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Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (Review)


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Quickly changing technologies and intensive uses of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF)‑emitting phones pose a challenge to public health. Mobile phone users and uses and exposures to other wireless transmitting devices (WTDs) have increased in the past few years. We consider that CERENAT, a French national study, provides an important addition to the literature evaluating the use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumors. The CERENAT finding of increased risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone use. In CERENAT, exposure to RF‑EMF from digitally enhanced cordless telephones (DECTs), used by over half the population of France during the period of this study, was not evaluated. If exposures to DECT phones could have been taken into account, the risks of glioma from mobile phone use in CERENAT are likely to be higher than published. We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A ̔probable̓ human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). Additional data should be gathered on exposures to mobile and cordless phones, other WTDs, mobile phone base stations and Wi‑Fi routers to evaluate their impact on public health. We advise that the as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) principle be adopted for uses of this technology, while a major cross‑disciplinary effort is generated to train researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of potential health impacts of RF‑EMF.
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Abstract. Quickly changing technologies and intensive uses
and uses and exposures to other wireless transmitting devices
CERENAT, a French national study, provides an important
addition to the literature evaluating the use of mobile phones
risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of
mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those
that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone
       
  
the population of France during the period of this study, was
taken into account, the risks of glioma from mobile phone
 
 
 
researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of
1. Introduction
2. The CERENAT study
3. Underestimation of risk of glioma in CERENAT
 
5. Evidence that electromagnetic radiation can act both as
an initiator and a promoter of tumors
 
7. Conclusions
1. Introduction
In a world where the growth of mobile phone use and other
the issue of brain cancer and radiation from mobile phones
has received considerable attention in the research community
and by the general public. Occupational studies and studies
of atomic bomb survivors indicate that the latency for brain
 
  
 
use resulted in an average use time of ~6 years. Both the
et al
In the past few years a number of investigations have
included those who have used phones for a decade or longer.
a more complete picture of their potential impacts on public
ORs for the highest cumulative hours of exposure for
brain cancer, glioma and acoustic neuroma are doubled or
f particular interest are
cant increases for acoustic neuroma occurred with >2,000
  
Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be
classied as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (Review)
12, ANNIE SASCO3 and1
Correspondence to:  
 
Key words: brain cancer, carcinogen, precautionary principle,
radiofrequency fields
 et al
studies, increased risks for meningioma were also found at
 
For studies with greater years of use, acoustic neuroma tumor
2. The CERENAT study
Potential confounders considered were the level of
education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational
exposures to pesticides, extremely low frequency electromag
as a potential confounder, separate analyses of exposures to
   
in the questionnaire.
of French mobile phone use in 2004, 2005, and 2006 was 73,
 
 
      
    
Risks were also reported by anatomical region. There was a
   
mobile phone radiation absorbed by the brain, the temporal
The highest risk reported was among heavy mobile phone
users from environments known to have multiple sources of
  
Higher risks were found from reported ipsilateral use, OR
 
tuting a risk factor for glioma, because analogue mobile phones
always radiated maximum power while the digital mobile
phone's adaptive power control circuitry reduces the radiated
power consistent with an acceptable signal to noise ratio.
For several exposure categories there was an increased risk
 
 
Consistent with what is expected if there is a causal
association between risks of glioma with different estimated
 
increased risk.
3. Underestimation of risk of glioma in CERENAT and
There are two principal reasons why the CERENAT find
ings as well as those of INTERPHONE are likely to have
underestimated the risks of glioma from mobile phone use.
  
    
nor in CERENAT were these exposures evaluated. However
Hardell et al
 
    
were listed as a potential confounder, questions were not asked
Industry records reveal that the estimated prevalence of
A second factor that could contribute to an underestima
tion of risk is that the participation rate in CERENAT was
The authors of the INTERPHONE study acknowledged the
possible selection bias from low participation rates and calcu
the overall underestimation of glioma and meningioma risk
  
the CERENAT authors provided corrected calculations,
 
 By using the
correction the OR for the highest cumulative hours of use for
glioma doubled.
Figure 1. Risks among heavy mobile phone users with increasing years of use.
For glioma, all ipsilateral ORs were greater than contra
         
meningioma. Because ipsilateral use results in higher exposure
than contralateral, this is consistent what is expected if mobile
phone use is a risk for glioma and meningioma.
4. Meningioma elevated risk in CERENAT
     
  
  
 
  
    
  
  
     
  
     
 et al   
     
  
   
Per 100 h Hardell et al    
 et al    
     
  
    
  
>2,376 Carlberg et al    
 et al   
Coureau et al    
Years of use
     
  
10+ Hardell et al    
 et al    
>25 Hardell et al   
 et al   
>20 Hardell et al   
Per year Hardell et al    
analogue phone
 et al    
 
Risk by age used
     
ipsilateral use
     
ipsilateral use
     
ipsilateral use
 et al
5. Evidence that electromagnetic radiation can act both as
an initiator and a promoter of tumors
For an agent that initiates a tumor, a long time to detection is
expected. Thus, brain tumors generally are believed to have a
 
average times. In contrast, for an agent that acts at the later
stages of carcinogenesis, an earlier diagnosis of already initi
et a l
 
et al
increased risk of glioma with >2 years of mobile phone use, OR
 
   
Hardell et al
     
 
 
exposure indicated an early effect in glioma development,
which is an increased risk with long latency. However, we also
found an increased risk with short latency, indicating a late
effect in tumor development...these results could be compatible
 rated
in Fig. 2.
6. Discussion
In reviewing the epidemiological evidence on mobile phone use
noted the limited data available from epidemiological studies
at that time though noting that Hardell et al have conducted
the most detailed and largest number of studies on the risks for
 et al    
  
 
radiofrequency fields were possible human carcinogens,
          et al       
Coureau et al
 
 
Exposures Ipsilaterala Contralateralb Ipsilaterala Contralateralb
   
Cumulative hours
of use
Not regular use Referent Referent Referent Referent
    
    
    
    
    
Cumulative hours
of use corrected
Not regular use Referent Referent Referent Referent
    
    
    
    
    
aSide of use was considered as ipsilateral if the phone was used on the same side as the tumor or on both sides. b
  
published of experimental results showing that radiofrequency
with cancer risk. In our view these results and several epide
 
 
  
  
ipsilateral risk is higher than contralateral risk.
Thus, evidence published since the IARC review provides
additional support, based on IARC criteria, for concluding
  
At the time of the IARC review it was known that when
mobile phone use began as a teenager, the risks were higher
evidence has accrued of an increased risk to children. In the
CEFALO study, using operator reported data, an OR of 2.15
  
 
 
an ipsilateral risk with >4 years of cumulative duration of
As the young adult brain is not fully myelinated, and
wireless radiation has been shown to induce demyelination
experimentally, it is plausible that wireless radiation could
have a stronger impact on the developing brain than on older
It has been suggested that if mobile phone use was causing
brain cancer, with so many people using mobile phones there
should be an increase in brain cancer, but there has been
  
 
was reported from the United States using data from three
     
brain cancer for the three
anatomical regions that absorb the greatest proportion of the
Also showing incidence increases is an Australian study
        
et al
  
   
        
      
preferred methodology for studying brain cancer risk tied
with mobile phone use, as with any relatively rare disease
with extensive exposure. The latency reported between
known causes of brain cancer and development of the disease
appears to range from 10 to 50 years. Because brain cancer is
a relatively rare disease with a relatively long latency, and the
reported relative risk associated with mobile phone use thus
  
detect a real increase in risk associated with mobile phone use,
prospective cohort studies would have to include >3 million
   
studies of glioma a nd mobile phone radiation. Adapted from Fig. 3 in Hardell
 
  
 APC of                
 et al
  
      
      
Temporal +2.0 0.010 +1.9 0.026 +1.3 0.027
      
 et al
A retrospective cohort study of ~400,000 cell phone users
 
excluded business users from the exposed contending they
were unable to know if a phone registered to a business user
was solely used by that person, including these same business
users in the unexposed category. This misclassification of
exposure impairs the ability of the study to detect an increase
in risk, while it lacks statistical power, as it involves a small
cohort for which exposure information has not been updated
for 20 years.
7. Conclusions
The CERENAT study corroborates the significant risks
of glioma associated with exposure to radiofrequency
INTERPHONE study, and adds weight to the epidemio
 
International Agency for Research on Cancer as a Group 2B
   
 
brain cancer was found from mobile phone use overall with an
of >10 million, many in the rapidly developing world where
medical treatment problematic. CERENAT also corroborates
those few studies that have shown a risk of meningioma from
mobile phone use.
The growth of mobile phone use worldwide has reached the
level that in many nations there are more phones than adults.
Exposures today can occur simultaneously from a number
that the exposure limit is measured at 20 cm distance from
Until further evidence is available, it is prudent for poli
exposures to the ALARA standard used in pediatric radiology.
The ALARA approach would require hardware and software
regarding simple advisories about safer use within devices.
In the meantime, we urge that serious national programs of
training and research be established to train experts in evalu
ating this technology and establish appropriate monitoring
and surveillance systems such as those in place for pharma
ceuticals and other agents. This program could be funded by
a fee of 2 centsmonth to be paid equally from consumers,
manufacturers, and providers into an independently operated
research and training program.
policy institution, for supporting this effort.
1.   
tumors and salivary gland cancers among cellular telephone
2.        
    
  
3.   
    
   
4.  
        
5. 
   
6. Coureau G, Bouvier G, Lebailly P, et al
    
7. 
between vestibular schwannomas and mobile phone use. Tumour
              
9.        
 
10. 
11. 
12.       
 
         
13.          
 
14. 
     
  
15. 
16.     
  
17.        
     
 
on cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for acoustic
        
19.    
20.          
  
21. 
for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors
associated with use of mobile and cordless phones. Rev Environ
22.  
23. 
phones and the risk of benign brain tumours diagnosed during
24.  et al
 
25.     
   
 
26. 
  
Comparison of epidemiological study results with incidence
27.       
Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary
  
 
  
