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Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (Review)


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Quickly changing technologies and intensive uses of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF)‑emitting phones pose a challenge to public health. Mobile phone users and uses and exposures to other wireless transmitting devices (WTDs) have increased in the past few years. We consider that CERENAT, a French national study, provides an important addition to the literature evaluating the use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumors. The CERENAT finding of increased risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone use. In CERENAT, exposure to RF‑EMF from digitally enhanced cordless telephones (DECTs), used by over half the population of France during the period of this study, was not evaluated. If exposures to DECT phones could have been taken into account, the risks of glioma from mobile phone use in CERENAT are likely to be higher than published. We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A ̔probable̓ human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). Additional data should be gathered on exposures to mobile and cordless phones, other WTDs, mobile phone base stations and Wi‑Fi routers to evaluate their impact on public health. We advise that the as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) principle be adopted for uses of this technology, while a major cross‑disciplinary effort is generated to train researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of potential health impacts of RF‑EMF.
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Abstract. Quickly changing technologies and intensive uses
and uses and exposures to other wireless transmitting devices
CERENAT, a French national study, provides an important
addition to the literature evaluating the use of mobile phones
risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of
mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those
that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone
       
  
the population of France during the period of this study, was
taken into account, the risks of glioma from mobile phone
 
 
 
researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of
1. Introduction
2. The CERENAT study
3. Underestimation of risk of glioma in CERENAT
 
5. Evidence that electromagnetic radiation can act both as
an initiator and a promoter of tumors
 
7. Conclusions
1. Introduction
In a world where the growth of mobile phone use and other
the issue of brain cancer and radiation from mobile phones
has received considerable attention in the research community
and by the general public. Occupational studies and studies
of atomic bomb survivors indicate that the latency for brain
 
  
 
use resulted in an average use time of ~6 years. Both the
et al
In the past few years a number of investigations have
included those who have used phones for a decade or longer.
a more complete picture of their potential impacts on public
ORs for the highest cumulative hours of exposure for
brain cancer, glioma and acoustic neuroma are doubled or
f particular interest are
cant increases for acoustic neuroma occurred with >2,000
  
Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be
classied as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (Review)
12, ANNIE SASCO3 and1
Correspondence to:  
 
Key words: brain cancer, carcinogen, precautionary principle,
radiofrequency fields
 et al
studies, increased risks for meningioma were also found at
 
For studies with greater years of use, acoustic neuroma tumor
2. The CERENAT study
Potential confounders considered were the level of
education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational
exposures to pesticides, extremely low frequency electromag
as a potential confounder, separate analyses of exposures to
   
in the questionnaire.
of French mobile phone use in 2004, 2005, and 2006 was 73,
 
 
      
    
Risks were also reported by anatomical region. There was a
   
mobile phone radiation absorbed by the brain, the temporal
The highest risk reported was among heavy mobile phone
users from environments known to have multiple sources of
  
Higher risks were found from reported ipsilateral use, OR
 
tuting a risk factor for glioma, because analogue mobile phones
always radiated maximum power while the digital mobile
phone's adaptive power control circuitry reduces the radiated
power consistent with an acceptable signal to noise ratio.
For several exposure categories there was an increased risk
 
 
Consistent with what is expected if there is a causal
association between risks of glioma with different estimated
 
increased risk.
3. Underestimation of risk of glioma in CERENAT and
There are two principal reasons why the CERENAT find
ings as well as those of INTERPHONE are likely to have
underestimated the risks of glioma from mobile phone use.
  
    
nor in CERENAT were these exposures evaluated. However
Hardell et al
 
    
were listed as a potential confounder, questions were not asked
Industry records reveal that the estimated prevalence of
A second factor that could contribute to an underestima
tion of risk is that the participation rate in CERENAT was
The authors of the INTERPHONE study acknowledged the
possible selection bias from low participation rates and calcu
the overall underestimation of glioma and meningioma risk
  
the CERENAT authors provided corrected calculations,
 
 By using the
correction the OR for the highest cumulative hours of use for
glioma doubled.
Figure 1. Risks among heavy mobile phone users with increasing years of use.
For glioma, all ipsilateral ORs were greater than contra
         
meningioma. Because ipsilateral use results in higher exposure
than contralateral, this is consistent what is expected if mobile
phone use is a risk for glioma and meningioma.
4. Meningioma elevated risk in CERENAT
     
  
  
 
  
    
  
  
     
  
     
 et al   
     
  
   
Per 100 h Hardell et al    
 et al    
     
  
    
  
>2,376 Carlberg et al    
 et al   
Coureau et al    
Years of use
     
  
10+ Hardell et al    
 et al    
>25 Hardell et al   
 et al   
>20 Hardell et al   
Per year Hardell et al    
analogue phone
 et al    
 
Risk by age used
     
ipsilateral use
     
ipsilateral use
     
ipsilateral use
 et al
5. Evidence that electromagnetic radiation can act both as
an initiator and a promoter of tumors
For an agent that initiates a tumor, a long time to detection is
expected. Thus, brain tumors generally are believed to have a
 
average times. In contrast, for an agent that acts at the later
stages of carcinogenesis, an earlier diagnosis of already initi
et a l
 
et al
increased risk of glioma with >2 years of mobile phone use, OR
 
   
Hardell et al
     
 
 
exposure indicated an early effect in glioma development,
which is an increased risk with long latency. However, we also
found an increased risk with short latency, indicating a late
effect in tumor development...these results could be compatible
 rated
in Fig. 2.
6. Discussion
In reviewing the epidemiological evidence on mobile phone use
noted the limited data available from epidemiological studies
at that time though noting that Hardell et al have conducted
the most detailed and largest number of studies on the risks for
 et al    
  
 
radiofrequency fields were possible human carcinogens,
          et al       
Coureau et al
 
 
Exposures Ipsilaterala Contralateralb Ipsilaterala Contralateralb
   
Cumulative hours
of use
Not regular use Referent Referent Referent Referent
    
    
    
    
    
Cumulative hours
of use corrected
Not regular use Referent Referent Referent Referent
    
    
    
    
    
aSide of use was considered as ipsilateral if the phone was used on the same side as the tumor or on both sides. b
  
published of experimental results showing that radiofrequency
with cancer risk. In our view these results and several epide
 
 
  
  
ipsilateral risk is higher than contralateral risk.
Thus, evidence published since the IARC review provides
additional support, based on IARC criteria, for concluding
  
At the time of the IARC review it was known that when
mobile phone use began as a teenager, the risks were higher
evidence has accrued of an increased risk to children. In the
CEFALO study, using operator reported data, an OR of 2.15
  
 
 
an ipsilateral risk with >4 years of cumulative duration of
As the young adult brain is not fully myelinated, and
wireless radiation has been shown to induce demyelination
experimentally, it is plausible that wireless radiation could
have a stronger impact on the developing brain than on older
It has been suggested that if mobile phone use was causing
brain cancer, with so many people using mobile phones there
should be an increase in brain cancer, but there has been
  
 
was reported from the United States using data from three
     
brain cancer for the three
anatomical regions that absorb the greatest proportion of the
Also showing incidence increases is an Australian study
        
et al
  
   
        
      
preferred methodology for studying brain cancer risk tied
with mobile phone use, as with any relatively rare disease
with extensive exposure. The latency reported between
known causes of brain cancer and development of the disease
appears to range from 10 to 50 years. Because brain cancer is
a relatively rare disease with a relatively long latency, and the
reported relative risk associated with mobile phone use thus
  
detect a real increase in risk associated with mobile phone use,
prospective cohort studies would have to include >3 million
   
studies of glioma a nd mobile phone radiation. Adapted from Fig. 3 in Hardell
 
  
 APC of                
 et al
  
      
      
Temporal +2.0 0.010 +1.9 0.026 +1.3 0.027
      
 et al
A retrospective cohort study of ~400,000 cell phone users
 
excluded business users from the exposed contending they
were unable to know if a phone registered to a business user
was solely used by that person, including these same business
users in the unexposed category. This misclassification of
exposure impairs the ability of the study to detect an increase
in risk, while it lacks statistical power, as it involves a small
cohort for which exposure information has not been updated
for 20 years.
7. Conclusions
The CERENAT study corroborates the significant risks
of glioma associated with exposure to radiofrequency
INTERPHONE study, and adds weight to the epidemio
 
International Agency for Research on Cancer as a Group 2B
   
 
brain cancer was found from mobile phone use overall with an
of >10 million, many in the rapidly developing world where
medical treatment problematic. CERENAT also corroborates
those few studies that have shown a risk of meningioma from
mobile phone use.
The growth of mobile phone use worldwide has reached the
level that in many nations there are more phones than adults.
Exposures today can occur simultaneously from a number
that the exposure limit is measured at 20 cm distance from
Until further evidence is available, it is prudent for poli
exposures to the ALARA standard used in pediatric radiology.
The ALARA approach would require hardware and software
regarding simple advisories about safer use within devices.
In the meantime, we urge that serious national programs of
training and research be established to train experts in evalu
ating this technology and establish appropriate monitoring
and surveillance systems such as those in place for pharma
ceuticals and other agents. This program could be funded by
a fee of 2 centsmonth to be paid equally from consumers,
manufacturers, and providers into an independently operated
research and training program.
policy institution, for supporting this effort.
1.   
tumors and salivary gland cancers among cellular telephone
2.        
    
  
3.   
    
   
4.  
        
5. 
   
6. Coureau G, Bouvier G, Lebailly P, et al
    
7. 
between vestibular schwannomas and mobile phone use. Tumour
              
9.        
 
10. 
11. 
12.       
 
         
13.          
 
14. 
     
  
15. 
16.     
  
17.        
     
 
on cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for acoustic
        
19.    
20.          
  
21. 
for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors
associated with use of mobile and cordless phones. Rev Environ
22.  
23. 
phones and the risk of benign brain tumours diagnosed during
24.  et al
 
25.     
   
 
26. 
  
Comparison of epidemiological study results with incidence
27.       
Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary
  
 
  
multiforme and meningioma, and decreasing incidence of
29.            
September 22, 2014.
30. 
... The histories of the three diseases were judged by the presence or absence of the individual or family. In the last ten years, high-risk residential areas have been classified as regions where people live close to electromagnetic fields and broadcast antennae [36]. Physical activities were evaluated and classified in accordance with an international questionnaire [37]. ...
Full-text available
Identifying modifiable factors in primary prevention strategies is a typical goal of glioma epidemiology. Among many glioma risk factors, diet was always considered as one. Most of the relevant studies thus far were concentrated on the West. It was crucial to investigate the connection between the Chinese diet and gliomas given the stark variations between western and eastern diets. A food frequency questionnaire including 114 items was used to investigate the food intake of the study subjects. The Chinese Dietary Quality Index (CDQI), the Chinese Dietary Balance Index (CDBI), the Dietary Antioxidant Index (DAI), the Dietary Inflammation Index (DII), and the Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) were calculated based on the data provided by the food frequency questionnaire to evaluate dietary quality, dietary balance, dietary antioxidants, dietary inflammation and adherence to the Chinese dietary guidelines in 506 glioma patients and 506 controls, respectively. After adjusting covariates, CHEI (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.88–0.93) and DAI (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.54–0.70) were correlated to a reduced glioma risk, and CDBI-based undernutrition (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.06–1.12) and overnutrition (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09–1.20) and DII (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.81–2.68) were correlated to an elevated glioma risk. Moreover, restrictive cubic spline analysis showed that there were significant nonlinear dose–response relationships between CHEI, CDBI, DAI, DII, and glioma. Therefore, adhering to the Chinese dietary guidelines was connected with a lower glioma risk, and undernutrition and overnutrition in the Chinese diet were associated with an increased risk of glioma.
... It seems prudent to continue our work in the forthcoming decades among different age groups of the Taiwanese population. The claims of Morgan et al. indicated that the time duration required for the development of the diseases from the reported latency of known causes of brain cancer could range anywhere from 10 to 50 years [47]. ...
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(1) Objective: This population-based study was performed to examine the trends of incidence and deaths due to malignant neoplasm of the brain (MNB) in association with mobile phone usage for a period of 20 years (January 2000-December 2019) in Taiwan. (2) Methods: Pearson correlation, regression analysis, and joinpoint regression analysis were used to examine the trends of incidence of MNB and deaths due to MNB in association with mobile phone usage. (3) Results: The findings indicate a trend of increase in the number of mobile phone users over the study period, accompanied by a slight rise in the incidence and death rates of MNB. The compound annual growth rates further support these observations, highlighting consistent growth in mobile phone users and a corresponding increase in MNB incidences and deaths. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest a weaker association between the growing number of mobile phone users and the rising rates of MNB, and no significant correlation was observed between MNB incidences and deaths and mobile phone usage. Ultimately, it is important to acknowledge that conclusive results cannot be drawn at this stage and further investigation is required by considering various other confounding factors and potential risks to obtain more definitive findings and a clearer picture.
... A comprehensive review explored the association between brain tumors and RF radiation emitted by cell phones and other wireless networks. The review revealed that studies focusing on individuals who used mobile phones for 10 years or longer demonstrated an increased risk of glioma, Vol.: (0123456789) thereby supporting previous findings that indicated a risk of meningioma associated with mobile phone usage (Morgan et al., 2015). ...
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In the twenty-first century, wireless communication tools have become indispensable in our daily lives, particularly during a pandemic, playing a crucial role. However, it is important to recognize that prolonged and excessive exposure to radiofrequency (RF) waves, which serve as carriers for these wireless communication systems, can have detrimental health effects. The aim of this study is to assess the spatial distribution and compare the levels of RF radiation emitted by the GSM900, GSM1800, UMTS, LTE2.6, and WLan2.4 frequency bands in the cities of Colombo and Kandy in Sri Lanka. The plane wave power density values for each frequency band were measured at designated survey locations using a SPECTRAN HF6065 spectrum analyzer with an HL7060 directional antenna. A total of 31 survey points were selected in Kandy City, while Colombo City had 67 survey points covering various public locations. The findings reveal that Colombo City exhibits a higher concentration of scattered hotspots in the LTE2.6 frequency band, whereas Kandy City demonstrates a higher concentration in the GSM900 frequency band. Furthermore, comparing the average results, the RF radiation pollution in Colombo City is more than 50% higher than that in Kandy City. The measured maximum RF level was detected in Colombo City in the frequency band GSM1800, and it is only 0.11% of the maximum permitted level as established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).
... Qualified professionals determined the body mass index (BMI) during the survey using calibrated tools to assess weight and height. Additionally, over the past ten years, living close to electromagnetic fields and broadcast antennas has been categorized as residing in high-risk residential zones, which was also thought to be a potential complicating factor [27]. ...
Full-text available
The information about phytochemicals’ potential to prevent cancer is encouraging, including for glioma. However, most studies on phytochemicals and glioma mainly focused on preclinical studies. Their epidemiological studies were not sufficient, and the evidence on the dose–response relationship is usually limited. Therefore, this investigation examined the association between dietary phytochemical intake and glioma in Chinese adults. This case–control study was carried out in a hospital in China. Based on the dietary information obtained from the food frequency questionnaire, the researchers estimated the phytochemical intake of 506 patients with glioma and 506 controls. Compared with participants in the lowest tertile, the highest intakes of carotene, flavonoids, soy isoflavones, anthocyanin, and resveratrol were associated with a reduced risk of glioma. The WQS and BKMR models suggested that anthocyanin and carotene have a greater influence on glioma. The significant nonlinear dose–response associations between dietary phytochemicals and glioma were suggested using the restricted cubic spline function. According to this study on phytochemicals and glioma, higher intakes of carotene, flavonoids, soy isoflavones, anthocyanins, and resveratrol are linked to a lower risk of glioma. So, we might not be able to ignore how phytochemicals affect gliomas.
... With the rapid development of communication technology, the rapidly increasing presence of an EMR environment has raised great concern about the adverse effects of EMR on human health (2,3). Some studies have classified EMR from cell phones and other wireless devices as a possible human carcinogen (Class 2B) or even a probable human carcinogen (Class 2A) (4,5). EMR exerts an effect on multiple systems of the whole body, and especially exerts effects on cognitive function (6). ...
Full-text available
Background Both electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and low-frequency noise (LFN) are widespread and influential environmental factors, and operators are inevitably exposed to both EMR and LFN within a complex exposure environment. The potential adverse effects of such exposure on human health must be considered seriously. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EMR and LFN on cognitive function as well as their interaction effect, which remain unclear. Methods Sixty young male college students were randomly grouped and experiments were conducted with a 2 × 2 factorial design in a shielded chamber. Mental workload (MWL) levels of the study subjects were measured and assessed using the NASA-task load index (TLX) subjective scale, an n-back task paradigm, and the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging technique. Results For the 3-back task, the NASA-TLX subjective scale revealed a statistically significant main effect of LFN intensity, which enhanced the subjects’ MWL level ( F = 8.716, p < 0.01). Behavioral performance revealed that EMR intensity (430.1357 MHz, 10.75 W/m ² ) and LFN intensity (0–200 Hz, 72.9 dB) had a synergistic interaction effect, and the correct response time was statistically significantly prolonged by the combined exposure ( F = 4.343, p < 0.05). The fNIRS imaging technique revealed a synergistic interaction effect between operational EMR intensity and operational LFN intensity, with statistically significant effects on the activation levels in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The mean β values of DLPFC were significantly increased (L-DLPFC F = 5.391, p < 0.05, R-DLPFC F = 4.222, p < 0.05), and the relative concentrations of oxyhemoglobin in the DLPFC were also significantly increased (L-DLPFC F = 4.925, p < 0.05, R-DLPFC F = 9.715, p < 0.01). Conclusion We found a statistically significant interaction effect between EMR (430.1357 MHz, 10.75 W/m ² ) and LFN (0–200 Hz, 72.9 dB) when simultaneously exposing subjects to both for 30 min. We conclude that exposure to this complex environment can cause a statistically significant increase in the MWL level of operators, and even alterations in their cognitive function.
... Compared with other cancers, the etiology of gliomas was largely uncertain and complex. Although gliomas have long been reported to be related to head trauma (2), allergies (3), use of mobile phones (4), and occupational exposure (5). Ionizing radiation was still the only apparent environmental risk factor (6). ...
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Background: As one of the essential nutrients for the human body, minerals participate in various physiological activities of the body and are closely related to many cancers. However, the population study on glioma is not sufficient. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between five dietary minerals and glioma. Methods: A total of 506 adult patients with glioma and 506 healthy controls were matched 1:1 according to age (±5 years) and sex. The food intake of the subjects in the past year was collected through the food frequency questionnaire, and the intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper in the diet were calculated. The logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for dietary minerals to gliomas. Results: After adjusting for confounders, higher intakes of calcium (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.57-0.74), magnesium (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.11-0.29), iron (OR = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02-0.11), zinc (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.54-0.73), and copper (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.13-0.39) were associated with a significantly decreased risk of glioma. Similar results were observed in gliomas of different pathological types and pathological grades. The restriction cubic spline function suggested significant linear dose-response relationships between intakes of five minerals and the risk of glioma. When the dietary minerals exceeded a particular intake, the risk of glioma stabilized. Conclusion: Our study suggests that higher dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper are associated with a decreased risk of glioma. However, the results of this study require further exploration of potential mechanisms in the future better to elucidate the effects of mineral intake on gliomas.
... Moreover, reports suggest that EMR mobile phones emit can cause various neurological and cognitive disorders, such as headache, dizziness, memory loss, loss of concentration, and sleep disturbance [13][14][15][16]. Some studies suggest a relationship between EMR mobile phones emit and brain tumors [17][18][19]. ...
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This paper analyzes the specific absorption rate and the temperature elevation of the brain within an adult?s man head exposed to electromagnetic radiation. The source of electromagnetic radiation is a contemporary mobile phone operating at 900 MHz. Simulations were performed on an anatomically accurate AustinMan 2.6 voxel-based human model with a resolution of 1x1x1 mm3. The thermal analysis focuses on temperature distribution on the brain surface in fixed time steps during one hour of continuous mobile phone use.
Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the nationwide cell phone subscription rate and the nationwide incidence of brain tumors in South Korea. The nationwide cell phone subscription rate was used as a proxy for the RF-EMR exposure assessment. Methods: The data for cell phone subscriptions per 100 persons from 1985 to 2019 were found in the Statistics, International Telecom Union (ITU). The brain tumor incidence data from 1999 to 2018 provided by the South Korea Central Cancer Registry operated by the National Cancer Center were used. Results: In South Korea, the subscription rate increased from 0 per 100 persons in 1991 to 57 per 100 persons in 2000. The subscription rate became 97 per 100 persons in 2009 and 135 per 100 persons in 2019. For the correlation coefficient between cell phone subscription rate before 10 years and ASIR per 100,000, a positive correlation coefficient with a statistical significance was reported in 3 benign brain tumors (International Classification of Diseases, ICD-10 code, D32, D33, and D32.0) and in 3 malignant brain tumors (ICD-10 code, C71.0, C71.1, and C71.2). Positive correlation coefficients with a statistical significance in malignant brain tumors ranged from 0.75 (95% CI 0.46-0.90) for C71.0 to 0.85 (95% CI 0.63-0.93) for C71.1. Discussion: In consideration of the fact that the main route for RF-EMR exposure has been through the frontotemporal side of the brain (the location of both ears), the positive correlation coefficient with a statistical significance in the frontal lobe (C71.1) and temporal lobe (C71.2) can be understood. Statistically insignificant results from recent cohort and large population international studies and contrasting results from many previous case-control studies could indicate a difficulty in identifying a factor as a determinant of a disease in ecological study design.
Acoustic neuromas are brain tumours originating from the Schwann cells of the vestibulocochlear nerve. As acoustic neuromas grow, the vestibulocochlear, facial and trigeminal nerves are often compressed, resulting in the common presenting complaints of hearing loss, balance disturbance, facial nerve weakness and altered sensation of the orofacial region. Thus, patients with an acoustic neuroma may present to the dentist with a range of problems. Herein we present three cases of acoustic neuroma that were diagnosed following presentation to the Glasgow Dental Hospital Oral Medicine Department and discuss the common clinical features, radiological findings and management options for acoustic neuromas. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Dentists should be aware of the common presenting features of acoustic neuromas and when onward referral is indicated.
The unprecedented measures to control the spread of COVID19 have affected both students and parents as education institutions have almost overnight shifted to virtual platforms. This study explores the effectiveness of online classes on primary school children's performance and investigates online classes' impact on children's behaviour and holistic development. Besides, it explores the impact of online classes on parents' workload by adopting a sequential research method. The data was collected using Google form and telephonic interviews with randomly selected parent respondents. Results exhibit that online classes are ineffective, and there is an indicative change in children's behaviour. Also, the lack of social interaction with peers and teachers, and minimal physical activities, have made online sessions monotonous for children. Parents have been experiencing an increased workload, as they are expected to be mentors, curators and personal tutors for their children. The study emphasizes a need for exclusive curriculum and pedagogy development suitable for online classes
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We made a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on malignant brain tumours with patients diagnosed during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. They were aged 20-80 years and 18-75 years, respectively, at the time of diagnosis. Only cases with histopathological verification of the tumour were included. Population-based controls, matched on age and gender, were used. Exposures were assessed by questionnaire. The whole reference group was used in the unconditional regression analysis adjusted for gender, age, year of diagnosis, and socio-economic index. In total, 1498 (89%) cases and 3530 (87%) controls participated. Mobile phone use increased the risk of glioma, OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6 overall, increasing to OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.7-5.2 in the >25 year latency group. Use of cordless phones increased the risk to OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.1-1.7, with highest risk in the >15-20 years latency group yielding OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.5. The OR increased statistically significant both per 100h of cumulative use, and per year of latency for mobile and cordless phone use. Highest ORs overall were found for ipsilateral mobile or cordless phone use, OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.4-2.2 and OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.3-2.1, respectively. The highest risk was found for glioma in the temporal lobe. First use of mobile or cordless phone before the age of 20 gave higher OR for glioma than in later age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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We have with great interest read the article by Coureau et al 1 on mobile phone use and the risk for glioma and meningioma. However, we are concerned about the results in appendix 2. Side of mobile phone use was defined as ipsilateral for cases if the phone was used on the same side of the brain as the tumour or on both sides. Contralateral …
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Background: Wireless phones, i.e., mobile phones and cordless phones, emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) when used. An increased risk of brain tumors is a major concern. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at the World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the carcinogenic effect to humans from RF-EMF in May 2011. It was concluded that RF-EMF is a group 2B, i.e., a "possible", human carcinogen. Bradford Hill gave a presidential address at the British Royal Society of Medicine in 1965 on the association or causation that provides a helpful framework for evaluation of the brain tumor risk from RF-EMF. Methods: All nine issues on causation according to Hill were evaluated. Regarding wireless phones, only studies with long-term use were included. In addition, laboratory studies and data on the incidence of brain tumors were considered. Results: The criteria on strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, and biologic gradient for evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma were fulfilled. Additional evidence came from plausibility and analogy based on laboratory studies. Regarding coherence, several studies show increasing incidence of brain tumors, especially in the most exposed area. Support for the experiment came from antioxidants that can alleviate the generation of reactive oxygen species involved in biologic effects, although a direct mechanism for brain tumor carcinogenesis has not been shown. In addition, the finding of no increased risk for brain tumors in subjects using the mobile phone only in a car with an external antenna is supportive evidence. Hill did not consider all the needed nine viewpoints to be essential requirements. Conclusion: Based on the Hill criteria, glioma and acoustic neuroma should be considered to be caused by RF-EMF emissions from wireless phones and regarded as carcinogenic to humans, classifying it as group 1 according to the IARC classification. Current guidelines for exposure need to be urgently revised.
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Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) grow in the region where the energy from mobile phone use is absorbed. We examined the associations of VSs with mobile phone use. This study included 119 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal. We used two approaches in this investigation. First, a case–control study for the association of mobile phone use and incidence of VSs was conducted. Both cases and controls were investigated with questions based on INTERPHONE guidelines. Amount of mobile phone use according to duration, daily amount, and cumulative hours were compared between two groups. We also conducted a case–case study. The location and volume of the tumors were investigated by MRI. Associations between the estimated amount of mobile phone use and tumor volume and between the laterality of phone use and tumor location were analyzed. In a case–control study, the odds ratio (OR) of tumor incidence according to mobile phone use was 0.956. In the case–case study, tumor volume and estimated cumulative hours showed a strong correlation (r2 = 0.144, p = 0.002), and regular mobile phone users showed tumors of a markedly larger volume than those of non-regular users (p < 0.001). When the analysis was limited to regular users who had serviceable hearing, laterality showed a strong correlation with tumor side (OR = 4.5). We found that tumors may coincide with the more frequently used ear of mobile phones and tumor volume that showed strong correlation with amount of mobile phone use, thus there is a possibility that mobile phone use may affect tumor growth. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13277-013-1081-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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We previously conducted a case-control study of acoustic neuroma. Subjects of both genders aged 20-80 years, diagnosed during 1997-2003 in parts of Sweden, were included, and the results were published. We have since made a further study for the time period 2007-2009 including both men and women aged 18-75 years selected from throughout the country. These new results for acoustic neuroma have not been published to date. Similar methods were used for both study periods. In each, one population-based control, matched on gender and age (within five years), was identified from the Swedish Population Registry. Exposures were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire supplemented by a phone interview. Since the number of acoustic neuroma cases in the new study was low we now present pooled results from both study periods based on 316 participating cases and 3,530 controls. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index (SEI). Use of mobile phones of the analogue type gave odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.3, increasing with >20 years latency (time since first exposure) to OR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.8-21. Digital 2G mobile phone use gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, increasing with latency >15 years to an OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.8-4.2. The results for cordless phone use were OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, and, for latency of >20 years, OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.7-26. Digital type wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones and cordless phones) gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.0 increasing to OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 2.0-32 with latency >20 years. For total wireless phone use, the highest risk was calculated for the longest latency time >20 years: OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.2-9.0. Several of the calculations in the long latency category were based on low numbers of exposed cases. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral for both mobile and cordless phones. OR increased per 100 h cumulative use and per year of latency for mobile phones and cordless phones, though the increase was not statistically significant for cordless phones. The percentage tumour volume increased per year of latency and per 100 h of cumulative use, statistically significant for analogue phones. This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma.
We thank Dr Hardell for his comment1 on our article concerning analyses regarding head position of mobile phone use.2 In our analysis on ipsilateral use, we included cases who used their mobile phone on the same side as the tumour or on both sides of the head, cases who were not regular users (the reference category) and all their matched controls. In our analysis on contralateral use, we used cases who used their mobile phone on the opposite side as the tumour, cases who were not …
The carcinogenic effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in humans remains controversial. However, it has been suggested that they could be involved in the aetiology of some types of brain tumours. The objective was to analyse the association between mobile phone exposure and primary central nervous system tumours (gliomas and meningiomas) in adults. CERENAT is a multicenter case-control study carried out in four areas in France in 2004-2006. Data about mobile phone use were collected through a detailed questionnaire delivered in a face-to-face manner. Conditional logistic regression for matched sets was used to estimate adjusted ORs and 95% CIs. A total of 253 gliomas, 194 meningiomas and 892 matched controls selected from the local electoral rolls were analysed. No association with brain tumours was observed when comparing regular mobile phone users with non-users (OR=1.24; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.77 for gliomas, OR=0.90; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.34 for meningiomas). However, the positive association was statistically significant in the heaviest users when considering life-long cumulative duration (≥896 h, OR=2.89; 95% CI 1.41 to 5.93 for gliomas; OR=2.57; 95% CI 1.02 to 6.44 for meningiomas) and number of calls for gliomas (≥18 360 calls, OR=2.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.31). Risks were higher for gliomas, temporal tumours, occupational and urban mobile phone use. These additional data support previous findings concerning a possible association between heavy mobile phone use and brain tumours.