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EFFECTS OF SURYANAMASKAR ON CARDIO VASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY PARAMETERS IN SCHOOL STUDENTS

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Back ground: Modern medical science has started to study the effects of suryanamaskar and yogic techniques. With increasing scientific research in suryanamaskar and yoga, its therapeutic aspects are explored in wide angle. In yoga the sun is represented by surya nadi, the pranic channel which carries the vital life-giving force. Suryanamaskar is the combination of asana and pranayama. Suryanamaskar has been integrated into physical education in many public and private schools across the country. The ultimate goal is to improve the physical health and increase the quantity of sportsmen with effective cardio-respiratory efficiency. Methods : This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a 45 days daily practice of suryanamaskar on blood pressure(BP), heart rate(HR), respiratory rate (RR), forced vital capacity(FVC) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in school students of both sexes.115 school students aged 10 to 14 years were recruited for the study. The participants were trained to perform suryanamaskar for 45 days study period. The cardio vascular and respiratory parameters BP, HR, RR, FVC and PEFR were measured before and after practice of suryanamaskar. Results: The results showed that the Systolic blood pressure, PEFR and FVC increased significantly and RR, HR and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly after the practice of suryanamaskar. Conclusion: The beneficial effects of suryanamaskar can be applied to all schools to improve the physical health and sports activities of the students. Keywords: Suryanamaskar, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
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Recent Research in Science and Technology 2011, 3(10): 19-24
ISSN: 2076-5061
www.recent-science.com
PHYSIOLOGY
EFFECTS OF SURYANAMASKAR ON CARDIO VASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY
PARAMETERS IN SCHOOL STUDENTS
Sasi Kumar A1, Sivapriya D V2, Shyamala Thirumeni3
1Tutor, Department of Physiology, Tagore Medical College & Hospital, Rathinamangalam, Chennai- 600048,Tamilnadu,India
2Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Saveetha Medical College & Hospital, Saveetha University, Saveetha nagar,
Thandalam, Chennai- 602 105, Tamilnadu, India
3Professor and Head, Department of Physiology, Saveetha Medical College & Hospital, Saveetha University, Saveetha nagar,
Thandalam, Chennai- 602 105, Tamilnadu, India
Abstract
Back ground: Modern medical science has started to study the effects of suryanamaskar and yogic techniques. With
increasing scientific research in suryanamaskar and yoga, its therapeutic aspects are explored in wide angle. In yoga the sun
is represented by surya nadi, the pranic channel which carries the vital life- giving force. Suryanamaskar is the combination of
asana and pranayama. Suryanamaskar has been integrated into physical education in many public and private schools across
the country. The ultimate goal is to improve the physical health and increase the quantity of sportsmen with effective cardio-
respiratory efficiency. Methods : This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a 45 days daily practice of suryanamaskar
on blood pressure(BP), heart rate(HR), respiratory rate (RR), forced vital capacity(FVC) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
in school students of both sexes.115 school students aged 10 to 14 years were recruited for the study. The participants were
trained to perform suryanamaskar for 45 days study period. The cardio vascular and respiratory parameters BP, HR, RR, FVC
and PEFR were measured before and after practice of suryanamaskar. Results: The results showed that the Systolic blood
pressure, PEFR and FVC increased significantly and RR, HR and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly after the
practice of suryanamaskar. Conclusion: The beneficial effects of suryanamaskar can be applied to all schools to improve the
physical health and sports activities of the students.
Keywords: Suryanamaskar, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak
expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
Corresponding Author, Email: simmamsasi@gmail.com
Introduction
Good health and freedom from disease is the best
achievement of life. Modern medicine has made
tremendous progress in recent years. Modern medicine
as well as yoga has scientific basis and universal
outlook. It is gratifying that science has started studying
the effects of yogic techniques, while yoga has started
using modern technology and scientific methods.
Scientific research has shown that yogic
techniques produce consistent and beneficial
physiological changes. A few weeks of disciplined yoga
practice can lead to improvement in many physiological
and psychological functions. Practice of asana and
pranayamas results in an overall improvement in
cardio-respiratory functions and physical fitness which
improves one’s tolerance to stressors [1].
Suryanamaskar
The basic translation of Suryanamaskar is
salutations to the sun. It is a very ancient tradition
which has been in existence since the Vedic age.