multiforme and meningioma, and decreasing incidence of
29.            
September 22, 2014.
30. 
... The recommendations of the ICNIRP establish the maximum levels of radiation at 450 µ W/cm 2 [3,[9][10][11]. However, the BioInitiative working group, together with other researchers [8,10,[12][13][14][15][16], suggest that adverse health effects are observed at low levels of exposure 0.1 µ W/cm 2 . Studies suggest that RF-EMF exposures with powers below the recommendations of the ICNIRP have effects related to changes in brain activity [17], affecting cognitive and motor performance [12,13], infertility problems in the male reproductive system [18,19], DNA damage [20,21], association to different brain tumors and intensity of RF-EMF, and having a greater effect in children and teenagers than in adults [4,6,12,[22][23][24][25]. ...
... These studies suggest that exposure to RF-EMF is an important factor to consider as a "possible carcinogen" classified in group 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) [26]. On the other hand, using the same evaluation criteria, they recommend that RF-EMF exposures should belong to group 2A in the IARC as "probable carcinogenic" [8,15]. ...
... In this study, the regulations established by ICNIRP [3] were not followed, the measurements of the maximum received power levels were considered (not the average). The non-thermal effects are not considered in the establishment of the exposure limits, and the BioInitiative working group, together with other researchers [8,10,[12][13][14][15][16], suggest that adverse health effects are observed at low levels of exposure and suggest that using the SAR criterion alone is not the most appropriate for this purpose. Conventional exposimeters are not suitable for differentiating between multiple electromagnetic field sources because their resolution bandwidth is determined by the full desired frequency band to be measured, avoiding the detection of the sources responsible for the greatest contribution of electromagnetic fields [34]. ...
Full-text available
A novel compact device with spectrum analyzer characteristics has been designed, which allows the measuring of the maximum power received in multiple narrow frequency bands of 300 kHz, recording the entire spectrum from 78 MHz to 6 GHz; the device is capable of measuring the entire communications spectrum and detecting multiple sources of electromagnetic fields using the same communications band. The proposed device permits the evaluation of the cross-talk effect that, in conventional exposimeters, generates a mistake estimation of electromagnetic fields. The device was calibrated in an anechoic chamber for far-fields and was validated against a portable spectrum analyzer in a residential area. A strong correlation between the two devices with a confidence higher than 95% was obtained; indicating that the device could be considered as an important tool for electromagnetic field studies.
... In addition to the known thermal effects, significant non-thermal outcomes are on living organisms [10]. Accordingly, the scientific community has also focused on non-thermal outcomes, which are not as obvious as the thermal ones [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
... On the basis of previous studies, we considered farmers as having a high risk occupation for glioma [43]. Individuals who lived in places near the electromagnetic fields and cell phone and broadcast antennas in the last 10 years were defined as living in high risk areas [44]. Individuals who consumed any kind of fried foods at least twice per week were considered frequent fried food users. ...
Full-text available
Background The evidence on the association between adherence to a healthy lifestyle and risk of glioma are scarce. This is particularly relevant to Middle Eastern countries where lifestyle factors including dietary intakes, physical activity and environmental contributors are different from other parts of the world. The aim of this case-control study was, therefore, investigating the association between adherence to a healthy lifestyle and odds of glioma among adults. Methods Totally, 128 newly diagnosed glioma cases and 256 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited in this hospital-based case-control study. Dietary intakes were examined by the use of a 126-item validated FFQ. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used for measuring physical activity of participants. To construct a healthy lifestyle score (HLS), data from dietary intakes, physical activity and BMI were used. Subjects in the low risk categories of the mentioned components received the score of 1, otherwise they received the score of 0. The final HLS was computed through summing up the scores of components. Results After adjustment for age and sex, we found that individuals with the highest HLS score were 55% less likely to have glioma compared with those with the lowest score (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.92). Additional controlling for other potential confounders made the association stronger (OR: 0.28; 95%CI: 0.12, 0.66). In terms of individual components of healthy lifestyle score, subjects with a healthy diet had 54% lower odds of glioma than those with a non-healthy diet (OR: 0.46; 95%CI: 0.26, 0.80). No significant associations were seen between physical activity level or BMI status and glioma. Conclusion We found evidence indicating that adherence to a healthy lifestyle, in particular a healthy diet, was associated with a lower odds of glioma. Prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings.
