This study examines (a) secondary trauma by evaluating World Assumptions (World Assumptions Scale scores) among spouses of Israeli ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and (b) the relationship between the husbands’ current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and PTSD trajectory and the wives’ world assumptions. Data were prospectively collected thrice for ex-POWs and comparable veterans, and twice for their spouses. This study extends current research as it links trauma, beyond PTSD symptoms, to more negative world assumptions among spouses of traumatized ex-POWs. Spouses of ex-POWs with PTSD symptoms reported lower benevolence of the people and self-worth and higher randomness compared with spouses of ex-POWs without PTSD symptoms. Spouses of ex-POWs who endorsed chronic PTSD symptoms also reported greater levels of self-control compared with the delayed PTSD symptoms group. Results suggest that the relationship between husbands’ PTSD symptoms and wives’ world assumptions may be mediated by wives’ PTSD symptoms. The implications of the findings are discussed.