The physical basis of the practice links together
twelve asanas in a dynamically performed series.
These asanas are ordered so that they alternately
stretch the spine backwards and forwards. When
performed in the usual way, each asana is moved into
with alternate inhalation and exhalation [1, 2].
A full round of Suryanamaskar is considered to be
two sets of the twelve poses with a change in the
second set to moving the opposite leg first through the
series[3].
With increasing scientific research in yoga, its
therapeutic aspects are also being explored.
Suryanamaskar gives more benefits with less
expenditure of time [3]. It is claimed that suryanamaskar
practice improves general health and fitness. Hence,
the present study was undertaken to study the effects
of suryanamaskar practice on cardio-respiratory fitness
parameters in young. It Improves pulmonary functions,
cardiovascular endurance and strengthens the
abdominal muscles.
Suryanamaskar is considered as the best exercise
as it consists of important Yogasanas and Pranayamas
[4,5]. The Pranayama and its advantages are skillfully
incorporated in Suryanamaskar, so Suryanamaskar is
an appreciated exercise among all ages from kids to
A. Sasi Kumar et al./Rec Res Sci Tech 3 (2011) 19-24
old age people. Suryanamaskar or Sun Salutation is
the best way to burn the calories and reduce weight. It
is often recommended for obesity. It is recommended
by various authors and proved to be effective in
children.
Regular practice of Suryanamaskar significantly
show reduction in pulse rate, attributed to increased
vagal tone and decreased sympathetic activity[6,7].
Decreased sympathetic activity in turn reduces
catecholamine secretion and also leads to vasodilation
leading to improvement in peripheral circulation. It is
also observed that regular yogic practices reduce basal
metabolic rate and resting oxygen consumption. All
these may be responsible for reduction in resting pulse
rate Yogic practices alter the hypothalamic discharges
leading to decrease in sympathetic tone and peripheral
resistance and hence the diastolic blood pressure[7].
Regular yogic practices strengthen the respiratory
muscles; increase the excursions of diaphragm and
lungs as well as thoracic compliance[8,9]. Also yoga
practices decrease airway resistance. All these factors
contribute to improvement in the various lung function
tests after regular practice of suryanamaskar.
Methods
115 healthy school students aged 8 to 14 years of
both sexes were selected by Random sampling -
lottery method. After getting the consent from their
parents or guardian, they were involved in the study. A
health check up was conducted for all the participants
before the start of the study.
Inclusion criteria
Healthy participants aged 8-14 years.
Exclusion criteria
Participants with Congenital heart disease,
Respiratory disease, Epilepsy, Recent injury or
immobilization, Mentally challenged, Physically
challenged, Spinal deformity, History of active sports
training, Previous experience of yoga
Withdrawal criteria
Participants with Acute illness, Lack of interest,
and Absenteeism during the training period were with
drawn from the study.
Prior to the study the base line data were collected
from all the participants. It includes the following
parameters - name, age, sex, resting pulse, blood
pressure, forced vital capacity using Spiro meter, Peak
expiratory flow rate using Mini-Wright peak flow meter
and resting respiratory rate by manual method.
Instruments used to measure the parameters were
portable and could be efficiently used. Mini wrights
peak flow meter is feasible and useful to measure
PEFR in pre school children[10]. Wrights peak flow
meter is often used instrument by researchers like
MilnerPulickal, as it was effective and flow rates could
be obtained over the age of three[11,12].
Reproducible curves can be produced in children.
Technically acceptable and graphically producible
curves were obtained in children of 3 to 6 years [13].
Bhattacharya had done a study to find vital capacity in
children and young adults of India[14]. The final
outcome of the studies done by Turner and Necati
Akugun showed that spirometry can be effectively used
to know the pulmonary function in children[15,16].
Udupa et al had done a research and proved that
yoga training decreases systolic blood pressure &
diastolic blood pressure where as suryanamaskar
increases the SBP and decreases DBP[17].
Dr. Madhanmohan has done a research to find the
effect of yoga training on cardio-respiratory system in
school children for 6 months and the parameters are
reassessed[18]. Result showed significant increase in
the respiratory parameters in all groups. Cardio-
vascular parameters like the basal heart rate were
decreased. Results confirm that yoga decreases blood
pressure whereas suryanamaskar increases systolic
and decreases diastolic blood pressure.