... IARC and WHO in May, 2011 have evaluated the RF-EMF induced carcinogenicity in humans, based on the IARC interphone study and the Hardell group of studies [30] and after critical analyses of the published evidences, IARC categorized RF-EMF emitted by cell phones as "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen [32]. In the past few years, the use of phones has increased and many case-control studies have been conducted on humans for long term mobile use (10 h or more) [33]. A case-control study on 1368 individuals to determine the association of brain tumors risks with the use of cordless phones and mobiles has shown an increased risk of brain tumors in the temporal lobe for the ipsilateral users [30]. ...
Brain tumors are an abnormal growth of cells in the brain, also known as multifactorial groups of neoplasm. Incidence rates of brain tumors increase rapidly, and it has become a leading cause of tumor related deaths globally. Several factors have potential risks for intracranial neoplasm. To date, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified the ionizing radiation and the N-nitroso compounds as established carcinogens and probable carcinogens respectively. Diagnosis of brain tumors is based on histopathology and suitable imaging techniques. Labeled amino acids and fluorodeoxyglucose with or without contrast-enhanced MRI are used for the evaluation of tumor traces. T2-weighted MRI is an advanced diagnostic implementation, used for the detection of low-grade gliomas. Treatment decisions are based on tumor size, location, type, patient’s age and health status. Conventional therapeutic approaches for tumor treatment are surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. While the novel strategies may include targeted therapy, electric field treatments and vaccine therapy. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors is an attractive tumor mitigation strategy for advanced-stage cancers; in the future, it may prove to be a useful targeted therapy. The blood-brain barrier poses a major hurdle in the transport of therapeutics towards brain tissues. Moreover, nanomedicine has gained a vital role in cancer therapy. Nano drug delivery system such as liposomal drug delivery has been widely used in the cancer treatment. Liposome encapsulated drugs have improved therapeutic efficacy than free drugs. Numerous treatment therapies for brain tumors are in advanced clinical research.
Glioma cells use intermediate levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) for growth and invasion, and suppressing these reactive molecules thus may compromise processes that are vital for glioma survival. Increased oxidative stress has been identified in glioma cells, in particular in glioma stem-like cells. Studies have shown that these cells harbor potent antioxidant defenses, although endogenous protection against nitrosative stress remains understudied. The enhancement of oxidative or nitrosative stress offers a potential target for triggering glioma cell death, but whether oxidative and nitrosative stresses can be combined for therapeutic effects requires further research. The optimal approach of harnessing oxidative stress for anti-glioma therapy should include the induction of free radical-induced oxidative damage and the suppression of antioxidant defense mechanisms selectively in glioma cells. However, selective induction of oxidative/nitrosative stress in glioma cells remains a therapeutic challenge, and research into selective drug delivery systems is ongoing. Because of multifactorial mechanisms of glioma growth, progression, and invasion, prospective oncological therapies may include not only therapeutic oxidative/nitrosative stress but also inhibition of oncogenic kinases, antioxidant molecules, and programmed cell death mediators.
Our food and water contain traces of radioactive substances, as do the fossil fuels we use as a source of energy. We are also increasingly exposed to non ionizing radiation through the use of the internet, mobile phones, and devices such as magnetic resonance imaging machines used in medicine. As the use of these new non ionizing technologies, including the now ubiquitous wi-fi increases there are concerns about their possible impact on our health and wellbeing.
PurposeBTS waves are one of the most important environmental pollutants, but there is inadequate data of its effects on living creatures. Birds have major role in environmental balance and hematologic factors are good describers of animal health. Therefore, we studied hematological factors in pigeons to assess the health effects of BTS waves in urban birds.Methods This experiment has been run on 120 six month-old pigeons. After adaptation to laboratory settings, they divided to six random groups of distance from BTS and daily exposure time. G1: 50 cm/30 min, G2: 100 cm/30 min daily, G3: 150 cm/30 min, G4: 50 cm/60 min, G5: 100 cm/60 min and G6: 150 cm/60 min. Daily exposure done for 30 consecutive days. Hematologic studies done before and after exposure for analysis of WBC, Neut, Mono, Lymph, RBC, Hb, HCT, MCV, MCHC and platelets. Results processed statistically by SPSS software.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant difference between the six experimental groups. The results showed distance from the BTS source had the largest effect on PLT followed by HCT, MCV, MCHC, Neut, Hb, RBC, Lymph, WBC, and Mono, respectively. Moreover, the duration of exposure to BTS wave had the largest effect on Mono followed by PLT, Neut, MCV, MCHC, WBC, HCT, Lymph, RBC and Hb, respectively.Conclusions Study showed that increasing exposure time and decreasing distance from the wave source have significant effect on hematologic factors. The distance has more effect than exposure time. Further investigation on protection and reducing the side effects are recommended.
Objective: Although glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) have been linked with several health outcomes, no information is available linking dietary GI and GL with glioma. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary GI and GL and odds of glioma. Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was conducted between November 2009 and September 2011 in the hospital affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. We recruited 128 newly diagnosed cases of glioma and 256 age- and sex-matched controls. All cases were pathologically diagnosed with glioma patients, with no history of any type of other pathologically confirmed cancers and chemotherapy or radiotherapy (due to cancers). Dietary GI and GL were measured by using a validated, self-administered, dish-based, semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Result: A significant positive association was found between dietary GI and glioma (OR: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.75-5.17, P < 0.001); such that after considering for potential confounders, participants in the highest tertile of dietary GI had 3.51 times greater risk of glioma than those in the lowest tertile (OR: 3.51; 95% CI: 1.69-7.28, Ptrend = 0.001). Furthermore, we observed a significant positive association between dietary and glioma (OR: 3.74; 95% CI: 1.97-6.11, Ptrend < 0.001). This association remained significant even after further controlling for potential confounders (OR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.02-5.69, Ptrend = 0.04). Discussion: We observed a significant positive association between dietary GI and GL and risk of glioma in adults. However, prospective cohort studies are required to confirm this association.
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We made a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on malignant brain tumours with patients diagnosed during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. They were aged 20-80 years and 18-75 years, respectively, at the time of diagnosis. Only cases with histopathological verification of the tumour were included. Population-based controls, matched on age and gender, were used. Exposures were assessed by questionnaire. The whole reference group was used in the unconditional regression analysis adjusted for gender, age, year of diagnosis, and socio-economic index. In total, 1498 (89%) cases and 3530 (87%) controls participated. Mobile phone use increased the risk of glioma, OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6 overall, increasing to OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.7-5.2 in the >25 year latency group. Use of cordless phones increased the risk to OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.1-1.7, with highest risk in the >15-20 years latency group yielding OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.5. The OR increased statistically significant both per 100h of cumulative use, and per year of latency for mobile and cordless phone use. Highest ORs overall were found for ipsilateral mobile or cordless phone use, OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.4-2.2 and OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.3-2.1, respectively. The highest risk was found for glioma in the temporal lobe. First use of mobile or cordless phone before the age of 20 gave higher OR for glioma than in later age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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We have with great interest read the article by Coureau et al 1 on mobile phone use and the risk for glioma and meningioma. However, we are concerned about the results in appendix 2. Side of mobile phone use was defined as ipsilateral for cases if the phone was used on the same side of the brain as the tumour or on both sides. Contralateral …
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Background: Wireless phones, i.e., mobile phones and cordless phones, emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) when used. An increased risk of brain tumors is a major concern. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at the World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the carcinogenic effect to humans from RF-EMF in May 2011. It was concluded that RF-EMF is a group 2B, i.e., a "possible", human carcinogen. Bradford Hill gave a presidential address at the British Royal Society of Medicine in 1965 on the association or causation that provides a helpful framework for evaluation of the brain tumor risk from RF-EMF. Methods: All nine issues on causation according to Hill were evaluated. Regarding wireless phones, only studies with long-term use were included. In addition, laboratory studies and data on the incidence of brain tumors were considered. Results: The criteria on strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, and biologic gradient for evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma were fulfilled. Additional evidence came from plausibility and analogy based on laboratory studies. Regarding coherence, several studies show increasing incidence of brain tumors, especially in the most exposed area. Support for the experiment came from antioxidants that can alleviate the generation of reactive oxygen species involved in biologic effects, although a direct mechanism for brain tumor carcinogenesis has not been shown. In addition, the finding of no increased risk for brain tumors in subjects using the mobile phone only in a car with an external antenna is supportive evidence. Hill did not consider all the needed nine viewpoints to be essential requirements. Conclusion: Based on the Hill criteria, glioma and acoustic neuroma should be considered to be caused by RF-EMF emissions from wireless phones and regarded as carcinogenic to humans, classifying it as group 1 according to the IARC classification. Current guidelines for exposure need to be urgently revised.
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Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) grow in the region where the energy from mobile phone use is absorbed. We examined the associations of VSs with mobile phone use. This study included 119 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal. We used two approaches in this investigation. First, a case–control study for the association of mobile phone use and incidence of VSs was conducted. Both cases and controls were investigated with questions based on INTERPHONE guidelines. Amount of mobile phone use according to duration, daily amount, and cumulative hours were compared between two groups. We also conducted a case–case study. The location and volume of the tumors were investigated by MRI. Associations between the estimated amount of mobile phone use and tumor volume and between the laterality of phone use and tumor location were analyzed. In a case–control study, the odds ratio (OR) of tumor incidence according to mobile phone use was 0.956. In the case–case study, tumor volume and estimated cumulative hours showed a strong correlation (r2 = 0.144, p = 0.002), and regular mobile phone users showed tumors of a markedly larger volume than those of non-regular users (p < 0.001). When the analysis was limited to regular users who had serviceable hearing, laterality showed a strong correlation with tumor side (OR = 4.5). We found that tumors may coincide with the more frequently used ear of mobile phones and tumor volume that showed strong correlation with amount of mobile phone use, thus there is a possibility that mobile phone use may affect tumor growth. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13277-013-1081-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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We previously conducted a case-control study of acoustic neuroma. Subjects of both genders aged 20-80 years, diagnosed during 1997-2003 in parts of Sweden, were included, and the results were published. We have since made a further study for the time period 2007-2009 including both men and women aged 18-75 years selected from throughout the country. These new results for acoustic neuroma have not been published to date. Similar methods were used for both study periods. In each, one population-based control, matched on gender and age (within five years), was identified from the Swedish Population Registry. Exposures were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire supplemented by a phone interview. Since the number of acoustic neuroma cases in the new study was low we now present pooled results from both study periods based on 316 participating cases and 3,530 controls. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index (SEI). Use of mobile phones of the analogue type gave odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.3, increasing with >20 years latency (time since first exposure) to OR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.8-21. Digital 2G mobile phone use gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, increasing with latency >15 years to an OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.8-4.2. The results for cordless phone use were OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, and, for latency of >20 years, OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.7-26. Digital type wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones and cordless phones) gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.0 increasing to OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 2.0-32 with latency >20 years. For total wireless phone use, the highest risk was calculated for the longest latency time >20 years: OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.2-9.0. Several of the calculations in the long latency category were based on low numbers of exposed cases. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral for both mobile and cordless phones. OR increased per 100 h cumulative use and per year of latency for mobile phones and cordless phones, though the increase was not statistically significant for cordless phones. The percentage tumour volume increased per year of latency and per 100 h of cumulative use, statistically significant for analogue phones. This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma.
We thank Dr Hardell for his comment1 on our article concerning analyses regarding head position of mobile phone use.2 In our analysis on ipsilateral use, we included cases who used their mobile phone on the same side as the tumour or on both sides of the head, cases who were not regular users (the reference category) and all their matched controls. In our analysis on contralateral use, we used cases who used their mobile phone on the opposite side as the tumour, cases who were not …
The carcinogenic effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in humans remains controversial. However, it has been suggested that they could be involved in the aetiology of some types of brain tumours. The objective was to analyse the association between mobile phone exposure and primary central nervous system tumours (gliomas and meningiomas) in adults. CERENAT is a multicenter case-control study carried out in four areas in France in 2004-2006. Data about mobile phone use were collected through a detailed questionnaire delivered in a face-to-face manner. Conditional logistic regression for matched sets was used to estimate adjusted ORs and 95% CIs. A total of 253 gliomas, 194 meningiomas and 892 matched controls selected from the local electoral rolls were analysed. No association with brain tumours was observed when comparing regular mobile phone users with non-users (OR=1.24; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.77 for gliomas, OR=0.90; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.34 for meningiomas). However, the positive association was statistically significant in the heaviest users when considering life-long cumulative duration (≥896 h, OR=2.89; 95% CI 1.41 to 5.93 for gliomas; OR=2.57; 95% CI 1.02 to 6.44 for meningiomas) and number of calls for gliomas (≥18 360 calls, OR=2.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.31). Risks were higher for gliomas, temporal tumours, occupational and urban mobile phone use. These additional data support previous findings concerning a possible association between heavy mobile phone use and brain tumours.