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Abstract

This is a guide to using the Groupwork Skills Questionnaire (GSQ) in Higher Education as part of the Birmingham Evaluating Skills Transfer (BEST) Project. For more information, see www.bestskills.co.uk.
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©The University of Birmingham 2014
Groupwork Skills
Questionnaire
©The University of Birmingham 2014
The
Groupwork Skills
Questionnaire
Manual
©
The University of Birmingham 2014
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Groupwork Skills
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©The University of Birmingham 2014
About this manual:
This is a guide to using the Groupwork Skills Questionnaire (GSQ) in
Higher Education as part of the Birmingham Evaluating Skills Transfer (BEST) Project.
Guide authors:
Dr Jennifer Cumming, Senior Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Psychology, University of Birmingham
Dr Charlotte Woodcock, Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Psychology, Staffordshire University
Sam Cooley, Research Fellow, University of Birmingham
Dr Mark J. G. Holland, Lecturer in Sport Psychology, Newman University
Dr Victoria Burns, Senior Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham
Contact information:
School of Sport, Exercise, and Rehabilitation Sciences
University of Birmingham
Edgbaston
B15 2TT
Email: J.Cumming@Bham.ac.uk
www.bestskills.co.uk / @BestResearch1
Funding Acknowledgments:
The development of the Groupwork Skills Questionnaire was supported by a research grants to the
Birmingham Evaluating Skills Transfer (BEST) Project from the Centre for Learning and Academic
Development (CLAD), the College of Life and Environmental Sciences, and University Sport
Birmingham at the University of Birmingham, and the Higher Education Academy. Further
information about the project can be found at www.bestskills.co.uk.
©The University of Birmingham 2014
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©The University of Birmingham 2014
Questionnaire Information
Questionnaire InformationQuestionnaire Information
Questionnaire Information
Permission to use the Questionnaire
We invite researchers and academics to use the Groupwork Skills Questionnaire (GSQ) as a tool for
research and/or to aid students’ development of their groupwork skills. If you decide to use the GSQ
in its current format, we would be very pleased to be kept informed of your work and share your
citation, either from a published paper or conference presentation, on our website
(www.bestskills.org). If you would like to translate the GSQ into another language, please contact Dr
Jennifer Cumming (J.Cumming@Bham.ac.uk) for permission.
Purpose
The GSQ is designed to measure task (i.e., engaging in behaviors that contribute to the management
of the group, including setting goals, strategies and schedules, and establishing roles for group
members) and interpersonal (i.e., contributing to the interpersonal dynamics of the group by
providing emotional support and being sensitive to the feelings of others) groupwork skills. It can be
used to capture students’ perceptions of how they usually work in groups or contextualised to a
specific groupwork experience by changing the instructions (e.g., “rate how frequently you did the
following when working in this group).
We have conducted analyses to provide evidence of the structural validity of the questionnaire. In
studies conducted to date, the GSQ so far demonstrates good content and factorial validity,
acceptable internal reliability, some temporal stability, and concurrent validity with related
constructs (i.e., attitudes towards working in a group and groupwork self-efficacy).
Suggestions
We think the GSQ is a useful tool for both research and pedagogical uses.
The GSQ for Research
As the process of validating a questionnaire is ongoing process, we encourage other researchers to
continue testing the GSQ with different types of students and in different situations. The GSQ could
be used to explore whether there have been improvements in students’ groupwork skills following
an intervention, and whether these relate to group performance and future employment
opportunities. As well, the GSQ can be used for investigations into the possible mechanisms by
which effective student groupwork occurs (e.g. group cohesion, group process).
The GSQ for Teaching
With pedagogical application, we suggest that the development of task and interpersonal groupwork
skills could be an explicitly stated learning outcome of any groupwork experiences. The GSQ could
be used to explore whether these learning objectives have been met, as well to identify any
particular learning needs. The GSQ could be employed as a self-assessment tool to foster students’
reflections of their task and interpersonal groupwork skills in formal and informal situations.
Responding to the items alongside specific groupwork tasks may help the students to better
understand their own behaviours in group settings and adjust these according to the demands of a
particular situation.
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©The University of Birmingham 2014
Instr
InstrInstr
Instructions and Scoring
uctions and Scoringuctions and Scoring
uctions and Scoring
Instruction and Stem Variations
The instructions and stem for completing the questionnaire can be varied to suit different research
and/or pedagogical purposes. We have validated the questionnaire so far in the following ways:
1. General
Instruction: Think about your usual contribution to groupwork. When answering the following
questions, rate how frequently you have done the following when working in groups.
Stem: When working in groups, I tend to...
2. Specific
Instruction: Think about your contribution to [insert]. When answering the following questions, rate
how frequently you have done the following when working this group.
Stem: When working in this group, I …
Scoring Information
Items are averaged to form separate subscales as follows:
Task groupwork skills = Item 2 + Item 4 + Item 6 + Item 8 + Item 10/5
Interpersonal groupwork skills = Item 1 + Item 3 + Item 5 + Item 7 + Item 9/5
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©The University of Birmingham 2014
Groupwork Skills Questionnaire
Instructions:
Think about your usual contribution to groupwork. When answering the following questions, rate
how frequently you have done the following when working in groups.
When working in groups, I tend to...
Never
Not
very
often
Some
times
Quite
often
Always
1. Provide emotional support to my group
members. 1 2 3 4 5
2. Remind the group how important it is
to stick to schedules. 1 2 3 4 5
3. Be sensitive to the feelings of other
people. 1 2 3 4 5
4.
Construct strategies from ideas that
have been raised.
1 2 3 4 5
5. Show that I care about my group
members. 1 2 3 4 5
6.
Clearly define the roles of each group
member.
1 2 3 4 5
7. Be open and supportive when
communicating with others. 1 2 3 4 5
8.
Move the group’s ideas forward
towards a strategy.
1 2 3 4 5
9.
Be there for other group members
when they need me.
1 2 3 4 5
10.
Evaluate how well the group is
progressing towards agreed goals.
1 2 3 4 5
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©The University of Birmingham 2014
References
ReferencesReferences
References
Questionnaire Reference
Cumming, J., Woodcock, C., Cooley, S. J., Holland, M. J. G., & Burns, V. E. (2014). Development and
Validation of the Groupwork Skills Questionnaire (GSQ) for Higher Education. Assessment &
Evaluation in Higher Education. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2014.957642
Other Relevant References
Cumming, J. (2010). “Student-Initiated Group Management Strategies for More Effective and
Enjoyable Groupwork Experiences.” Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport, & Tourism Education
9. doi:10.3794/johlste.92.284.
Cumming, J. (2013). Two issues in educational research: A response to “Reviewing Education
Concerns”. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 13, 1-4. doi:
10.1016/j.jhlste.2013.03.001
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to develop and provide psychometric evidence in support of the Groupwork Skills Questionnaire (GSQ) for measuring task and interpersonal groupwork skills. A 46-item version of the GSQ was initially completed by 672 University students. The number of items was reduced to 15 following exploratory factor analyses and a two-factor model consisting of task and interpersonal groupwork skills was revealed. Confirmatory factor analyses with model re-specification on new data (n = 275 students) established that the best fitting model consisted of 10 items and the same 2 factors (task and interpersonal). Concurrent validity of the GSQ was then determined with 145 participants by demonstrating significant relationships (p < .05) with attitudes towards groupwork and groupwork self-efficacy. Test-retest reliability was examined over a one week interval. Overall, the GSQ demonstrates good validity and reliability, and has potential for both research and pedagogical application.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether group processes and task cohesion mediated the relationship between student-initiated group management strategies and three specific outcomes of working in groups. Undergraduate students completed a multi-section questionnaire to measure group management strategies, perceptions about group processes, task cohesion, group effectiveness, enjoyment, and learning benefits. Use of group management strategies was positively related to all three outcomes. Further, group process and task cohesion mediated this relationship when the outcomes were effectiveness and enjoyment, but not learning benefits. These results indicate the importance of group management strategies for developing positive group working experiences in higher education.
Development and Validation of the Groupwork Skills Questionnaire (GSQ) for Higher Education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education
  • J Cumming
  • C Woodcock
  • S J Cooley
  • M J G Holland
  • V E Burns
Cumming, J., Woodcock, C., Cooley, S. J., Holland, M. J. G., & Burns, V. E. (2014). Development and Validation of the Groupwork Skills Questionnaire (GSQ) for Higher Education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2014.957642