Sphygmomanometer was used to measure the
systolic & diastolic blood pressure. The participants
were seated comfortably, and the children BP cuff was
tied. The systolic BP was measured first by palpatory
method then by auscultatory method the systolic and
diastolic BP was measured.
Peak Expiratory Flow Meter- Mini- Wright’s Peak
Expiratory Flow Meter was used to measure the peak
expiratory flow rate. The participants were made to sit
comfortably and taught how to blow through the peak
flow meter. Three values were taken and the maximum
out of three was noted.
FVC - Digital Spiro meter was used. The
participants were made to sit comfortably and taught
how to blow through the Spiro meter probe. Disposable
children mouth piece was used. The procedure was
repeated with rest period until reproducible curves
were obtained
Steps in Suryanamaskar[19,5]
The participants were trained to perform
suryanamaskar in a slow manner so that each of the
12 poses were held for a duration of 30 seconds. Each
round took 6 minutes to complete and 5 rounds were
performed in 30-40 minutes. Suryanamaskar pre
training was given for seven days by a yoga trainer and
the performance of suryanamaskar was analyzed using
performance chart. Practice started at (6.30 am) on an
empty stomach in a clean, ventilated, quiet, and
pleasant room.
A. Sasi Kumar et al./Rec Res Sci Tech 3 (2011) 19-24
Position 1
Inhale and maintain it in standing position with
hands joined together near chest, feet together and
toes touching each other.
Position 2
Exhale and bend forward at the waist till palms
touch the ground in line with the toes. Don't bend
knees while performing.
Position 3
Inhale and take the left leg back with left toes on
the floor, press the waist downwards and raise the
neck, stretch the chest forward and push shoulders
backwards. Keep the right leg and both the hands in
the same position. Keep the right leg folded.
Position 4
Hold the breath and raise the knee of left leg.
Take the right leg backwards and keep it close to the
left leg. Straighten both the legs and both hands. Keep
the neck straight and site fixed. Keep both the toes
erect. Take care that the neck, spine, thighs and the
feet are in a straight line.
Position 5
Exhaling bend both the hands in elbows and touch
forehead on the ground, touch the knees on the ground,
keep both the elbows close to chest. The forehead,
chest, both the palms, both the toes, knees should
touch the ground and rest of the body not touching the
floor. Since only eight parts rest on the ground , it is
called ' Ashtanga' position.
Position 6
Inhale and straighten the elbows, stretch the
shoulders upwards, press the waist downwards but
dont bend the arms. Keep the knees and toes on the
floor. Push the neck backwards and site upwards.
Position 7
Hold the breath, bend the neck downwards and
press the chin to the throat, push the body backwards
and touch the heels on the ground, raise the waist
upwards, do not move the palms on the floor.
Position 8
Hold the breath as in position 7, bring the right leg
to the front and place it in between the hands and
place the left leg at the back with left knee and toes on
the ground.
Position 9
Exhale and bring the left leg forwards as in the
position 2 and place it in between both the arms.
Position 10
Inhaling start getting up and attain the position as
in position 1.
Position 11 & Position 12
Same as position 2 and position 1
After 45 days of regular practice all the above
parameters were reassessed.
Statistical Analysis
All the values obtained before and after
performing Suryanamaskar were expressed as mean
+SD. The students paired ‘t’ test was used to compare
pre and post training valued. P values of less than 0.05
was accepted as significant difference between the
compared values.
Results
Table I and fig 1,2,3 shows decrease in heart rate,
and diastolic blood pressure(DBP), increase in systolic
blood pressure(SBP) after suryanamaskar
Table – I: Mean pre and post test values of HR, SBP and DBP
S.No
PARAMETERS
PRE TEST VALUES
POST TEST VALUES
1
Heart Rate (Beat/Min)
83.63
80.31
2
Systolic blood pressure(mmHg) 91.23 94.54
3
Diastolic blood pressure(mmHg) 63.03 62.03
A. Sasi Kumar et al./Rec Res Sci Tech 3 (2011) 19-24
Figure 1 - Statistically significant change in the heart rate
B - Before Suryanamaskar , A - After Suryanamaskar
Figure 2 - statistically significant increase in the systolic blood
pressure
Figure 3 - statistically significant decrease in diastolic blood
pressure
TABLE- II, fig 4,5,6 shows decrease in
Respiratory rate, increase in forced vital capacity and
peak expiratory flow rate.
Table II - Mean values of respiratory parameters before and after suryanamaskar
Figure 4 - statistically significant decrease in respiratory rate
B - Before Suryanamaskar, A - After Suryanamaskar
S.No
PARAMETERS
PRE TEST VALUES
POST TEST VALUES
1
RESPIRATORY RATE(/MIN)
22.91
20.29
2
FORCED VITAL CAPACITY(L)
1.8913
2.2515
3
PEAKEXPIRATORY FLOW RATE(L/Min)
247.22
268.52
A. Sasi Kumar et al./Rec Res Sci Tech 3 (2011) 19-24
Figure 5 - statistically significant increase in forced vital capacity
B - Before Suryanamaskar, A - After Suryanamaskar
Figure 6 - statistically significant increase in peak expiratory flow
rate
B - Before Suryanamaskar , A - After Suryanamaskar
Table 3 shows the overall effect of suryanamaskar on cardio- respiratory parameters
S.No Parameters Before suryanamaskar After suryanamaskar Mean
difference ‘t’ value
1 Heart rate
(beat/min) 83.63+2.57 80.31+2.07 3.32
15.9432***
2 Systolic blood pressure(mmhg) 91.23+ 4.09 94.54+ 2.65 -3.30 10.6741***
3 Diastolic blood
pressure(mmhg) 63.03+ 1.66 62.03+ 2.67 1.00 3.8730***
4 Respiratory rate(/min) 22.91+ 2.20 20.29 +1.57 2.63 14.2550***
5 Forced vital capacity(L) 1.8913+ .28 2.2515+ .28 -.3602 29.5626***
6 Peak Expiratory Flow Rate
(L/min) 247.22+ 19.71 268.52+ 21.41 -21.30 16.8714***
*** p < 0.0001,
Discussion
The present study showed that the cardio
respiratory parameters significantly change after the
practice of Suryanamaskar. In general, yogic practices
have been proposed to reduce resting heart rate and
blood pressure.
Telles and Prathima found a reduction in the
resting heart rate when a yoga training program was
implemented[20,21] . A decline in the heart rate was also
found in current study.
Madhanmohan 2002 in his study showed that the
Basal HR in yoga group was 85.32 beats/min before
the yoga training[18]. After six months of yoga training it
decreased to 82.42 beats. In our study the HR
decreased from 83.63 to 80.31 which is statistically
significant.
This finding is consistent with Udupa et al (1975)
who have also reported that the the resting HR
decreases after six months of yoga training[17] and also
with Bowman who revealed that heart rate decreased
following yoga but not significantly after aerobic
training[22]. This shows the beneficial effect of yoga on
heart.
In the current study - systolic BP showed
significant increased from 91.23 to 94.54 mm Hg and
diastolic decreased from 63.03 to 62.03 mm Hg, in
relation to Madhanmohan’s study in 2002 where the
SBP increased and DBP decreased from after six
months practice of suryanamaskar [18].
Udupa et al proved that yoga training decreases
systolic blood pressure & diastolic blood pressure
whereas suryanamaskar increases the same[17]. Our
results confirm that Suryanamaskar will increase the
SBP and decrease the DBP. Six months of
suryanamaskar practice decreases resting pulse rate
and blood pressure –Prathima[21].
Respiratory rate in the current study is decreased
significantly from 22.91 to 20.29 with 45 days of
suryanamaskar. Makwana also showed the short term
effect of yoga in ventilatory function[8].
The PEFR showed significant increase from
247.22 to 268.52 in consistence with
Madhanmahon[18] .
FVC also increased after training period of 45
days. The mean value increased from 1.89 to 2.25
which is consistent with the study of Makwana[8].
Hence the current study proves that even a period
of 45 days Suryanamaskar training can show
significant change in the cardio and respiratory
parameters. The physical efficiency of the children
improved after the practice in correlation with the study
of Nayar[9].
A. Sasi Kumar et al./Rec Res Sci Tech 3 (2011) 19-24
Conclusion
Scientific research has shown that yogic
techniques produce consistent and beneficial
physiological changes. A few weeks of disciplined yoga
practice can lead to improvement in many physiological
and psychological functions. It is claimed that
suryanamaskar practice improves general health and
fitness. It improves pulmonary, cardiovascular function.
