g., Fu et al., 2015;Uhls et al., 2014). ...
Article
The aspiration of young people for fame – a wide public recognition – has risen in recent years. This fame-valuation is a concern for scholars, educators, and parents as it has been linked with teen self-focused aspirations, narcissism, and materialism. This rise in the value of fame has been linked to two trends: teens' increased attraction to celebrities and their use of social networking sites (SNSs). SNSs have changed the landscape of celebrity media presence compared to traditional media and enable a shift in balance between a professional and personal focus in the celebrity's brand image. Such a balance might have implications for the relationships audiences form with celebrities and, by extension, for adolescent fame-valuation. The current study examines the SNS (Facebook and Instagram) posts of teen-favored celebrities in order to map the characteristics of the messages to which adolescents are heavily exposed, that might reinforce their fascination with fame. The study is based on a content analysis of 1,075 posts by 24 teen-favored local and foreign celebrities in Israel. The study finds that celebrities' SNS posts lack depth in personal self-disclosure and are rather strongly focused on their professional lives – job-related activities, achievements, and self-promotion. Though SNSs present limited gatekeeping restrictions, celebrities choose to present a controlled image of themselves that is unprovocative, as evident in their promoted values, exhibited lifestyle, and physical representation.
Article
Full-text available
In a culture where media increasingly permeate everyday life experiences, this study explores where emerging adult interviewees acquire gender norm information and how this information is applied to future gender norm expectations. Qualitative research has considered emerging adults’ future life expectations; however, it has not concurrently explored everyday life gender norm experiences, media gender norm perceptions, and future gender norm expectations in family and career. This study’s 20 in-depth interviews (M age = 19.05 years) with male and female undergraduate students were analyzed using grounded theory method (GTM). Findings revealed interviewees used everyday life gender norm experiences to support or challenge media gender norm perceptions. The majority of interviewees also perceived media undergoing a “shift” to mirror everyday life gender norm experiences. Additionally, interviewees often discussed childhood everyday life experiences rather than media perceptions when articulating future gender norm expectations. However, while most female interviewees expected to manage future household, childcare, and career responsibilities, male interviewees expected a 50/50 split, to take part in less childcare, and expected future partners to work, contributing to household finances. The discussion considers the ways the interviewees integrated everyday life and media gender norms in conversation, how they may use these realms to shape future expectations, and the consequences that might arise if these expectations are not met.
Article
The aspiration of young people for fame – a wide public recognition – has risen in recent years. This fame-valuation is a concern for scholars, educators, and parents as it has been linked with teen self-focused aspirations, narcissism, and materialism. This rise in the value of fame has been linked to two trends: teens' increased attraction to celebrities and their use of social networking sites (SNSs). SNSs have changed the landscape of celebrity media presence compared to traditional media and enable a shift in balance between a professional and personal focus in the celebrity's brand image. Such a balance might have implications for the relationships audiences form with celebrities and, by extension, for adolescent fame-valuation. The current study examines the SNS (Facebook and Instagram) posts of teen-favored celebrities in order to map the characteristics of the messages to which adolescents are heavily exposed, that might reinforce their fascination with fame. The study is based on a content analysis of 1,075 posts by 24 teen-favored local and foreign celebrities in Israel. The study finds that celebrities' SNS posts lack depth in personal self-disclosure and are rather strongly focused on their professional lives – job-related activities, achievements, and self-promotion. Though SNSs present limited gatekeeping restrictions, celebrities choose to present a controlled image of themselves that is unprovocative, as evident in their promoted values, exhibited lifestyle, and physical representation.
Article
Full-text available
Recent proliferation of TV programming for the tween audience is supported on the Internet with advertising, fan clubs, and other online communities. These Internet tools expand TV's potential influence on human development. Yet little is known about the kinds of values these shows portray. To explore this issue, a new method for conducting content analysis was developed; it used personality indices to measure value priorities and desire for fame in TV programming. The goal was to document historical change in the values communicated to tween audiences, age 9-11, who are major media consumers and whose values are still being formed. We analyzed the top two tween TV shows in the U.S. once a decade over a time span of 50 years, from 1967 through 2007. Greenfield's (2009a) theory of social change and human development served as the theoretical framework; it views technology, as well as urban residence, formal education, and wealth, as promoting individualistic values while diminishing communitarian or familistic ones. Fame, an individualistic value, was judged the top value in the shows of 2007, up from number fifteen (out of sixteen) in most of the prior decades. In contrast, community feeling was eleventh in 2007, down from first or second place in all prior decades. According to the theory, a variety of sociodemographic shifts, manifest in census data, could be causing these changes; however, because social change in the U.S. between 1997 and 2007 centered on the expansion of communication technologies, we hypothesize that the sudden value shift in this period is technology driven. © 2008 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace.