Using “Reinterpreting the Four Freedoms” to Teach about Ideology and Ideographic Persuasion

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Courses: Persuasion, Argumentation, and/or Rhetorical TheoryObjective: This one-day activity uses Franklin Delano Roosevelt's “Four Freedoms” speech, in combination with contemporary reinterpretations of Norman Rockwell's related images, to explore the concepts of ideology and visual ideographs.

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... This understanding evolved beyond the written and spoken word to include objects or representational ideographs (Moore, 1993(Moore, , 1994(Moore, , 1996 and images or visual ideographs (Edwards & Winkler, 1997;Osborn, 1986;Palczewski, 2005;Pineda & Sowards, 2007). Objects and images can have important ideological implications and hidden meanings (Ballard, 2016;Meidani, 2015;Smith, 2015). An audience viewing certain pictures can experience a lasting memory from those images that can resonate with that audience (Osborn, 1986). ...
... If the statement or action has a hidden or secondary meaning, ideographic analysis may help to explain why people react the way they do. Researchers have examined historical documents and newspaper accounts of past activities to identify how ideographs have affected change (Kuypers & Althouse, 2009;Palczewski, 2005;Smith, 2015;Walzer, 1967). One such area of investigation is sport. ...
Many organizations and teams in the sport industry rebrand themselves by making changes to team logos, names, and/or colors; these changes are not always favorably received by fans and other stakeholders, as team logos or colors can have hidden or secondary meanings. This was the situation in 1990 at the women’s world ice hockey championship (WWHC), held in Ottawa, Canada. Instead of wearing the colors associated with Canadian national teams, players wore bright pink jerseys with white trim. Response was widespread and immediate, with stakeholders taking a strong stance on the decision. This paper introduces ideographic analysis to further examine the reaction to the jerseys. Several themes emerged, where response was articulated in terms of the traditional red and white national team colors and the history of representing Canada in competition, and in terms of what wearing the color pink meant for women during this time period.
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Media literacy education is not as advanced in the USA as in several other English speaking areas, such as Great Britain, Canada, and Australia. Despite decades of struggle since the 1970s by individuals and groups, media education is still only reaching a small percentage of K–12 schools in the US. While some major inroads have been made, such as getting elements of media literacy included in most of the 50 state's educational standards and the launching of two national media education organizations, most teachers and students in the USA are not aware of issues involved in media literacy education. In this paper we set forth some models of media literacy, delineate key concepts of critical media literacy, and then examine some of the most active organizations in the USA and differences in their goals and pedagogy.
Objective: To provide students with a practical understanding of the effect that ideology has upon their everyday lives Courses: Persuasion, Rhetorical Theory, Communication Theory, Organizational Communication and any other course that wishes to address the concept of ideology
The essay reviews current conceptions of rhetorical theory which see it as following a social science model. Difficulties of accounting for rhetorical experience as described by Becker's mosaic model are also reviewed. Because rhetorical theory cannot be explained by social science models, and because of the problems raised by Becker's model, the essay proposes that rhetorical theory and its supporting criticism be regarded primarily as pedagogical, with students as its primary audience.
Much has been written about the iconic power of Joe Rosenthal's 1945 photograph of the flag‐raising at Iwo Jima. This scholarship, however, insufficiently accounts for the rhetorical function of this image as it is appropriated in an unusual number of recent editorial cartoons. Building upon rhetorical theory addressing repetitive form and visual metaphor, we propose a concept of representative form. Exemplifying representative form, the parodied Iwo Jima image operates as an instance of depictive rhetoric that functions ideographically.
This essay attempts to describe political consciousness in collectivities. Symbolist thought, focused on the idea of “myth,” seems linked with material thought, focused on the concept of “ideology.” It is suggested that a description of political consciousness can be constructed from the structures of meaning exhibited by a society's vocabulary of “ideographs.”
Objective: To illustrate aspects (i.e., power, ideology, hegemony, emancipation) of critical theory Course: Organizational, Communication Theory
The dramatic multiplication of computer, information, communication, and multimedia technologies has been changing everything from the ways people work, to the ways they communicate with each other and spend their leisure time. This technological revolution is often interpreted as the beginnings of a knowledge or information society, and therefore ascribes education a central role in every aspect of life. It poses tremendous challenges to educators to rethink their basic tenets, to deploy the new technologies in creative and productive ways, and to restructure schooling to respond constructively and progressively to the technological and social changes currently underway. At the same time, important demographic and socio-political changes are taking place throughout the world. Emigration patterns have created the challenge of providing people from diverse races, classes, and backgrounds with the tools and competencies to enable them to succeed and participate in an ever more complex and changing world. In this chapter, I argue that educators need to cultivate multiple literacies for contemporary technological and multicultural societies, that teachers need to develop new literacies of diverse sorts, including a more fundamental importance for print literacy, to meet the challenge of restructuring education for a hi-tech, multicultural society, and global culture. In a period of dramatic technological and social change, education needs to help produce a variety of types of literacies to make current pedagogy relevant to the demands of the contemporary era. As new technologies are altering every aspect of our society and culture, we need to comprehend and make use of them both to understand and transform our worlds. In particular, by introducing multiple literacies to empower individuals and groups traditionally excluded, education could be reconstructed to make it more responsive to the challenges of a democratic and multicultural society.