Suryanamaskar is the combination of asana and
Pranayama and it is simple to practice, consumes only
less time so that children can practice it every day
.Yoga develops many wonderful qualities, and makes
the children healthy for their future life. It also sharpens
the ability to focus, self-confidence, and helps to
develop self-discipline. We therefore conclude that
suryanamaskar should be practised by children every
day to get these beneficial effects.
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... This could be due to the fact that 6 weeks duration of aerobic training was not long enough to bring about an appreciable reduction in respiratory rate. Incidentally, we did not come across any study that assessed the effect of aerobic exercise on respiratory rate of individuals except for one study that reported a significant decrease in respiratory rate in adolescents after 45 days of yoga training 22 . ...
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Background: Pulmonary complications, respiratory symptoms and depression are common occurrences which contribute to the morbidity and mortality seen in individuals living with HIV/AIDS. This study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on the pulmonary functions, respiratory symptoms and psychological status of people living with HIV. Methods: This study was conducted in Lagos, Nigeria from October 2014 to May 2015. Forty eligible individuals with HIV aged 18 yr and above participated, of which 33 cooperated to the end. They were recruited from the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention Initiative (APIN) Clinic, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria and were randomly assigned to either the study or the control group. The study group received aerobic exercise training three times a week for six weeks and counselling while the control group received only counselling. Pulmonary functions, respiratory symptoms and psychological status were evaluated at baseline and at six weeks. Inferential statistics of paired and independent t-test were used to analyse the data. Results: Comparison of mean changes in the pulmonary variables of the study group with those of the control group showed significant differences in all but in the respiratory rate (RR) - [Forced Expiratory Volume in one second: P=0.001, Forced Vital Capacity: P=0.001, Peak Expiratory Flow: P=0.001]. There were also significant differences between the mean changes in respiratory symptoms (P=0.001) and depressive symptoms (P=0.001) of study group and those of the control group. Conclusions: Aerobic exercise training significantly improved pulmonary functions as well as significantly reduced respiratory and depressive symptoms in people living with HIV.
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About the Book: This book compiled with quality research papers of the Two Day International E-Conference on “Trends Issues and Development of Physical Education and Sports” under the theme of “All round development of human personality” jointly organised by Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Fit India Campaign Committee and Fit India Club, Manipur University, Canchipur in collaboration with National Association of Physical Education and Sports Science (NAPESS). This book has been undertaken by the organisers to share the knowledge of the professionals through their research papers and to exchange their experience and research finding area in the field of physical educational and sports science. This is the book of the reviews on the concrete solutions to the permanent problems in the physical education and sports science. It is a humble energy to bind the drowning talents of physical education and sports. We express our gratitude, to those humble physical education teachers, research scholars, students, sports lovers, coaches, and sports administrators, who made this chance. Editor Dr. L.Santosh Singh
Technical Report
Yoga is a discipline that integrates mind and bodily exercises practiced for a number of health benefits. Although physical and mental health benefits from practicing yoga are well known, people address time and cost as the primary barrier to incorporate yoga practices on a regular basis. A cost effective solution to these limiting factors is adopting home Yoga practices. However, yoga at home is difficult, due to lack of instructions and feedback on practitioners’ alignment and performance. In this State Of The Art report we explore existing technologies, which can effectively support yoga practices at home that can potentially replace professional personal trainers. Then we will review existing solutions available on the market as of today. Last we will look at the research on Yoga benefits supported and measured by Technologies, as one day these research will come into the market as complete wearable solutions. We have seen that identifying users Yoga postures in real time and providing instructions and feedbacks with the help of technologies as IoT based sensors, Deep Learning, algorithms and with a Smartphone application is no more a challenge. However we are still at the beginning, as there are some barriers to overcome as BotNet IoT threat, and also the technologies need to include all the Yoga life style aspects (8 limbs of Patanjali Yoga Sutras) in order to offer sustainable Wellbeing, while today they cover mainly one limb as the Asanas or postures and a second one partly as the Pranayama or breathing techniques. The results are very promising and it is an opportunity to design more effective and efficient technology solution to support Yoga practice at home. Yoga supported by new technologies should open new approaches as Ethics, and Responsibilities by including Compassionate artificial intelligence (CAI).
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The objectives of the study were to determine the main effect of training durations (within-groups), the main effect of groups (between-groups) and interaction effect (combined effect of training durations and groups) on vital capacity due to practices of Suryanamaskar. Mixed design was used for study. Four groups were created, three experimental and one control group. 10 girls were in each group in the range of 15 – 17 years. First experimental group performed one round of Suryanamaskar in 1 minute pace, second experimental group in 2 minutes, third experimental group in 4 minutes and fourth group served as a control group. Total treatment duration was six weeks. Vital capacity was measured by Dry Spirometer in litters before (pretest) after 3 weeks and after 6 weeks of all four groups. 4 x 3 mixed factorial ANOVA was used and level of significance was set at 0.05. There were significant effects of training durations, groups (paces) and interaction effect on vital capacity. Interaction effect confirmed that practice of Suryanamaskar for six weeks are sufficient to bring out significant improvement on vital capacity with pace 1 and pace 4. It also concluded that Suryanamaskar practice for 6 weeks with pace 1 help to improve better vital capacity as compare pace 1, pace 4 and control group. The beneficial effects of Suryanamaskar practices (with pace 1) is as similar as aerobic workout. It can be applied to all schools to improve the physical health and sports activities of the students. INTRODUCTION Suryanamaskar is a well know and vital technique with the yogic repertoire. It is versatility and application make it one of the most useful methods to induce a healthy, vigorous, active life and at the same time prepare for spiritual awakening and the resultant of awareness.(Saraswati, Swami, 2009). Suryanamaskar or sun salutation is a traditional Indian yogic practice, renders the benefits of stretching, static, and dynamic exercise. Each round of Suryanamaskar practice involves practicing 12 postures in succession with forward and backward bending along with deep exhalation and inhalation respectively to the maximum possible extent. Many people practice several rounds of Suryanamaskar for their regular physical fitness program. Vital capacity is defined as the largest volume of air that can be exhaled after the deepest possible inhalation. It is equal to the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume and expiratory reserve volume. The one of the best method to improve efficiency of vital capacity is aerobic workout. Aerobic actives improve aerobic metabolism of the body, which improve efficiency of circulatory and respiratory systems. Sound mind lives in a sound body. As we know that the children are the bank of energy and they know as a synonym of motion. It is much heard to teach them yoga or more specific yogic asana those are static in nature. Suryanamaskar is a yogic practice which is dynamic in nature and gives benefits at all level of fitness (physical, mental, emotional and spiritual), Suryanamaskar is a complete yogic practice physical level or in other words we can say that Suryanamaskar is the one of the best mean to improve physical fitness of an individual. There are plenty of studies have been done to see the effect of yogic asanas on physical and physiology variables. Suryanamaskar is itself combination of six asanas. (Shankar and
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: In recent times, medical fraternity is attracted towards yoga . Suryanamaskar is a part of yogic practices and is believed to be an all-round exercise. The present study tested efficacy of regular practice of ‘suryanamaskar’ in improving the cardio-respiratory fitness. The present study was conducted on 78 subjects, (48 males and 30 females). It was observed that 6 months of suryanamaskar practice decreases resting pulse rate and blood pressure. At the same time it increases cardio-respiratory efficiency and respiratory capacity as evaluated by bicycle ergometry and various lung functions tests, in both male and female subjects. From this study we conclude that suryanamaskar practice can be advocated to improve cardio-respiratory efficiency for patients as well as healthy individuals.
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PEFR is a simple and reliable way of following patients with bronchial asthma and other obstructive airway diseases. Normal data is available for Caucasian and North Indian children but not for ethnic South Indian children. We, therefore, measured Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) in 345 healthy South Indian children aged 4-15 years, using the Wright mini peak flow meter. A nomogram was constructed relating PEFR to height. Prediction equations for PEFR using height alone or height, age and weight were determined for both sexes. The prediction equation for boys based on height alone was PEFR = 4.08 height (cm)--284.55 and for girls was PEFR = 3.92 height (cm)--277.01.
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Total lung capacity and its subdivisions, maximal breathing capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second expressed as a percentage of the forced vital capacity, were measured in 130 male and 130 female normal Turkish subjects 8 to 20 years old to establish normal values. The subjects were from different socio-economic communities. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the relationship of the measurements to age and the physical characteristics of the body, and the best regression equations were found for predicting lung volumes and maximal breathing capacity. It was found that all physical characteristics were highly correlated with spirometric measurements. Best prediction formulae were found to be based on body surface area and height. All volumes and maximal breathing capacity were found, in general, to be higher in males. This sex difference in measurements became significant after 16-17 years of age. The difference in height between the two sexes also became significant after 16 years of age. In the same age group and in both sexes, taller subjects had higher lung volumes and maximal breathing capacity. These findings suggest that height and respiratory muscle power are the main factors of sex difference in the measurements. Vital capacity and maximal breathing capacity related to age in both sexes were compared with those of some previous studies and it was found that all data, except a few, fell within the 95% confidence limits of the present study. Similar observations were, in general, made when height was taken into consideration for comparison. The value of FEV1/FVC% was altered little for the age group studied and its mean value was about 86·6 ± 4·2% for males and 87 ± 4·2% for females. There was no significant relationship between age or sex and RV/TLC% and the mean value of this parameter was 23·6 ± 1·9 for males and 25·5 ± 1·6 for females. There was a slight but clinically unimportant difference between the values of these two measurements and the value from the literature.
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10 Young adult volunteers undergoing yogic and ordinary physical exercises for 6 mth have been assessed physiologically as well as biochemically including estimation of catecholamines, cholinesterases, mono amine oxidase (MAO), diamine oxidase (DAO), plasma cortisol, serum PBI, serum proteins and blood sugar levels. It has been observed that yogic practices induce more vital effects than physical exercise which mostly causes physical effects on skeletal muscles. In addition, different yogic practices appear to cause different types of specific effects.
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Studies were conducted on 53 cadets of the National Defence Academy (NDA) representing 3 groups; doing routine NDA training, NDA training plus athletics and NDA training plus yogic exercises. Each cadet was assessed under both basal state and during a fixed exercise on bicycle ergometer. The parameters of assessment included ventilation minute volume, rate of respiration, oxygen consumption, pulse rate, blood pressure, mechanical efficiency and maximum oxygen uptake capacity. Four additional assessments were made under resting condition; viz. vital capacity (VC), maximum breathing capacity (MBC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1.0 sec) and breath holding time. All the 3 groups showed a significant decrease in pulse rate during exercise. The yogic group in addition showed a highly significant increase in breath holding time (from 54 to 106 sec), and VC (from 1.98 to 2.89 L/M2 body surface area). A significant increase in FEV 1.0 sec was also recorded (from 1.69 to 1.95 litres/M2 body surface area). The remaining two groups (doing routine NDA training and NDA training plus athletics) showed only significant increase in VC. Ventilation minute volume, rate of respiration, blood pressure, mechanical efficiency, maximum oxygen uptake capacity and MBC remained unaltered in all 3 groups.
Twentyfive normal male volunteers undergoing a ten weeks course in the practice of yoga have been studied by some parameters of ventilatory functions tests. The observations recorded at the end of ten weeks of the course have shown improved ventilatory functions in the form of lowered respiratory rate, increased forced vital capacity, FEV1, maximum breathing capacity and breath holding time, while tidal volume and %FEV1, did not reveal any significant change. Thus, a combined practice of yoga seems to be beneficial on respiratory efficiency.
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Seven hundred children of either sex in the age group of 5 to 12 years were studied. A parallel progressive increase in height, weight and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) from age 5 years to 12 years was observed. There was highly significant positive correlation between PEFR and anthropometric measures.
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An initial trial on children between 2 years 4 months and 4 years 9 months showed that good reproducible results for peak expiratory flow rates could be obtained from children over the age of 3 years using the low-range Wright Peak Flow Meter. Results on 92 normal children between the age of 3 and 5 years are reported.
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35 male volunteers whose ages ranged from 20 to 46 years were studied in two sessions of yoga-based guided relaxation and supine rest. Assessments of autonomic variables were made for 15 subjects, before, during, and after the practices, whereas oxygen consumption and breath volume were recorded for 25 subjects before and after both types of relaxation. A significant decrease in oxygen consumption and increase in breath volume were recorded after guided relaxation (paired t test). There were comparable reductions in heart rate and skin conductance during both types of relaxation. During guided relaxation the power of the low frequency component of the heart-rate variability spectrum reduced, whereas the power of the high frequency component increased, suggesting reduced sympathetic activity. Also, subjects with a baseline ratio of LF/HF > 0.5 showed a significant decrease in the ratio after guided relaxation, while subjects with a ratio < or = 0.5 at baseline showed no such change. The results suggest that sympathetic activity decreased after guided relaxation based on yoga, depending on the baseline levels.